Appendix VIII: When the Creator came to dwell with His Creation

It is remarkable that the notable Jewish historian of the first century CE Josephus, is recognised and valued for his writings to a high degree, for often time he is the final or only word on a matter; yet on the question of whether the Messiah was a real person, he is largely ignored. In Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus wrote: 

“… there was about this time [during the governorship of Roman procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate from 26 to 36/37 CE], Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, ­a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He was Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principle men among us, had condemned him to the cross… he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.” 

One can see why, for it is very convenient with its information, including all the salient facts in a nutshell from a ‘Christian’ perspective and also rather syrupy, with its glowing ‘wonderful’ descriptions, that again appear to be for the benefit of any Christian readers. If legitimately written by Josephus at the time, then it makes one wonder if he was a Christian himself? If not, an edit or later inclusion seem plausible. Though this does not negate the existence of Christ, using Josephus’s commentary as the final or only word would not be persuasive of itself. 

What is not always understood, is that Christ and the Apostles were commissioned to seek the lost sheep of the scattered tribes of Israel [Matthew 10:6, John 1:11, James 1:1, 1 Peter 1:1]. Matthew 15:24 ESV: ‘[Jesus] answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Christ, like the Apostles knew the Israelites were ‘scattered abroad’ and not just living in portions of Judea [John 10:16]. It was the Apostle Paul who was given a unique calling of preaching to Gentile nations [Galatians 2:7-8]. 

From the age of twelve, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph and Mary suddenly disappears from the gospels account of his life. Mysteriously, he resurfaces in Galilee eighteen years later to begin his three and a half year ministry [refer Chronology of Christ and Chapter XXIX Esau]. Where was he? One thing is certain, Jesus had ample time to visit, live with, learn from and possibly teach the descendants of the sons of Jacob. 

And so it appears that Christ did in fact, travel the world with his Great Uncle Joseph of Arimathea. Joseph was the equivalent of a business tycoon and global metal magnate of his day. Much of the life of Christ outside of the biblical account is pieced together from  traditions and what isn’t, is still ignored or denied by those who choose not to believe. For the bible clearly states; with words inspired by the very Being who created us [Colossians 1:15-16]: “[Jesus] entered our world, a world He made; yet the world did not recognize Him [John 1:10 The Voice]. 

Before we concentrate fully on Jesus and his Great Uncle Joseph, or even the Apostle Paul it may be beneficial to include an investigation into the Apostles and disciples responsible for spreading the Gospel, with the good news of the Kingdom of God [Matthew 24:14, Mark 1:14-15]. 

Josephus recognised the dispersal of the Israelite tribes when he stated: “…[W]herefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers [Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 11:5:2]. Theses tribes were scattered from as far west as the British Isles and as far eastwards as India. The main centres of Israelite occupation as we have thoroughly investigated and specifically located during Christ’s lifetime were Parthia, stretching from modern day Iran to India, the embryonic Saxon peoples who were part of the Scythian hordes of Central Asia, known as the Sakae or Saka and the Celtic peoples of Britain, Ireland, Gaul, Iberia and Asia Minor. 

Recall, the Messiah’s commission was to be ‘sent to the House of Israel.’ As this precludes the peoples in northern Judea who were mainly from the tribe of Judah as well as remnants of other tribes; it then follows that Jesus would have travelled to those same regions in the world where these ‘lost sheep of the House of Israel’ were living, thus fulfilling scripture. 

The Epistula Apostolorum, from the 3rd Century, verse 30 states: “But he said unto us: Go ye and preach unto the twelve tribes, and preach also unto the heathen, and to all the land of Israel from the east to the west and from the south unto the north…” This admonition ties in with Christ’s original instruction, when he told the disciples in Matthew 28:19 ESV: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations…” 

Hippolytus in the third century discusses the Apostles and the possible destinations in fulfilling the commission. The reader is cautioned that not all if the information may be accurate. Peter is said to have preached the Gospel in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Betania and Asia. His brother Andrew is noted as preaching to the Scythians and Thracians and was later crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia and then buried there. Tradition even says that Andrew preached the gospel in Scotland, where he is the patron saint. 

John preached in Asia, was banished by Roman Emperor Domitian [81 to 96 BCE] to the isle of Patmos, in which he wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic visions of the Book of Revelation [Revelation 1:9]. He was likely released by Nero’s successor, Nerva [96-98 CE]. During Emperor Trajan’s reign [98 to 117 BCE], John, [101] years of age, passed away at Ephesus, where his remains were sought for, but could not be found [supposedly]. Tradition says he preached in Gaul. His brother James, when preaching in Judea, was cut down with the sword by Herod the tetrarch [between 41 to 44 CE], and was buried there [Acts 12:1-2]. 

Philip preached in Phrygia – and Scythia – and was crucified, after stoning in Hierapolis – near Laodicea and Colossae in Asia Minor with his head ignomously downward, in the time of Domitian [81-96 CE] and was degradingly buried with his corpse upright. Bartholomew  – also known as Nathanael [John 1:45] – preached to ‘Indians’ which is probably a reference to Parthians and to whom he gave the Gospel of Matthew. He was also crucified with his head downward and buried in Allanum, a town of greater Armenia. Where Bartholomew had preached as well as in Upper Phyrigia. 

The Apostle Matthew – also known as Levi – wrote his Gospel in the Hebrew tongue and it was published at Jerusalem. He died at Hierees, a town of Parthia, after he had also preached to the Ethiopians [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. Thomas is said to have preached to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians, Bactrians and Margians. He was thrust through in the four members of his body with pine spears at Calamene, a city of India and buried there. 

James the son of Alphaeus, while preaching in Jerusalem was stoned to death by the Jews and was buried beside the temple. Prior to this he preached the gospel in Spain: “The Spanish writers… contend, after the death of Stephen [Acts 7:58-60] he [James] came… into Spain where he planted Christianity.” [Cave, Antiquitates Apostolicae, page 148] Jude or Judas [John 14:22], who was also called Lebbaeus Thaddeus, preached to the people of Edess and to all Mesopotamia, including Assyria. He passed away at Berytus and was buried there. 

Simon the Zealot or Canaanite, the son of Clopas, who was also called Jude, became bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just and was buried there at the age of 120 years. Contrary to this and also confusingly from Hippolytus, is that: “[Simon] directed his journey toward Egypt, then to Cyrene, and Africa… and throughout Mauritania and all Libya, preaching the gospel… and [then] over to the western islands… to Britain… He went at last into Britain, and… was crucified… and buried there.” [Cave, Antiquitates Apostolicae, page 203] We will return to the Apostle Simon. Matthias, who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles after Judas Iscariot’s suicide; preached in Jerusalem and was buried there. 

The Apostle Paul entered into his apostleship a year after the resurrection of Christ [in 31 CE]. Preaching the Gospel for [thirty-five years]. In the time of Nero [54-68 BCE] he was beheaded at Rome and buried there. [Hippolytus, On the Twelve Apostles. In Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume V by Robert & Donaldson, 1885 Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody (MA), printing 1999, pages 254-255] 

Hippolytus mentions Aristobulus who is included in the scriptures written in 56 CE [Romans 16:10]. He was one of the seventy disciples who were appointed to preach the Gospel of the Kingdom [Luke 10:1-24]. Hippolytus correctly claims Aristobulus was the Bishop of Britain [Titus 1:7-9]. As one of the seventy, he would certainly have known the early disciples who became Apostles, for he is believed to have been the father-in-law of none other than the Apostle Peter. 

The Martyrologia of Adonis says under March 17th: “Natal day of Aristobulus, Bishop of Britain, [elder] brother of… Barnabas the Apostle, by whom he was ordained bishop. He was sent to Britain where, after preaching the truth of Christ and forming a Church, he received martyrdom.”

Eusebius confirms that Jesus’s disciples preached to the three main bodies of Israelites at the time: “His disciples… to preach to all the Name of Jesus, to teach about His marvelous deeds in… [the] Roman Empire, and the Queen of Cities itself, and… that others should go to the Parthian race, and yet others to the Scythian, that some already should have reached the very ends of the world…” And “The Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the isles called the Britannic Isles [De Demonstratione Evangelii, Library III].The Apostles were commissioned to go to not just Jerusalem, Judea and Samaria but to the farthest part of the earth [Acts 1:8]. Heading in a north-westerly direction leads one to the far away isles waiting for the truth [Isaiah 42:4]. 

Tradition says the Apostle Peter went to Italy, became the first Apostolic See of Rome, was crucified by Emperor Nero and buried on Vatican Hill. Yet there is no Biblical evidence that Peter ever set foot in Rome. He is not included in Paul’s salutations to those at Rome; a serious omission if such was the case [Romans 16:1-15]. If Peter had been at Rome, then Paul would not have been teaching brethren in Rome for the first time [Acts 28:21-23]. The Bible, reveals Peter definitely spent time in Jerusalem and also in Babylon [Acts 15:4, 7, 1 Peter 5:13]. Yet, we will discover that the Apostle Peter did visit Italy and Rome and that he was executed by Nero’s orders and buried there. What is not true is that Peter was not even the first Bishop of Rome, let alone its first apostle for he did not establish his residence there. 

The Greek historian, Metaphrastes informs that: “Peter was not only in these western [Mediterranean] parts but particularly… he was a long time in Britain, where he converted many nations to the faith.” [Cave, Antiquitates Apostolicae, page 45] The Venerable Bede [670-735] in his Ecclesiatical History of the English Nation writes that in 665, Pope Vitalian sent the mortal remains of several Saints to Oswy, King of Britain: “… we have ordered the… relics of the blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, and… John… to be delivered to the bearers of these our letters, to be by them delivered to you.” 

As Bede is held in high regard, it would be very doubtful he would put nib to scroll in his name to knowledge that was untrue. If such is the truth then these three stalwarts of the faith would undoubtedly have been buried in Avalon. So who then, is buried under the altar in St Peter’s Basilica in Rome? It was not Simon Peter, but another ‘Peter’ masquerading as the true Apostle of Christ. None other than Simon Magus who established a counterfeit church based in Rome and it is he that was the first Apostle of Rome [Acts 8:5-24, Revelation 17:5].

William Steuart McBirnie, in his book, The Search for the Twelve Apostles, states: “There certainly is no other tradition known concerning the history of St. Joseph of Arimathea and since the British tradition is vigorous we see no reason to challenge it… 

If in any country there is a strong tradition concerning some Apostolic figures, and no counter ­tradition elsewhere, then we at least stand on the ground of possibility and even probability. So it is with… St. Joseph.”

The true Way [Acts 9:2; 19:23; 24:14, 22] – rather than what today is called Christianity – as taught by the Apostles, was established in Britain from 35 CE – and as we shall discover – spearheaded initially by Joseph of Arimathea, then the Apostle Peter, Aristobulus the Bishop of Britain and his brother, the Apostle Barnabas, the Apostle Simon the Zealot and finally, the Apostle Paul himself in between his Roman imprisonment years, during 58 to 64 CE. ‘Gildas [Badonicus] the earliest British writer of history, 520’ CE, states: “Meanwhile these islands… in a distant region of the world… received the beams of light, that is, the holy precepts of Christ… at the latter part, as we know, of the reign of Tiberius Caesar [14-37 CE], by whom his religion was propagated without impediment.” ‘… the events mentioned appear to be [prior]… to the defeat of Boadicea, [in] A.D. [62]… [at the latest and more likely before]… the defeat of Caractacus, [in] A.D. [52]. Therefore the testimony of Gildas is to the effect that the gospel was preached in Britain [well] before the year 61 [The Sabbath in the British Isles; Reprinted from “Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America” Volume 1, 1910 pages 21-39].’ 

The Way in Britain from the beginning varied considerably from the teachings that arrived later, of the Universal Church centred in Rome. From an outsiders perspective it had more of a Jewish or rather a Judaic form. It is worth noting that the Celtic or Keltic churches claimed to have descended from the true church based in Ephesus, where the Apostle John lived and preached. The Keltic Churches of Ireland, Galloway and of Iona in Scotland were one with the British Church and they claimed like Southern Gaul and Iberia, to have drawn their faith from the Apostolic Church of Ephesus. 

These early churches embodied a simpler, yet a more missionary type of religion compared with the Church of Rome. Doctrinally, even from the early centuries there were a number of differences, though the key teachings of disagreement, where the Church of Rome had changed to incorporate palatable pagan and gnostic ideas, were the nature of Christ [the Councils of Nicea in 325 CE and Constantinople in 381 CE], the Sabbath [Council of Laodicea 364 CE] and the Passover [Council of Nicea 325 CE]. 

The truth of One eternal God and the Son of Man’s origin were substituted with the Trinity [refer Arius, Alexander & Athanasius]; the seventh day Sabbath was made illegal and substituted with the worship of the ‘Lord’s Day’, the day of the Sun on the first day of the week; and the observance of Passover on the 14th day after the new Moon of the first sacred calendar month, was substituted with the commemoration of Easter on the first Sunday following the full Moon after the Spring Equinox [March 21]. 

The eighth century Catholic monk and historian Bede, highlighted the difference with church leaders in Britain: “They do not keep Easter Sunday at the proper time, but from the fourteenth… They did other things too which were not in keeping with the unity of the Church. 

After a long dispute they were unwilling, in spite of the prayers, exportations, and rebukes of Augustine and his companions to give their assent, preferring their own traditions to those which all the churches throughout the world agree…”

Vatican librarian Cardinal Baronius [1538–1607] – who spent 30 years compiling his history from Vatican records – and Anglican archbishop Ussher [1581–1656] mentioned several of the Apostles and their companions traveled to the ‘Isles of the West.’ 

Cardinal Cesar Baronious provided the following details in Latin. “Annus 35… Lazarum, Mariam Magdalenam, Martham, & Marcellam peditfequam… cum Maximino difcipulo… comitemque… Ioiephum ab Arimathaea nobilum Decurionem, quem tradunt ex Gallia in Brittanniam naugafie, illeque pofit predicatum diem claufifle extremum. [Annales Ecclesiastici, Sumptibus Uoannis Gymnici & Antonji Hierati, 1609, pages 280-281] 

An approximate translation: “Year 35 CE… Lazarus [John 12:9-11], Mary Magdalene [Mark 16:9], Martha, & Marcella the servant… with the disciple of Maximim… and with… Joseph of Arimathea the noble Decurion, fled in a boat without oars [or sails?] to Marseilles, then from Gaul to Britain, where after preaching the gospel [Joseph] ended his days [in Glastonbury].”  

Other companions on this journey included Christ’s mother, Mary. The poet Mistral states others: Trophimus [Acts 20:4], Cleon, Eutropius, Restitutus  [Sidonius] whom we know from the Bible as ‘the man born blind’ [John 9:1-38], Martial, Saturninus, Mary the wife of Cleophas [John 19:25] and Salome. The names of these saints have been perpetuated in the Gallic Church and Lazarus is persistently recognised as the first Bishop of Marseilles. Joseph of Arimathea was subsequently a frequent visitor to Gaul, to confer with the disciples resident there and particularly with the Apostle Philip, who had arrived at Marseilles ahead of Joseph and awaited him and the Bethany family. It was Philip who consecrated Joseph, appointing him as ‘the Apostle to Britain’.

The fact that Philip was the Apostle of Gaul is noteworthy, for the Apostle Paul’s letter to the Galatians is a misinterpretation and his letter is in fact the Letter to the Gauls, where descendants of Jacob were living in considerable numbers. Galatia meanwhile was an offshoot of Gauls. Also, his mention of Crescens being in Galatia, should read Gaul [2 Timothy 4:10]. Cardinal Baronius stated: ‘… that “to the Galatians” must be corrected in the place of “to the Gauls”.’ St. Epiphanius [315-407 CE] wrote: ‘… so that St. Paul assures [Luke the Evangelist] in his epistles about some of his disciples – “Crescens”, said he, “is in Gaul.” In it must not be read in Galatia as some have falsely thought, but in Gaul.’

Britain was the obvious choice for a safe haven as it was the only free state in Europe – free from Roman persecution – and which afforded a secure asylum to these early Christians who had left the instability of Judea and the indelibly raw memories of Jesus’s horrific death which remained too vivvid and fresh while they stayed living in Palestine. 

With this band of illustrious people who had intimately known Christ and shared in the drama and horror of his execution, it is little wonder that the little isle of Britain became known as ‘the most hallowed ground on earth,’ ‘the Sacred Isle’ and ‘the Motherland.’

It was to this land that Jesus’s mother Mary arrived with her Uncle, Joseph of Arimathea. Though Christ had entrusted the care of his mother to ‘the disciple he loved’, universally considered to be John, we do not ever hear the Apostle John make mention of her. We have addressed who else might be the disciple that Jesus loved previously. The verse says John ‘took her to his own home.’ Though in the Greek, it does not include the word home [John 19:26-27]. John was a marked man – and he had his Apostolic commission that would necessitate considerable travel not suitable for Mary to endure – and so it makes sense that ultimately, Mary should find refuge with her ‘own’ as in Joseph and the Bethany family of Lazarus and his sisters. William of Malmsbury in the Magna Tabula Glastoniensis says: “St. John while evangelizing Ephesus, made Joseph Paranymphos” [or Guardian of Mary]. The fact that where Joseph went so did Mary, supports her being in his care and not John’s.

The four gospels reveal that Joseph of Arimathea had very high standing in the community and was a person of great wealth, the most influential businessman in Judea and possessing an honourable social distinction as evidenced by his ‘not consenting to the council and deed of them’, as he was a member of the Sanhedrin – as well as a ‘Provincial Roman Senator’ [George F Jowett, The Drama of the Lost Disciples, 1996, page 134]. He was a good and righteous man and because of his visibility, a secret follower of Jesus, who ‘himself waited for the kingdom of God’. It was prophesied that Christ would be buried in the tomb of a rich man [refer Chapter XXIX Esau] and Joseph was that individual. 

It took real courage on one hand to approach Pontius Pilate over the dead body of his nephew, yet his position meant an audience with the Roman Governor of Judea at such short notice was not difficult to request. It is hard to credit that Pilate who had signed Christ’s death warrant when he ‘washed his hands’ from the false charges against him; that he would release his body for private burial and have his tomb become the shrine of a martyr. This would indicate not only Joseph’s rank but also his rightful claim to Jesus’s body. A claim made possible by being a blood relative. The Jewish Talmud corroborates in stating that Joseph was the younger brother of the father of Mary. 

It is clear from the Biblical account that Mary’s husband died while Jesus was young. The Judaic law in such circumstances appointed the next male kin as guardian of the family. We can begin to understand why Jesus was frequently seen in the company of his Uncle, particularly at religious festivals and on voyages to Britain by ship, which Cornish traditions confirm and where ancient landmarks bear Hebrew names recording these visits. Joseph’s actions at the time of Jesus’s death affirm their close relationship. Rather than being a mere guardian of Jesus, Joseph was a father figure to Christ and treated him as his son. It becomes only more moving and harrowing to realise that it was this man – with the help of Nicodemus [John 19:38-40] – who took Jesus’s broken body down from the cross, cradling the corpse of the very Son of God in his arms.

The Bible says that Joseph hurried to Pilate in requesting Jesus’s body because the day was ending, darkness was approaching and with it, the Passover that evening and the Sabbath which was the Holy Day of the first day of Unleavened Bread, the following morning. Though there is a far more pressing urgency in Joseph’s need to meet with Pilate than it would appear. It begins with the word, tree and the true manner in which the Messiah was crucified.

In the nineteenth chapter of the Book of John, we learn a number of fascinating details that many have possibly overlooked. The first is that Jesus died in a garden called Golgotha, meaning ‘place of the skull.’ [John 19:17, 41]. Golgotha was a monticulus, which means ‘a small hill on top of a mount.’ The mount in question, being the Mount of Olives. The Greek word for garden means an orchard or plantation – a grove of trees. It was to this garden, set on a hill that Jesus carried not an assembled Latin or Greek cross, weighing some 200 pounds but rather the crossbeam that would be a fixed to a living tree. It was this crosspiece that Simon of Cyrene carried the final distance to Golgotha because Jesus was exhausted after enduring repeated brutal beatings at the hands of Pontius Pilates’s Roman soldiers throughout the night until morning, during his imprisonment [Matthew 27:32].

Biblical scholar Ernest Martin explains that this crosspiece associated with crucifixions had a technical Latin name, with the upper part of the cross known as a patibulum. Jesus would have had his hands and wrists bound and nailed to the patibulum. Both he and the patibulum would have then been hoisted upwards with the crossbeam nailed in place against a sizeable tree. Christ’s legs would have been bound at the ankles, his legs bent upwards together and his feet nailed to the tree trunk. It is important to understand that not only was the ‘cross’ a tree, but that the two robbers crucified with Jesus had their own patibulum, also nailed to the same tree. “… so that the bodie-s would not remain on the cross…” [John 19:31-32]. 

The trial, verdict, imprisonment and crucifixion of the Son of Man was not only illegal but rushed because of the timing right before the Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread. As time was of the essence, a tree was used instead of a Roman cross. Added to this, was the biblical law that no one could hang on an instrument of death beyond sunset because the tree and the soil it was in were accounted as defiled by the accursed person [Deuteronomy 21:22-23, Galatians 3:13]. This was part of the reason why Joseph was in a hurry to rescue Christ’s corpse. It was not uncommon in times of haste for criminals to be nailed to trees [Joshua 8:29; 10:26-27]. In this instance, it meant the Roman soldiers did not have to dig three separate holes some five to six feet deep to secure three large standing poles. 

The Apostles Peter and Paul confirm that Jesus was hung and died on a tree [Acts 10:39; 13:29, 1 Peter 2:24]. Acts 5:30 ESV: “The God of our fathers raised Jesus, whom you killed by hanging him on a tree [G3586 – xulon: ‘tree, wood, log, beam’].” In John chapter nineteen a different word is used G4716 – stauros. This word is generic and means a ‘pole, stake, cross.’ It applies to any instrument used for execution and therefore also applies to a tree. 

The word stauros can be used for the patibulum which supported Christ’s arms [Luke 23:26]; it can be used for the actual pole or tree trunk itself [John 19:19]; and it can be used for the combined patibulum and pole or tree trunk used as a single device for execution [John 19:25]. There is substantial irony in Jesus dying on a tree, for Christ is a living tree, the source of Eternal life and our Maker [Genesis 2:9, Psalm 1:3, Colossians 1:15-20, Revelation 2:7; 22:2, 14]. “Early Christian art indicates a close relationship between the tree of life and the cross. The Cross of Christ, the wood of suffering and death, is for Christians a tree of life. The idea that the living trunk of the cross bears twigs and leaves is a common motif in Christian antiquity.” [Kittel, Theological Dictionary, Volume V, Pages 40-41] 

Returning to Joseph of Arimathea’s urgency to claim Christ’s body. His remains were accursed, which meant so was the tree upon which he was hung. The Apostle Paul reckoned the cross as a ‘shame’ and a ‘reproach’ [Hebrews 12:2; 13:13]. To cleanse the area, required purging and this was accomplished through burning with fire [Deuteronomy 21:21, Joshua 7:24-26, Isaiah 4:4, Ezekiel 22:17-19]. Joshua 7:15 NKJV: “Then it shall be that he who is taken with the accursed thing shall be burned with fire, he and all that he has, because he has transgressed the covenant of the Lord, and because he has done a disgraceful thing in Israel.” According to the law and protocol, the Jews fully expected to burn and destroy the tree of execution and the three men hanging dead from it. So it was with great daring that Joseph requested an immediate audience with Pontuis Pilate [Mark 15:43]. If Joseph had not succeeded, Christ would have surely been consumed in the flames. 

A future prophecy makes clear that the tree of execution was destroyed and Jesus along with it, should Joseph have not dramatically intervened: “I was like an unsuspecting lamb led to its slaughter. I had no idea they were plotting against me. They were saying, “Let’s cut down that lush olive tree and destroy all its beautiful fruit. Let’s cut him off from the land of the living. Let’s make sure no one even remembers his name.” [Jeremiah 11:19] Jerome in the fourth century says of this verse: “The tree is his cross, and the bread [fruit] his body: for he says himself, I am the bread that came down from heaven [John 6:51].” [Anglican Commentary, London, 1875, Volume V, page 395] 

There is one further aspect of the Messiah’s death prior to investigating his life before his ministry began in the Autumn of 26 CE. It is linked to Deuteronomy 21:21 ESV, which says: “Then all the men of the city shall stone him to death with stones. So you shall purge the evil from your midst, and all Israel shall hear, and fear.” As it was law to purge by fire an accursed one; it was also standard practice to throw stones at them while they hung upon a tree. 

As the one mediator between God and men [1 Timothy 2:5] suffered brutal beatings through the night before his crucifixion and while he suffered the immense pressure and pain of slow asphyxiation; the Son of Man endured the horrifying experience of stoning that lead to his last breath and finally, death. The result of a relentless tide of stones lead to: “Many people were shocked when they saw him. His appearance was so damaged he did not look like a man; his form was so changed they could barely tell he was human.” [Isaiah 52:14 NCV] 

Christ’s ancestor King David, was inspired to write about Jesus, a 1,000 years before he was born: “The enemy, this gang of evil men, circles me like a pack of dogs; they have pierced my hands and feet. I can count every bone in my body [Matthew 26:26]. See these men of evil gloat and stare…” [Psalm 22:16-17]. These verses can only be understood in one context.  Though Jesus was scourged, Pilate fully intended for Jesus to recover and be set free [Luke 23;22]. The severe disfigurement of the Son of God was not by beating but through the pelting of sharp flint stones that are common on the Mount of Olives. 

And so, the One who had supreme glory sitting on a throne at the righthand side of the Ancient of Days, gave up his majesty upon high [Revelation 22:3]; humbled himself as no other has ever done; laying down his eternal life for a creation that despises him and only seeks evil continually. This spectacular Being offered himself as the ultimate sacrifice in the determination to defeat Satan and Sin once and for all. Naked, he endured a barrage of stones thrown at him – for possibly nearly six hours, from nine in the morning until he died at three in the afternoon – that would break his skin and eventually dislodge flesh away from the bone. They lacked the force to break any bones [John 19:36] and so the verses describing his utter and complete disfigurement – to his body, his genitals and his face – and then abhorrently being able to see all his protruding bones, are devastatingly heartrending in their accuracy. 

