Noah’s third son is Shem. His descendants are prominent in the Bible and have influenced the history of the world. His descendants – from all his five sons – are the European, western peoples of the earth located in Europe, West Asia and the New World of the Americas as well as Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. They include a diverse range of peoples from fair skin, blue eyes and blond hair, to olive skin, brown eyes and black hair.
Shem in Hebrew, means: ‘name’ or ‘renown’ from the noun shem.
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Shem became the ancestor of Abraham and thus Jesus (Luke 3.36)… Shem… lent his name to the language group that Hebrew is part of: Semitic. The name Shem is equal to the word (shem), which itself means “name”:
The name Shem means Name, Fame or Reputation, or even Identity or Personality… we’re pretty sure that Shem wasn’t named after his own fame or prowess but rather after the Name of the Creator, which in turn reflected all of his deeds…
For a meaning of the name Shem, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Name, Renown. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names has Name, but adds Celebrated, Distinguished.’
We will look at additional definitions for Shem’s name when we study Nimrod in Chapter XXI. Shem is mentioned in the genealogical lists in Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, with his brothers. We have studied the incident involving Noah, Ham and Canaan [refer Chapter XI Ham Aequator]. Shem with Japheth, acted honourably in dealing with the aftermath and his reward is recounted in Genesis 9:26, Expanded Bible:
Noah also said, “May the Lord, the God of Shem, be praised [blessed]! May Canaan be Shem’s slave.
Notice, Shem wasn’t being praised or his name, but rather the Creator. There is a clue here that Shem may have been similar to Noah and Enoch and Abel before them, in being a member of the priestly line and a servant of the Creator. Some teach that Shem is the same person as the priest of the most High God, Melchizedek, who Abraham paid tithes to and partook of bread and wine. In the Book of Jasher it says in chapter sixteen, verses 11-12:
11 And Adonizedek king of Jerusalem, the same was Shem [or renowned], went out with his men to meet Abram and his people, with bread and wine, and they remained together in the valley of Melech. 12 And Adonizedek blessed Abram, and Abram gave him a tenth from all that he had brought from the spoil of his enemies, for Adonizedek was a priest before God.
Using Ushers widely accepted Biblical chronology, this would be possible. Combining science [worldwide flood evidence is missing for circa 4000-2500 BCE] and a more accurate chronology [the unconventional chronology based on the Sumerian sexagesimal (base 60) system] for the Old Testament prior to Genesis chapter twelve, it would be impossible for Shem and Abraham to meet as Shem died in 5717 BCE and Abraham was born in 1977 BCE. That aside, Melchizedek is a unique personality and not to be mistaken for Shem or even Christ as some propose. We will look at Nimrod’s kingdom later, though for now it is interesting to note that his territory was the ‘land of Shinar.’
Shinar is mentioned outside of the Nimrod account in Genesis Ten and Eleven.
English Standard Version
20 And Achan answered Joshua, “Truly I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and this is what I did: 21 when I saw among the spoil a beautiful cloak from Shinar, and 200 shekels of silver, and a bar of gold weighing 50 shekels, then I coveted them and took them. And see, they are hidden in the earth inside my tent, with the silver underneath.”
English Standard Version
11 In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, from Assyria [Russia (Asshur)], from Egypt [Middle East and North Africa (Mizra)], from Pathros [Egypt], from Cush [India], from Elam [Turkey],from Shinar, from Hamath [Nigeria],and from the coastlands of the sea [East & South East Asia].
English Standard Version
10 Then I said to the angel who talked with me, “Where are they taking the basket?” 11 He said to me, “To the land of Shinar, to build a house for it. And when this is prepared, they will set the basket down there on its base.”
What is the Land of Shinar and Where is it Located? Petros Koutoupis, 2007 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Genesis 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel [Babylon], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Genesis 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur [Nimrod], and built Nineveh [capital], and Rehoboth-ir, and Kalaḥ, Genesis 10:12 and Resen between Nineveh and Kalaḥ – the same is the great city.
In the past, many have argued… about the true location of the land of Shinar… among a majority of scholars in the same field, [I] have identified this to mean the land of Sumer. While the Sumerians themselves called their land ki-en-gir (“place of the civilized lords”), the name Sumer is derived from the Akkadian Shumer [Shem].
Shinar is simply a Hebrew corruption of the Akkadian word. It literally translates to “country of two rivers” which could only mean the Tigris and Euphrates when taking into account the cities mentioned above.
Erech/Uruk, Akkad/Agade, and Babylon existed nowhere else but the land of Shinar. In times past, early rulers used to differentiate the lands between Sumer and Akkad when boasting of their achievements,making the one the southern kingdom (Sumer) and the other the northern kingdom (Akkad).
Collectively this had evolved to one piece of land between the two rivers. Further evidence of its location, outside of Genesis 10:10-11 comes to us from the Book of Daniel:
[Daniel] 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. [Daniel] 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god.
Nebuchadnezzar [II], a Neo-Babylonian king to whom Jerusalem fell [607-587 BCE] under which also resulted in the Jewish Exile, was said to have come from the land of Shinar or Chaldea.
Erech has been identified with the Mesopotamian city of Uruk (Sumerian Unug); the home and kingdom of Gilgamesh. Akkad has been identified with Agade, the capital of the Akkadian Empire. Babel was the native name of the city the Greeks called Babylon, which literatally translates [as] “gate of god”, corresponding to the Akkadian Bab-ili. As for the location of Calneh, modern day scholars have located this to be Nippur (modern day Niffer), which is situated in the marshes of [the] east bank of the Euphrates; roughly 60 miles southeast of Babylon.’
Assyria from Asshur, was situated to the north of Akkad and not counted as the land of Shinar. The land of Shinar incorporated Akkad and Sumer, with Babylon formerly Babel, to the south of Akkad; located approximately in the middle of the two regions. Thus the cities of Accad and Babylon were northwards in Akkad and Calneh or Nippur and Erech further south in Sumer. ‘Sumer’ and the Sumerians derive from the name Shem, while the Akkad[ian] origin is unclear. The term Chaldea[n] is believed to have derived from Shem’s son Arphaxad. Akkad is possibly linked to Arphaxad as well.
The early geography involved three of the sons of Shem in close proximity after the Tower of Babel, so that in the north of the fertile crescent there was Asshur, below him, Arphaxad and beneath him, Elam. Aram or Syria and Lud or Lydia, were not so clearly defined. Lud has been identified more with Ham’s children, particularly Mizra and may have been located originally south of Shinar. Lud is invisible until he appears in Anatolia in Western Asia Minor [refer Chapter XIV Mizra: North Africa & Arabia and Chapter XVII Lud & Iran]. The same applies to Aram until he appears north of Assyria and to the East of Lud. This layout will come into clearer focus, once we uncover the five identities of the sons of Shem.
Sayce pages 60-61 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘… But Babylonia had not always been in Semitic hands. Its earliest population belonged to another race, and the language which they spoke was agglutinative… it was the pre-Semitic population, and not the Semitic intruders, to whom the origin of Chaldaean culture and civilisation were due. It was this population who were the inventors of the pictorial characters which developed into the cuneiform syllabary, they were the first to write on tablets of clay, they founded the great cities and temples of the country, and initiated the art and science, the literature and law, the systems of government and religion which the Semitic Babylonians afterwards inherited. Babylonia was divided into the two provinces of Accad in the north and Sumer… in the south; Accad was the first to fall under Semitic influence and domination, and it was here that the first Semitic empire that of Sargon of Accad took its rise.’
Turkey or Elam is not considered by all biblical historians as a line of Shem but invariably from Japheth. The interaction of Elam with Madai – descended from Japheth – accounts for some of the confusion. The pictorial characters are the cursive script of Elam and evidenced today by modern Turkish. Recall in the previous chapter we touched upon the link between Turkish and Sumerian. Agglutinative is defined as: ‘pertaining to or noting a language, as Turkish, characterized by agglutination.’ It includes ‘the act or process of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance, the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts, that which is united; a mass or group cemented together.’
In linguistics: ‘a process of word formation in which morphemes, each having one relatively constant shape, are combined without fusion or morphophonemic change, and in which each grammatical category is typically represented by a single morpheme in the resulting word, especially such a process involving the addition of one or more affixes to a base, as in Turkish, in which ev means “house,” ev-den means “from a house,” and ev-ler-den means “from houses.”’
Though descended from Shem, Elam as Turkey, has its feet planted firmly in the two worlds of Japheth and Ham, as evidenced by its link with the Central Asians, Turkic-Mongol language and non-European religion of Islam [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes and Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. In time, Elam moved eastwards from Sumer – adjacent to the Persian Gulf, into modern day Iran – and hence the gradual lessening by their influence on the descendants of Arphaxad who moved southwards from Akkadia into Sumer [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans].
Two other nations which have agglutinating languages, causing dispute regarding their language families are the Korean and Japonic languages. An understandable coincidence, as we have learned in Chapter VI and IX, that both Korea from Gomer and Japan from Javan, migrated in a different pattern to their brothers in South East Asia. Thus, their languages are not readily linked to not-so-related close neighbours China, or more closely related, yet geographically distant relatives in the southeast of Asia.
Book of Jubilees 7:13-18
And Ham knew that his father had cursed his younger son, and he was displeased that he had cursed his son and he parted from his father, he and his sons with him,Cush [Indians] and Mizraim [Arabs] and Put [Pakistan] and Canaan [Africans]. And he built for himself a city and called its name after the name of his wife Ne’elatama’uk. And Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built for himself a city, and he called its name after the name of his wife ‘Adataneses. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on the mountain,and he too called its name after the name of his wife Sedeqetelebab. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’eltama’uk on the south; ‘Adatan’eses towards the west. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad…
This account relates to the period after the flood, or shortly after the incident with Noah [refer Chapter XI Ham Aequator]. If Noah stayed close to the Kashmir area, then the locations of Ham’s and Japheth’s children equate with their travelling along the Indus River and populating this region of southwest Asia. Japheth and Ham continued to the far west; Shem migrating behind them both. Japheth’s descendants eventually dwelling in the Aegean and Anatolia, Ham’s descendants living in Canaan, Egypt and North Africa, while Shem’s descendants settled in Mesopotamia.
Shem’s descendants migrating westward and displacing the children of Japheth and Ham would answer two questions. Why the sons of Ham migrated into North Africa, though the sons of Canaan lingered in the coastal strip of the East Mediterranean – because the land was rich in natural resources and beautiful, being the best real estate in the area – rather than continuing southward with Cush, Phut and Mizra. And, Why the sons of Japheth moved northward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and its islands. Javan or ‘Greece’ – the island peoples – left their family names throughout the area until the present day [refer Chapter II Japheth Orientalium].