Stoning was reserved for capital crimes under the Mosaic law [Leviticus 20:2, Deuteronomy 13:10]. Though the pelting of stones by a mob at a person who merited ill-will also occurred [Exodus 8:26; 17:4, 2 Chronicles 24:20, Hebrews 11:37, Acts 5:26]. Thus Christ was sentenced to death by the Romans as the people of Judea were forbidden to apply the death penalty; but in so doing, Pilate allowed the Jerusalem authorities to kill Christ according to biblical law [John 18:31]. Therefore, extraordinarily and uniquely, Christ suffered the two death penalties simultaneously and though the Roman crucifixion certainly contributed to his death, it was the Jewish  Edomite stoning that killed him. 

The truth surrounding the manner of the Messiah’s death is profound, yet not widely known and Isaiah who penned the words, himself acknowledges that those that learn the truth would be amazed; including the educated and stately of the world: “Now many nations will be astonished… world rulers will be speechless… For they will see what they’ve never been told; they will understand what they’ve never heard.” [Isaiah 52:15 The Voice]. But Isaiah knowing human nature also knew that few would believe or be moved: “But, oh, how few believe it! Who will listen? To whom will God reveal his saving power?” [Isaiah 53:1]

The risen Christ looked very different from how he had looked formerly. The most accurate description of Christ is in the Bible: “There was nothing attractive about him, nothing to cause us to take a second look. He was looked down on and passed over, a man who suffered, who knew pain firsthand. One look at him and people turned away. We looked down on him, thought he was scum.” [Isaiah 53:2–3 The Message] Later, after Christ’s resurrection and being restored to his previous glory, Jesus looked very different [John 17:5]. 

Mary Magdalene, the two disciples on the road to Emmaus and Thomas did not recognise him [Luke 24:13-16, John 20:14, 24-27]. Though Jesus was not yet returned to spirit and still physical flesh and bone [Luke 24:39-40]. His new looks are described: “You are the most handsome of the sons of men; grace is poured upon your lips; therefore God has blessed you forever.” [Psalm 45:2] He was now his true restored self and would have been what we would call handsome and attractive [Revelation 1:14, 18].

For anyone to claim that the Saviour did not exist or deny his sonship from the Father reveals a deeply deceived mind indeed, for: “Such teachings are spread by deceitful liars, whose consciences are dead, as if burnt with a hot iron.” [1 Timothy 4:2 GNT] The Apostle Paul says further: “Stop fooling yourselves. If you count yourself above average in intelligence, as judged by this world’s standards, you had better put this all aside… For the wisdom of this world is foolishness to God… God uses man’s own brilliance to trap him; he stumbles over his own “wisdom” and falls… the Lord knows full well how the human mind reasons and how foolish and futile it is.” [I corinthians 3:18-20 TLB] 

Joseph of Arimathea returned to Britain in 35 CE, for it was not his first visit. The Latin Vulgate – translated by Jerome – renders ‘honourable counsellor’ [Mark 15:43, Luke 23:50] as nobilis decurio. Decurio was the name given to a town counsellor as well as an officer in the Roman Army. Dr C R Davey Biggs in Ictis and Avalon explains that a Decurio was also a common term employed by the Romans used of an ‘officer’ or an official in charge of a metal mine.  The addition of the word noble, indicates that Joseph held a prominent position in the Roman administration as a Minister of mines. For an Israelite from Judah to hold such high rank in the Roman Empire is unusual to say the least. A number of writers have put forward a case that Joseph was an international merchant involved in mining; including E Raymond Capt in The Traditions of Glastonbury. It would explain the source of his immense wealth and standing. 

Even more interesting is that the south-western coast of England was renowned for tin mining. Cornwall was the source of the major portion of the world’s tin, where it was smelted into ingots and exported throughout the civilised world chiefly in one of the largest private merchant fleets afloat owned by Joseph, traversing the many sea lanes in transporting the precious metal. The main customer being the warring Roman Empire. Joseph of Arimathea had a controlling interest in the world tin and lead industry much like the importance of steel today. The existence of the tin trade between Cornwall and Phoenicia is frequently referred to by classical writers, including Diodorus Siculus and Julius Caesar.

Therefore, Joseph would have been a frequent visitor to Britain for it was the main source of tin in the ancient world. As a number of Israelite tribes were already resident in Britain – Simeon, Dan and Benjamin – it is highly plausible that Joseph of the tribe of Judah would be trading with people descended from these tribes. Britain was referred to as the Cassiterides, or the tin bearing islands. The Sunday Telegraph of September 21st, 1969 announced that “There is still probably as much tin under the Cornish ground as ever came out of it.”

When Joseph and his party arrived in Britain, they sailed inland to the Isle of Avalon – named from either aval, Celtic for apple, the sacred fruit of the Druids and or, avilion, which in Celtic has a similar meaning as the Biblical name Jehoshaphet, ‘the Isle of departed spirits’ – today known as Glastonbury. The sea came fourteen miles further inland in those days and lapped at the foot of Glastonbury Tor, a 521 foot high hill. 

Joseph is said to have planted his staff in the ground at Wearyall Hill, where it took root, growing into a thorn tree. It is not unknown for a staff cut from a tree to take root, as Aaron’s rod budded [Numbers 17:8]. A scion of the original tree still exists to this day in the hallowed churchyard of St John at Glastonbury. What makes it unique is that it is the only thorn tree in the world that blooms both in winter and in May.

This group was met by King Guiderius and his brother, Prince Arviragus; for it was he who had extended the invitation to Joseph and his party, being well acquainted with Joseph and so granted them twelves hides of land tax free – a symbol of promised protection. A hide was larger prior to the Norman invasion in 1066. A hide since represents a 120 acres [50 hectares] of land; though in Joseph’s day it was 160 acres. This Royal Charter is recorded in the Domesday Book, published in 1087: “The Domus Dei, in the great monastery of Glastonbury, called the Secret of the Lord. This Glastonbury Church possesses, in its own ville XII hides of land which have never paid tax.” The twelve hides of land can still be traced today [Phelps, The History and Antiquities of Somersetshire, 1836]. 

Arviragus was Prince of the Silures in Britain, in the Dukedom of Cornwall. He was the son of King Cunobelinus – Cymbeline of Shakespeare – and a cousin to the warlike patriot Prince Caradoc. These two men represented the Royal Silurian Dynasty, the most powerful warrior kingdom in Britain and from whom the later Tudor kings and queens of England had their descent and from Arviragus no less, the illustrious Emperor Constantine of Byzantium descended [306-337 CE]. Arviragus was later converted by Joseph: “Joseph converted this King Arviragus, By his prechying to know ye laws divine. And baptized him… And to Christian laws made hym inclyne…’ [Hardynge’s Chronicle] Raymond Capt cites evidence that Glastonbury bore two titles from ancient times ­ Secretum Domini and Domus Dei, Latin for ‘The Secret of the Lord’ and ‘The House of God’. 

Joseph of Arimathea constructed the first Church above ground and it was in Britain, on the same site where Jesus had originally constructed a wattle temple and altar to commune with the Father [and affectionately dedicated to his mother, Mary] – as confirmed by St Augustine in a letter to the Pope, stating the altar had existed. For up to that time the followers of the Way had met in peoples homes. For the Greek word for Church is ekklesia, meaning ‘called out ones.’ The Church constituted the people, not a building [Romans 16:3-5, 1 Corinthians 16:19, Colossians 4:15, Philemon 2]. During the persecution, the Church had met in underground catacombs in Jerusalem. This first British church building was made from wattles daubed with mud, thatched with reeds and was sixty feet long and twenty-six feet wide. Very close to the dimensions of the Tabernacle during the wilderness years and the time of the Judges [Exodus 26:1-37].

The original sacred temple and altar was preserved for hundreds of years until St David erected the first stone church in 546 CE over the hallowed wattle temple of Christ. He also encased the temple in lead to preserve it, which was reputed to also be the resting place of Mary. In 1184, a fire destroyed the Wattle Church. Fortuitously in its place, a Norman Chapel was erected, which though ruined remains till this day. 

John Leland quoting from Maelgwyn of Avalon’s Historia de Rebus Britannicis in 540 CEstates: “The isle of Avalon… received thousands of sleepers, among whom Joseph de Marmore from Arimathea by name, entered his perpetual sleep. And he lies in a bifurcated line next the southern angle of the oratory made of circular wattles by thirteen inhabitants of the place over the powerful adorable Virgin.” The tomb of Joseph was inscribed with the epitaph: AD BRITANNOS VENI POST CHRITUM SEPELIVI. DOCUI. QUIEVI. Meaning, “I came to Britain after burying Christ. I taught. I rest.” Nothing remains of his grave, though there is an empty stone sarcophagus in St John’s Parish Church, where allegedly his remains were transferred. 

Joseph of Arimathea looms large on the canvas that is the life of Christ and the early New Testament church. His contribution to the work of the Gospel based in Avalon and his service to the saints and disciples of Christ’s ‘little flock’ is both immeasurable and influential with that of the preeminent Apostles, Peter and Paul. Perhaps, no one grew as close to the Saviour after his mother Mary and the disciple he loved, John, as his Great Uncle. Joseph was more than a father figure to Jesus, for the biblical account and historical records reveal a deeply touching and moving story of a man who probably reluctantly stepped into the role, that was so early vacated by Jesus’s father Joseph. He is the unsung hero of the New Testament and a more pivotal role at that time in the history of mankind could not have gone to more sincere and humble man. 

Joseph’s death in July, 82 CE [Cressy] of very old age, must have cast a dark cloud on those of the early church that yet remained and began the final period or phase of the apostolic era [30-98 CE] until its justifiable end with the death of the last original Apostle, John. Church tradition says John died during the reign of Emperor Trajan from 98 to 117 CE; Irenaeus speaks of John as still living in 98 CE and passing away at the grand old age of 101; and Jerome dates John’s death as sixty-eight years after the Crucifixion [30 CE]. Thus if John died in 98 CE at 101, this means he was born the exact same year as his beloved Lord in 3 BCE [refer Chapter XXIX Esau and The Chronology of Christ].

The connection between Joseph and Mary the mother of Jesus, would indicate that she is also buried in Glastonbury. Support for this is that St Joseph’s Chapel was also known as St Mary’s and a stone set in the south wall of the Chapel bears the inscription: Jesus Maria. There are no records that Mary lived or died in Judea, nor has St Jerome recorded that her remains were ever taken back to her original homeland. Capgrave in Novo Legende Anglia informs readers that the Apostle John was present at Mary’s death as were all the original living Apostles and disciples; who had come at Mary’s ‘bidding to be by her side as Mary breathed her last’ as described by historians on ‘the most hallowed ground on earth.’

The temple lovingly built by Jesus’s own hands, sanctified by his prayers and bequeathed to his mother was where Mary spent her last peaceful years from 35 to 48 CE, when she died – according to a number of old records. 

The support that Joseph buried her here is in the fact that: ‘No one better than they (the Roman Catholic Church) know the facts of her (Mary’s) life, and no one better than they espouse them. And over the ages the holy ground at Glastonbury has been constantly referred to by them as “Our Lady’s Dowry”. As such it has always been recognized by the Roman Catholic Sisterhood, who never ceased to pray daily for this hallowed spot at Glastonbury – Our Lady’s Dowry.’ [St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury, James Clarke]

Melchinus also known as Maelgywn was a bard and philosopher of Avalonia who about 450 CE said: “Ye ealde chyrche was built over the grave of the Blessed Mary.” According to George F Jowett, when printing was invented, ‘the first book to come off the press was the Bible, and then Wynkyn De Worde printed the life story of St. Joseph.’ It was at the same time that Pynson printed from old documents in his work the Life of St. Joseph the following: “Now here how Joseph came into England; But at that time it was called Brytayne. Then XV yere with our lady, as I understande. Joseph wanted still to serve her he was fayne.” Here we learn that Joseph was in fact Mary’s guardian and carer from 33 CE. This would have been three years after the crucifixion and so we can deduce that the Apostle John lingered in either Jerusalem or Judea for those years until he departed on his evangelising and thus transferred care of Mary to her Uncle, Joseph of Arimathea. 

Pynson adds regarding Jospeh: “So after Her Assumpcyn, the boke telleth playne; With Saynt Phylyp he went into France. Phylyp bad then go to Great Brytayn fortunate.” We learn that Joseph sought consolation by being with his good friend the Apostle Philip. William of Malmesbury quoting from an old record of the Abbey at Glastonbury dated 183 CE: “Their leader, it is said, was Phillip’s dearest friend, Joseph of Arimathea, who buried our Lord.”

Philip recognising Joseph’s value in Britain and particularly accompanying and hosting the new missionaries that Philip sent periodically from Gaul each time with Joseph, had him return to Britain rather than linger on the continent. In fact, Philip sent a total of 160 disciples over the years to assist Joseph and his companions in Britain [Capgrave, De Sancto Joseph ab Aramathea]. On this particular trip, Joseph’s own son Josephe travelled with him for he had been recently baptised by Philip. Philip had requested Josephe to return to Gaul after arriving in Britain in 35 CE. 

In 60 CE Joseph had a special passenger with his new recruits in the form of the Apostle, Simon the Zealot. Simon had been to Britain once before in 44 CE according to Cardinal Baronius and Hippolytus, though only staying a short while during the Claudian war. Simon was known as the Canaanite because he had been born in Cana of Galilee, not necessarily because he was a descendant of Canaan; though this cannot be entirely ruled out. 

He later was known as Zelotes, or the zealot on the strength of his enthusiasm and fearlessness for his missionary work that took him to Mauritania, Libya, Egypt and Africa. So fiery were his sermons in the east of England, where there were less Britons and many Roman soldiers stationed, his evangelising was short-lived. He quickly caught the attention of the Roman Catis Decianus, who was set to destroy anything and everyone Christian. Not before Simon had converted Britons and Romans alike, though the latter had to keep it secret. He was condemned to death at Caistor, Lincolnshire, crucified and buried May 10, 61 CE – the second Christian martyr in Britain after the Bishop Aristobulus. 

Lazarus and his sisters, Mary Magdalene and Martha did not stay long upon their arrival in Avalon; whether Joseph encouraged them, or Philip requested it, or they just preferred Gaul, the three of them returned. Lazarus left an imprint of his time in Britain in The Triads of Lazarus. Jowett states: “Nowhere else are his laws recorded and nowhere else but in Britain was the word ‘Triad’ employed, not even in Gaul. The word is Celtic for Law. The Triads of Lazarus are still preserved in the ancient Celtic records of Britain.’

It was back to Marseilles that Lazarus returned. Roger Hovedon comments: “Marseilles is an espiscopal city… Here are the relics of St. Lazarus [still venerated greatly to this day], the brother of St. Mary Magdalene and Martha, who held the Bishopric for seven years.” Similarly, the Church records of Lyons state: “Lazarus returned to Gaul from Britain to Marseilles, taking with him Mary… and Martha. He was the first appointed bishop. He died there seven years later” [circa 42-45 CE]. Before the escape from Judea in 35 CE, Lazarus had served as the Bishop of Cyprus. Lazarus built the first church building in Marseilles, the same site where the present Cathedral stands. Lazarus is remembered fondly – perhaps more than Philip who served longer in Gaul – for his zealous preaching and kindness. Many consider him as the Apostle of Gaul and in Marseilles, Lyons, Aix, St Maximin and La Sainte Baume, numerous monuments, liturgies, relics and traditions remind of his esteemed memory.

The Apostle Philip at first, sent Martha and her faithful handmaid Marcella to Arles. She was not there long, with Trophimus replacing her and he was soon consecrated the first Bishop of Arles. He was industrious and his area grew to become the Metropolitan of the Narbonne, with Arles as his Bishopric. Maximin, Eutropius the first Bishop of Aquitaine and Parmena who is not listed in the original party – was a disciple of Joseph and became the first Bishop of Avignon – also departed Britain to serve in Gaul. Meanwhile Martha and Marcella settled in Tarascon, spending the rest of their lives teaching and administering. They both died naturally and ‘Marcella was with Martha at her death.’

Maximin joined the other Bethany sister, Mary at Aix. It is controversial to equate Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany, though the French Church regards them as one. Maximin was the first Bishop of Aix and he and Mary lived the rest of their lives there. There are many relics and memorials for Maximin in the area and especially for Mary Magdalene. 

George Jowett, writes: “Mary’s classic beauty and her rich voice, extolled in reverence and pleasure by all who knew her, endeared her so deeply to the hearts of the people among whom she laboured that she was adored as a Saint before she died. The most hardened soul melted to her preaching, and she converted, as we are told, ‘multitudes to the faith’.” 

Martial of the original party stayed in Avalon and tirelessly served as the right hand of Joseph, teaching and converting neophtyes. Of the Evangelist Luke it is said he taught in Gaul, Dalmatia, Italy and Macedonia as well as trips to Britain to visit the saints in Avalon. Churches were also founded outside Gaul in Helvetia [Switzerland] and Lotharingia [North-eastern France]. A son of a prominent British noble founded the Helvetian church. Beatus was educated at Avalon and baptised by Aristobulus’s brother Barnabas. The same Apostle Barnabas who cofounded the church at Antioch with Paul in 43 CE [Acts 11:22]. Barnabas had been sent by Paul in advance to Britain to represent the ‘Apostle to the Gentiles.’ In the scriptures, Barnabas, meaning ‘Son of Consolation’ had changed his name form Joses the Levite. Barnabas frequently visited and with his brother and Joseph was instrumental in the growth of the early church in what is now Wales. 

It was after his brother’s martyrdom that Barnabas on a later visit baptised Beatus, formerly Suetonius. After finishing his novitiate, Beatus was ordained a Bishop and chose Helvetia as his Bishopric. Upon leaving he gave up his wealth and used it to ransom prisoners of war on the continent. Beatus made his headquarters at Underseven [Unterseen] in lake Thun. He successfully introduced the Way of the true faith into Switzerland, erecting churches and hospitals. He died in 96 CE in the humble abode he built on arrival. It is still preserved and can be seen today on the shore of the Lake.

As for Barnabas, he sadly met his death in Cyprus, where Lazarus had once been Bishop. Barnabas was stoned to death and buried by Mark the Evangelist, his younger kinsman outside the city. The record says that as he laid Barnabas to rest in his grave, he placed on his breast a copy of the gospel of Matthew. For any who may wonder who the child was that Jesus took on his knee in reference to becoming like little children [Matthew 18:3], it is thought to be Ignatius a disciple of the Apostle John; whom he ordained as the third Bishop of Antioch. Ignatius was martyred in 107 CE by the Emperor Trajan, who had him cast to the wild beasts in the Colosseum and devoured.

The Apostle Paul is both famous and synonymous with being the ‘Apostle to the Gentiles’, so it is easy to forget that his commission included not just kings but also the children of Israel [Acts 9:15]. So when did Paul preach to the tribes of Israel? The book of Acts ends abruptly at the close of Chapter twenty-eight, with Paul living two years in the city of Rome, teaching ‘the kingdom of God and about the Lord Jesus Christ.’ It is as if Acts is unfinished and interestingly, like the Books of James and III John does not have an amen at the close. 

It is widely held that Paul was set free from house arrest [Acts 28:16, 20], for six years [58-64 CE] to then return to Italy and suffer martyrdom at the hands of Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus [54-68 CE]. St Jerome places Paul’s arrival in ‘Rome in the second year of Nero’ in 56 CE, who had succeeded Emperor Claudius.

The Book of Acts may have a link with the Book of James, in that where James addresses the ‘twelve tribes scattered abroad’ [James 1:1] without saying where they are; yet acknowledging the clue that they were in regions of unrest [James 4;1], so too the Book of Acts goes quiet regarding the original Apostles after the early chapters. Is this so to not divulge who or where the lost tribes of Israel are? The only regions of war in the world at the time of Jame’s writing were Parthia and Britain – both against the Roman Empire – and both locations being of Israelite occupation. Where was the Apostle Paul for approximately six years? 

The Bible says that Paul intended to visit Spain [Romans 15.24], but there is reason to believe that Spain was a port of call on a journey going further. There is a document  in existence called the 29th Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. 

This writer doubts that it was compiled by Luke the Evangelist or that it is a missing chapter to the Book of Acts and withheld from the Biblical Canon. Even so, there is valuable information contained in its early verses. The document is known as the Sonnini Manuscript and was found in the archives of Constantinople. 

1: “And Paul, full of the blessings of Christ, and abounding in the Spirit, departed out of Rome, determining to go into Spain, for he had a long time purposed to journey thitherward, and was minded also to go from thence into Britain.” 

2: “For he had heard in Phoenicia that certain of the children of Israel, about the time of the captivity, had escaped by sea to the isles afar off, as spoken by the prophet, and called by the Romans Britain.”

3: “And the Lord commanded the gospel to be preached far hence to the Gentiles, and to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” 

4: “And no man hindered Paul; for he testified boldly of Jesus before the tribunes and among the people; and he took with him certain of the brethren which abode with him at Rome, and they took shipping at Ostrium and having the winds fair, were brought safely into a haven of Spain.” 

5: “And much people were gathered together from the towns and villages, and the hill country; for they had heard of the conversion to the Apostles, and the many miracles which he had wrought.” 

6: “And Paul preached mightily in Spain, and great multitudes believed and were converted, for they perceived he was an apostle sent from God.” 

7: “And they departed out of Spain, and Paul and his company finding a ship in Armorica sailing unto Britain, they were therein, and passing along the south Coast, they reached a port called Raphinus.” 

8: “Now when it was voiced abroad that the Apostle had landed on their coast, great multitudes of the inhabitants met him, and they treated Paul courteously and he entered in at the east gate of their city, and lodged in the house of an Hebrew and one of his own nation.”

9: “And on the morrow he came and stood upon Mount Lud and the people thronged at the gate, and assembled in the Broadway, and he preached Christ unto them, and they believed the Word and the testimony of Jesus.” 

Ludgate Hill is the site of St Paul’s Cathedral, which has been a place where people from many nations have worshipped the Lord. The ancient St Paul’s Cross is said to mark the spot where Paul stood to preach the gospel. Paul is the patron saint and today his emblem, the sword of martyrdom, is incorporated in the City of London, Coat of Arms.

10: “And at even the Holy [Spirit] fell upon Paul, and he prophesied, saying, Behold in the last days the God of Peace shall dwell in the cities, and the inhabitants thereof shall be numbered: and in the seventh numbering of the people, their eyes shall be opened, and the glory of their inheritance shine forth before them…” 

The 7th numbering of the people may refer to the seventh National Census in 1861. It is from this time that the scriptural identity of the British people began to be understood, in part.

11: “And in the latter days new tidings of the Gospel shall issue forth out of Jerusalem, and the hearts of the people shall rejoice…”

14: “And Paul abode in his lodgings three months confirming in the faith and preaching Christ continually.” 

15: “And after these things Paul and his brethren departed from Raphinus and sailed unto Atium in Gaul.”

16: “And Paul preached in the Roman garrison and among the people, exhorting all men to repent and confess their sins.” 

17: “And there came to him certain of the Belgae [tribe of Gauls, or Celts] to inquire of him of the new doctrine, and of the man Jesus; And Paul opened his heart unto them and told them all things that had befallen him, howbeit, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; and they departed pondering among themselves upon the things which they had heard.”

18: “And after much preaching and toil, Paul and his fellow laborers passed into Helvetia [Switzerland]…” 

26: “And they went forth and came unto Illtricum, intending to go by Macedonia [Greece] into Asia, and grace was found in all the churches, and they prospered and had peace. Amen.” 

Aside from this intriguing concluding chapter to the Book of Acts, a number of historians record the visit of the Apostle Paul to the British Isles: Clement the third Bishop of Rome [Philippians 4:3], Irenaeus [125-189 CE], Tertullian [155-222], Origen [185-254], Eusibius in 315 and Athanasius in 353 CE. Theodoret the Bishop of Cyprus, circa 435 states: “Paul, liberated from his first captivity [56-58 CE] at Rome, preached the gospel to Britons and… the Cymry… to the islands surrounded by the sea [58-64 CE].” Capellus confirms in his History of the Apostles: “I scarcely know of one author… who does not maintain that St.Paul, after his liberation, preached in every country in Western Europe, Britain included.” 

The Morning Post of the 27th March, 1937 reported an amazing admission: The mayors of Bath, Colchester and Dorchester… were received today in special audience by the Pope, Pius XI. His Holiness, in a specially prepared address, advanced the theory that it was St. Paul himself and not Pope Gregory [and specifically Augustine in 597 CE] who first introduced Christianity into Britain.” 

There is yet more to add to the story of the Apostle to the Gentiles and that involves his relationship with the British Royal family. A little known but captivating piece of history nonetheless against the backdrop of the might of the Roman Empire. Thirteen years after the death of the Messiah and just eight years after the arrival of Joseph of Arimathea, the Roman Emperor Claudius [41-54 CE] launched a full-scale invasion of Britain in 43 CE, under the edict: “Exterminate Christian Britain” [O’Reiley, The Martyrs of the Colosseum]. He sent four legions, about 25,000 soldiers under the command of Aulus Plautius – the largest and most efficient army ever prepared by Rome to conquer a foe – where the goal was to kill man, woman and child and destroy its great institutions and burn its libraries; for his venomous hatred of Christians lasted until his dying breath as ‘he spat on the Christian in malevolent scorn.’ Nevertheless, a protracted war ensued where Rome could not subdue the warlike and stubborn British people. 

After early success by Arviragus against Aulus Plautius, but with the loss of his brother King Guiderius, the British chose a commander-in-chief [Pendragon], in Caradoc – Caradog ap Bran – or Caractacus as the Romans called him; the son of Bran the Blessed, grandson of king Llyr – the King Lear of Shakespeare. The royal boundaries of the Silures were divided in two, so that Caradoc ruled over Cambria, now called Wales; while his cousin Arviragus ruled the southern part of England from Cornwall.

The Roman writers, Tacitus, Martial, Juvenal and others documented a war like no other. The preservation of the British people, of their island, their freedom and their new-found faith were at stake. George Jowett writes: “With ungrudging admiration they tell how the Silurian warriors, led by Caractacus, Arviragus and the Arch Priests [of the Druids] swept onward in irresistible waves over the bodies of their dead and dying comrades with a battling savagery that appalled the hardened, war-scarred veterans of the Roman Legions. Their fierce outcries of defiance rang over the din and clash of sword and shield… [and their] Christian battle cry: ‘Y gwir erbyn y Byd’, meaning ‘The Truth Against the World’.”

After two years, the war has been so bloody with horrendous losses of life on both sides that Emperor Claudius sought peace through an armistice in 45 CE. Many battles were drawn, some where the Romans suffered terrible slaughter and then when the British suffered severe reverses, Tacitus said: “The fierce ardour of the British increased.” The truce only lasted six months, though during that time both Caractacus and Arviragus were invited to Rome. Claudius offered his daughter Venus Julia to Arviragus, who sensationally married her while in Rome. And so, the bizarre event occurred where a Christian British king became the son-in-law to the pagan Roman Emperor, who had  only sworn to exterminate Christianity and Britain.

No less strange was Aulus Plautius the Roman commander-in-chief who had stayed in Britain to maintain the truce, had only gone and married the sister of Caractacus, Gladys [Celtic for Princess]. Now Gladys had been personally converted by Joseph of Arimathea, together with her niece Eurgen, King Guiderius and his son Arviragus. An incredible relationship through marriage, of where her new husband and brother were wartime opponents. Aulus Plautius due to the conflict of interest in conducting a war against his in-laws, was honourably relieved of duties and after remaining in Britain with his new wife was recalled to Rome in 47 CE, taking Gladys with him and later he too became a Christian. 

Gladys new Roman name was Pomponia Graecina Plautius. Pomponia from the Plautius clan and Graecina, as an honorific name conferred on her because of her extraordinary scholarship in Greek; for she had been religious before conversion, completing training in Avalon; while her father Bran once king, was then the Arch Druid. Pomponia was gifted and talented, being a scholar in classical literature and wrote a number of books of prose and poetry in Greek and Latin, as well as her native tongue Cymric. She and her husband were to become intimately acquainted with the apostles Peter and Paul as she had been with Joseph, Lazarus, Mary Magdalene and the others at Avalon. 

The armistice failed as the two cousins considered the terms unsatisfactory. They returned home with Arviragus bringing his new wife, Venus Julia. The stalemate situation now compounded with Caractacus against his sister and new brother-in-law – until Aulus was relieved of command – and Arviragus in conflict with his father-in-law, the Emperor Claudius. Claudius and the Roman Senate had underestimated the will and fortitude of the British in regard to protecting and practicing their faith. 

George Jowett aptly comments: “[The Briton’s] religion had taught him that his earthly life was but a stepping-stone to the eventual goal of immortality… that death transcended the grave. It made him both faithful and fearless.”

The war dragged on for another seven years, with Ostorius Scapula now commanding the Roman Army. Caradoc held out until 52 CE when he was finally devastatingly defeated in Clune, Shropshire. In that time, the enemy had nicknamed him ‘the scourge of the Romans.’ Though to ensure victory, Caradoc faced the military genius of four great Roman generals – which included Vespasian, future Emperor of Rome [69-79 CE], his brother and his son Titus [79-81 CE] who was to later put Jerusalem to the torch and the Temple to destruction [70 CE] and Geta, the conqueror of Mauritania – as well as the Emperor Claudius who brought two extra Legions and a squadron of Elephants while he personally directed the Battle.

Arviragus successfully fled the battle scene and evading capture, carried on the war against Rome for many more years. The fact he was married to the Emperor’s daughter may have played a part in his remaining free. Caradoc meanwhile fled northwards to the Brigantes seeking sanctuary, but was betrayed by Aricia his cousin – also called Queen Cartismandua – while he was asleep and he was handed over to Ostorius Scapula, including his wife, daughters Gladys and Eurgen, his father Bran and members from two other British Royal families. Taken to Rome, death awaited, though because of his stature for military genius and reputation for bravery, his fame preceded him and he was received in awe by the three million citizens who lined the streets of Rome. 

During the arduous nine years of one of the most bloody and bitter wars ever fought, the Romans recorded a staggering thirty-two pitched battles, while the British Annals accounted for thirty-nine. Victories and defeats endlessly alternating between each side in one of the most evenly contested wars in history. Here was the leader of a resistance who had repeatedly outmanoeuvred the greatest Roman military strategists and relentlessly decimated the most experienced Roman Legions in combat. People came from afar, pouring into Rome to witness this valiant warrior. Caractacus was heavily chained, yet proudly walked with his family as they were led by Emperor Claudius’s chariot through the street of Rome.

Against this backdrop, Caradoc was brought to trial to deliver his own defence before Emperor Claudius and the Roman Senate. Women were not ever allowed inside, though his young daughter Gladys refused to be parted and defiantly walked up the marble steps with her father. The Pendragon stood before the Emperor ‘unconquered in spirit.’ Another breach of Roman law was evident with the attendance of Queen Agrippira, sitting on her throne in the far corner, not desiring to miss the most famous trial in history. Never before or after has one delivered such a challenging defence towards a Roman Tribunal in the Senate. It is completely unique in history, for the Eternal was with this man of courage, born from the conviction that only comes from a man made free in Christ. 

Tacitus in his Annals, records the masterful oration: “Had my government in Britain been directed solely with a view to the preservation of my hereditary domains, or the aggrandisement of my own family, I might long since have entered this city an ally, not a prisoner… Does it follow, that because the Romans aspire to universal dominion [refer Chapter XXVII Ishmael], every nation is to accept the vassalage they would impose? I am now in your power – betrayed, not conquered. Had I like others, yielded without resistance, where would have been the name of Caradoc? Where your glory? Oblivion would have buried both in the same tomb. Bid me live, I shall survive for ever in history one example at least of Roman clemency.” 

The Roman conquerors were not known for their mercy towards heads of state, just the opposite and took evil pleasure in extreme acts of tortuous barbarity; yet possibly through his family connections and certainly by the Eternal’s grace, Caradoc, the man of faith and his family, were spared on condition that he would a. live in Rome for seven years – whereas his family were all free to return to Britain – and b. would never ever bear arms against Rome. True to his word, when Caradoc returned to Britain in 59 CE, and while Arviragus was still waging war, Caradoc and his family ‘remained aloof, honour bound.’ 

Why Emperor Claudius set Caradoc free – a man who was never going to give up his Christian faith which Claudius so vehemently disdained – in so doing defying all traditions and laws, remains a mystery to all, except those who have been given the ‘peace of God’ [Philippians 4:6-7]. At the announcement, Queen Agrippira is said to have risen from her dais and first shake hands with Caradoc and Gladys in the British fashion and then hug them both as in the Roman. This public display of affection was another unusual ‘deviation from custom.’ 

Meanwhile, the war in Britain continued for the next seven years and a defining moment was when the Druids’ stronghold on Mona in Anglesey was destroyed and the Druids were massacred. It was while the Roman Legions remained assembled in North Wales, the British tribes revolted in a frenzy of defiance in 60 CE under the leadership of Queen Boadicca of the Iceni, otherwise incorrectly known as Boudicea. 

She led an army of united British tribes – comprising allegedly as many as 120,000 men – in likeness of the Judge Deborah [Judges 4:4-24]. Her immortal words to her troops included: “Never let a foreigner bear rule over me or these my countrymen; never let slavery reign in this island.” The ensuing battles saw victories at Camulodunum; Londinium, [london]; and Verulamium, [St Albans]; all being razed to the ground by fire and quenched in blood. Anyone or anything associated with the despised Roman authority was not spared. The carnage was shocking and appalling, particularly the destruction of London. 

All told, 80,000 Roman soldiers were mercilessly butchered in two years – 40,000 of which fell in London alone – so savage was the fury of the normally measured British, towards a Roman army of occupation, for their seventeen years of persecution and brutality. In her last battle in the midlands in 62 CE, Boudicca fearing capture, chose suicide in a last act of defiance, rather than the rapine that would follow. 

So shocked were both sides when the news filtered through, that each side immediately ceased combat and retreated to their respective encampments. The Romans were quick to seize the opportunity for peace and a pact with the Iceni was agreed.

When Caradoc was taken to Rome, his daughter Gladys – named after her Aunt – was sixteen years old in 52 CE. Emperor Claudius adopted Gladys in whom he had grown paternally fond – she the fervent Christian, of which he was aware, yet did not make her recant in the terms of the adoption – into his home, where she was renamed Claudia. 

Only a year later at the age of seventeen, she married a wealthy Roman Noble and Senator with vast estates in Umbria, called Rufus Pudens – who had been the aide-de-camp to Aulus Plautius and so Pudens must have laid eyes on Gladys in 45 CE during the truce. She would have been nine years old, yet it was said that her remarkable beauty was already evident. Rufus was a friend of the poet Martial who in his Epigrams, writes: “Claudia, the fair [flaxen] one from a foreign shore, is with my Pudens joined in wedlock’s band… Our Claudia, named Rufina, sprung we know from blue-eyed Britons” [iv 32, xi 40]. Martial describing Claudia said “for wit and humour she had no equal, and her beauty and scholarship exceeded that of her august aunt, Pomponia.” For Claudia was a ‘fluent linguist and, like her aunt, wrote many volumes of odes and poetry in Greek, Latin and her native Cymric.’

The startling irony must not have been lost on Caradoc regarding his sister and daughter of same name. George Jowett remarks: “What could be a stranger circumstance than that of the British Pendragon Caractacus permitting his favourite daughter to become adopted by the remorseless enemy who had brought about his defeat at Clune and see his sister and daughter married to the leaders he had opposed in battle for… years, Plautius and Pudens.”

This means that the Apostle Paul under house arrest in Rome, was living concurrently with the British Royalty in residence and while Caradoc was on parole. Caradoc and his family lived in the Palatium Britannicum, the British Palace. While residing in Rome, Caradoc was allowed to receive monies from his British estates in maintenance of the Palace. It was here in the British Palace – where Caradoc and his family and then his daughter Claudia and her husband Pudens and their children after him, dwelt – that generous and welcoming hospitably was shown to many of the early converts to the Way; thus becoming ‘the first true Christian Church above ground in Rome.’ 

The Palace is long gone, though a partial church building in disrepair remains within the palatial grounds, respectively known after Palatium Britannicum as Titulus, then Hospitium Apostolorum and finally its name today in honour of Claudia’s eldest daughter, St Pudentiana. It is bypassed without a thought by tourists – for the true Christians that lived there or the many in Rome who died for their faith – as they eagerly head to view the Vatican and its Cathedrals basking in wealth and luxury, yet which had no part in the bravery of those first in the Way.

Cardinal Baronius in Annales Ecclesias records: “… the house Pudens was the first… [where] Christians assembl[ed] form[ing] the Church, and that of all our churches the oldest is that which is called after the name Pudens.” The Jesuit Robert Parsons adds: “Claudia was the first hostess or harbourer… of… St Paul at the time of [his] coming to Rome.” [Three Conversions of England, Volume I, Page 16]

Tragically, it would be the destiny of Pudens in 96 CE and then his children years afterwards – Timotheus the eldest, Novatus the youngest, Pudentiana and Prassedis his daughters – to suffer martyrdom. Mercifully Claudia died in 97 CE before the violent death of her children, yet of a broken heart within a year of her beloved husband passing, of whom Martial says she described as “Rufus her Holy husband” [Volume 4, page 18]. 

Brian Williams writes: ‘Now it is surely without question that Caradoc, coming from Britain which had received the gospel only a few years earlier under Joseph of Arimathea, would be anxious to hear the gospel from the lips of the great apostle himself. Would not the renowned British King and the famed apostle have become intimately acquainted? And did not the Lord say of Paul, “He is chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My name before the Gentiles, and Kings, and the Children of Israel”? Was not Caratacus a King and were not his people of Israel stock?’

Upon Caractacus’s release, he returned to Britain and resided at Aber Gweryd, now St Donat’s Major, Llan Ddunwyd, in Glamorganshire, where he had built a palace, more Romano. Importantly, Caractacus was living in Britain, during the time frame when the Apostle Paul was also granted temporary release to travel and likely this would have added incentive for him to visit Britain.

A telling and moving verse – for reasons that will become apparent – is in the second Book of Timothy, where Paul passes on his final greetings from prison prior to his imminent death, to the Evangelist Timothy: “Do your utmost to come before winter. Eubulus greets you, as well as Pudens, Linus, Claudia, and all the brethren.” [2 Timothy 4:21 NKJV]. 

It surely is far more than a coincidence, that the son-in-law, son and daughter of the British king are mentioned, who just happen to be living in Rome with Paul. This is not a random statement, but a personal message from people Paul obviously has either in the least met, or ostensibly knows intimately. Other brethren, that is believers are included in the salutation. One could reasonably infer just from this insertion that Pudens, Claudia and Linus – the first Bishop of Rome – are brethren also. The eventual martyrdom of Pudens, strongly indicates that this is more than conjecture. We have scriptural support that Pudens, Claudia and Linus, were baptised and converted Christians; with the other members of the Royal family – Eurgen, Pomponia, Claudia’s Aunt; Bran, Cyllinus and Cynon, sons of Caractacus also likely converts. 

George Jowett confirms that Eurgen, Bran, Linus and Eurgen’s husband Salog, the Lord of Salisbury were all baptised by Joseph of Arimathea [The Drama of the Lost Disciples, 1996, page 184]. 

He further states that Caractacus and his other sons Cyllin, in Celtic – who became regent in Britain while his father was captive in Rome – and Cynon the youngest son, were in fact all baptised in Rome by the Apostle Paul. All of Cyllin’s children were baptised in the faith. In later years, Cyllin abdicated in favour of his brother Cynon and like his grandfather Bran took up the cross of Christ, ministering in the faith. Llyr, the King Lear of Shakespeare and the grandfather of Caradoc founded the first Christian church in Wales at Llandaff, after his conversion and baptism by Joseph. Llyr died in Rome in 52 CE. His son Bran, the former king turned Arch Druid of the Silures, voluntarily offered himself as hostage in place of his father. And so Bran remained in the British Palace with Pudens and Claudia for a time after Caradoc was released in 59 CE.

Of Pudens, it is written: “May 17. Natal day of the blessed Pudens, father of Praxedes and Pudentiana. He was clothed with baptism by the apostles, and watched and kept his robe pure and without wrinkle to the crown of a blameless life.” [Martyr. Romana, ad diem Maii 17] Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, the Bishop of Smyrna and himself a disciple of the Apostle John. Irenaeus became the presbyter of Lyon and said of Linus: “The apostles having founded and built the Church of Rome, committed the ministry of its supervision to Linus. This is the Linus [son of Caractacus] mentioned by Paul in his Epistle to Timothy.” [Irenaei Opera, Library III, Chapter I] 

In the Apostolic Constitutions, a statement allegedly by the Apostle Peter in Book 1, chapter 46 it says: “Linus [was the] brother of Claudia, was first ordained by Paul [58 CE], and after Linus’s death, Clemens, the second ordained by me, Peter.” The second Bishop of Rome, Clemenus Romanus confirms in the Epistola ad Corinthos: “Sanctissimus Linus, Frater Claudiae (St. Linus, brother of Claudia).” This Clement who was a disciple of Joseph of Arimathea and intimate guest of Pudens and Claudia at the Palace, says according to Jowett, that ‘Paul was in constant residence at the Palatium Britannicum and personally instructed Linus for his consecrated office… and… preached in Britain.’ [Epistola Chapter 5]

Now Paul, also greets Rufus in his letter to the Romans, written just prior to Paul’s arrival in Rome: “Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; also his mother, who has been a mother to me as well” [Romans 16:13]. This is an intriguing verse. Most have  connected an apparent link between this Rufus and the one mentioned by the Evangelist Mark, whom was a son of Simon of Cyrene who had assisted Christ with his crosspiece on the day of execution [Mark 15:21]. As Cyrene is located near the coast of present day Libya, this writer is not convinced by this conclusion. 

The other equally unanimous assumption is that the mother of Rufus was a ‘church’ mother or had a spiritual impact on Paul. As Paul was taught directly by Christ, this remains a weak premise [Romans 1:1, Galatians 1:11-12]. The verse at face value seems to have escaped most peoples attention, in that Rufus and Paul were half-brothers having the same mother. The verse reveals that both Rufus and his mother, Priscilla are converted in the Way. As if this is not remarkable enough, it means that the adopted daughter of Emperor Claudius, Claudia Britannica Rufina Pudens Pudentius was the sister-in-law of Paul the Apostle. 

It can be appreciated why numerous references have Paul as either resident or a frequent visitor to the Palace to visit his nephews and nieces, at the Palatium Britannicum and why in the Roman Martyrologies it states: “The children of Claudia were brought up at the knee of St. Paul.”

A visit to Britain by Paul, in light of this information and put together with what we have discovered thus far, should leave no doubt, that the Apostle Paul would not have missed Britain out of his missionary work, when Joseph of Arimathea and the Apostle Peter had also visited the prophesied home of the regathered tribe of Judah, including the re-building of a new Jerusalem on England’s ‘pleasant pastures and mountains green.’ “Proclaim it in the faraway lands along the sea. Say, “The one who scattered Israel will regather them. He will watch over his people like a shepherd watches over his flock.”For the Lord will rescue the descendants of Jacob. He will secure their release from those who had overpowered them.” [Jeremiah 31:10-11 NET] 

Another connection to Britain for Paul was Aristobulus the elder brother of Barnabas – mentioned earlier and also the father-in-law of the Apostle Peter – and who was ordained the first and only Bishop of Britain. Alford in his Regia Fides says: “It is perfectly certain that before St. Paul had come to Rome Aristobulus was absent in Britain, and it is confessed by all that Claudia was a British lady.” [Volume I, page 83] Paul also makes mention of him: “Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus.” [Romans 16:10 ESV] And so Paul likely lived in Siluria or Cambria beyond the bounds of the Roman Empire and in peace while he visited Britain. When Paul departed Rome and conducted his mission in Britain, it was the House of Caradoc which officially sponsored his work; though in reality the chief sponsor was the first female saint of Britain, Caradoc’s daughter Eurgen who endowed Paul’s mission ‘with munificent gifts and lands.’

There is scholarly debate on when Paul dictated to his amanuensis Tertius, the message to the Church in Rome, otherwise known as the Book of Romans [Romans 16:22]. Most date it confidently to between 56 and 58 CE, but without certainty to which exact year. The apostle was eager to visit Rome, but the opportunity had not easily arisen [Romans 1:13, 15; 15:22]. It is worth noting that Paul enquires about the family of Aristobulus, but not of him, directly. It is recorded that Aristobulus, was the first Christian martyr in Britain, ‘in the second year of Nero.’ This would be the year 56 CE. Now, the Apostle Paul arrived in Rome in 56 CE also and had already written his letter to the congregation in Rome from Corinth [Romans 16:23, 1 Corinthians 1:14, 2 Timothy 4.20], where he had tarried three months [Acts 20:1-3]. Paul then travelled from Greece through Macedonia whence he had come, Asia Minor, Syria and finally to Jerusalem to deliver aid, even though he knew it was dangerous to do so [Acts 19:21; 21:13; 24:17, Romans 15:25]. Paul was subsequently arrested and by sailing ship was transported to Rome [Acts 21:32-33; 26:32; 27:1-2]. Therefore, with a strong degree of certainty, Paul wrote the Book of Romans in 56 CE. 

Reverand W Morgan states: “The constant current of European tradition affirmed Britain to have been the first country in Europe which received the Gospel, and the British Church to be the most ancient of the Churches of Christ therein. The universality of this opinion is readily demonstrated. Polydore Vergil… and… Cardinal Pole, both rigid Roman Catholics, affirmed in Parliament… that ‘Britain was the first of all countries to receive the Christian faith.’ 

‘The glory of Britain,’ remarks Genebrard, ‘consists not only in this, that she was the first country which in a national capacity publicly  professed herself Christian, but that she made this confession when the Roman Empire itself was Pagan and a cruel persecutor of Christianity.’” [St Paul in Britain, 1860, Page 63] Sabelluis adds: “Christianity was privately confessed elsewhere, but the first nation that proclaimed it as their religion, and called itself Christian after the name of Christ, was Britain.” [Sabell, Enno., Library VII, Chapter 5]

In 66 CE, Claudia, her husband and their pre-teen children – using their influence as adopted daughter of an Emperor and as a Senator respectively, at a dangerous time of persecution much akin to to the daring rescue by Joseph of Arimathea thirty-six years previously – rescued the murdered and mutilated body of Paul; interring it in the private burial grounds on the Pudens estate at Aquae Salviae, the family sepulchre in the Ostian Road, near Rome. 

It was where Pudens in 96 CE and Claudia in 97 CE were laid to rest. Their children sacrificing their lives for Christ later joining them. Pudentiana was executed on the anniversary of her father’s death in 107 CE; her brother Novatus was martyred in 137 CE while Timotheus was in Britain, ‘baptising his nephew, [great] grandson of Arviragus [by intermarriage, and great grandson of Caradoc and the son of Coel, the son of Cyllinus], King Lucius, at Winchester [or more likely Glastonbury according to other sources and Winchester maybe referenced because it was where Lucius was based]. Shortly after his return… in his 90th year, [he] suffered martyrdom… Later the same year… Praxedes, the youngest daughter of Claudia and Pudens and last surviving member of the family, was also executed. Thus by the year A.D. 140, all of this glorious family were interred by the side of St. Paul in the Via Ostiensis, their earthly mission in Christ finished.’

That Paul visited Britain and Gaul, spreading the good news of the Gospel of the Kingdom of God is beyond question. The following authors all confirm his presence in Britain: St Clement, Capellus, Theodoret, Ventanius, Irenaeus [125-189], Tertullian, Origen [185-254], Mello, Eusebius [315 CE] and Athanasius [353 CE] to name but a few. 

Returning to the Apostle Peter, who is mentioned by Cardinal Baronius, who wrote: “Rufus the Senator received St.Peter into his house on Viminalis Hill, in the year A.D. 44.” This is none other than the home of Rufus Pudens, though as he was with Aulus Plautius in Britain from 43 CE, this account is speaking of his father Rufus, also a Senator. Now one wonders why Peter would be visiting the estate in Umbria that was considerably north of Rome. 

In 44 CE, the British Royal family, not yet taken into captivity were not in Rome. Peter on the other hand would be aware that Priscilla was the mother of Paul and would welcome his visit.

Though Peter’s stay in Italy was short-lived, for in 44 CE Emperor Claudius had issued the banishment decree, whereby all Jews and Christians in Rome and its environs fled. True believers in the Way, departed for Gaul or Britain and so Peter left Italy for Avalon. This is documented by Cornelius a Lapide in Argumentum Epistolae St. Paul ad Romanos. 

Peter acted as free-lance missionary, preaching in Britain during the Caradoc-Claudian war. It was during this time that the Apostle Peter became well acquainted with the Royal Silurian Houses of Arviragus and Caradoc, knowing the families and children of Caradoc before their exiles to Rome eight years later. Plenty of evidence reveals that Peter was a frequent visitor to Gaul and Britain in his lifetime. His final visit occurring shortly before his arrest and crucifixion in Nero’s circus at Rome.

It appears Peter may have been a visitor to the Palatium Britinnica and the family of Pudens and Claudia, for Simon Metaphastes quotes Eusibius: “St.Peter to have been in Britain as well as in Rome.” Memory of Peter in Britain is inscribed on a rough hewn stone excavated at Whithorn [Candida Casa, Celtic Christian settlement]. It is four feet high and just over a foot wide. Written on the face of the tablet is: ‘Locvs Sancti Petri Apvstoli, The Place of St Peter the Apostle. A descendant of Arviragus, King Lucius of Britain was the first by royal decree to proclaim Christianity the national faith of Britain on 156 CE. Lucius also dedicated the first church to the Apostle Peter, for his evangelising efforts in Britain, built in 179 CE. It is still known as ‘St. Peter’s of Cornhill’. 

Peter met his end in the same city that many of the true and faithful servants of Christ did, including of course his most illustrious counterpart, the Apostle Paul. With our spoiled, self-satisfied lives and with everything we need so readily at hand – not knowing the pain of persecution and torture for one’s beliefs – it is difficult to quite imagine the suffering that many thousands of Christians endured. Peter was one such example who experienced the full wrath and cruelty of Rome. As Queen Boudicca claimed, the Romans scorned their enemies as barbarian, yet it was they who were the most barbarous and inhumane of all.

There is an infamous prison and dungeon in Rome, today called the Mamertine; located on Capitoline Hill. It has had a variety of names in the past: Gemonium, Tullianum and the Tullian Keep. It may well be the oldest torture chamber extant, built in the 7th Century CE. So brutal and fearsome was an experience there, that most prisoners died in the dungeon before a day of execution. It was not a place to be sent, for there would only ever be one outcome. The dungeon can be seen to this day, with the alleged pillar to which Peter was bound in chains. Evil resonates from its claustrophobic stone enclosure.

It was here then, that the remarkable Apostle Peter – who had shown both more faith and enthusiasm than the other disciples [Matthew 14:28-29], and less faith when denying his Lord three times [Matthew 26:72-75, John 13:37] – he, the rock on whom Jesus began his work [Matthew 16:15-19], then found himself for nine unrelenting, gruelling months at the hands of his bestial Roman torturers. His suffering was unimaginable. 

The Mamertine is a deep pit cut out of solid rock. It comprises a cell, consisting of two chambers, one on top of the other. Access to the lower chamber is through an aperture in the ceiling. The lower chamber was the death cell. Light did not penetrate it, nor was it ever cleaned. The vile filth generated over time produced a horrific stench of poisonous fumes that could be fatal of itself. It was a sickening place in 50 CE when historian Sallust described it as such. Nearly one hundred years later, Peter was imprisoned in its dark, stinking, cold clutches. It is said that thousands died in this room. How Peter survived and endured as long as he did defies reason; for he was manacled to the column for the whole nine months in an upright position, unable to ever lie down and rest or sleep.