It would explain why the area is now known as Sumer, as Shem’s descendants have left a more recent and indelible imprint. Remember, the time frame is considerably longer ago than typically credited by historians or biblical scholars. Some time well after 10,837 BCE, though still prior to Nimrod circa 6755 BCE. Then we are introduced to Nimrod and the emphasis of the names for the areas of Assyria named after Asshur, Akkad named after Arphaxad and Sumer after Shem; even though his first born Elam, may have been originally first, his memory has been erased or blurred due to his migration further southeast – possibly directly after the Tower of Babel – as well as the important fact of lower Mesopotamia being inhabited by additional children of Arphaxad – for Arphaxad had numerous descendants [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans].
The Book of Jubilees provides additional details regarding Shem’s territory – the central middle eastern region – which was sandwiched between Japheth to the north and Ham to the south. It is referenced against the Garden of Eden, which we will return to when we study Eden [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].
Book of Jubilees 8:10-18, 21
8:10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father.
12And there came forth on the writing as Shem’s lot the middle of the earth which he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons… from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa, from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its waters into the sea Me’at, and this river flows into the great sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth’s, and all that is towards the south belongs to Shem. 13 And it extends till it reaches Karaso… which looks towards the south. 14 And his portion extends along the great sea, and it extends in a straight line till it reaches… the Egyptian Sea… and it extends to the west to ‘Afra, and it extends till it reaches the waters of the river Gihon, and to the south of the waters of Gihon, to the banks of this river.
21 And he knew that a blessed portion and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto the generations… the whole land of Eden and the whole land of the Red Sea… the land of Bashan, and all the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, and all the mountains of Sanir and ‘Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Susan [the eventual capital of Elam]and Ma’edai [Madai], and all the mountains of Ararat [Turkey], and all the region beyond the sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur towards the north, a blessed and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good [the whole of Mesopotamia].
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Shinar Meaning: From the root (s’r), which expresses intense negative emotion and the experience of violence. From the root (na’ar), to growl, shake or be young. From (1) the verb (shanan), to be sharp, and (2) the noun (‘ir), city. Scholars generally assume that Shinar is the Hebrew interpretation of what is commonly referred to as Sumer.
Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names derives [shinar] from (sh’r): (se’ar) means hair… the… verb (sa’ar)… literally mean[s] to be hairy… but in fact is solely used to mean to be afraid… Noun (sa’r) means horror. Verb (sa’ar) means to sweep or whirl away… in relation to a storm wind.
Verb (she’ar)… to break, tear through or split… nouns (sha’ar), gate, and (sho’er), gatekeeper… The core idea of root (sh’r) is to split open, to break through. Thus, for a meaning of the name Shinar, Jones reads Casting Out, or Scattering In All Manner Of Ways…’
An online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The name Sinʿar occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible… This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babel/Babylon (in northern Babylonia) and Erech/Uruk (in southern Babylonia).In the Book of Genesis… Verse 11:2 states that Shinar enclosed the plain that became the site of the Tower of Babel after the Great Flood. [The Book of] Jubilees 9:3 allots Shinar (or, in the Ethiopic text, Sadna Sena`or) to Ashur… Jubilees 10:20 states that the Tower of Babel was built with bitumen from the sea of Shinar. David Rohl theorized that the Tower was actually located in Eridu*, which was once located on the Persian Gulf, where there are ruins of a massive, ancient ziggurat worked from bitumen.’
Alan Alford comments on Sumer – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The discovery of ancient Sumer is an exciting story, which begins in the nineteenth century… Spurred on by Biblical clues, the accounts of earlier travellers and by local folklore, archaeologists such as the Paris-born Englishman Sir Austen Henry Layard indeed found their fame and fortune. It was a Frenchman who made the first important discovery. In 1843, Paul Emile Botta uncovered fantastic temples, palaces and a ziggurat (step-pyramid) at a site identified as Dur-Sharru-Kin, the eighth century BC capital of Sargon II, king of Assyria. Botta will always be remembered as the discoverer of the Assyrian civilization.
Whilst archaeologists such as Botta and Layard continued to seek and explore new sites such as Nimrud and Nineveh, scholars such as Sir Henry Rawlinson and Jules Oppert began to shed light on the numerous clay tablets which the digs had uncovered. It soon became apparent that the ancient Mesopotamians were diligent record keepers, preserving information in a cuneiform script, inscribed on clay tablets. In 1835, Rawlinson had carefully copied a vital trilingual inscription on a stone slab found at Behistun in Persia; in 1846, he deciphered the script and its languages, one of which was Akkadian, common to the Assyrians and the Babylonians, who had inherited the Near East after the collapse of Sumer c. 2000 BC.
Sir Henry Rawlinson’s timing was fortuitous. A few years later, Sir Austen Henry Layard began to excavate the mounds of the ancient Assyrian capital Nineveh, 250 miles north of modern-day Baghdad. As well as fantastic temples and palaces, he discovered in 1850 the library of Ashurbanipal [Assyrian King, 669-631 BCE], containing a collection of 30,000 clay tablets. As more and more tablets were translated, the archaeologists became increasingly excited by the independent confirmation of Biblical rulers and cities.
One inscription, listing the achievements of an earlier ruler, Sargon I, claimed that he was the “King of Akkad, King of Kish”, and that he had defeated in battle the cities of “Uruk, Ur and Lagash”. Scholars were amazed to find that this Sargon had preceded his later namesake by nearly two thousand years, taking the Mesopotamian civilization back to at least 2400 BC. This was just the beginning of a series of tremendous finds which turned back the clock on the beginning of civilization and enriched the museums of Europe and America with some of their prize exhibits. At this time, Sumer did not exist in the history books – it is only with hindsight that we now recognize it as the Biblical “Shinar”.
Further south, the hot and dusty wasteland of Uruk yielded the world’s first ever ziggurat, dedicated to the Goddess Inanna, as well as examples of some of the earliest inscribed writing. The best preserved ziggurat in the whole of Mesopotamia was found at Ur, the birthplace of the Old Testament patriarch Abraham. The partly restored ruins of that ziggurat still dominate the landscape today at the modern town of Muqayyar, 186 miles south-east of Baghdad. It was at Eridu, however, almost 200 miles south-east of Baghdad that the earliest Sumerian city was found. The city of Eridu is [today] an abandoned, windswept wilderness, dominated by the ruins of Ur-Nammu’s* ziggurat.’
We addressed albinism, Noah, his son Shem and the introduction of white skin in chapter one on Noah, as well as discussing melanin variation that causes the darkness and lightness of skin, hair and eyes in Chapter XII Canaan & Africa. Blond hair is linked to the carriers of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a; blue eyes with Haplogroup I1; and Red hair within the R1b Haplogroup. The argument for antediluvian humans possessing a light shade of brown skin is incontrovertible and the introduction of all other shades which stem from South Asians, East Asians, Arabs, Latinos and Europeans through Noah, his sons and their wives is the only scenario that fits the 11,000 to 19,000 years ago timeline, provided by scientists – and supported by an unconventional chronology. Due to lengthened ages,Noah was born nearly 19,000 years ago and his sons nearly 14,000 years ago, with Noah’s grandsons beginning to be born approximately 13,000 years ago. The exact time frame when the explosion of Haplogroup mutations is thought to have occurred.
Real History explains the scientific process of where and how white skin originates – capitals theirs, emphasis & bold mine:
‘Gene copies, however, are not always healthy. When the copies of a gene differ from each other, as through deleterious mutation or failure: Then in this heterozygous condition, we call the two parts “Alleles” and the undamaged or un-mutated allele is dominant, and the organism’s appearance and function is normal. The damaged “other” allele has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance, and is called the “Recessive” allele.
When BOTH alleles of a gene become recessive, then the gene cannot complete its assignment. As an example: many Black people have alleles of their “P” gene which are heterozygous and they look normal in every way: (The “P” gene controls the production of Melanin in the skin for protection from the Sun).
But if TWO of these people with heterozygous alleles in their “P” gene [reproduce], then one or more, of their children will be an Albino. If two Albinos mate, there is only damaged or recessive “P” genes to inherit; therefore ALL of their children will be White.
The trait for curly hair (which is the [norm] for humans) follows the same rules, two damaged or recessive allele’s of the “TCHH” gene [results in] straight hair. Same for the genes which control eye color and hair color: (Blonde and Red hair is recessive, as is Blue, Green, and Gray eyes).’
Washington Post: Friday, May 1, 2009, Study Finds Africans More Genetically Diverse Than Other Populations:
“Africans are more genetically diverse than the inhabitants of the rest of the world combined,according to a sweeping study that carried researchers into remote regions to sample the bloodlines of more than 100 distinct populations. So says Sarah Tishkoff, a University of Pennsylvania geneticist who led the international research team. The report was published in the journal Science Express.”
Spencer Wells, [Genetic Anthropologist, on the first Great Migrations] page 39 The Journey of Man: A genetic Odyssey
“… Genetic data corroborates the mitochondrial results, placing the root of the human family tree – our most recent common ancestor – [from Africans]… Consistent with this result, all of the genetic data shows the greatest number of polymorphisms in [Africans] – there is simply far more variation in that continent than anywhere else. You are more likely to sample extremely divergent genetic lineages within a single African village than you are in whole of the rest of the world.
The majority of the genetic polymorphisms found in our species are found uniquely in Africans – Europeans, Asians and Native Americans carry only a small sample of the extraordinary diversity that can be found in any African village.”
‘The question was asked: If Europeans are Albinos, then how is it that they still make [white children]? [The] confusion is due to believing [the] definition of [an] Albino. In order to confuse pigmented people, [Europeans]… try to say that ONLY type 1 (OCA1) [Chromosome 11] Albinos exist. They say: “Though we have White Skin, we DON’T have White Hair and Red eyes. We also have good vision and can TAN, so that proves that we are NOT Albinos… Type “1” Albinos are [those] with White hair, White Skin, Red Eyes, and poor eyesight. There are “8” (so far discovered) types of Albinism, with type 2 (OCA2) [Chromosome 15] being by far the MOST COMMON!’