Yet, Peter never doubted the saving power of his Lord and in those nine months his indomitable and indefatigable spirit of faith, love and forgiveness led to his gloriously converting both his gaolers, Processus and Martinianus, as well as forty-seven other precious souls. Finally, the order was given by Nero to kill Peter by crucifixion. He refused to die in the same position as his friend and teacher; declaring he was unworthy. Peter setting the precedent, demanded a reverse position, which was only too willingly granted by the taunting Romans at Nero’s circus in 67 CE, a year after Paul’s own death. Thus, the Apostle Peter died with his head hanging down; defiant, proud and at peace till the end. 

The Roman arenas were ‘carnivals of blood and death’, a sport where wagers were made on the staying power of the Christian prisoners. Through it all, the Britons showed what made their race special with their bravery and courage. Men would with their last breath of strength hurl themselves on their gladiatorial opponent in a superhuman effort to avenge. Often times being successful in ensuring that both Briton and Roman died together, impaled on one another’s weapon. Women, would push their children forward to die first, to ensure their deaths and spare them suffering the agony of being dragged across the arena floor by the wild mauling animals of prey. It is said the sadistic Romans could never understand the detached, remorseless courage of the Christian Briton with their ‘silent, savage ferocity’ in the face of death. Of course, not understanding the hope of the resurrection and immortality, they could not grasp ‘a faith that made its believers “fearlessly indifferent to death”, as Julius Caesar wrote.’

Peter and all the faithful saints with him, who suffered such momentous hardships in life and then in death, during this dramatic and dangerous, yet exhilarating time have all proven their love and loyalty for the one who had shown them the same in willingly giving his life for them, they in turn honoured him with their own lives. 

What a glorious and happy day it will be for all the saints of the little flock to be reunited with one another and with their friend and shepherd, Jesus. Just as the Apostle Paul describes so profoundly and vividly in the fifteen chapter of the book of Corinthians.

We last read of Jesus as a twelve year old, who had grown up in Nazareth [Matthew 2:23, Luke 2:42-52]. We then learn about Christ again when he is 30 years old [Luke 3:23] and of his return to Nazareth ‘where he had been brought up’; where it is obvious he had been away for some time, for ‘they said, “is this not Joseph’s son?” [Luke 4:16, 22]. In fact, Jesus was so unfamiliar to them that those in the Synagogue described him as: “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?” They could not refer to him by name, so long had Jesus been absent [Mark 6:3]. 

A further indicator that Christ had been absent for many years is referred to when he and Peter were entering Capernaum and they were challenged by tax collectors. They deduced Christ was a stranger subject to the two drachma tax. Christ was actually exempt because he was a resident of Capernaum after moving from Nazareth [Matthew 4:13]. Yet he put up no argument and had Peter pay tax for them both, proving his absence had been protracted [Matthew 17:24-27].

It is not a stretch of the imagination to consider that as Joseph of Arimathea would be required to make frequent trips from the Holy land to the ‘new Jerusalem’ that he would at a certain point bring his Nephew with him. Traditions of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Wiltshire and Wales attest to at least two visits by Christ; once when a boy with Joseph and later as a young man. As Jesus is described as a carpenter in scripture, he must have served an apprenticeship. In Britain and Europe within the past 150 years apprenticeships have often began at 14 years of age. It is likely Christ spent his teen years learning the trade and then working into his very early twenties perhaps, all the while in Britain [11-18 CE]. At some point, he would have ceased this occupation full time and began preparing for his destined mission. 

In the interim, Jesus had visited the Parthians in India, before returning to Britain prior to his final ministry in Galilee in 26 CE. Christ would have been desirous of seeking the lost sheep of Israel, so it is plausible he travelled to their known locations, west to east. Beginning in Gaul, Iberia, Asia Minor, Scythia and finally Parthia [18-20 CE]. Particularly Parthia, for it was an Empire that rivalled Rome, a bitter enemy and enclave of the tribe of Judah. It is interesting to note that Christ did not wish to study under the Rabbis of the Sanhedrin in Judea who were under Edomite control, for he had scathingly accused them of ‘knowing not the Law.’ [refer Chapter XXIX Esau].

Ancient wise men of India assert that Christ had dwelt among them. The Vishnu Purana mentions Christ journeying to the Himalayan Kingdom in Nepal; living there for a time [20-22]. The books of old India and religious teachers referred to Britain as ‘the Sacred Isles of the West.’ One book refers to ‘Britashtan, the seat of religious learning.’ They employed similar language to the prophet Isaiah in calling Britain, the only islands lying to the far west of Palestine, as ‘Isles of the West’ and ‘Isles of the Sea.’

It is no surprise that Christ would return to Britain for it was world renowned for the prestige and eminence of the Druidic religious wisdom, based on the ancient Levitical precepts [22-26 CE]. The Druid’s universities were the largest in the world in size and attendance; with 60 listed and having as many as 60,000 students [Morgan, History of Britain, pages 62-65]. Greek and Roman testimony states that the noble and wealthy sent their children to Britain to study law, science and religion.

Jesus may have actually lived close to ten years – nearly a third – of his life in what would become the new inheritance for Judah and be called England. In no less than twenty places in the south west of England, there are firm traditions of Jesus having visited the British Isles during his missing years between 8 CE and 26 CE.  Particularly Glastonbury, Priddy and Pilton in the Mendips, as well as parts of Cornwall and Somerset. These traditions find expression in the uncanny words of – the poet and mystic – William Blake’s extraordinary poem, Jerusalem.

And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England’s mountains green?

And was the holy Lamb of God On England’s pleasant pastures seen? 

And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills?

And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic mills? 

Bring me my bow of burning gold: Bring me my arrows of desire:

Bring me my spear: O clouds unfold! Bring me my chariot of fire. 

I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand

Till we have built Jerusalem In England’s green and pleasant land. 

These words are not a chance happenstance, but divulge the real identity of the English people as well as the truth of the Lion of Judah visiting the very land that his people would one day fully inherit and possess [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. 

George Jowett comments that this poem turned hymn was a favourite of George V [1910-1936], who would request it be played and sung on ‘special occasions of national significance.’ These powerful and profound words penned by Blake [1757-1827] who was well versed in the traditions of Glastonbury, could not be lost on the present British Royal family who descend in part from the ancient kings of Judah as attested by the extraordinary genealogical chart in the Royal Library at the Round Tower of Windsor Castle. 

Author Baring-Gould in Book of Cornwall, page 57, writes: “Another Cornish story is to the effect that Joseph of Arimathea came in a boat to Cornwall and brought the child Jesus with him, and the latter taught him how to extract the tin and purge it of its wolfram. When the tin is flashed then the tinner shouts ‘Joseph was in the tin trade’.” Another tradition in Somerset, is that Joseph and Jesus arrived ‘in a ship of Tarshish to the Summerland and sojourned in a place called Paradise.’ The name Paradise is to be found around Burnham-on-Sea and especially around Glastonbury. 

According to one author, Somerest and Cornwall have the following place names: ‘Christon, Marazion, Jesus Well, Port Isaac and Jacobstown.’ They continue: ‘… on the top of the Mendip Hills, right in the centre of the ancient lead and copper mining industry, is little hamlet of pride, where people were won’t to say, “As sure as our Lord was at Priddy”. What a very strange saying this is if, in fact, Jesus was never there.’ 

But it is Glastonbury where tradition is strongest and its early history points to the sanctity it held was influenced by more than Joseph of Arimathea’s presence. As mentioned, Glastonbury is associated with two very unusual names: Secret of the Lord and the Home of God. Both of which are ascribed to the belief that Christ not only lived there, but also built his own home. 

William of Malmesbury [1080-1143] makes reference to a letter purportedly written by Augustine to Pope Gregory, Epistolae ad Gregorium Papam: “In the western confines of Britain there is a certain royal island of large extent, surrounded by water, abounding in all the beauties of nature and necessaries of life. In it the first neophytes of the catholic law, God beforehand acquainting them, found a Church constructed by no human art, but by the Hands of Christ Himself, for the salvation of His people. The Almighty has made it manifest by many miracles and mysterious vitiations that He continues to watch over it as sacred to Himself, and to Mary, the Mother of God”. 

One would assume that this is highly doubtful, though the fact remains of the Wattle Church’s real existence. Excavations in the area, reveal a life way beyond painted savages as espoused by some historians. Villages at Godney and Meare have been perfectly preserved with approximately one hundred dwellings at each. People at this time tilled the land, grew cereals and bred livestock. They were weavers, potters and worked with iron, bronze, tin, lead and wood. If Christ lived in the vicinity, the local inhabitants may have been unaware of his identity until his later years or even after his departure. Christ did not perform any miracles until his ministry began in Galilee and after he had received the Holy Spirit [Matthew 3:16, John 2:11, Acts 1:1]. 

It is remarkable to consider that Christ may have spent his preparatory years on English soil before his ministry that changed everything, forever. The fact that there is little documentation of Christ’s missing years only underscores his living in obscurity. He would not have stood out or drawn attention to himself prior to returning to Galilee; openly teaching the Kingdom of God and performing miracles, both for the first time. After his crucifixion, resurrection and ascension and the arrival of Joseph of Arimathea, would there be a dawning recognition of  who Jesus really was.

The Apostle Paul writes: “I will make my dwelling among them and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.” [2 Corinthians 6:16] And just as Christ dwelt with people while on the Earth, he now dwells in those who seek him, spiritually: “I have been crucified with Christ. It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me” says Paul. [Galatians 2:20] 

It can now be understood why the future home of Judah should be where Jesus spent many years; just as why, he was born and then returned to Judea to perform his ministry to the residue of the tribes of Judah and Israel. It should not be surprise then, that it was Britain, outside of Judea and Galilee that accepted the gospel message of the Kingdom of God first, or that it was England that promulgated that message and its written affirmation, the Holy Bible more than any other nation in the world [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. Similarly, it would seem odd if Christ with Joseph in keeping with being ‘sent to the lost sheep of Israel’, had not visited all the enclaves of Israelites, throughout Spain, Gaul, Asia Minor, Scythia and especially Parthia, where the biggest number of the tribe of Judah resided. 

It was these self same peoples who the Apostle Peter addresses: “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.” [1 Peter 2:9-10]

The Eternal chose a people Israel, to become Christian nations that would spread the Lord Jesus Christ to the rest of the world so that all nations could be blessed [Genesis 12:2-3]. It does not mean that the Creator is not interested in other nations, for he desires that all would seek repentance and salvation. [Romans 1:16, 1 Timothy 2:4, 2 Peter 3:9]; just that the nations of England and America were principally purposed to fulfil this destined role. 

Author Brian Williams concludes: “Thus it has fallen to the British and American people to give Christianity to the world. [They]… are the world’s centre and nucleus of Christianity, the custodians of the Word of God, and the propagators of the gospel to the nations of the world. It is [they] who have translated the Bible into almost a thousand tongues… [and] who have been responsible for more than 90 per cent of all missionary activity. The only reason why the world and even Britain herself does not know that she is Israel is that God planned it that way. Despite the fact that the British people worship in their National Church as though they were Israel, and despite the fact that our people have fulfilled exactly what was promised through Israel, the nation is still blind to its identity and shall be until that day when God takes the blindness away” [Isaiah 6:9-10, Revelation 3:18].

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Appendix VI: Joseph & Imhotep – One man, different name?

The biggest stumbling block to reconciling the clear identity of the biblical patriarch Joseph with his obvious historical counterpart Imhotep, has been the orthodox chronology of the ruling Egyptian dynasties of kings by mainstream Egyptologists. Central in the error of this chronology has been the acceptance of the embedded belief that the dynasties of Egypt followed each other in a neat orderly, consecutive pattern of one to thirty-one, without overlap. Within this flawed paradigm is the perception that one Pharaoh ruled all Egypt – that is, both the Lower kingdom in the north and the Upper region in the south – without realising Pharaohs ruled concurrently more often than not.

Yet the governorship of the vast land of Egypt was far more complex than that. So it is difficult to entertain that dynasties ran concurrently or that there were two or more kings at once. For instance, the XIII Dynasty did not have thirty plus pharaohs in a row, but included many ephemeral monarchs under the control of a powerful line of viziers, or viziers who themselves had been appointed or elected to short term office in regional capacities.

Ancient Egypt was divided into 42 regions known as Nomes and these were headed by a provincial governor called a Nomarch, who invariably held considerable authority in their respective jurisdictions. Nomarchs were often appointed by pharaoh’s and others held hereditary positions. These Nomarch’s could become powerful and so would take on the functions of a pharaoh and govern autonomously, particularly during a period of weak central government. Thus, the dynastic king lists are not always a representation of a Pharaoh who actually governed either Lower or Upper Egypt, let alone all Egypt, which likely derives from the probable myth of First Dynasty King Menes-Narmer unifying all Egypt. 

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep… Anne Habermehl – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From earliest predynastic times Egypt has been a dual country, composed of Upper Egypt (Southern Egypt) and Lower Egypt (Northern Egypt). Two different cultures had developed, the Nagada in the south and the Maadi in the north (Midant-Reynes, 2003, pages 41-56). The papyrus plant and the bee were symbols of the north, and the lotus and sedge plant symbols of the south. Two goddesses protected the king: the vulture goddess, Nekhbet, of the south, and the cobra goddess, Wadjet, of the north. The kings’ chief titles were traditionally “Lord of the Two Lands” and “King of Upper and Lower Egypt.” There were two crowns for the two Egypts as well: the Red Crown of lower Egypt and the White Crown of upper Egypt. Any king who claimed to rule over all of Egypt wore both crowns at once, with the tall white one inside the red one, forming what was called the Double Crown. 

Even today, just about any discussion of Egypt refers to Upper Egypt (everything south of Cairo) or Lower Egypt (Cairo and the Delta), retaining the ancient division of this country. 

It is possible that the two divisions of Egypt may have been far more important historically than has been realized, and Egypt may have often been divided into two parts under two pharaohs. Two pharaohs may have reigned concurrently for a lot of Egypt’s history, and more than two pharaohs during some periods, especially in times of disorder. Some pharaohs who have caused much trouble for historians, e.g., the much-debated mysterious Nebka (or Sanakht) of the 3rd Dynasty, may well have ruled a small piece of Egypt under the auspices of a more powerful pharaoh who was ruling at the same time. We suggest that scholars have been naïve in believing that every pharaoh who claimed both the red and white crowns necessarily ruled over all of Egypt, and this has led to confusion in working out when and where some kings reigned. There were kings who obviously exaggerated their importance; for example, it is known that Intef I (11th Dynasty) claimed the title of King of Upper and Lower Egypt, but actually ruled only the southern part up to Abydos (about 1/3 of the length of Egypt) (Edwards, 1988, page 191). Because Egyptian rulers glorified themselves at every opportunity, they might not have been inclined to suggest that they were ruling over only a portion of the country, or that they ruled under the auspices of another pharaoh.’ 

In the book, The Egyptian God of Medicine, Jamieson Hurry describes the comprehensive and impressive duties of a vizier to a Pharaoh: ‘chief judge, overseer of the King’s records, bearer of the royal seal, chief of all works of the King, supervisor of that which Heaven brings, the Earth creates and the Nile brings, supervisor of everything in this entire land.’ According to Habermehl the vizier’s office included the responsibility of ‘the Judiciary, the Treasury, War (Army and Navy), the Interior, Agriculture, and the General Executive.’ This would necessitate a very talented individual as Hurry states: “A prodigy of efficiency must have been required to carry out such multifarious duties. The office of vizier to the ruling pharaoh was one of high dignity and responsibility. The occupant of the post was a sort of Joseph…” Yet amazingly, Hurry apparently did not join the dots from Imhotep to Joseph [refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim].

There are a number of significant similarities between Joseph and Imhotep, which are too coincidental to ignore.

The most obvious and convincing surrounds their names as explained by Anne Habermehl – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Although the name “Joseph” is pronounced “Yosef” in modern Israeli Hebrew, it wasn’t always so. There is a form of archaic Hebrew called Tiberian, considered to go back to at least second temple times, in which “Joseph” is pronounced “Yehosep” (Yəhôsēp̄). Tiberian Hebrew takes its name from the Jewish community of Tiberias and is the oldest form of pronunciation that scholars know today. (See Coetzee, 1999; Hebrew Given Names, 2012; Tiberian Hebrew, 2013.) 

The phonetic similarity between (Ye)hosep and (Im)hotep is striking, especially considering that we do not know with certainty how either name was actually pronounced 3700 years ago. A further similarity of the two names is claimed by Metzler (1989, pages 7-9, fn. 10), who says that an original spelling form of “Joseph” isIhosep,” and “Imhotep” may be spelled Ihotep. The variant spelling “Ihotep” appears in a long inscription of the tomb of sixth-Dynasty Weni, who mentions the Gate of Ihotep, a place near the coast of the Mediterranean (Horne, 1917, page 39). 

This leaves only the “s” and “t” phonetic difference between the two names. The Egyptians of Joseph’s day may have simply pronounced his name as if it was an Egyptian one. It would have been an honorable name; many pharaohs included “hotep” in their names, including one at the beginning of the 2nd Dynasty, well before Imhotep (Hotep, 2010). Ironically, this name similarity between Joseph and Imhotep is one that Möller (2002, pages 87-90) does not include in his extended list. The two names have different meanings, however, because they come from different unrelated languages. “Joseph” means “ let him add” (Strong, 1894, #3130). “Imhotep,” on the other hand, means “He who cometh in peace” (e.g., see Hurry, 1926, pages 95-96, for a discussion of the name, “Imhotep”).’

The second similarity between the two men was the seven year famine, not just in Egypt but worldwide [refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ehpraim]. The third, was the attribute of wisdom. Pharaoh Djoser praised Joseph’s wisdom [Genesis 41:39]. Imhotep had the same reputation. Asante, 2004, page 67 states: “[Imhotep] is before all of the great names in antiquity and stands near the top of the ancients in terms of his display of genius.” 

The fourth similarity is that both characters were Seers. Joseph had prophetic dreams  regarding his family and the fate of the Pharaoh’s butler and baker [Genesis 37: 5–11; 40:5–22]; as well as the seven years of plenty and seven years of famine [Genesis 41:25–32]. While Imhotep was renowned as a seer and bore the title: “Greatest of Seers in Heliopolis” [Parsons, 2011]. 

A fifth and notable similarity is the lifespan of Joseph. Joseph lived to be 110 years old [Genesis 50:22, 26]. According to Habermehl, living to 110 was ‘traditionally considered to be an ideal lifespan throughout the history of ancient Egypt, and appears repeatedly in the manuscripts (Loza & Milad, 1990; Rowling, 1961; Taylor, 2001, page 39). It would be highly unlikely that this could be a coincidence.’ Nigel Hawkins states that Imhotep lived to the same age citing, Is biblical Joseph the Imhotep of Egypt, A Kolom, 2009 as a reference. Hawkins provides further similarities in his article, Joseph, son of Jacob (Israel), was Imhotep, of Egyptian History, 2012: 

‘Similarities between Joseph and Imhotep’

Imhotep – Egyptian recordsJoseph – Bible
Imhotep is appointed Administrator by Pharaoh Djoser during the periods of seven years famine and seven years of bountiful harvests Joseph is appointed Administrator to Pharaoh for the seven years of plenty then of famine
Minister to the King of Lower Egypt Pharaoh made him ruler over all the land of Egypt
Administrator of the Great Palace Thou shalt be over my house
Not of royal blood; attained position by ability From another nation and religion, not of royal blood, attained position by ability
Not appointed by Pharaoh Djoser until he had reigned for some time Appointed well after Pharaoh ruled Egypt
Given the status of “son” to Pharaoh Granted the status of “son” to Pharaoh
High Priest in Heliopolis Married to Asenath, daughter of Poti-Pherah, High Priest in Heliopolis – by custom, would succeed father-in-law
Builder and architect Builder of grain storehouses such as at Sakkara step-pyramid
Exalted by Pharaoh Djoser as of godly character And Pharaoh said, ‘a man in whom the spirit of God is!’
“I need advice from God” Noted as saying, “It is not in me; God shall give Pharaoh an answer”
Had great medical skill – was compared to the Greek God of Healing Had doctors under his authority – worked by miracles, dreams and signs from God
Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests
Realizes when he is dying – dies at age 110 Realizes when he is dying – dies at age 110

Imhotep is attributed with a number of skills, attributes and actions, such as with being the first person to be documented as an acting physician; he is credited as the first architect; he was a poet and a philosopher and may have even invented the papyrus scroll. Following his death, he was given the status of a deity. Very few non-royals or commoners have been afforded that honour. 

Imhotep is thought to be the architect of the first Pyramid after the Giza complex; the step pyramid at Saqqara. On the foundations of the Step Pyramid in Sakkara is carved the name of Pharaoh Djoser and “… Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder…” He is also credited with the use of columns in architecture. 

Historians note the sizeable building projects of ancient Egypt, particularly the pyramids and scratch their heads wondering where the non-slave labour came from and how the Pharaoh’s got their subjects to perform this labour prior to the Israelite slaves. The answer is found during the seven years of famine, when the people of Egypt consecutively sold everything they had, from their animals, their land and finally themselves, to the pharaoh for food [Genesis 47:13-26]. The people agreed that they would be pharaoh’s servants because he had saved their lives [Genesis 47:19, 25]. From Joseph’s time onwards, the pharaohs could commandeer the people to work as required, because he legitimately owned them. 

Thus the first of these great Egyptian building projects was Djoser’s pyramid complex at Saqqara, famously designed by his architect, Imhotep (Edwards, 1988, page 34). The scale of this building project is impressive, even compared to the Giza Pyramids. Edwards [pages 51-52] describes the Saqqara complex as “one of the most remarkable architectural achievements produced by the ancient Egyptians.” Habermehl continues: “He also notes that it is a matter of discussion how such a ‘high degree of architectural perfection’ could have been produced without a long process of development first taking place. 

The pyramid as an architectural element had been previously known only on a small scale, as in a 1st Dynasty tomb that was a pyramid with its top cut off and a traditional mastaba (tomb structure) built over it (Temple, 2010, figure 36; Watson, 2011).” 

The timing of Pharaoh Djoser being able to conscript manpower for this and other projects, coincides with Imhotep and thus indicates he is one and the same with Joseph. These projects would come at great cost, yet the Pharaoh had become incredibly wealthy thanks to Joseph’s storing of grain in the years of plenty; coupled with the ongoing 20% tax instituted by Joseph meant a high annual income pouring into the king’s coffers. This sudden wealth of Djoser again indicates that Joseph was Imhotep.   

With regard to medicine, Nigel Hawkins states: “[Imhotep] is known as the founder of Egyptian medicine, and he is famous for not incorporating magic into his medical treatments, he diagnosed and treated over two hundred diseases, he extracted medicine from plants and he is also known to have performed operations and dentist work. He knew the circulation of the blood system and he knew where each vital organ was placed and what its uses were. He became the god of medicine and healing, [as] when the Greeks invaded Egypt they worshiped him and built him temples because they [recognised] in him their own god of healing named Asclepius.” Historian Mantheo wondered whether Imhotep was even a real person, so impressive were his abilities and achievements, saying he had “so many outstanding qualities and talents… a very special person [who] appears in the history of Egypt.” Though Joseph’s great Grandfather Abraham visited Egypt, it was most likely Joseph who introduced circumcision to the Egyptians who practised it from the III Dynasty onwards. 

Anciently, Egyptians may have used a form of embalming, though records indicate according to Hawkins “that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit. Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph’s bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom).” 

In recognition of Joseph and Imhotep being the same person, neither of their mummified bodies have been unearthed. The known facts regarding the burials of Imhotep and Joseph, strongly support the contention that they were the same person. Nigel Hawkins: “Imhotep’s coffin in Sakkara – with innumerable Ibis birds mummified in the adjoining galleries (Imhotep was called “Ibis” because of his reputation for healing – a large number of Ibis birds were sacrificed to him at his funeral in Sakkara); many clay vessels bearing the seal of Pharaoh Djoser were near the coffin; and the coffin is oriented to the North, not East, and is empty. 

Joseph would have been buried at Sakkara, his coffin orientated to the North – indicating he did not believe in the gods of the Egyptians (who were buried facing East, the rising sun); the coffin would also be empty as Joseph’s bones would have been taken by Moses with the Hebrews during the Exodus [Genesis 50:25, Exodus 13:19].” 

The embalming of Joseph’s father, Jacob, took place during the III Dynasty, as Jacob died in 1670 BCE, 17 years after moving to Egypt in 1687 BCE [Genesis 47:28]. Jacob, as the father of Joseph, would have received the best embalming of the time, which took 40 days for the complete preparation [Genesis 50:2-3]. In the era of the Old Kingdom, mummies were generally poorly preserved, consisting of little but bones [Taylor, 2001, page 48]. Therefore, the reference to Joseph’s bones being taken out of Egypt along with the Children of Israel, would support placing Joseph’s death during the Old Kingdom period. 

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Appendix VII: Moses & the Exodus – Fabrication or Fact?

For those readers interested in the life of Joseph who preceded Moses, it is recommended to read Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim, as well as Appendix VII Joseph & Imhotep: One man, different name? Similarly, readers seeking information on Moses’s early life, there is a section in Chapter XIII Cush & Phut, an article, The Military Man & the Queen of the South, as well as additional information in Chapter XXVII Abraham and Appendix IV, an unconventional chronology

The first Pharaoh of dynasty XII in Egypt was Amenemhet I [meaning ‘Amun is at the Head’], also known as Sehetepibre [meaning ‘Satisfied is the heart of Re’] and he began his rule in 1655 BCE, reigning for twenty-nine years. He had no royal blood per se, not being related to his predecessors of the XI Dynasty and had possibly overthrown the previous king. Amenemhet is believed to have been a Vizier for Mentuhotep IV; though scholars fluctuate on whether he actually murdered the Pharaoh. A stone plate found at Lisht, bears the names of Mentuhotep and Amenenmhet together; perhaps indicating a co-regency towards the end of Mentuhotep’s reign. 