‘The phenotype typical of type 2 Albinism (OCA2) is “TANNABLE WHITE SKIN, BLONDE to BROWN HAIR, and BLUE, GREEN, GRAY, or BROWN EYES – sound familiar? And how is it that type 2 (OCA2) Albinos can still make type 1 (OCA1) Albinos? Simple, normal everyday European Albinism is caused by mutation of the “P” (OCA2) gene. Whereas type 1 (OCA1) Albinism is caused by a mutation of the tyrosinase gene. These genes are at different locations of the cell Chromosome, therefore one mutation does not exclude the other. Consequently type 2 Albinos producing type 1 Albinos is not unusual in the least. And just like in Blacks with Albinism, future generations are dependent only on the… partner’s mutations or lack of mutations.’
“It is my conviction that a white skin is not natural to man, and that by nature he has either a black or brown skin like our forefathers… and that the white man was never originally created by nature; and that, therefore, there is no race of white people.”
From… Metaphysics of Sexual Love by Arthur Schopenhauer.’
‘Genetics Out of Africa, Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins:
“Recently a major molecular cause of this change in skin color has been discovered in Europeans. Specifically, the gene SLC24A5 turns out to be critical for the production of melanin, the predominant dark pigment of the skin and hair… 100 percent of Europeans have a mutation in SLC24A5 that impairs the function of the protein…Asians share the fully functional version of SLC24A5, but have acquired mutations in other genes that result in lighter skin, while retaining black hair (Francis Collins, The Language of Life (NY: Harper, 2010), page 150).” Keith Cheng from Penn State College of Medicine reported that one amino acid difference in the gene SLC24A5 is a key contributor to the skin color difference between Europeans and West Africans. This is undoubtedly where the Irish get their light skin from. “The mutation in SLC24A5 changes just one building block in the protein, and contributes about a third of the visually striking differences in skin tone between peoples of African and European ancestry,” he said.’
The study by professor of pathology Keith Cheng, was published in the Genetics Journal, 2005. Cheng worked together with Victor Canfield, assistant professor of pharmacology, studying DNA sequence differences across the globe. Segments of genetic code have a mutation located closely on the same SLC24A5 chromosome and are often inherited together. Specifically the mutation is called A111T and is found in everyone of European ancestry.
A111T is also found in peoples of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, though not in high numbers in Africans. Researchers discovered that all individuals from the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa and Southern India who carry the A111T mutation share a common ‘fingerprint’ or ‘traces of the ancestral genetic code’ in the corresponding chromosomal region; which indicates that all existing instances of this mutation originated from the same person. That same person would be ancestor zero: Noah. Cheng unwittingly confirms: “This means that Middle Easterners and South Indians, which includes most inhabitants of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, share significant ancestry.”
Apparently, the mutated segment of DNA was itself created from a combination of two other mutated segments which are commonly found in Eastern Asians. Cheng comments: “The coincidence of this interesting form of evidence of shared ancestry of East Asians with Europeans, within this tiny chromosomal region, is exciting… the combining of segments occurred after the ancestors of East Asians [from Japheth] and Europeans [from Shem] split
geographically [genetically] more than 50,000 [14,000] years ago; the A111T mutation occurred afterward” [in Noah’s sixteen grandsons].
Differences in skin colour affect skin cancer rates. For instance, Europeans have ten to twenty times more instances of melanoma than Africans; yet despite having lighter skin as well, East Asians have the same lower melanoma rates as Africans. The reason for this difference could only be explained once the gene mutations for both groups are found. I would propose it is linked to the fact that the original two lines of humankind before Noah’s sons [Homo sapiens sapiens], were the Neanderthal line created on Day Six and the Adamic line [Homo Sapiens] created on Day Eight [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. These antediluvian lines are replicated today with modifications, respectively in the oriental peoples descended from Japheth and the section of equatorial peoples descended from Ham through his youngest son, Canaan.
‘The study above mentions the term “Nonsyndromic”: A “Syndrome” is a set of signs and symptoms that appear together and characterize a disease or medical condition. Therefore “Nonsyndromic” means something that is not associated with other signs and symptoms. This comes into play because Europeans typically deny their Albinism by claiming that “REAL” Albinos have bad eyesight!
This study makes clear that is not the case: Note that this study was [conducted] by Asians. Just like SLC24A5 is a gene denoting Albinism, so too is SLC45A2, an Albino gene. What is the official name of the MC1R gene? The official name of this gene is “melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor).”
What is the normal function of the MC1R gene? The MC1R gene provides instructions for making a protein called the melanocortin 1 receptor. This receptor plays an important role in normal pigmentation. The receptor is primarily located on the surface of melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.
Melanocytes make two forms of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin. The relative amounts of these two pigments help determine the color of a person’s hair and skin. People who produce mostly eumelanin tend to have brown or black hair and dark skin that tans easily. Eumelanin also protects skin from damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight. People who produce mostly pheomelanin tend to have red or blond hair, freckles, and light-colored skin that tans poorly. Because pheomelanin does not protect skin from UV radiation, people with more pheomelanin have an increased risk of skin damage caused by sun exposure.
The melanocortin 1 receptor controls which type of melanin is produced by melanocytes. When the receptor is activated, it triggers a series of chemical reactions inside melanocytes that stimulate these cells to make eumelanin. If the receptor is not activated or is blocked, melanocytes make pheomelanin instead of eumelanin.
Common variations (polymorphisms) in the MC1R gene are associated with normal differences in skin and hair color. Certain genetic variations are most common in people with red hair, fair skin, freckles, and an increased sensitivity to sun exposure. These MC1R polymorphisms reduce the ability of the melanocortin 1 receptor to stimulate eumelanin production, causing melanocytes to make mostly pheomelanin. Although MC1R is a key gene in normal human pigmentation, researchers believe that the effects of other genes also contribute to a person’s hair and skin coloring. The melanocortin 1 receptor is also active in cells other than melanocytes, including cells involved in the body’s immune and inflammatory responses. The receptor’s function in these cells is unknown.