Amenemhet’s father was a priest at Thebes called Senuseret and his mother was named Nefret. Their family is reported to have come from Elephantine – near modern Aswan – in southern Egypt. He was called ‘Amenemhet the Seizer of the Two Lands’ – Amenemhet-itj-tawy. Historian Mantheo states that the XII Dynasty was based in Thebes, though contemporary records reveal the first Pharaoh moved the capital to Itjtawy – somewhere between five to twenty years into his reign – and is thought to be near the Fayoum Oasis and the royal graveyards at el-Lisht and his Pyramid at el-Lisht, where his son also built a pyramid. This region was also near Memphis, just south of the apex of the Nile Delta.

The XII Dynasty was renowned for its wealth and stability – no doubt greatly contributed to by the enslavement of the Israelites – as evidenced by the quality of its statues, reliefs and paintings. Amenemhet I consolidated his power by retaining the monarchs who had supported him, strengthening a centralised government and increasing bureaucracy, while weakening the regional governors by appointing new officials. He diluted the army’s power and raised personnel for future conflicts by reintroducing conscription. His policy was one of conquest and colonisation, with the main aim to obtain raw materials, especially gold. During the XII Dynasty there was a decided increase in mineral wealth of the royal family as well as jewellery caches in their royal burials. The standard of living for all Egyptians was also seen to have improved during the XII Dynasty.

The XII Dynasty kings continued to rule Egypt with a firm hand from the central authorities down to the local administrations. They effectively imposed rule on northern Nubia – in large part credited to the military success of a man called Moses [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] – and pacified the Arabian nations to the east as well as the people of Phut [Libya] to the west. Imposing fortresses were built past the southern border with Nubia [Cush] and in the east towards Canaan and Arabia.

Amenemhet appears to have been a wise leader, assuring a legitimate succession and protecting Egypt’s borders from potential invasions. Yet in possible irony to how he gained the throne, Amenemhet I was himself assassinated by his own guards in 1626 BCE, while his son was leading a campaign in Libya and buried at el-Lisht. His son and co-regent from 1635 was Senusret I or Kheperkare [meaning ‘the Ka of Re’], who reigned to 1590 BCE. His wife and sister Neferu was the mother of Senusret’s son and successor, Amenemhet II. He was the second king of the dynasty and was also known as Sesostris I or Senwosret I. 

He furthered his father’s aggressive expansionist policies against Nubia, in initiating two expeditions into this region in his 10th and 18th years of reign; establishing Egypt’s formal southern border near the second cataract, where he placed both a garrison and a victory stele. Senusret I established diplomatic relations with rulers in Syria and Canaan. He dispatched several quarrying expeditions to the Sinai and built numerous shrines and temples throughout Egypt and Nubia during his long reign. He rebuilt the important temple of Re-Atum in Heliopolis; the centre of the Sun cult. He erected two red granite obelisks in Heliopolis to celebrate his 30th year of rule in 1605 BCE. One of the obelisks still remains and is the oldest standing obelisk in Egypt; being 67 feet tall and weighing 120 tons. 

Senusret I was one of the most powerful kings of the XII Dynasty, taking a lead in military matters within his father’s government and would have known Joseph. For Joseph died in 1616 BCE at the age of 110 years, during the nineteenth year of Senusret I joint reigns. It would be 170 years until the Exodus of the Israelites from bondage. 

Intriguingly, Senusret I had two viziers during his lengthy reign. The first at the beginning was known as Intefiqer, who held office for a long time before the second vizier. Intefiqer is known from numerous inscriptions and tellingly from his tomb adjacent to the Pyramid of none other than Amenemhet I.

The Book of Jasher chapter 59 says: ‘And Joseph lived in the land of Egypt ninety-three years, and Joseph reigned over all Egypt eighty years… Joseph died in that year, the seventy-first year of the Israelites going down to Egypt. And Joseph was one hundred and ten years old when he died in the land of Egypt, and all his brethren and all his servants rose up and they embalmed Joseph, as was their custom, and his brethren and all Egypt mourned over him for seventy days. And they put Joseph in a coffin filled with spices and all sorts of perfume, and they buried him by the side of the river, that is Sihor, and his sons and all his brethren, and the whole of his father’s household made a seven day’s mourning for him. Andit came to pass after the death of Joseph, all the Egyptians began in those days to rule over the children of Israel, and Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who reigned in his father’s stead, took all the laws of Egypt and conducted the whole government of Egypt under his counsel, and he reigned securely over his people.’

Now, Joseph’s brother Levi, was the last sibling of Joseph and son of Jacob to die in 1611 BCE. The Book of Jasher chapter 63 states: ‘And… Levi was a hundred and thirty-seven years old when he died, and they put him into a coffin and he was given into the hands of his children. 

And it came to pass after the death of Levi, when all Egypt saw that the sons of Jacob the brethren of Joseph were dead, all the Egyptians began to afflict the children of Jacob, and to embitter their lives from that day unto the day of their going forth from Egypt, and they took from their hands all the vineyards and fields which Joseph had given unto them, and all the elegant houses in which the people of Israel lived, and all the fat of Egypt, the Egyptians took all from the sons of Jacob in those days.’

In Exodus chapter 1, it confirms: ‘Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.” 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with heavy burdens. They built for Pharaoh store cities, Pithom and Raamses’ which was retrospectively named [Exodus 1:11].

These cities were built in Goshen located in the southeastern Nile Delta, where the Israelites dwelt [Genesis 45:10-11]. Excavations at the site of Tell ed-Daba at Raamses or Pi-Ramesse have shown that though built by the XIX Dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, it was built upon an older city called Avaris. Archaeologists have confirmed a number of salient points. The people who once lived there were ‘Semitic in origin’, pottery finds include those of a Levantine or land of Canaan source and the remains of a large amount of sheep were discovered, indicating a shepherding people [Genesis 30:43; 31:17].

As Pharaoh’s command to execute male newborns is recorded in Exodus 1:22, there are an abnormal amount of burials for children 18 months or younger at 65% of total burials; far exceeding the average death rate at the time of 20 to 30%. Along with this is a higher than normal number of women buried too, indicating they died while protecting their children.

It was in 1593 BCE, when Amenemhet II or Nubkhaure [meaning ‘Golden are the Souls of Re’] succeeded his father Senusret I; though he had been co-regent for two years prior as recorded on the stele of Wepwaweto. Amenemhet II was an imperialistic Pharaoh, launching mining expeditions to the Sinai and military expeditions against Kush and into Asia. It was this Pharaoh who is recorded in the Books of Jasher and Exodus – for he was likely born after Joseph’s death – when the change of attitude towards the Israelites arose, their lands were taken, their wealth confiscated and their subjugation began. 

Pharaoh Amenemhet II – first king to not know Joseph and enslave the Israelites

The Israelite affliction beginning some 23 years after Joseph’s death and 18 years after Levi’s death. The reign of Pharaoh Amenemhet II lasted until 1558 BCE and so by this time the Israelite enslavement was complete [Genesis 50:24-25, Exodus 1:8-22]. Giving 147 – the age of Jacob when he died – years of affliction until the Exodus. 

Thus it is feasible that Moses would have recognised the affliction of his own people from about 1516 BCE, when he was 10 years old. The Israelites had already served 77 years of slavery; with 70 years of captivity remaining. 

The most important monument of Amenemhet’s reign are the fragments found at Memphis of an annual stone, reused in the New Kingdom. It reports events of the early years of his reign; including donations to various temples as well as a campaign to Southern Palestine and the destruction of two cities. Nubians bringing tribute are recorded. His White Pyramid was constructed at Dahshur. Why he chose the location  associated with the IV Dynasty and not el-Lisht remains unanswered. Next to the pyramid, tombs of several royal women were found and some of them were undisturbed, still containing golden jewellery of excellent craftsmanship as indicative of the era. 

An online comment: “There has been evidence brought forward that shows that the face of the Great Sphinx of Giza is that of Amenemhat II. The evidence includes statements made by German Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt suggesting that the eye-paint cosmetics seen on the Sphinx were not seen before the 6th Dynasty (making it unlikely to have represented Khafra as typically assumed) and that the pleated stripes on the nemes headress are in groups of three, a very specific style seen exclusively during the 12th Dynasty. The same stripes, eye-paint, and facial structure are present on Amenemhat’s sphinx statue in the Louvre. It is concluded by this evidence that the statue[s]… original head was damaged beyond repair, and that Amenemhat II carved his own likeness into the existing head and neck to save the structure (explaining why the Sphinx’s head is so disproportionately small).”

Senusret II [meaning ‘Man of Goddess Wosret’] or Khakheperre [meaning ‘Soul of Re comes into Being’] was the son of Amenemhet II and co-regent for two years from 1560 BCE, ruling until 1548 BCE – the 4th king of the XII Dynasty. 

An online comment: “Of the rulers of this Dynasty, the length of Senusret II’s reign is the most debated amongst scholars. The Turin Canon gives an unknown king of the Dynasty a reign of 19 Years, (which is usually attributed to Senusret II), but Senusret II’s highest known date is currently only a Year 8 red sandstone stela found in June 1932 in a long unused quarry at Toshka. Some scholars prefer to ascribe him a reign of only 10 Years and assign the 19 Year reign to Senusret III instead. Other Egyptologists, however… have maintained the traditional view of a longer 19 Year reign for Senusret II given the level of activity undertaken by the king during his reign… [noting] that limiting Senusret II’s reign to only 6 or 10 years poses major difficulties… Senusret II may not have shared a coregency with his son… unlike most other Middle Kingdom rulers. Some scholars are of the view that he did, noting a scarab with both kings names inscribed on it, a dedication inscription celebrating the resumption of rituals begun by Senusret II and III, and a papyrus which was thought to mention Senusret II’s 19th year and Senusret III’s first year. None of these… items, however, necessitate a coregency. 

Moreover, the evidence from the papyrus document is now obviated by the fact that the document has been securely dated to Year 19 of Senusret III and Year 1 of Amenemhet III. At present, no document from Senusret II’s reign has been discovered from Lahun, the king’s new capital city.” 

Senusret II

Senusret’s pyramid was constructed as El-Lahun, close to the Fayoum Oasis. Senusret II took interest in the Faiyum oasis region and initiated work on an extensive irrigation system from Bahr Yusuf to Lake Moeris through the construction of a dike at El-Lahun and a network of drainage canals, turning a vast area of marshlands into agricultural land; thereby increasing the area of cultivable land. The importance of Senusret’s project is emphasised by his decision to move the royal necropolis from Dahshur to El-Lahun. This location would remain the political capital for the XII and XIII Dynasties of Egypt. The king also established the first known ‘workers’ quarter’ in the nearby town of Senusrethotep, also known as Kahun.

Like his father, Senusret II’s reign is considered a peaceful one; using diplomacy with neighbours rather than warfare, as there are no recoded military campaigns during his reign. His trade with the Near East was particularly prolific. His great interest in the Fayoum, elevated the region in importance. Its growing recognition is attested to, by a number of pyramids built both before and after his reign in or near the oasis [though the Fayoum is not a true oasis]. As kings usually built their royal palaces near their mortuary complexes, many of the future kings also made their home in the Fayoum. 

Senusret II is further attested too, with a sphinx, which is now in the Cairo Egyptian Antiquity Museum and by inscriptions of both himself and his father near Aswan. The pyramid town associated with Senusret II’s complex, Lahun or Kahun after the nearby modern village, provided much valuable information to archaeologists and Egyptologists on the common lives of Egyptians. Pyramid towns were comprised of communities of workmen, craftsmen and administrators associated with any given king’s pyramid project.

Senusret II was succeeded by his son Senusret III or Khakaure, who ostensibly reigned to 1529 BCE as the 5th king and considered the most powerful of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs. World History Encyclopedia says: ‘His reign is often considered the height of the Middle Kingdom which was the Golden Age in Egypt’s history in so far as art, literature, architecture, science, and other cultural aspects reached an unprecedented level of refinement, the economy flourished, and military and trade expeditions filled the nation’s treasury. In Senusret III the people found the epitome of the ideal warrior-king… whose reign was characterized by military skill, decisive action, and efficient administration. At the head of his army, he was considered invincible… the Nubians so respected him that he was venerated in their land as a god… The Egyptians conferred upon him the rare honor of deifying him while he still lived…’ 

Among his achievements was the building of the Sisostris Canal and due to the peace achieved after his military campaigns; a revival in craftwork, trade and urban development. Senusret III relentlessly expanded his kingdom into Nubia, erecting massive river forts. He conducted at least four major campaigns into Nubia in his reign years 8, 10, 16 and 19 respectively. Senusret III Year 8 stela at Semna documents his victories against the Nubians, whereby he is thought to have made the southern frontier secure; preventing further incursions into Egypt. A great stela from Semna dated to the third month of Year 16 of his reign, records his military accomplishments against the lands of Nubia and Canaan. In it, he admonishes his future successors to maintain the new border which he had created. 

The Year 16 border stela of Senusret III in the Altes Museum, Berlin

It is plausible that Senusret III reigned longer that 19 years and shared a co-regency with his son for 20 years. The reason being the length of the Temple work for Senusret III. An online comment: “Wegner stresses that it is unlikely that Amenemhet III, Senusret’s son and successor would still be working on his father’s temple nearly 4 decades into his own reign [of 46 years]. He notes that the only possible solution for the block’s existence here is that Senusret III had a 39-year reign, with the final 20 years in coregency with his son Amenemhet III. Since the project was associated with a project of Senusret III, his Regnal Year was presumably used to date the block, rather than Year 20 of Amenemhet III. This implies that Senusret was still alive in the first two decades of his son’s reign [1529 to 1509 BCE].” Senusret III, unlike his immediate forbears built his pyramid at Dashur. It was the largest of the XII Dynasty pyramids, but as with others with a mudbrick core, it deteriorated considerably once the casing stones were removed.

This is the background of the family that Moses was thrust into from a babe, radically changing his destiny and altering his life forever. It was during the Pharaoh Senusret III’s reign that big sister Miriam was born in 1536 BCE. She would have been merely 10 years old when she witnessed her mother hide Moses in the bulrushes of the River Nile and watched closely while the Egyptian princess and daughter of the new Pharaoh, rescued little baby Moses [Exodus 2:1-10]. It was three years earlier in 1529 BCE that Senusret III’s son, Amenemhet III or Nimaatre [meaning ‘Belonging to the Justice of Re’], ascended the throne as the 6th king of the XII Dynasty. It was also the same year that Moses’s brother Aaron was born. 

Moses was born three years later in 1526 BCE, exactly 90 years after the death of Joseph. There are two Pharaoh’s of considerable significance in Egyptian history by virtue of their relationship with the Eternal’s servant Moses. 

They are firstly, the Pharaoh of the Exodus and secondly, the Pharaoh who was the father of the Princess Sobeknefru who adopted Moses as her own son. Both these Pharaoh’s identities have been shrouded in mystery; yet revised and accurate chronologies now testify to the real personalities that existed in this prominent and dramatic epoch of both the well-established Egyptian and fledgling Israelite histories. 

The latest known date for Amenemhet III was found in a papyrus dated to Regnal Year 46 of his rule. Amenemhet is regarded as the greatest monarch of the Middle Kingdom. He built his first pyramid at Dahshur, called the ‘Black Pyramid’ but construction problems meant it was abandoned. About year 15 of his reign in 1514 BCE, the king decided to build a new pyramid at Hawara; while the pyramid at Dahshur was used as burial ground for several royal women. 

An online comment: “His mortuary temple at Hawara, is accompanied by a pyramid and may have been known to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus as the “Labyrinth”. Strabo praised it as a wonder of the world. The king’s pyramid at Hawara contained some of the most complex security features of any found in Egypt… Nevertheless, the king’s burial was robbed in antiquity. The pyramidion of Amenemhet III’s pyramid tomb was found toppled from the peak of its structure and preserved relatively intact; it is today located in the Egyptian Cairo Museum. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is thought to have been originally composed during Amenemhat’s time.” 

The military exploits of his predecessors allowed Amenemhet III a peaceful reign upon which to concentrate on building projects, exploit the mineral wealth of the quarries and conduct successful diplomatic relationships with neighbouring states. It is said that he was honoured and respected from Kerma to Byblos and during his reign many eastern workers, including peasants, soldiers and craftsmen, moved to Egypt. The extensive building works, together with possibly a series of low Nile floods, may have placed a strain on the economy by the end of his reign. Upon the king’s death, he was buried in his second pyramid at Hawara. 

An online comment: “Amenemhet III is also attested to by an unusual set of statues probably of Amenemhet III and Senusret III that shows the two in archaic priestly dress and offering fish, lotus flowers and geese. These statues are very naturalistic but show the king in the guise of a Nile god. There was also a set of sphinxes… believed to have been built on the orders of Amenemhet III… all these statues were discovered reused in the Third Intermediate Period temples at Tanis.”

Nigel Hawkins remarks: “Modern thinking using the revised chronology results in [a] much clearer picture with the history [of] Israel and Egypt lining up and matching archaeological records. This would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites… Also of note is that… After Joseph’s death, the Israelites were given the task of making mud bricks. 

Interestingly, the core of the Pyramid of Amenemhet III is made of mud bricks containing straw… Amenemhet III… had only daughters who had a son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses.”

And for good reason, as Amenemhet IV is a rather enigmatic figure during the XII Dynasty period of Egypt. There are a number of anomalies that belie the identity of this personage and Moses being one and the same. Anne Habermehl brings to attention key points: “… an unsuccessful search for the pharaoh’s body (Sparks, 1986). The reign of Amenemhat IV was brief; many believe that he reigned for a total of nine years (Gardiner, 1964, page 140). Edwards (1988, page 223) suggests that he might not have reigned separately at all, but only as a co-regent with the previous pharaoh, his father, Amenemhat III. Amenemhat IV had a son, Ameni, whose name appears along with that of his father on a glazed steatite plaque in the British Museum; in the inscription this son is called “The son of the Sun of his body” (Budge, 1902; British Museum, 1891). This is of note because Amenemhat IV does not appear to have left any known male heirs (Salisbury, 2001, page 327).”

Habermehl continues: “… Sobekneferu reigned for about four years (Shaw, 2003, page 482), and the 12th Dynasty ended. A mystery associated with her is that as pharaoh, she does not mention Amenemhat IV, her predecessor, in the various inscriptions; she associates herself only with her father, Amenemhat III, andcalls herself “king’s daughter,” never “king’s sister” or “king’s wife” (Callender, 1998, pages 230–31). The “disappearance” of Amenemhat IV from the space between Amenemhat III and Sobekneferu is a peculiarity of history that has given Egyptologists much leeway for speculation. Callender (1998, page 230) suggests that by linking herself to Amenemhat III, Sobekneferu intended to strengthen the legitimacy of her reign. Some suggest that there may even have been a family feud (Gardiner, 1964, page 141). Courville (1971, volume 1, page 224) notes that Amenemhat IV is not recognized in the Sothis king’s list “for reasons which can only be speculative at this time.” 

It is completely understandable that Moses’s adoptive mother did not mention her son, Amenemhet IV; as he was not her brother or husband. Sobekneferu associating herself with her predecessor and father, Amenemhet III is only natural in the succession. Yes, there had been a family feud, in that Moses spectacularly murdered an Egyptian guard and fled Egypt in 1486 BCE [Exodus 2:11-15]. This was three years before his adoptive father died and Queen Sobekneferu became Pharaoh.

In 1494 BCE Moses co-ruled as Amenemhet IV and was also known as Amenemes IV or Maakherure; being the 7th king of the XII Dynasty, for eight years from the age of 32. Old records from the Alexandria Library in Egypt, recount an Egyptian ruler who commanded a successful military campaign against the land of Kush [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut and The Military Man & the Queen of the South]. 

The Jewish historian Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews also refers to a campaign by Moses who invaded the country by way of the Nile Valley, heading southwards pass the Third Cataract. An earlier Jewish historian Artapanus in Peri Ioudaion, stated that ‘Mousos’ popularity had grown with the conquest of Ethiopia.’ 

Amenemhet IV completed Amenemhet III’s temple at Medinet Maadi, which is “the only intact temple still existing from the Middle Kingdom” according to Zahi Hawass, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities [SCA]. “The temple’s foundations, administrative buildings, granaries and residences were… uncovered by an Egyptian archaeological expedition in early 2006. Amenemhat IV likely also built a temple in the northeastern Fayum at Qasr el-Sagha.” The Turin Canon papyrus records a reign of 9 Years 3 months and 27 days for Amenemhat IV. His short reign was peaceful and uneventful. A handful of dated expeditions were recorded at the Serabit el-Khadim mines in the Sinai. It was after his disappearance that the gradual decline of the Middle Kingdom is believed to have begun.

Prior to this, Egypt’s wealth and power had reached a peak during the reigns of Senusret III and his son Amenemhet III and this economic wealth is in direct correlation to the incrementally increasing abuse inflicted upon the Israelites as they were subjugated to provide the labour involved in bringing the grandiose building projects of the XII Dynasty kings to fruition, including the pyramids. Yet in stark contrast to the benefit the Hebrews were bringing to Egypt, the Pharaoh felt the pressurising need to cull the the Israelite population before they outnumbered the Egyptians. For their population was at least 2 million people or above in Egypt and as confirmed later in a census, where they numbered 600,000 men [Exodus 12:37, Numbers 1:46] of fighting age [20 to 50 years, Numbers 1:45; 4:47].

Moses was born at this crucial juncture in time; though as Amenemhet III had no sons of his own he allowed his daughter Sobekneferu, to adopt this attractive and wonderful little baby boy that she had found left in a basket among the bullrushes of the Nile. 

Thus the Hebrew slaves who lived in Kahun were given the task of producing mud bricks containing straw to then be used in the varied building projects of the Pharaohs of the XII dynasty. The mud bricks were integral in the construction of the pyramid cores. There were at least seven pyramids constructed during the XII dynasty which spanned about 180 years. The Labyrinth at Hawara, constructed by Amenemhet III contained millions of mud bricks and with over a thousand rooms, it was considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. A very large slave labour force was required to support these building exploits and the number of Israelite slaves meant there were more than enough to meet the successive Pharaoh’s expectations. 

These Pharaohs of the XII Dynasty had forgotten what Joseph or Imhotep had done for Egypt and had therefore exerted an increasing oppression towards his family’s descendants as they grew in size. 

The XIII dynasty pharaohs did not undertake on the same scale the massive construction projects of their XII dynasty predecessors, but they continued in harshly oppressing the descendants of Jacob. The Eternal saw their suffering and remembered his promise to Abraham [Exodus 6:1-12]. 

And so from the age of forty, Amenemhat IV lived with Jethro of Midian and married his daughter Zipporrah, who was his second wife. According to the Egyptian priest Manetho, Moses’s original name in Egypt was purportedly Osarsiph or Auserre-Apophi; but when he departed Egypt his name was supposedly changed, to Moses [Against Apion I:250].

In 1483 BCE, just three years after Moses’s disappearance, Amenemhet III died and from 1483 to 1479, a mere four years, possibly as little as three, Queen Sobekneferu or Sobekkare and Neferusobek, ‘the beauty of Sobek’ was the 8th and final ruler of the XII Dynasty. Sobekneferu had an older sister, Nefruptah who might have been the intended heir though she died at an early age. Neferuptah’s name was enclosed in a cartouche and she had her own pyramid at Hawara. Sobekneferu is the first ever known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. According to the Turin Canon, she ruled for 3 years, 10 months, and 24 days. She died without an heir and the end of her reign spelled the conclusion of Egypt’s brilliant XII Dynasty and the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom.

The suddenness of Amenemhet’s death and the brevity of Sobekneferu’s reign may be indicators of the heartfelt sorrow and mourning they both experienced after Moses’s shattering and hasty departure. Even though Pharaoh had initially shown rage and had sought to kill Moses [Exodus 2:15]. 

Gerard Gertoux discusses Moses’s name and early life: “… As Pharaoh’s daughter was not able to speak Hebrew, the name Moses must be Egyptian. One can notice that in Hebrew this name probably means “pulled out (mosheh)” (the word “water” is missing), whereas in Egyptian it means “Water’s son (mu-sa)”. Moses did not receive this Egyptian name from his parents, but from Pharaoh’s daughter after his “baptism” in the Nile. As it was received after the age of 3 months (the text of Exodus 2:10 even suggests after his weaning), it was therefore a nickname and not a birth name (like Israel is the nickname for Jacob, his birth name). The name of Hebrew children was given by parents based on a striking condition at birth. As Moses was beautiful at his birth, which is emphasized by biblical texts (Exodus 2:2) as by Josephus (Jewish Antiquities II:231), “divinely beautiful” in Acts 7:20, he had to have been called “very beautiful”. In Hebrew “beautiful” is rendered as Ioppa (Joshua 19:46) and “splendid” as iepepiah (Jeremiah 46:20).”

Gertoux continues: “Moses was adopted as [the] king’s son through Pharaoh’s daughter (Exodus 2:10). Adoption in the royal family conferred on its holder the honorific title of “king’s son.” If the daughter of Pharaoh had the prestigious position of Wife of the god, she would have been able to confer dynastic position to his son who could have been considered not just a king… but as a co-regent. Some Egyptian accounts show that women of royal origin could play an important role in the choice of future pharaohs. 

The Bible speaks little of the royal position of Moses during the first 40 years of his life, but one can guess it implicitly in the following texts: The man Moses too was very great in the land of Egypt, in the eyes of Pharaoh’s servants and in the eyes of the people (Exodus 11:3); the daughter of Pharaoh picked him up and brought him up as her own son. Consequently Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. In fact, he was powerful in his words and deeds (Acts 7:21-22); By faith Moses, when grown up, denied to be called the son of the daughter of Pharaoh, choosing to be ill-treated with the people of God rather than to have the temporary enjoyment of sin, because he esteemed the reproach of the Christ as riches greater than the treasures of Egypt (Hebrews 11:24-26). 

Renunciation [by] Moses of the treasures of Egypt makes sense only if he really had them thanks to his royal status. Something can be denied only if it has been owned… [after] he struck the Egyptian down and hid him in the sand… Moses now got afraid and… ran away from Pharaoh that he might dwell in the land of Midian… About this new period of 40 years… in the 120 years of Moses’ life… very little is known.”

It was while Moses was living in Midian from 1486 to 1446 BCE, that his father, Amram died in 1455 BCE at the age of 137 years. 