The MC1R gene belongs to a family of genes called GPCR (G protein-coupled receptors). A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. Many genetic changes in the MC1R gene increase the risk of developing skin cancer, including a common, serious form of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes (melanoma). Alterations in the MC1R gene disrupt the ability of the melanocortin 1 receptor to trigger eumelanin production in melanocytes.
Because eumelanin normally protects skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation, a lack of this pigment leaves fair skin more vulnerable to damage from sun exposure. Skin damage caused by UV radiation from the sun is a major risk factor for developing melanoma and other forms of skin cancer.’
‘Studies suggest that variations in the MC1R gene may also increase the risk of developing melanoma in the absence of UV radiation-related skin damage. In these cases, melanomas can occur in people of dark or light skin coloring. These cancers are often associated with mutations in additional genes related to melanoma risk, such as the BRAF and CDKN2A genes. Researchers are working to explain the complex relationship among MC1R variations, other genetic and environmental factors, and melanoma risk.
Certain genetic changes in the MC1R gene modify the appearance of people with oculocutaneous albinism type 2. This form of albinism, which is caused by mutations in the OCA2 gene, is characterized by fair hair, light-colored eyes, creamy white skin, and vision problems.People with genetic changes in both the OCA2 and MC1R genes have many of the usual features of oculocutaneous albinism type 2; however, they typically have red hair instead of the usual yellow, blond, or light brown hair seen with this condition.’
Wiki: Sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5 (NCKX5), also known as solute carrier family 24 member 5 (SLC24A5), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC24A5 gene that has a major influence on natural skin colour variation. The NCKX5 protein is a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger family. Sequence variation in the SLC24A5 gene, particularly a non-synonymous SNP changing the amino acid at position 111 in NCKX5 from alanine to threonine, has been associated with differences in skin pigmentation.
The SLC24A5 gene’s derived threonine or Ala111Thr allele (rs1426654) has been shown to be a major factor in the light skin tone of Europeans compared to Africans, and is believed to represent as much as 25–40% of the average skin tone difference between Europeans and West Africans. It has been the subject of recent selection in Western Eurasia, and is fixed in European populations.
The SLC24A5 gene, in humans, is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 15 on position 21.1, from base pair 46,200,461 to base pair 46,221,881. NCKX5 is 43 kDa protein that is partially localized to the trans-Golgi network in melanocytes. Removal of the NCKX5 protein disrupts melanogenesis in human and mouse melanocytes, causing a significant reduction in melanin pigment production. Site-directed mutagenesis corresponding to a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC24A5 alters a residue in NCKX5 (A111T) that is important for NCKX5 sodium-calcium exchanger activity. SLC24A5 appears to have played a key role in the evolution of light skin in humans of European ancestry… The Penn State team [calculated] that the gene, known as slc24a5, is responsible for about one-third of the pigment loss that made black skin white. A few other as-yet-unidentified mutated genes apparently account for the rest…’
This removes any doubt that Homo sapiens, from the line of Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve were dark skinned. Science has confirmed that white skin is a mutation – the SLC24A5 gene on Chromosome 15 – of a darker skinned human. Science dating of this event aligns with the birth of Shem and the genetic bottleneck at the time of the Flood. Eve as mitochondrial Eve would have been mtDNA Haplogroup L0. Adam as Y-DNA Adam, would have been Y-DNA Haplogroup A. Both these Haplogroups are the Haplogroups of the sub-Saharan Black African peoples [refer Chapter XII Canaan & Africa].
‘The gene’s function in pigmentation was discovered in zebrafish as a result of the positional cloning of the gene responsible for the “golden” variety of this common pet store fish. Evidence in the International HapMap Project database of genetic variation in human populations showed that Europeans, represented by the “CEU” population, had two primary alleles differing by only one nucleotide, changing the 111th amino acid from alanine to threonine, abbreviated “A111T”.
The derived threonine allele (Ala111Thr; also known as A111T or Thr111) represented 98.7 to 100% of the alleles in European samples, while the ancestral or alanine form was found in 93 to 100% of samples of Sub-Saharan Africans, East Asians and Indigenous Americans. The variation is a SNP polymorphism rs1426654, which had been previously shown to be second among 3011 tabulated SNPs ranked as ancestry-informative markers. This single change in SLC24A5 explains between 25 and 38% of the difference in skin melanin index between peoples of West African vs. European Ancestry.
Furthermore, the European mutation is associated with the largest region of diminished genetic variation in the CEU HapMap population, suggesting the possibility that the A111T mutation may be the subject of the single largest degree of selection in human populations of European ancestry. It is theorised that selection for the derived allele is based on the need for sunlight to produce the essential nutrient vitamin D. In northerly latitudes, where there is less sun, greater requirement for body coverage due to colder climate, and frequently, diets poor in vitamin D, making lighter skin more suitable for survival. Tests for this variation have obvious application to forensic science.
It has been estimated that the threonine allele became predominant among Europeans 11,000 [circa 9,000 to 10,000 BCE birth of Shem’s sons, Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram] to 19,000 [circa 17,000 BCE birth of Noah] years ago.