We discovered the intimate relationship the Eternal had with Abraham, calling him his friend [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. An online comment regarding the similar friendship between Moses and the Eternal: “And the LORD spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. These words are spoken of Moses in Exodus 33:11, The Lord spoke with Moses face to face… The Hebrew word for “friend” used here is the word, rea (H7453). This word suggests intimacy, companionship, and reciprocal relationship. Numbers 12:8 says this of Moses, I speak with him directly, openly, and not in riddles; he sees the form of the Lord. 

Throughout the life of Moses we see over and over again, this open conversation with God. It is important to note, that this level of relationship/friendship requires intentionality and regular communication.  Moses did not only speak to God once in a while, or only when he needed something, but as a friend, he maintained regular and open communication with God. When Moses is forced to flee Egypt he ends up in Midian at the home of the priest of Midian, Jethro (… his father-in-law). The family name of Jethro is, Reuel (Exodus 2:18). In Hebrew the name Reuel means, “friend of God” (H7467). The years spent working for Jethro were formative to Moses understanding of who God is. 

Moses was able to do what he was called to only after his time spent learning who God is, and establishing this friend relationship. I find it interesting that the man who would be known as a friend of God, Moses, spent more than 40 years learning of God at the feet of a man whose name is, “friend of God”, Reuel.” 

After the short reign of Moses’s mother, Queen Sobekneferu the XII Dynasty came to an abrupt end, though the unrelenting captivity of Moses’s people remained unabated. A new era after the stability of the XII Dynasty was in stark contrast for its instability, caused by famine, intrigue, chaos and disorder during the XIII Dynasty era. A correct chronology is difficult to discern as there were few monuments from this period. The kings had very short reigns, did not descended from single family lines and many were not royalty and deemed commoners.

It is next to impossible to compile a comprehensive list of the number of rulers or the length of their reigns and hence an accurate chronology for the XIII Dynasty. It is difficult to determine because many of the kings’ names are only drawn from fragmentary inscriptions or scarabs. Therefore, the placement of many kings attributed to this dynasty is very uncertain and disputed among Egyptologists. It is clear that the XII and XIII dynasties were closely aligned and the XIII may not have lasted very long at all. With its final 33 years occurring from the the end of Queen Sobekneferu’s reign to the end of the Exodus Pharaoh. Any ‘documentation of the 13th dynasty is in shambles which would not be unexpected if it ended in such disaster.’

Nigel Hawkins states: “The Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty…”

Neferhotep I

Other notable Pharaohs of this Dynasty are the founding and first Pharaoh of the XIII Dynasty, Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf, who ruled for 4 years – notice the similarity between his name and his predecessor Queen Sobek-neferu – Sobekhotep IV, who was the brother of Neferhotep I and possibly ruled for 10 to 20 years; as well as Sobekhotep III who preceded Neferhotep I, ruling for 4 years and the purportedly final kings of the Dynasty, Dudimose I and Dudimose II for less than a year. 

An online comment: “A [tattered] papyrus scroll [fragment] (Brooklyn 35:1446) acquired by Charles Wilbur in the 19th Century and now in the Brooklyn Museum dates to the 13th Dynasty under Pharaoh Sobekhotep III [1461-1457 BCE]… Essentially it is a [royal] decree from the pharaoh authorizing the transfer [ownership] of slaves; of the 95 slaves mentioned by name, approximately 46 of them have their original Semitic names [such as Menahem (a king of Israel), Issachar and Asher] in addition to their Egyptian names each were assigned, something the Bible records as a common practice (Genesis 41:45).”

Neferhotep I was the son of a temple priest in Abydos. Notice the first part of his name is the same as the last part of Queen Sobek-nefer-u’s name. His father’s position helped him to gain the royal throne as the king, as he did not have aristocratic heritage or royal blood in his family line. Neferhotep I was from a family with a military background. His grandfather Nehy, held the title ‘officer of a town regiment’. Nehy married a woman called Senebtysy. Nothing is known about her, other than that she held the common title ‘lady of the house’. The only known son of their marriage, was called Haankhef. He is always in sources, enigmatically described as ‘God’s father’ and he married a woman called Kemi. Haankhef and Kemi were the parents of Neferhotep I. 

The family of Neferhotep I appear to have originally come from Thebes. Neferhotep I’s brother, king Sobekhotep IV, stated that he was born there, on a stela that was placed during his reign in the temple of Amun at Karnak. However, the capital during the XIII Dynasty remained at Itjtawy in the north of Egypt, near the modern village of el-Lisht. Neferhotep’s wife was called Senebsen and they had a son called Haankhef or Wahneferhotep and a daughter called Kemi, after their grandparents.

Neferhotep I is inscribed on some stones discovered near Byblos*. Numerous other stones throughout Egypt and Lower Nubia, including in Aswan were carved with texts which document his reign – as well as family members and officials serving under the king – and that his power reached the Delta in the north and the Nubian Nome in the south. “The most important monument of the king is a large, heavily eroded stela dating to year two of the king’s reign, found at Abydos. The inscription on the stela is one of the few ancient Egyptian royal texts to record how a king might conceive of and order the making of a sculpture.” 

It is not known under what circumstances Neferhotep I died and it remains a mystery; for his mummy has never been uncovered. A statue of Neferhotep was discovered beneath the temple of Karnak at Luxor as was another previously in 1904 in Luxor, now on display in the Egyptian Museum. His supposed successor was his brother, Sobekhotep IV – which may indicate that Haankhef was Neferhotep’s only son who died during the tenth plague – yet there are several monuments mentioning Neferhotep I and Sobekhotep IV together. This could well mean that they reigned for a period together. 

Regardless, the reigns of the two brothers during the Thirteenth Dynasty marks the peak before a sudden collapse of this turbulent Egyptian dynasty. Pharaoh Neferhotep I or Khasekhemre was a powerful ruler of the XIII Dynasty and reigned 11 years from 1457 BCE until the Exodus – purportedly the 21st king of the XIII Dynasty. Only 22 years separated Neferhotep I from Queen Sobekneferu’s reign. 

Gerard Gertoux adds: “The fact that the rulers of Byblos* used specific title suggests therefore that they regarded Byblos as an Egyptian domain and saw themselves as its governors on behalf of the Egyptian king. This situation is substantiated by two sources of a different nature, a relief found at Byblos” and a cylinder-seal of unknown provenance. The relief depicts the ‘Governor of Byblos Yantinu (in-t-n) who was begotten by Governor Yakin (y3-k-n)’ seated upon a throne in front of which is inscribed a cartouche with the prenomen and nomen of Neferhotep I. The cylinder-seal is inscribed for a certain Yakin-ilu in cuneiform on one side and the prenomen of king Sewesekhtawy on the other side. The fact to record the name of the Egyptian king within those specific context strongly suggests that they regarded themselves officially as subordinates of the Egyptian king. It is notable that it was the Egyptian king (13th dynasty) rather than the Canaanites kings (14th dynasty) who were recognized as the superiors at Byblos.”

Pharaoh Djedhotepre or Dudimose I – also known as Tutimaeus and Tutimaos by Mantheo – is accredited as ruling from 1450 to 1446 BCE in the New Chronology, or for the four years prior to the Exodus and is viewed as the 30th King of the unstable Thirteenth Dynasty. 

Yet this dating is speculative. His similarity of name, Dudi-mose with Moses is noteworthy but not reason alone that he was contemporaneous with Moses. Aside from this, there is little support for him being the Pharaoh of the Exodus; but rather a later ruler in Egypt. Thus the catastrophe of the ten plagues and Exodus events brought collapse not just for Neferhotep I, but both the  XIII and XIV Dynasties of Egypt in 1446 BCE. Thus ushering in the opportunistic Amalekite Hyksos, who invaded Lower Egypt during the demise of the XIII and XIV Dynasties. They constituted the rulers of the subsequent XV and XVI Dynasties. 

The dramatic events that led to the Exodus comprised a series of disasters or plagues caused by the Eternal to drive the Pharaoh and Egyptian nation to despair and thereby release their captive Israelite slaves. The hardness of Pharaoh’s heart [Exodus 11:10] meant a diabolical tenth plague was required wherefore the eldest child of every Egyptian family died during the passing over of the Lord’s Death Angel [Exodus 11:4-5; 12:23, Hebrews 11:28, 2 Samuel 24:16-17]. 

The Ten Plagues are recorded in Exodus 7:14-25, 8:1-29, 9:6-31, 10:13-23, 12:28-26 and 14:7-28. The first plague occurred on the 7th day of the 12th month of Adar corresponding to February 11th and was the turning of the River Nile into blood. The second plague eight days later were a pestilence of frogs and on the 18th day of the 12th month it was lice. On February 25th, the fourth plague were swarms of flies and 3 days later there was the Great Murrain where Egypt’s livestock of cattle likely died from babesiosis. On the 25th day of Adar, the Egyptians were inflicted with boils; and then the seventh plague involving hail and fire, destroyed the mainstay crops of Barley and Flax and lasted from March 4th to the 5th. The eighth plague on the 2nd day of the first month, Nisan or Abib were swarms of locusts. The penultimate plague of complete  and utter pitch black darkness began on March 12th and lasted for three days. 

The tenth and final plague was savagely brutal and finally broke the resolve of the obstinate and stubborn Pharaoh. On the night of the 14th of Nisan or March 21st after midnight, the first born children of the Egyptians died [Exodus 12:29-30]. It was on this day that there was a Hybrid Solar Eclipse number 01321 at 09:05:39 and it lasted for 1 minute and 9 seconds. ‘Eclipses of the Sun can only occur during the New Moon phase. It is then possible for the Moon’s penumbral, umbral or antumbral shadows to sweep across Earth’s surface thereby producing an eclipse.’ There are four types of solar eclipses: Partial, Annular, Total and a Hybrid, where the ‘Moon’s umbral and antumbral shadows traverse Earth (eclipse appears annular and total along different sections of its path). Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular-total eclipses.’ 

Gerard Gertoux in The Pharaoh of the Exodus Fairy Tale or Real History, states: “The text of Ezekiel mentions the tragic end of a pharaoh and associates it with a cloudy sky and a solar eclipse (Ezekiel 32:2,7-8). This text targets the Pharaoh of the Exodus, the only one known for ending tragically (Psalm 136:15), because the terms “crocodile dragon/marine monster” always refer to this ruler (Isaiah 51:9-10) as an avatar of the sliding snake, Leviathan (Isaiah 27:1, Ezekiel 29:2-5, Psalm 74:13-14) and not Apries, the Pharaoh of that time whose name is given (Jeremiah 44:30). This process of assimilation between two rulers from different eras is to be found again with the king of Tyre who was assimilated to the original serpent in Eden (Ezekiel 28:12-14). The expression “All the luminaries of light in the heavens – I shall darken them on your account, and I will put darkness upon your land” has a symbolic meaning, but could be understood only if it had also a literal meaning (solar eclipse). The Pharaoh was considered a living god by the Egyptians, the son of Ra the sun god, thus the solar eclipse as a moonless night would have to have marked them.”

On the morning of the 15th of Nisan – in the year 1446 BCE on March 22nd – the Israelites hurriedly took leave from Egypt [Exodus 12:39, Numbers 33:3; 1 Kings 6:1, Psalm 105:23-45]. Two weeks later, the Israelites made it on foot to the Red Sea in Sinai and miraculously crossed [Exodus 14:21-22]. Pharaoh Neferhotep I and his pursuing army of 600 plus chariots [Exodus 14:5-8] perished the 30th day of Nisan or April 6th, when the walls of the Red Sea either side, collapsed in on them [Exodus 14:27-28].  Proving that Pharaoh Neferhotep I* was not a firstborn, as he did not die during the tenth plague. 

Anne Habermehl adds: “This mystery of the pharaoh who went missing is a matter of great significance because the Egyptians did not normally lose track of their pharaohs. Indeed, they believed that the king’s ka (breath of life) contained the life force of all his living subjects. The pharaoh’s physical body was therefore needed for transfer of the kingship from the dead pharaoh’s body to the body of the new living pharaoh through rituals carried out at his pyramid. In addition, there were other religious implications of the dead mummified pharaoh preserved in his tomb. In causing the pharaoh’s physical body to be lost in the Red Sea, God dealt a major blow to the whole fabric of Egyptian belief and priestly practice. Not having the pharaoh’s body in hand was an unthinkable catastrophe. It appears that what happened (no doubt after desperate attempts to find the drowned pharaoh’s body) was that the transfer of kingship was now officially made from [Neferhotep I to his brother, Sobekhotep IV*]…”

Manfred Bietek, in his burrow at Tel ed-Baba, discovered in stratum G/1 an overwhelming number of shallow mass graves pits throughout the city of Avaris, where hundreds of bodies had been thrown in on top of each other. Clear proof of a sudden major calamity remarkably reminiscent of the scriptural Tenth Plague demise of the Egyptian firstborn. Site prehistoric studies also propose that the rest of the populace had surrendered their homes rapidly, coinciding with the simultaneous abandonment of the city by the people en-masse.

Creation Wiki states: “[English Egyptologist Sir] Flinders Petrie [1853-1942] found evidence to [support] that the town of Kahun was suddenly vacated… As so many tools and manuscripts were left behind, Petrie concluded that the village must have been evacuated fairly quickly. He also found the scarabs of various pharaohs including those of [Senusret II] (the earliest) and Neferhotep I (the latest). The most recent (latest) scarabs would indicate which pharaoh was ruling when the town was vacated, particularly if the pharaoh had been ruling for a while. The most recent scarabs found at Kahun were those of Neferhotep… [who] has the necessary credentials to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus…”

The simple triumph of the invading Amalekite Hyksos into Egypt can be readily explained with the sudden and dramatic loss of Egypt’s whole armed forces. Avaris was completely resettled, as the archaeological record reveals an Asiatic people in origin had plundered Egyptian tombs for relics in their own and who also practiced human sacrifice as evidenced by the large number of female ritual burials. The conquering Hyksos inherited an Egypt brought to its knees, for the large-scale departure of the Hebrew slave work force from Goshen, meant a severely weakened economy. Added to this was the psychological blow of losing all the firstborn of Egypt, whether high born or low. 

Josephus quoted Mantheo regarding the sudden destruction and ensuing Amalakite invasion: “In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods and treated all our natives with cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others.’  

“Discovered by Ronn Wyatt in 1978. A pair of pillars on the Egyptian side (Nuweiba) and the Saudi side of the the Gulf of Aqaba – The Red Sea. The one on the Egyptian side had fallen over and was in the sea. It’s inscriptions had worn off. The one on the Saudi side was inscribed with the words: Yahweh, Pharaoh, Mizraim [refer Chapter XIV Mizra], Moses, Death, Water, Solomon, Edom. The Saudi pillar has been removed by the Saudi’s but the one on the Nuweiba side is… standing and can be visited.”

The Ten Plagues of Egypt are recorded outside of the Biblical account. The Tempest Stele: “[Then] the gods [made] the sky come in a storm of r[ain, with dark]ness in the western region and the sky beclouded without [stop, loud]er than [the sound of] the subjects, strong[er than …, howling(?)] on the hills more than the sound of the cavern in Elephantine. Then every house and every habitation they reached [perished and those in them died, their corpses] floating on the water like skiffs of papyrus, (even) in the doorway and the private apartments (of the palace), for a period of up to […] days, while no torch could give light over the Two Lands. Then His Incarnation said: How much greater is this… Hence the magic-practicing priests said to Pharaoh: than the impressive manifestation of the great god, than… It is the finger of God! the plans of the gods! Then His Incarnation commanded to make firm the temples that had fallen to ruin in this entire land: to make functional the monuments of the gods (…) to cause the processional images that were fallen to the ground to enter their shrines.” 

The Admonitions of Ipuwer state: “[Nile] River is blood: Admonitions 2:6,10: pestilence is throughout the land, blood is everywhere (…) O, yet the [Nile] river is blood and one drinks from it; one pushes people aside, thirsting for water. 

Hail and fire: Admonitions 2:10-11; 7:1: 0, yet porches, pillars and partition walls(?) are burnt, (but) the facade(?) of the King’s Estate (l.p.h.) is enduring and firm (…) For look, the fire is become higher. 

Magic is ineffective: Admonitions 6:6-7: O, yet the sacred fore hall, its writings have been removed; the place of secrets and the sanctuary(?) have been stripped bare. O, yet magic is stripped bare; omens(?) and predictions(?) are made dangerous because of their being recalled by people. 

Vegetation perished: Admonitions 4:14; 6:2-4: O, yet [t]rees are swept away, plantations laid bare (…) O, yet one eats(?) plants and one drinks down water. No meal or bird-plants can be found; seed is taken from the pig’s mouth. There is no bright face because of bowing down(?) before hunger. O, yet barley has perished everywhere (…) everyone says. ‘There is nothing!’ – the storehouse is razed. 

Cattle perished: Admonitions 5:6: O, yet all herds, their hearts weep; cattle mourn because of the state of the land. 

Disaster on the whole country: Admonitions 5:6; 6:4; 9:6; 10:4: Officials are hungry and homeless (…) everyone says: There is nothing! The storehouse is razed (…) Look, the strong of the land, they have note reported the state of the subjects, having come to ruin (…) The entire King’s Estate is without its revenues. 

Darkness: Admonitions 9:11,14; 10:1: Wretches […] them(?); day does not dawn on it. Destroyed (…) be]hind a wall(?) in an office, and rooms containing falcons and rams(?) [… till] dawn. It is the commoner who will be vigilant; day dawns on him. 

Death of the firstborn: Admonitions 2:6-7; 3:13-14; 5:6-7: there is no lack(?) of death; the (mummy)-binding speaks without approaching it. O, yet the many dead are buried in the river; the flood is a grave, while the tomb has become a flood (…) What may we do about it, since it has come to perishing? O, yet laughter has perished [and is no] longer done. It is mourning which is throughout the land mixed with lamentation (…) O, yet the children of officials are thrown against walls; children of prayer are placed on high ground. Khnum [god of fertility and connected with water – “father of the fathers” and represented as a ram with horizontal twisting horns, or a ram headed man] mourns because of his weariness. O, yet terror slays. 

Pharaoh is fallen down: Admonitions 7:4: the Residence has fallen down in an hour. [Psalms 136:15: ‘And who shook off Pharaoh and his military force into the Red Sea’]. 

Egyptians stripped: Admonitions 2:4-5; 3:1-3: O, yet the poor have become the owners of riches; he who could not make for himself sandals is the owner of wealth (…) the outside bow-people have come to Egypt. O, yet [… Asiatics] reach [Egypt] and there are no people anywhere. O, yet gold, lapis lazuli, silver, turquoise, garnet, amethyst, diorite(?), our [fine stones(?),] have been hung on the neck(s) of maidservants; riches are throughout the land, (but) ladies of the house say: ‘Would that we had something we might eat!’” 

Anne Habermehl writes: “All this had to have caused a total collapse of Egypt. That such a collapse did actually occur can be seen from a study of historical sources – in fact, secular historians believe that Egypt collapsed not once, but twice: once at the end of the 6th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom (followed by the First Intermediate Period), and again at the end of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom (followed by the Second Intermediate Period). Which collapse was precipitated by the Exodus? It is likely there was only one collapse, with the 6th and 12th Dynasties running concurrently and ending in chaos at the same time. Gardiner (1964, page 147) compares the traditional two intermediate periods with a very interesting description, and inadvertently backs the idea that these two periods were one: 

‘… it will be well to note that the general pattern of these two dark periods is roughly the same. Both begin with a chaotic series of insignificant native rulers; in both, intruders from Palestine cast their shadow over the delta, and even into the Valley; and in both relief comes at last from a hardy race of Theban princes, who after quelling internal dissention expel the foreigner and usher in a new epoch of immense power and prosperity.’ 

“Secular scholars apparently believe that the same strange series of events happened in Egyptian history twice and do not consider the statistical improbability of this. The collapse of the Old Kingdom at the end of the 6th Dynasty appears to be the big event to most Egyptologists. Erman (1966, page 93), says that at the end of the 6th Dynasty ‘Egypt is suddenly blotted out from our sight in obscurity, as if some great catastrophe had overwhelmed it.’ Both historians and scientists continue to wonder exactly what caused this collapse, and to offer theories. To a Bible believer, it is amazing how the events leading up to the Exodus, and the Exodus itself, are basically invisible to secular historians.”

It was 430 years from Abraham’s 100th year, when he was 99 years old to the Exodus [Exodus 12:40-41, Genesis 17:1-13, Galatians 3:15-17]. The count of 400 years as per Genesis 15:13-14 and Acts 7:6-7 was the 130th year of Abraham and the 30th of Isaac in 1847 BCE. An online comment confirms: “Thus, all one has to do is to add 430 years to Abraham’s year [100] and there is a grand total of [530] years from Abraham’s birth [1977 BCE] to the Exodus [1446 BCE]. Then add [45] years to the time that Joshua divided the land of the Amorites [1406 to 1400 BCE] (Joshua 14:7-10) and the number 575 is reached from Abraham’s birth. But remember that Abraham lived to be 175 years of age (Genesis 25:7). So, one simply needs to subtract 175 from 575 and we arrive at exactly 400 years from Abraham’s death [1802 BCE] and the year when the sins of the Amorites reached maturity [1402/1 BCE]. This means that both the “400 years” in Genesis 15:13 are literal (to the very year), but that also the “430 years” of Moses (Exodus 12:40,41) and referred to by the apostle Paul (Galatians 3:14-19) are literal (to the very year).”  

There is confusion to when the 430 years applies as the Bible indicates the whole period lasted from entry into Egypt by Jacob and the exit of the Israelites during the Exodus. Jacob came to Egypt with his family in 1687 BCE and so the Exodus was 240 years later in 1446 BCE. 

The issue is that modern translations are based on the Masoretic text which dates from the 4th Century CE. Older manuscripts agree that the 430 years begins with Abraham’s arrival in Canaan and not Jacob’s move to Egypt. 

David Reagan states: “The three older sources are The Septuagint (the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in about 280 BC), the writings of Josephus (who quotes the verse in his First Century AD writings, stating that he is quoting from Temple documents), and The Samaritan Version of the Torah (which dates from the 2nd Century AD). The Septuagint version reads as follows: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, that is which they sojourned in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years.” Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter XV:2) puts it this way: “They (the Israelites) left Egypt in the month of Xanthiens, on the fifteenth day of the lunar month; four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan…”It appears that in the compilation of the Masoretic text, the phrase “and in the land of Canaan” was dropped either because of a scribal error or because of an exercise in interpretation.”

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Lilith

I have noticed three key points regarding Lilith a. there is considerable interest in her b. there is significant confusion surrounding Lilith’s identity and her role in human affairs and c. Lilith is a central figure in the occult and black magic.

Lilith was originally known as Lilitu – which means ‘a wind spirit or a female demon’ – in ancient Mesopotamian records about five thousand years ago. Lilith is mentioned in Tablet XII of the Epic of Gilamesh, though this was added much later to the original texts. In a story of magic, she represents the branches of a tree.** The erroneous rabbinical myths, regarding Lilith being Adam’s first wife relate to the Sumero-Babylonian Goddess Belit-ili or Belili. To the Canaanites, Lilith was Baalat the ‘Divine Lady.’ She also appears as a nocturnal demon in Jewish lore and as the Dark Lady is the proclaimed Mother of all demons, Incubus and Succubus spirits.

Lilith is known to be deceptive, dangerous, calculating and attracted to power. It is said that she managed to manipulate Abaddon, one of Heaven’s most devout enforcers, into betraying his comrades and becoming the Destroyer. Written in Kabbalistic literature, The Zohar, Lilith is described as an evil, immoral, demonic figure working with Satan – often described as Satan’s wife. Upon learning of the Serpent’s sinful deeds, the Creator ‘castrated’ Satan or Samael [Genesis 3:15].

Lilith allegedly, then chose fellow fallen Angel Asmodeus and became his bride instead and as a result they were believed to have procreated demonic offspring or Lilim and spread chaos at every turn. Lilith has been connected with Ishtar, Astarte, Inanna, Lillake, Isis, Aphrodite and Freya. The Midrash Abkier says that after Cain’s homicide brings death to the world, Adam separates from Eve for one hundred and thirty years. When the Lilith saw his beauty, she instantly desired him and took him by force by using his own sin against him. She bore him many demonic spirits known to be a plague to mankind. This scenario has more logic than Lilith being Adams’s supposed ‘first’ wife.

Black Witchcraft: Foundations of the Luciferian Path, Micheal W Ford & Akhtya Seker Arimanius – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In ongoing ritual work, the magician begins identifying his or herself with Samael (and Lilith) within the parameters of their own life and initiation.

“The Lord of the Earth, being a name ascribed to Samael (Satan) and his fallen angels and demons, are but considered astral spirits, that which no longer take physical formbut may become manifest through the magician or witch who may make a “pact” with them, being initiation and dedication to the Left Hand Path.

Samael is the patron spirit of the Left Hand Path, as his Word is what formed our thoughts and gave us the inner fire of the Black Flame, our individual process of thought and free will. The magicians who aligned their will with the Left Way, that of Samael (the Devil), were given powers over the earth in one way or another; all the while strengthening, defining and expanding their conscious.” Liber HVHI

Lilith, being the Bride of the Devil, is one part of the Adversary as being the dark instinctual side of man and woman, feminine, yet horrific. Lilith is known by the Semitic “Layil” which is a word meaning Night, but also the name of the demon of the storm. Lilith is associated with the screech owl and other beasts of the wild, as it is where she went after she left heaven to wander the earth.

She also taught the fallen angels how to form bodies and have sexual relations to give life to other ‘dragon children’. She was said to have been reunited with her mate Samael (Ahriman) after the fall, when he would not be roused by his fellow fallen ones and demons, only the words of Az (Lilith) could rouse him. He then kissed her form and caused menstruation, which was passed on to all women as Lilith is directly connected with their fiery and dark sides.

The Goddess of Luciferian Witchcraft is Lilith or Babalon…* She is also Hecate, the Darkened Moon Goddess of the Cunning Circle, whose blessing is both youth, imagination and death… refers to Hecate or Lilith (via Diana) as being “Hell’s dark mistress, Heaven’s Queen.” This is the dual nature of the Devil and his Bride, the Adversary.’