After providing all manner of scientific data to prove European Albinism: We now turn to the common sense approach to proving European Albinism… todays White Europeans… are clearly loath to admit that they are [technically] Albinos. So to hide this truth, they utilize all manner of “Double-Speak”: that is defining Albinism, but turning aside all inference to themselves. They say things like: OCA2 is rare in Europe, but more common in Africa… ALL White Europeans are ALREADY OCA2, so to hide that; they only count as Albino, those of their number who have genetic vision problems because of their OCA2 Albinism: (Another lie they tell is that ALL Albinos have vision problems). So for a better understanding, let[’]s DEFINE OCA2. OCA2 stands for Oculocutaneous Albinism type II.
“OCA” stands for Oculocutaneous Albinism. The “OC” stands for “Oculocutaneous” Definition of OCULOCUTANEOUS: relating to or affecting both the eyes and the skin – oculocutaneous albinism – Definition of ALBINISM: the condition of an albino. Full Definition of ALBINO: an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation; especially: a human being that is congenitally deficient in pigment and usually has a milky or translucent skin, white or colorless hair, and eyes with pink or blue iris and deep-red pupil (In short, Albino means WHITE or WHITE like – from the Latin albus “white”).
These are the symptoms of OCA2. Genetics Home Reference
“The OCA2 gene (formerly called the P gene) provides instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein is located in melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.”
NOAH (National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation) [Monumental coincidence – or is it – and irony that this is the acronym, for Noah is Ancestor Zero].
“A common myth is that people with albinism have red eyes. Although lighting conditions can allow the blood vessels at the back of the eye to be seen, which can cause the eyes to look reddish or violet, most people with albinism have blue eyes, and some have hazel or brown eyes. There are different types of albinism and the amount of pigment in the eyes varies; however, vision problems are associated with albinism.”
Did you notice in the “Genetics Home Reference” definition where it said that “The OCA2 gene was formerly called the P gene”? Now why would White people RENAME a gene after a disease?
THE HUMAN BODY DOES NOT “NORMALLY” COME WITH DISEASE! So why did [Europeans] RENAME the “P” gene, and give it the name of a DISEASE? They did that when they found out that the MUTATED form of the “P” gene was “NORMAL” in THEM! OCA2 “IS” the “MUTATED” FORM of the “P” gene. To put it plainly… A Normal Black person’s gene would be called a “P” gene. And only the MUTATED form found in Europeans and African Albinos, would be called the OCA2 gene. Since ALL Europeans have the OCA2 gene, therefore they are all Albinos. And of course it’s rare in Africa, most Africans are NOT Albinos.
So then, if the OCA2 gene is a “Normal” human gene, then BLACKS MUST HAVE A “OCA-2” (Albinism gene) too? Logically then: if “OCA2” means “Oculocutaneous Albinism type 2” – HOW CAN BLACK PEOPLE HAVE THIS GENE AND NOT BE WHITE?… Of course Black People DO NOT have a OCA2 Gene, they have a “P” gene. When the “P” gene is healthy, Black people make Black people. But when the “P” gene has “Mutated” and is no longer healthy, It CAN cause Black people to produce WHITE people (Albinos).
How can two people with normal pigmentation (Black people) produce a child with albinism? That is because these parents – like one out of every 75 people – are carriers for albinism. A carrier is someone who has one functional gene and one abnormal gene. (We all have two copies of all genes). Because the functional gene overrides the abnormal gene, these people do not have albinism themselves. However, they are still able to pass the abnormal gene on to their child. If the other parent is also a carrier for the same type of albinism, the offspring has a 25% chance of having albinism, a 50% chance of being a carrier, and a 25% chance of having two “normal” genes.
In Herodotus’s “History of the Persian Wars” of the dozens of peoples that he describes in the book; he chooses to describe only three peoples by racial type. The Colchians… whom he describes as “black-skinned and have woolly hair”. And the Budini of Gelonus (east-central Ukraine), whom he describes as (they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair). The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) said this about them:
“For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves.
Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.”
From those passages we know for sure what White Europeans looked like when they first invaded Europe – they were Pure Albinos. But today, they rarely have the RED HAIR and BLUE EYES of their ancestors – What Happened?’
We will learn that the Germanic tribes in Germany were peoples who were predominantly fair and blue eyed and they still are today. It doesn’t account for all the White people in Europe with brunette hair and brown eyes. Thus the assertion that the blue eyed, red haired people are disappearing is not true in this background context, of ‘all white people were red haired and blue eyed.’ What is true, is that those nations which are predominately fair and blue eyed are being ‘watered down’ so-to-speak through intermarriage and inter-mixing. Thus the following is relevant in that context.
‘THIS HAPPENED! “Since the turn of the century, people born with blue eyes in the United States have dramatically decreased, with only about 10 percent having blue eyes today.
According to Mark Grant, an epidemiologist from Loyola University in Chicago. During the turn of the last century, the percentage of people with blue eyes stood at 57.4% for those born between 1899 through 1905; and 33.8% for those born between 1936 through 1951. According to Grant, in a study titled “Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye color among US whites.” This decrease in the occurrence of blue eyes is due to many factors, with the majority pointing to the increase in brown-eyed immigrants, mainly Hispanics and Asians, as well as heightenedinterracial relationships: as the other determinant, (when a normal Black person and a European make a baby, the baby GAINS varied ability to make MELANIN). Blue eyes, next to green, are the rarest eye color in the world, as people of counties in Asia and Africa possess brown eyes.”