There is misunderstanding and confusion regarding Ishtar and Lilith and the perception they are distinct entities. A case in point is the Queen of the Night burney relief [see above]. Lilitu is described as being ‘nude, slender, well-shaped, beautiful with wings and owl like feet. A Lilitu spirit is portrayed as standing on lions who are flanked by owls.’ The Queen of the Night relief has the exact same details, yet experts claim it is a representation of Ishtar [Inana] or her underworld sister, Ereshkigal. Both Lilith and Ishtar are associated with lions. Ishtar is a goddess of the very same attributes that Lilith is: ‘beauty, love, fertility, sex, combat, justice and power.’ Symbols for Lilith include the owl, serpent, tree and a dark moon.

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 651-653 – emphasis & bold mine:

Some scholars identify Lilith as the aboriginal, evil Assyrian and Babylonian wind spirit or a goddess… Lilith too, was likened in lore to a Serpent or Dragon. Lilith was officially known in royal genealogies as the “Beautiful Dragon queen of the Anunnaki.” Queens of the Dragon Court, the Owl Queens, were likened to lilies, lotus flowers… Hebrew tradition labeled Lilith a Lamia, a blood-sucking demon (vampire) of Greek mythology that flew at night like a screech owl… Isaiah 34:13-17… Shub-Ad, in Sumerian lore, was a matriarchal dynast descending from Lilith, known also as “Nin-Pu-Abi,” as well as… Naamah, daughter of Lamech [Genesis 4:22]. This… confirms Naamah was part of the originating strain of the Dragon dynasty, descending directly from the devil… Lilith was the wife of the notorious Samael, chief of the fallen angels…’

The book of Isaiah, chapter thirty-four discusses the end time destruction of Edom and their spiritual rulers [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. The chapter supports the slaying of the innocent goat on Atonement would result in the spirit Lilith being cast into the desert or wilderness of Edom with the wild scapegoat, Azazel. It is the Creator’s curse upon Samael and his seed, Lilith and her brother, Azazel that becomes the basis of the symbolism of Atonement in Leviticus Chapter sixteen – a ceremony that foretells the Creator’s final judgment [refer Chapter XXI Nimrod].

In Isaiah thirty-four, Lilith is equated with an owl. In fact within a few verses, three types of owl are mentioned. Owls represent the night, darkness and wisdom.

Isaiah 34:11, 13-15

English Standard version

… the owl [H3244 – yanshuwph: great or eared owl] and the raven shall dwell in it… It shall be the haunt of jackals [H8577 – tanniyn: dragon, serpent, venomous snake, sea monster], an abode for ostriches. And wild animals shall meet with hyenas [howling beasts]; the wild goat [H8163 – sa’iyr: satyr, devil, hairy, rough] shall cry [H7121 – qara’: proclaim, commission, summoned, be chosen] to his fellow H7453 – rea: intimate friend]; indeed, there the night bird [H3197 – liyliyth: screech or barn owl, a night spectre, ‘name of a female goddess’] settles and finds for herself a resting place. There the owl [H7091 – qippowz: great owl, arrow snake] nests and lays and hatches and gathers her young in her shadow…

The most well known of the screech owls, the Barn Owl

The Hebrew word for goat or satyr means: ‘hairy, he goat, sacrificial animal’ or ‘a demon possessed goat like the swine of Gadara (Matthew 8:30-32). Notice a sacrificial goat, as in Azazel.

Spectre means: ‘a menacing apparition, phantom’ or ‘ghost.’ Strongs says for the word ‘lilith’, ‘name of a female goddess known as a night demon who haunts the desolate places of Edom.’

Isaiah 34:14

Modern English Version

The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wolves, and the wild goat shall cry to its kind; the screech owl also shall rest there and find for herself a place of rest.

Orthodox Jewish Bible

The tziyyim (martens) shall also encounter iyyim (wild cats), and a sa’ir (seir, wild goat) calls to its companion, and lilit (night creature) dwells there and finds for itself a mano’ach (place of rest).

Complete Jewish Bible

Wildcats and hyenas will meet there; and billy-goats call to each other; Lilit (the night monster) will lurk there and find herself a place to rest.

Darby Translation

And there shall the beasts of the desert meet with the jackals, and the wild goat shall cry to his fellow; the lilith also shall settle there, and find for herself a place of rest.

Amplified Bible

The creatures of the desert will encounter jackals And the hairy goat will call to its kind; Indeed, Lilith (night demon) will settle there And find herself a place of rest.

The Message

Wildcats and hyenas will hunt together, demons and devils dance through the night. The night-demon Lilith, evil and rapacious, will establish permanent quarters. Scavenging carrion birds will breed and brood, infestations of ominous evil.

The Voice

Among the howling and hissing wild creatures and demons, Lilith herself, demoness of the nightwill call Edom her haunt, A place to recoup and rest between her devastating forays.

Bohemian Grove Exposed! David J Stewart, 2004 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Bohemian Club [or Bohemian Grove, founded in 1872 by five American men] is a rich-man’s organization [75 miles out of San Francisco] that holds a two-week “camp” [consisting of 2,700 acres in an ancient Redwood forest] in northern California every year at the end of July. This strange and secretive group, which have received very little press coverage, have a 40-foot owl [named Molech] as its central symbol. Each year, approximately 1,500 of America’s most influential CEO’s, government officials, financiers, industrialists, and media moguls gather to hear speeches, network, and share common agendas. They also perform Druid-like ceremonies before a huge stone owl, complete with robes, fire, incantations, and other rituals.

But what does the owl symbolize? The owl is a symbol of wisdom. Owls can see in the dark. They can see what we cannot see. Likewise, members of the Illuminati are privileged to information that is hidden from the general public. Few magickal orders exist dedicated to the undercurrent of Lilith and deal in initiations specifically related to the Aracana of the first Mother. Two reputable organizations that progressively use initiations and magick associated with Lilith are the Ordo Antichristianus Illuminati and the Order of Phosphorus. When [Lilith] and Lucifer mate, they form an androgynous being called “Baphomet” or the “Goat of Mendes,” also known in Luciferianism as the “God of Witches.”‘

According to Adept Initiates – capitalisation and emphasis theirs:

‘The Atbash Cipher is a Hebrew code which substitutes the first letter of the alphabet for the last, the second letter for the second to last, and so on. When the Hebrew letters spelling Baphomet are applied to the Atbash Cipher it generates the Greek word “Sophia”.

The word “Sophia” in Hebrew is שופיא, and the Atbash form is בפעמת or “baf’omet”.

If one writes the word Baphomet in Hebrew (remember Hebrew letters read from right to left), and you apply the Atbash Cipher, Schonfield revealed the following:

The word BAPHOMET (Bet Pe Vav Mem Taf) with the Atbash Cipher (Shin Vav Pe Yud Alef) spells SOPHIA.

Although written in Hebrew it reads as the Greek word “Sophia” again, meaning wisdom.

The most noteworthy translation of Baphomet comes from a Masonic source “Craft Symbolism in the Gnostic Mass” which says,

“An interesting point about Baphomet is that the Greek translation of this name breaks down into the words bafe (BAPhE – baptism) and metis (METIS – wisdom): Baptism of Wisdom.”’

Of course, what becomes even more interesting is that recorded in the scriptures is an ancient being who existed at the beginning with the Eternal One. This entity was not the one known as the Word [John 1:1], but rather as Wisdom… and she was female.

“I, wisdom, was with the Lord when he began his work, long before he made anything else. I was created in the very beginning, even before the world began. I was born before there were oceans, or springs overflowing with water, before the hills were there, before the mountains were put in place. God had not made the earth or fields, not even the first dust of the earth. I was there when God put the skies in place, when he stretched the horizon over the oceans, when he made the clouds above and put the deep underground springs in place. I was there when he ordered the sea not to go beyond the borders he had set. I was there when he laid the earth’s foundation. I was like a child by his side. I was delighted every day, enjoying his presence all the time, enjoying the whole world, and delighted with all its people [Proverbs 8:22–31 NCV].

The evil spirit and dark Angel Lilith, mirrors Revelation’s Great Whore of Babylon.* In the Book of Zohar there is Isheth Zenunim, a ‘woman of whoredom’ [1:5a, 1:5b]. Isheth [Ishtar, Easter] Zenuim is called the evil Lilith; known in Hebraic legends as the ‘screech owl’ and who is described in Isaiah 34:14 as living ‘in the wilderness.’ This whore is known as Lilith or Lilitu in Kabbalist’s legends. Her harlotry with the nations, is found in Nahum 3:1-4. The evil entity that is being described as a woman in the wilderness or desert wasteland, who is drunk from the blood of those slain, who fell prey to her lies and sorceries is too close for comfort, to the end-time Woman of Mystery and Babylon the Great, John describes in the Book of Revelation.

Nahum 3:4

English Standard Version

And all for the countless whorings of the prostitute, graceful and of deadly charms, who betrays nations with her whorings, and peoples with her charms.

Amplified Bible

All because of the many acts of prostitution of (Nineveh) [capital of Asshur] the prostitute, The charming and well-favored one, the mistress of sorceries, Who betrays nations by her acts of prostitution (idolatry) And families by her sorceries.

Darby Translation

Because of the multitude of the fornications of the well-favoured harlot, mistress of sorceries, that selleth nations through her fornications, and families through her sorceries,

New Century Version

The city was like a prostitute; she was charming and a lover of magic. She made nations slaves with her prostitution and her witchcraft.

New International Readers Version

All of that was caused by the evil desires of the prostitute Nineveh. That woman who practiced evil magic was very beautiful. She used her sinful charms to make slaves out of the nations. She worshiped evil powers in order to trap others.

The Voice

This is all because you tempted and lured the nations like a harlot, dangling the allure of immorality. You were a sorceress promising control of the spiritual worldenslaving nations to lives of immorality and families to sorcery.

Revelation 17:1–6

English Standard Version

The Great Prostitute and the Beast

… “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who is seated on many waters, 2 with whom the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality, and with the wine of whose sexual immorality the dwellers on earth have become drunk.” 3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names, and it had seven heads and ten horns. 4 The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and jewels and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her sexual immorality. 5 And on her forehead was written a name of mystery“Babylon the great, mother of prostitutes and of earth’s abominations.” 6 And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.

Nahum 3:1-4

The Message

Doom to Murder City – full of lies, bursting with loot, addicted to violence! Horns blaring, wheels clattering… Dead bodies rotting in the street, corpses stacked like cordwood, Bodies in every gutter and alley, clogging every intersection! … Whore City, Fatally seductive, you’re the Witch of Seduction, luring nations to their ruin with your evil spells.

Female Demon Lilith: Sigil & Invocation of Primal Femininity, Vishnu M – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The aspirant of the traditional Qabalah slowly traverses up the Sephiroth to reunite with God (or enlightenment, in Eastern terms). However, there is still another path: That of the Qliphothtic left hand path. In the Left Hand Qliphothic path, the goal is not to ascend the tree of life Sepiroth, but the shadowy flip side of the tree, the QliphothThe goal of the Qliphothic path is not only to unite with the cosmos or God, but to go beyond it and become a creator in your own right. For the Qliphothic magician however, the goal is to plunge into the darkness more and more until the ultimate is realized. The true light is reached only after the shadowy passage through the tree** of Qliphoth.

Lilith, the shadow world is the entry point into the left hand path Qliphothic mysticism. This is where magickal practices such as sex with succubus spirits and female demon lilith herself is practiced. Such practices are to be used to enter into the Qliphothic realms and not as mere sexual indulgence. The sexual energy that we possess IS the life force of the Kundalini within us. It is our only connect to the impersonal divine and it originates… right around the sexual organs, where the serpent is said to coil, laying dormant. The Chakra is placed at the genital area in the occult map to point out the correlation to sexual energy. The actual sexual center of course, exist[s] in the brain rather than in the genitals.

It is a serpent because it has been repressed without allowing it to express itself wholly. If the serpent is allowed to express in it’s highest form… then the creative forces within the vessel become God like. This is exactly how it is described by Qliphothic magicians. In Qliphothic terms, the Muladhara Chakra is the Lilith Qliphah herself where the Kundalini serpent lies dormant! The relevance of the serpent and the tree** of knowledge that awakens in Abrahamic genesis story becomes very apparent.’

David Stewart: “Lilith is described as either a winged serpent or a screech owl (or a anthropomorphic combination thereof)…”

Lilith was not Adam’s wife as these have been sourced to spurious rabbinical origins. Though she possibly had interaction with Adam after the Garden of Eden incident, of which she may even have been involved in the seduction of Eve with the Serpent. Nor was Lilith a Nephilim, or in other words a demon. Lilith was not the product of an angelic-human liaison but rather, she is a fallen Angel and her being included in scripture by name, albeit subtly and then equated as the Mistress of the Beast, reveals her standing in the dark pantheon of Satan’s cohorts.

Edited Excerpt from Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and answers on Quora: Was Lilith a Nephilim? If God created only Adam and Eve, then who is Lilith?

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Nuclear Nefariousness

The main powers of the world – by deciding who enters and who doesn’t join the ‘nuclear club’ – have been able to maintain their control of the masses that bit more effectively by keeping the world firmly under the mushroom-like umbrella of an ominous nuclear threat.

There are two main reactions at the atomic or molecular level. One is called fusion and it is the exact same process that is found in nature whereby the star in our Solar System, the Sun turns hydrogen into helium by nuclear fusion and joins two atomic nuclei to make one larger one. Fission on the other hand is the process of splitting an atom’s nucleus. This is the process used at nuclear power stations, where a neutron collides with a uranium atom and splits it, releasing energy in the form of heat and dangerously, poisonous radiation [Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986 and Fukushima, Japan 2011].

These two nuclear processes use the binding energy of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of atoms to release an enormous amount of energy. Fission splits unstable nucleuses into two smaller lighter nuclei; whereas fusion reactions through the same colliding method, combine two lighter nuclei into a heavier, stable nucleus – as in replication of the Sun. The energy released by fission in nuclear power plants heats water into steam. The steam is then used to spin turbines to then produce carbon-free, yet radiation emitting electricity. 

A comparison could be drawn with the two flows of electricity, alternating and direct current, the former has a wider application, is more convenient and is cheaper, though superficially perceived as dangerous because at lower levels, the voltage peaks of alternating current can injure or kill more readily compared to the same level of direct current. The reality though is that past a certain point both AC and DC will be lethal.

Anders Bjorkman – emphasis & bold his:

Fission occurs, when the core of an atom A (e.g. Uranium 235) absorbs a free neutron n under controlled conditions, so A splits into two smaller atoms B and C that fly apart and releases two free neutrons n, energy/heat E and radiation R (light at different wave lengthes/frequencies) per formula: 

A + n = B + C + 2n + E + R … (1) 

The strong forces keeping the protons and neutrons of atom A together disappear producing heat E and radiation R, while the two new, free neutrons n have problems finding other atoms A to continue fission. If a free neutron n is not absorbed by another atom A, it dies after ten minutes or becomes a proton and an electron and a meson [of no danger]. The free neutrons n may produce more fission, but only due to moderation (slowing down!) inside a peaceful nuclear power plant/reactor (or a laboratory). The heat warms the water and the radiation R is damped by the water and the enclosure of the power plant. Easy to show at any nuclear power plant.

This fission has since been studied in laboratories for years and is described in peer reviewed papers. It takes place in nano-scale – the atoms A cores are very, very small and the neutrons n are even smaller and are very very fast – fission takes a nano-second – and can be done by moderation in nuclear power plants and laboratories.’

An atomic bomb [A-bomb] is described as a fission device, while a hydrogen [thermonuclear] bomb is described as using the fission process to power a fusion reaction. Thus, an atomic bomb is used as a trigger for a far more theoretically explosive hydrogen bomb.

Thought Co:

‘The word “atomic” isn’t strictly accurate since it’s just the nucleus of the atom that is involved in fission (its protons and neutrons), rather than the entire atom or its electrons. A material capable of fission (fissile material) is given supercritical mass, while is the point at which fission occurs. This can be achieved by either compressing sub-critical material using explosives or by shooting one part of a sub-critical mass into another one. The fissile material is enriched uranium or plutonium. The energy output of the reaction can range to the equivalent of about a ton of the explosive TNT up to 500 kilotons of TNT [one Kiloton equalling 1000 tons of TNT] . The bomb also releases radioactive fission fragments, which result from the heavy nuclei breaking into smaller ones. Nuclear fallout mainly consists of fission fragments.

A hydrogen bomb or H-bomb is a type of nuclear weapon that explodes from the… fusion of isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium and tritium. A neutron bomb, like a hydrogen bomb, is a thermonuclear weapon. The explosion from a neutron bomb is relatively small, but a large number of neutrons are released. While living organisms are killed by this type of device, less fallout is produced and physical structures are more likely to remain intact.’

A Russian Yars RS-24 intercontinental ballistic missile system drives through Red Square in Moscow, on May 7, 2015 during Victory Day parade rehearsals

Nuclear fission was discovered in Hitler’s Germany in 1938. It is incongruous that Germany in 7 years could not do what the American’s accomplished in 3 years during the Manhattan Project from 1942 to 1945. Yet it is well documented, that both jet engine technology and rocket development in Germany were ahead of the allies.

Investigative research is advised as to whether nuclear fission is actually possible past the nuclear reactor stage and process, or if it really can be translated to the making of, let alone the use of a device such as a nuclear warhead. The process of nuclear fission just at the reactor level is dangerous. Has no one questioned how this can be done at a more concentrated level? An honest appraisal from a nuclear physicist though hugely beneficial, may never be made publicly, if ever at all.

A few points to ponder: 

The aerial photos of Hiroshima and Nagasaki show certain buildings still standing here and there; particularly those of historic value or importance invariably constructed of concrete and steel. Only the wooden and paper houses have ‘vaporised.’ The residue of these cities is indicative of napalm carpet bombing and not the evidence of an apparent atomic bomb explosion that would literally raze everything and we mean, everything to the ground. 

It is reported that the ‘Little Boy’ bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the ‘Fat Man’ bomb used on Nagasaki three days later, killed at the time of explosions and over ensuing months some 210,000 people. 

‘Little Boy’ replica 1/12 model, sold online for $79.99

Yet the greater explosive power of the Nagasaki bomb [21 kt] killed far less people, some 70,000 people out of approximately 200,000 inhabitants; compared to the explosion over Hiroshima [16 kt] with approximately 140,000 fatalities from a population of about 300,000 people.

The figures don’t add up if atomic weapons were used, nor if the second device was more potent.

It is puzzling – even though supposedly smaller bombs than by todays standards were used – why statistics are hard to come by for those Japanese from these cities who were affected belatedly with radiation and cancer. Also, at the time of the event, why were there not many more initially affected? Would it not have been the vast majority of those impacted? Why do photo’s in the aftermath of the cities bombing, show people walking through the dangerous radioactive debris? Why too, were these two cities not cordoned off for decades or permanently, due to radiation levels? 

All 47,000 inhabitants of Pripyat were evacuated 36 hours after the accident, with an exclusion zone of 6.2 miles – that is still maintained 36 years later. ‘According to a 2001 study in Biological Conservation, Chernobyl-caused genetic mutations in plants and animals increased by a factor of 20.’

Whereas Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not evacuated – not even before the event, when the USA warned Japan they were going to drop bombs. Nagasaki was rebuilt beginning as early as 1946 and Hiroshima in 1949. Though the disasters of these cities purportedly produced less radiation than Chernobyl’s two explosions, due to being detonated some 600 meters in the air as opposed into the ground; should the explosions be fact and not falsified, the deadly residue remains, as the half-life of U-235 [Uranium] used in the Hiroshima atomic bomb is a staggering 700 million years and the half-life for the Pu-239 [Plutonium] used in the Nagasaki bomb is 24,000 years. 

They do not seem overly concerned by a radiation emitting explosion

Yet according to Colors New York and an article entitled: When did Nagasaki get rebuilt? 2020, it states:

‘The radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki today is on a par with the extremely low levels of background radiation (natural radioactivity) present anywhere on Earth. It has no effect on human bodies.’ This may conveniently be the case presently and it could be wagered, that it was probably the exact same levels 75 years ago…

By comparison, the Chernobyl area is uninhabitable for 20,000 years.

They look very relaxed to be so near to a deadly radioactive area

It is interesting to note that the ‘plutonium core (implosion) bomb design was only tested… [just the] one time [the Trinity Test at Alamogordo, New Mexico 5.30 am July 16, 1945] before being used on Nagasaki. The uranium core (gun) bomb design was entirely untested when used on Hiroshima’ [as its] ‘design was considered to be [conveniently] so simple that the chance of malfunction was minimal and did not require testing [and] they [alarmingly] only had enough U235 for the one bomb…’

Anders Bjorkman – emphasis & bold his:

‘A fission bomb, otherwise known as a nuclear bomb or A-Bomb, is a fission reactor designed to liberate as much energy E and radiation R as rapidly as possible to kill civilian people (!) in a nano-second, before the released energy causes the reactor and content to melt and the chain reaction to stop

The fission bomb kills innocent civilians, we are told, because the two (or three), free neutrons n immediately, in no time, are absorbed by two or three other atoms A as per (1) producing four or six more atom splits, + more free neutrons n, etc, etc, producing billions of atom splits and new atoms B and C flying around during a nano-second releasing plenty [of] energy/heat E and radiation R = an atomic bomb explosion, FLASHradiation, shock, heat wave, mushroom cloud [and] killing civilians. 

This – killing people – [by] military [use of] nuclear physics is however [a lie]… There is no evidence that it works and exists. It cannot be and has never been tested in a laboratory of course. A mass of atoms that fissions melts at once [equals] no explosion. There are no peer reviewed scientific papers about it anywhere.’

A different sources corroborates with: “There is no evidence that mechanical compression of two pieces of pure Uranium or plutonium metal assisted by a mysterious ‘initiator’ will suddenly start a fission chain reaction that cannot be controlled.”

‘It is simple! Nuclear weapons cannot explode and Japan and [the] USA [have kept] it secret by law since 1945! No military commander or political dictator can push a button, drop a nuclear bomb or launch a nuclear missile to wipe out an enemy.

Fission can only be used in nuclear power plants/reactors and similar under controlled non-explosive conditions, e.g. by cooling it down using water. Explosive, military FLASH fission on the other hand is just propaganda since August 1945.’

There is something not right about this photo

There are numerous old and recent descriptions of the falsifications surrounding the 1945 Atomic bombs. Dr. Michael Palmer, MD, in his book entitled:

We breathed the Gases when the Atom Bomb fell – The evidence that the nuclear bombings were faked with naplam and mustard gas,

reveals how United States authorities faked the medical records in Japan to support the 1945 manipulations. Japanese civilians, died of napalm fire bombings and mustard gas injuries. Nobody died of radiation. United States forces spread nuclear waste on Hiroshima and Nagasaki later so that radiation levels could be detected and recorded. Nuclear radiation is actually harmless. It is very easy to detect by Geiger meters and cannot harm anything. What is dangerous, are the uranium and plutonium metal dust particles in the atmosphere or water which are highly toxic and poisonous.

The mushroom cloud is a phenomena, associated with any large detonation and not unique to a supposed nuclear blast.

A well known online Encyclopeadia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped flammagenitus cloud of debris, smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion. The effect is most commonly associated with a nuclear explosion,but any sufficiently energetic detonation or deflagration will produce the same effect. They can be caused by powerful conventional weapons, like thermobaric weapons including the ATBIP and GBU-43/B Massive Ordinance Air Blast. Some volcanic eruptions and impact events can produce natural mushroom clouds.’

There is definitely something wrong with this photo

The original Fat Man bomb – the handwriting on the tail fin was signed by the crew that put it together. Messages included: “A second kiss for Hirohito!” and “Here’s to you!” On its nose it had stencilled, the acronym JANCFU, purportedly meaning, the cryptic and suspicious: Joint Army-Navy-Civilian F*** Up.

The Big Lie technique has certainly been used to enormous effect. The expression was coined by none other than Adolf Hitler in his 1925 book Mien Kampf. It was Joseph Goebbels who is credited with the following quote and though often quoted, no primary source is ever given; with Randall Bytwerk casting serious doubt that Goebbels ever said it.

If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. The lie can be maintained only for such time as the State can shield the people from the political, economic and/or military consequences of the lie. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.’

The irony is that it is claimed this quote was in response to the English and their characteristic penchant to ‘lie big’.

In 1941 Joseph Goebbels said: “The essential English leadership secret does not depend on particular intelligence. Rather, it depends on a remarkably stupid thick-headedness. The English follow the principle that when one lies, one should lie big, and stick to it. They keep up their lies, even at the risk of looking ridiculous.”

‘Dr. Ramani Durvasula, a licensed clinical psychologist and professor of psychology who is an expert on narcissistic personality disorder and narcissistic abuse says that: “Repetition is important, because the Big Lie works through indoctrination. The Big Lie then becomes its own evidence base – if it is repeated enough, people believe it, and the very repetition almost tautologically [needlessly repetitive without adding information or clarity] becomes the support for the Lie… Hear something enough it becomes truth. People assume there is an evidence base when the lie is big (it’s like a blind spot)… 

(People also fail to realize) that there are people in our midst that lack empathy, have no care for the common good, are grandiose, arrogant, and willing to exploit and manipulate people for solely their own egocentric needs. … (Instead) a sort of halo effect imbues leaders [politicians, scientists] with presumed expertise and power – when that is not at all the case…”‘

One wonders what the Arab nations that surround the state of Israel will think, when they realise that Israel does not have any nuclear missiles and rather like the unmasking of the Wizard of Oz, loses its cloak of invincibility. It is with a certain level of confidence that this writer does not expect to see any current or future war waged with nuclear warheads. All future conflagrations will be fought with conventional weapons. Which means a Third World War is more likely than most people realise.

What is alarming and aside from biological-chemical weapons are the new generation of weapons such as directed free energy laser and microwave technology and the artificial intelligence and robotic weaponry that will produce hardware such as planes and tanks that are pilot and driverless, assassin capable micro-robots and elite AI soldiers that are tantamount to relentless and unstoppable killing machines in the vein of the terminator.