‘Are there three Races? As the evidence indicates… [Europeans have]… taught… that there [are] THREE RACES: The Black Race. The White Race. The [Asiatic] type Race. This was just to give themselves an undeserved place of importance in the Human hierarchy. Following the evidence, it becomes clear that there are indeed THREE RACES, but their types are different:  Blacks with “Negroid” features, produce Albinos with Negroid features.  Blacks with “Caucasian” features, produce Albinos with Caucasian features. And  Blacks with “Mongol” features produce Albinos with Mongol features… there is the one Black Human Race. Then there are TWO sub-races: The Albino Race – which encompasses Whites/Albinos of EVERY Phenotype. (Europeans insist that they are the only “True” Whites: but as is clear from the evidence, they are in no way unique). And then there is the “MULATTO” Races: which are MIXTURES of all the above, in varying QUANTITIES… [including] the Middle East, North Africa, and Latin American: as well as Asia…’
A rather abrupt expression of the no less undeniable reality, that the oldest genes – as expressed by Y-DNA Haplogroups – pre-flood, are the ancestor genes or Haplogroups which mutated through Noah’s sons and grandsons into the variety of races or ethnicities we observe today. Thus the original mtDNA L and Y-DNA A Haplogroups were passed from Noah to Ham, to Canaan. Mutations of these founder Haplogroups have been passed from Ham to each of his other three sons. Each son receiving a unique sequence, yet there are some Haplogroups common to each or all. Japheth received a unique set which diversified amongst his seven sons, as did Shem for his five sons. The fact there is crossover Haplogroups between Japheth, Ham and Shem as well as between the grandsons themselves, proves their family link and supports the scientific understanding of genetic mutations as evidenced by Haplogroup expansions.
For example, let’s take R1b and R1a. Both are European marker Haplogroups, for western and eastern Europe respectively. Yet, the Latinos of the Americas also possess R1b, as the Indians of India also have R1a. Geneticists debate the origin of R1a: is it West Eurasian or European or East Eurasian and South Asian in origin. Which line came from who? But if Shem and Ham both carried the Y-DNA R Haplogroup, then this would explain how both have passed on the R1b and R1a mutations. Therefore, Indians and Europeans are related, just not as closely as scientists believe. They are not both Aryan, as the Indian peoples are Hamitic. Not brothers per se, but more accurately, cousins [refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut].
‘[The top four] places in the world where… [Europeans] refuse to accept the fact that they have physical disadvantages as regards the Sun [are] Israel, Australia, New Zealand [and] California… In these places they inhabit beaches as if they were Black or Brown people. The results are often disastrous.’ [the State of Israel has since been passed by Australia, moving into second and New Zealand has leapt into first, regarding the highest rates of skin cancer in the world].
The principal mtDNA maternal Haplogroups associated with Shem’s descendants include:
Haplogroup H – the most frequently found Haplogroup throughout West Eurasia, with a uniform distribution throughout Europe.
Haplogroup HV – the ancestral Haplogroup to H and V, which dominates the western European lineages today. About seventy-five percent of the western European population descends from this Haplogroup.
Haplogroup I – widespread throughout Europe, although at relatively low levels of about two percent.
Haplogroup J – one of the four major specific European Haplogroups.
Haplogroup K – spread throughout Europe. Certain lineages are also found in Central Asia and Northern Africa. It is known for its presence in distinct population groups, such as the prehistoric Basques and the Ashkenazi Jews.
Haplogroup N – one of the two major lineages from which non-African Haplogroups descend. Today, members of this Haplogroup are found in many continents around the world.
Haplogroup T – relatively young European Haplogroup.
Haplogroup U – one of Europe’s oldest and most diverse Haplogroups. About 10 to 11% of Europeans and Americans of European descent belong to this Haplogroup.
Haplogroup V – a European Haplogroup with links to Iberia [Spain], that spread east and north.
Haplogroup W – found throughout Europe, deriving from super Haplogroup N.
The global distribution of Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants are summarised in Retina, Fifth Edition, 2013:
‘Haplogroup I is a clear European haplogroup; it is one of the most frequent haplogroups among northwestern European populations.
It is generally agreed that haplogroup J was dispersed by the westward movement of people from the Middle East to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.
Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K* and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.
Haplogroup L is found mainly in India and Pakistan, as well as in the Middle East and, very occasionally, in Europe, particularly in Mediterranean countries.
The Y-DNA haplogroup N has a wide distribution, primarily in northern Eurasia, and is often associated (but not necessarily) with current and earlier Uralic speakers.
The extensive haplogroup R, which is mainly represented by two lineages – R1a and R1b. The members of R1b are… the most common Y haplogroup in Europe. More than half of men of European descent belong to R1b. Haplogroup R1a is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.’
A PCA plot highlighting the descendants of Shem and their genetic proximity with one another.
We will now turn our attention to Shem’s five sons and their offspring.
And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.
Colosians 3:17 English Standard Version
Sir Isaac Newton was asked how he discovered the law of gravity. He replied, “By thinking about it all the time.”
“He who thinks half-heartedly will not believe in God; but he who really thinks has to believe in God.”
Isaac Newton [1643-1727]
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4 thoughts on “Shem Occidentalis”
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