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Appendix V: The Kings of Israel & Judah

Chronological charts for the Kings of Israel and Judah during the period of the divided kingdom: 930 to 722 BCE and 930 to 586 BCE respectively.

Kings of IsraelStatusYearsDate BCEBooks of KingsBook of Chronicles
Jeroboam IEvil21930-910 I Kings 12:19-14:20II Chr 10:2
NadabEvil1910-909 I Kings 15:25-31
BaashaEvil23909-886 I Kings 15:27-16:7
ElahEvil1886-885I Kings 16:8-14
ZimriEvil7 Days885I Kings 16:9,15-20
Tibni
5885-880I Kings 16:21-22
OmriEvil11885-874I Kings 16:17,23-28
AhabEvil21874-853I Kings 16:28-34; 20:1-22II Chr 18:1
AhaziahEvil1853-852I Kings 22:40-53; 2 Kings 1:2-18
JoramEvil11852-841II Kings 3:1II Chr 22:7
JehuEvil27841-814 II Kings 9:2-10:36II Chr 22:7
JehoahazEvil16814-798 II Kings 13:1-9
JoashEvil16798-782 II Kings 13:10-25; 14:15-16II Chr 25:7
Jeroboam IIEvil41793-753II Kings 14:16,23-29
ZachariahEvil6 Months753-752II Kings 14:29;15:8-12
ShallumEvil1 Month752II Kings 15:10-15
PekahEvil20752-732II Kings 15:14,27-31
MenahemEvil10752-742II Kings 15:16-22
Pekahiah Evil2742-740II Kings 15:23-26
HosheaEvil9732-723 II Kings 15:30
Assyrian Captivity
208 years722 BCEII Kings 17:1-6
Kings of JudahStatusYears of Reign BCEBooks of KingsBook of Chronicles
RehoboamEvil930-913I Kings 12:1II Chronicles 10:1
AbijahEvil913-910I Kings 15:1II Chronicles 13:1
AsaRighteous910-869I Kings 15:9II Chronicles 14:1
JehoshaphatRighteous869-844I Kings 22:41II Chronicles 17:1
JehoramEvil844-836I Kings 22:50II Chronicles 21:1
AhaziahEvil836-835II Kings 8:24II Chronicles 22:1
AthaliahQueen835II Kings 11:1II Chronicles 22:10
JoashRighteous835-795II Kings 11:4II Chronicles 23:1
AmaziahRighteous795-766II Kings 14:1II Chronicles 25:1
UzziahRighteous791-739II Kings 15:1II Chronicles 26:1
JothamRighteous749-733II Kings 15:32II Chronicles 27:1
AhazEvil736-720II Kings 15:38II Chronicles 28:1
HezekiahRighteous720-691II Kings 18:1II Chronicles 29:1
ManassehEvil696-641II Kings 21:1II Chronicles 33:1
AmonEvil641-639II Kings 21:19II Chronicles 33:21
JosiahRighteous639-608II Kings 22:1II Chronicles 34:1
JehoahazEvil608II Kings 23:31II Chronicles 36:1
JehoiakimEvil608-597II Kings 23:36II Chronicles 36:4
JehoiakinEvil597II Kings 24:6II Chronicles 36:9
ZedekiahEvil597-586II Kings 24:17II Chronicles 36:11
Babylonian Captivity 586 BCE
344 yearsII Kings 25:1II Chronicles 36:13

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Appendix IV: An Unconventional Chronology

This appendix is a companion to the complete work of The Noachian Legacy and its thirty-four chapters. The dates from 100,000 BCE to the birth of Abraham are as honest and logical presentation of a chronological sequence of ancient history as I can formulate at the present time with what knowledge is available. It is open for discussion, amendment and adjustment as new information or understanding is discovered or explored. In other words, it is not set in stone or 100% accurate. I also would like to study this – very long – historical period further as time spent on the identity of nations has precluded as in-depth a study as I would have liked.

Any dates beyond 2022 are speculation in the least or intelligent analysis of biblical prophecy at the best. I do not claim to be a prophet, or speak for the Eternal on the subject of prophecy. Though what I do claim, is a very high degree of accuracy – though not 100% –  for the events lasting just over two thousand years, beginning with the birth of Abraham in 1977 BCE and the death of the Messiah in April 30 CE.

John 1:1 The Beginning

101,690 – 99,530 BCE first Age of Aquarius – Water and Electricity – Creation of Universe

75,770 – 73,610 second Age of Aquarius 

49,850 – 47,690 BCE third Age of Aquarius – the Water Bearer, life giver – Creation of the Solar System. 

Tiamat v Marduk and creation of the Earth – Pangaea, one supercontinent, that split into seven separate landmasses when the Angels rebelled prior to re-creation of Genesis 1:1 or more likely during the time of Noah. 

47,690 – 45,530 Age of Capricorn – The Goat, 47,690 BCE to 4150 CE equals 24 ages or 51,840 years of the Procession of the Equinoxes – 25 ages equals 54,000 years 

47,690 BCE Arrival of the gods from the Pleiades – Orion, Taurus, Sirius, Draco.

Beginning of hominids and hominins – Homo erectus and genetic creation of proto-lulu worker ‘the black headed ones’ of Sumerian texts

45,530 – 43,370 Age of Sagittarius – The Centaur

43,370 – 41,210 Age of Scorpio – The Serpent

41,210 – 39,050 Age of Libra – The Scales

39,050 – 36,890 Age of Virgo – The Virgin

36,890 – 34,730 Age of Leo – The Lion 

35,397 BCE Rebellion of the gods – destruction of the Dinosaurs or later in antediluvian age 

Genesis 1:1 Re-creation after Samael’s Rebellion 

34,730 – 32,570 Age of Cancer – The Crab

34,397 1st Day Dark and Light, Night and Day

33,397 2nd Day Atmosphere of the Earth

32,570 – 30,410 Age of Gemini – The Twins

32,397 3rd Day Separation of Water and Earth, Oceans, Plant life

31,397 4th Day new Sun – old sun Saturn – and Moon, artificial, set in orbit

30,410 – 28,250 Age of Taurus – The Bull

30,397 5th Day Animals, Birds and Fish

29,397 BCE 6th Day Man Homo neanderthalenis, Neanderthal man

28,397 BCE 7th Day Sabbath rest – physical Garden in the Holy land region 

28,250 – 26,090 Age of Aries – The Ram

27,397 BCE 8th Day Creation of Adam and Eve 

27,390 Adam and Eve expelled from Eden after 7 years – transformed to Homo sapiens, Cro-Magnon man, mortal reproducing mammals [mitochondrial Eve] 

27,390 BCE Cain and Abel born – Cain’s wife, sister Awan – Nod east of Eden in Babylon

26,400 Abel died

26,097 Seth born – his wife Azura, originally Abel’s wife and Azura the sister of Awan.

26,090 – 23,930 Age of Pisces – The Fish

26,000 Evil Enoch born

25,047 Enosh born – his wife Noam

25,000 Irad born

24,147 Kenan born – his wife Mualeleth

24,000 Mehujael born 

23,930 – 21,770 fourth Age of Aquarius – The Water Bearer – Water and Electricity

23,447 Mahalalel born – his wife Dinah

23,000 Methushael born

22,797 Jared born – his wife Baraka

22,000 BCE Evil Lamech born [Genesis 4:23-24] avenged 70 x 7* – His wife Betenos

The Watchers – fallen/dark Angels – arrive on earth – 2nd Rebellion, during fourth Age of Aquarius equals the middle point between the third Aquarius Age and the beginning of Earth and the fifth Age of Aquarius and the beginning of a New Earth

21,770 – 19,610 Age of Capricorn – The Goat

21,175 BCE Righteous Enoch born [Gen 5:21-13] walked with God 20,527 to 17,527 

BCE- his wife Edna

21,000 Jabal born from Adah and Lamech, Tubal-Cain born from Zillah and Lamech

20,527 Methuselah born – his wife Edna

20,000 Jubal born from Adah and Lamech, brother of Jabal – twin?

20,000 Naamah born from Zillah and Lamech, sister of Tubal Cain

19,610 – 17,450 Age of Sagittarius – The Centaur: human upper body, equine lower body

18,657 BCE Lamech Noah’s father born

18,097 Adam died 9,300 years old**

17,527 Enoch taken early by God when he was 3,650 years old

17,450 – 15,290 Age of Scorpio – The Serpent: other symbols include, spider, scorpion, lizard, wolf, eagle [or dove] & Phoenix

16,977 Seth died age 9,120 years old

16,837 BCE Birth of Noah – possibly Homo sapiens idaltu [Dale] – his wife Emzara. Noah Lived 6,000 years before the flood and 3,500 years after, total of 9,500 years.

15,290 – 13,130 Age of Libra – The Scales

13,130 – 10,970 Age of Virgo – The Virgin

11,837 BCE Noah’s three triplet sons born, Japheth, Ham & Shem – Homo sapiens sapiens – modern Human – [Genesis 5:32; 9:28; 11:10-11].

Japheth’s wife ‘Adataneses; Ham’s wife Na’eltama’uk; and Shem’s, Sedeqetelebab 

Shem lived 1,000 years before the flood and 5120 years after the flood, total of 6,120 years. Ages before the flood multiply by 10 to reach correct age. For example, Adam lived 930 years times 10, true age 9,300 years. After flood, convert age from sexagesimal count to decimal and derive true age. 

“The alleged orbit of Sitchin’s planet is 3,600 years. The number is a sar, the Sumerian unit of time equal to 3,600 earth years, generated by multiplying 6 by 10 (pur), arriving at 60 (soss); 60 times 10 gave 600 (ner), and 600 times 6 equals 3,600 (sar). [Or, 3600 divide by 30 day month is 120 months, which equals 10 years].”

10,970 – 8810 Age of Leo – The Lion. The three Pyramids of Giza and Sphinx built either just prior or just after the Flood

10,887 Lamech died prematurely age 7,770* years

10,837 BCE The Great Deluge, Flood 

Atlantis and Lemuria destroyed – Ark comes to rest in Himalayas and Noah dwells in the Kashmir [a secondary, type of the Garden of Eden]. Methuselah died in the flood, age 9,690 years, the oldest man in the Bible**

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“In 2008, a team of Danish geologists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen studied the ice core data from Greenland, and concluded that the ice age ended exactly in 9703 BC. Researcher Jorgen Peder Steffensen said that, “in the transition from the ice age to our current warm, interglacial period the climate shift is so sudden that it is as if a button was pressed”. More recently, in 2012, an international team of scientists concluded that the earth was bombarded by a meteorite storm nearly 12,000 years ago, which effectively ended the ice age, and led to the end of a prehistoric civilization and the extinction of many animal species.” 

10,750 Asshur born

10,717 Arphaxad born 

9700 Nimrod’s father Kish born

8700 Nimrod born

9647 Shelah born

8747 Eber born

8810 – 6650 Age of Cancer – The Crab[’s Claws]

7727 BCE Peleg born: Time of Peleg 7727 to 4737 is 2,990 years of his life

7337 Noah died age 9,500 years old

6827 Reu born and died in 4222. Lived 2605 years [divide by 10.9 or times by same]

6755 to 6232 BCE Tower of Babel, all peoples scattered

Date derived by 7275 minus 6232 equals 1043 then divide by 2 = ~ 520. Thus 7275 minus 520 is 6755; or 6232 BCE derived by 1/2 of 2990 equals 1495 then subtract from 7727.

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) from 6976 BC – 6676 BC also coincides with a significant environmental event – the Black Sea Catastrophe which has recently been dated to 6700 BC. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline (by around 30%). This event fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia. Geologists Bill Ryan and Walter Pitman of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York, who had first proposed the Black Sea Catastrophe hypothesis, have gone to the extent of comparing it to Noah’s Flood. Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding areas. In the book Underworld, Graham Hancock has described some of the terrible events that ravaged the planet during that time. Sometime between 6900 BC – 6200 BC the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz/Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was possibly the “single largest flood of the Quarternary Period”, which may have single-handedly raised global sea-level by half a metre. The period between 7000 BC – 6000 BC was also characterized by the occurrences of gigantic earthquakes in Europe. In northern Sweden, some of these earthquakes caused “waves on the ground”, 10 metres high, referred to as “rock tsunamis”. 

It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.

“In 2002, the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIO), India, discovered two cities submerged in the Gulf of Cambay [India], at a depth of 120 feet. These mysterious submerged cities were laid out in a grid, had towering walls, massive geometrical buildings and huge engineering works such as dams, and they stood entirely above water around 7,000 years ago. Nearly 2,000 man-made artifacts were recovered from the sites, some of which have been carbon dated to 6500 BC – 7500 BC, indicating their existence in the Dwapara Yuga.”

6650 – 4490 Age of Gemini – The Twins

6000 BCE [2nd] Sumerian Civilisation suddenly begins fully formed with extensive records

5867 Serug born

5717 Shem died age 6,120 years – slayer of Nimrod at age 2,468 years of age

5617 Arphaxad died Age 5,100 years

4967 Nahor born

4737 Peleg died 

4490 – 2330 Age of Taurus – The Bull

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“The transitional period between the Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga, from 3976 BC – 3676 BC was again marked by a series of environmental cataclysms, whose exact nature remains a mystery. It is referred to in geology as the 5.9 kiloyear event, and it is considered as one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene period. It occurred around 3900 BC, ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. At the same time, between 4000 BC – 3500 BC, the coastal plains of Sumer experienced severe flooding, which “was the local effect of a worldwide episode of rapid, relatively short-term flooding known as the Flandrian transgression – which had a significant impact not only along the shores of the Gulf but in many other parts of Asia as well.” This catastrophic flooding event led to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia, and triggered a worldwide migration to river valleys. This transitional period between the Yugas is recorded in many ancient calendars, as we find a clustering of important dates around this epoch. For a very long time, there was a prevalent belief in the western world that the world was created in 4004 BC. This date comes to us from the genealogies of the Old Testament. This date is just 28 years prior to the end of the Dwapara and the beginning of the transitional period. A Saptarsi Calendar, still in use in India, counted time in the Kali Yuga starting from 3976 BC, which coincides with the beginning of the transitional period. The year of world creation in the Jewish religious calendar is 3761 BC, which is in the middle of the transitional period. The famous Mahabharata War of the Indian subcontinent, which took place during the transitional period between Yugas, 35 years prior to the beginning of the Kali Yuga, can now be dated to 3711 BC. The Mahabharata mentions that the Dwapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga started as soon as Krishna left this world; and then the seas swelled up and submerged the island-city of Dwarka, which was located off the coast of western India.”

4077 BCE Terah born – his wife Amathlai

2887 Nahor died, Abraham’s grandfather

2330 – 170 Age of Aries – The Ram

2224 Sargon [1] of Akkad reigned to 2169 [or 40 years], descendant of Peleg.

2169 Rimush [2] of Akkad, son of Sargon reigned 9 years

2163 King Abalgamash [2167-2163 BCE] of Marhashi a Kingdom to the east of Elam revolted unsuccessfully against Rimush, with Luh-ishan of Awan [2174-2149 BCE] who had been defeated by Sargon. 

2160 Manishtushu [3], older brother of Rimush and son of Sargon reigned 14 years

2145 Naram-Sin [4] of Akkad, son of Manishtushu reigned 36 years

2109 Naram-Sin died 

2109 Shar-kali-sharri [5], great grandson of Sargon and son of Naram-Sin reigned 25 years

“Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire and the son of Narem-Sin. His name translated means “king of kings and he reigned for about 25 years and was succeeded by Dudu possibly following a period of social unrest. He was successful in launching military campaigns against Gutium, Amurru, Elam. He is also known for helping build up the cities of Nippur and Babylon and constructed temples, monuments and other structures.”

2084 Shar-kali-sharri died

2084-2080 Anarchy: four disputed kings Irgigi, Imi, Nanum and Ilulu “Then who was king? Who was not the King?”

2080 Dudu [1] of Akkad reigned 21 years

2059 Shu-Turul [2] son of Dudu

2044 BCE fall of Akkad to the Gutians and end of Shu-Durul reign. 

2067 Beginning of Guti Dynasty rule: first King Inkisis, with 19 kings over 76 years to 1991 BCE*

2044 BCE the Partholonians arrive in Ireland and rule for 300 years

2009 Haranborn – Abraham’s brother 

1996 to 1989 BCE Utu-hengal 

5th Dynasty of Uruk [reigned either 427/26/7 years divide 427 by 60 equals 7 years] defeated 19th and last Guti king* Tirigan who ruled for 40 days in 1991 BCE and appoints Ur-Nammu,his son, as Governor of Ur 

1994 BCE Sumu-abum [1] First King of Dynasty I Amorite ruled 13 years: liberated Babylon from the city-state Kazallu.

1993 Nahor born – Abraham’s brother

1988 BCE beginning of Ur-Nammu or Ur-Namma** as 1st king of the Ur III Dynasty. 

He defeated Nammahani of Lagash and became Pharaoh Menes or Narmer** of Egypt. Narmer means ‘painful, stinging, harsh’ or ‘fierce’ and ‘raging catfish’. Narmer is a Horus name and Menes a birth name. He is counted as the first human king after a series of divine and semi-divine rulers in Egypt.

1980 BCE Beginning of Sumu-la-El [2] reign – 2nd king of Dynasty I Babylon and father of Sabium

1980 to 1955 BCE Kutik-Inshushinak of Awan^

1977 BCE Birth of Abraham [Genesis 21:5]

1970 BCE  Lot born – his wife Idit

Ur Nammu/Narmer/Menes died

2nd king of 1st Dynasty Hor-Aha son of Narmer/Menes – [Greek: Athotis (Aha or Horus Aha)] Considerable historical evidence from the period points to Narmer as the pharaoh who first unified Egypt and to Hor-Aha as his son and heir. Hor-Aha’s chief wife was Benerib. He had another wife called Khenthap with whom he had Djer. It is widely agreed that Hor-Aha’s mother was Neithhotep [meaning: Neith is satisfied] and that she was the wife of Narmer/Menes. Hor-Aha reigned 48 years

Beginning of Shulgi or Sulgi reign, the son of Ur-Nammu and 2nd king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. Shulgi ruled 46 years, to 1924 BCE. He would have been the king of Ur when Abraham’s family hastily departed for Haran in 1927 BCE.

1967 BCE Sarah born – ten years younger than Abraham [Genesis 23:1]

1955-1930 An unnamed Elamite king between Kutik-Inshushinak^ and Chedorlaomer

1952 Shulgi in his 18th year gave daughter Nialimmidashu to King Libanugshabash [1952-1941 BCE] of the Marhashi 

1947 Chedorlaomer born

1945 end of Sumu-la-El reign Dynasty I Babylon – 2nd King 

1940 Shulgi married one of his daughters to the governor of Ansan in year 30 of his reign

1931 End of Sabium [3], son of Sumu-la-El reign Dynasty I Babylon – 3rd king 

1929 BCE Chedorlaomer or Kudur-Lagamar becomes Elam’s king

1927 Haran died in house fire, or killed by King Shulgi. Abraham and his family depart Ur for Haran, when he is 50 years old 

1924 2nd king of Ur III, Shulgi died after 46 year reign 

Beginning of Amar-Sin [3], or Amar-Suena reign to 1915 BCE of 9 years – son of Shulgi – Ur III. Beginning of Rim-Sin I reign of Larsa or Ellasar of 59 years. Eventually murdered by Hammurabi in 1865 BCE

1922 Transfer from Hor-Aha to Pharaoh Djer – 3rd king of 1st Dynasty – and his grandmother Queen Neithhotep, controlling a regency for 13 years. Cemetery evidence proves that Neithhotep lived during the reign of Hor-Aha and succeeded him into Djer’s reign. Djer then reigned a further 34 years, until 1875 BCE. Djer [Greek: Uenephes] and also known as Zer or Sekhty. 

1921 First king of Isin Dynasty of Akkad, Ishbi-Erra [1], 1921 to 1888, a former General of Ibbi-Suen. Then Shu-Ilishu [2], 1888 to 1878 ruled, then Iddin-Dagan [3], 1878 to 1857 and then Ishme-Dagan I [4], from 1857 to 1837.

“While Ishme-Dagan I was probably a competent ruler, his brother Yasmah-Adad appears to have been a man of weak character; something [that] disappointed [his] father Shamshi-Adad I. Shamshi-Adad I’s rise to glory earned him the envy of neighboring kings and tribes, and throughout his reign, he and his sons faced several threats to their control. After the death of Shamshi-Adad I [1910-1878], Eshnunna captured cities around Assur. When the news of Shamshi-Adad I’s death spread, his old rivals set out to topple his sons from the throne. Yasmah-Adad was soon expelled from Mari by Zimri-Lim [1877-1863 BCE]… and the rest of the empire was eventually lost during the reigns of Išme-Dagān I [1857-1837 BCE] and Mut-Ashkur to another Amorite ruler, Hammurabi of Babylon [1894-1852 BCE]… Assyria was ruled by Shamshi-Adad I, a contemporary of Hammurabi and a personality in no way inferior to him. Shamshi-Adad’s father – an Amorite, to judge by the name – had ruled near Mari. The son, not being of Assyrian origin, ascended the throne of Assyria as a foreigner.”

1915 to 1906 Shu-Suen [4] 4th king of Ur III, son of Amar-Sin and ruler of Sumer 

1913 End of reign of Apil-Sin [4], son of Sabium and 4th king of Babylon Amorite Dynasty I

1912 Sin-Muballit [5] begins reign*

1912 BCE Hammurabi born

1909 Chedorlaomer confiscates the statue of the goddess Nanaya from Babylon

1906 Chedorlaomer of Elam begins 1st year of rule over Transjordan, with heavy taxation tribute 

Beginning of Ibbi-Suen [5], reign of 24 years until 1882 BCE; son of Shu-Suen, great grandson of Shulgi and final king of Ur III Dynasty

1903 Rim-Sin I of Larsa sacks Uruk, sparing the inhabitants

1902 BCE Abraham at age 75, told by Creator to leave Haran and move to Canaan [Genesis 12:4]

Same year Abraham is given promises from the Eternal about his descendants. Sarah at 65 years of age meets Pharaoh Djer in the 20th year of his reign 

1899 Rim-Sin I invades the territory of Isin, capturing the capital in 1894 BCE

1895 5th King of the Amorite Babylonian Dynasty I, Sin-Muballit abdicated?*

13th year of Chedorlaomer and revolt of the Transjordan kings. 

1894 BCE Hammurabi [6] of Shinar, son of Sin-Muballit 1st year of rule of Babylon at 18 years of age

Battle of the Valley of Siddim and whereby Abraham rescues Lot

1893 Chedorlaomer killed by Amraphel/Hammurabi

1892 Hagar pregnant with Ishmael

1891 BCE Ishmael born

1889 Hammurabi attacks but does not conquer Isin and its King Ishbi-Erra [1921-1888]

1882 BCE Abraham at age 95 returns to Haran 

Fall of Ur III, sacked by Kindattu of Elam [1882-1862 BCE] 10th king of Shimashki Dynasty 

1878 BCE Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah – Moab and Ammon born

Promises confirmed to Abraham on Passover, same day as Exodus [Genesis 17:1, Exodus 12:40-41] Circumcision covenant – Abraham 99 and Ishmael 13. Abraham and Sarah meet Abimelech the Philistine in Gerar [or Pharaoh Djer?]

1877 BCE Isaac born – 430 years before Exodus [Genesis 17:17; 21:1-5, Galatians 3:15-17] and when Abraham was 100 and Sarah 90 years of age 

1875 to 1868 BCE 4th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty Djet [Greek: Usaphais] Djet, also known as Wadj, Zet, and Uadji [in Greek possibly the pharaoh known as Atothis, after his grandfather Hor-Aha, 2nd king]. Djet’s Horus name means ‘Horus Cobra or Serpent of Horus.’ Father of Den with his sister Merneith. 

1868 to 1826 BCE 5th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty Den or Khasty [Greek: Kénkenes] – ruled 42 years, after him Adjib 7 years, Semerkhet 7 years and last ruler of 1st Dynasty, Qaa for 23 years.

“Den, also known as Hor-Den… and Udimu, is the Horus name of a pharaoh… who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt. He is the best archaeologically-attested ruler of this period. Den is said to have brought prosperity to his realm and numerous innovations are attributed to his reign. He was the first to use the title “King of Upper and Lower Egypt”, and the first depicted as wearing the double crown (red and white). The floor of his tomb at  Umm El Qa’ab near Abydos is made of red and black granite, the first time in Egypt this hard stone was used as a building material. 

During his long reign he established many of the customs of court ritual and royalty used by later rulers and he was held in high regard by his immediate successors. Den’s serekh name is well attested on earthen seal impressions, on ivory labels and in inscriptions on vessels made of schist, diorite and marble. The artifacts were found at Abydos, Saqqara and Abu Rawash. Den’s name is also attested in later documents. For example, the Medical Papyrus of Berlin [the Ramesside era] discusses several methods of treatment and therapies for a number of different diseases. Some of these methods are said to originate from the reign of Den… Den’s serekh name was… ”Dewen”, most likely meaning “he who brings the water”. This is consistent with his birth name, which was “Khasty”, meaning “he of the two deserts”. His mother was queen Merneith; this conclusion is supported by contemporary seal impressions and by the inscription on the Palermo Stone. Den’s wives were the queens Semat, Seshemet-ka , Serethor, and, possibly, Qaineit. He also had numerous sons and daughters; his possible successors could have been king Anedjib and king Semerkhet. An important innovation during Den’s reign was the introduction of numbering using hieroglyphs. Prior to this, important year events were merely depicted in signs and miniatures, sometimes guided by the hieroglyphic sign rnpt ‘bald palm panicle’ meaning ‘year.’ From Den’s reign onwards, the Egyptians used numbering hieroglyphs for a range of purposes including calculating tax collections and for annotating their year events. Den is the first Egyptian king attested with rock reliefs in the Sinai Peninsula. Two or perhaps even three reliefs are showing the standing king and some of his officials. For example, one of these tags reports on an epidemic then affecting Egypt. Another tag, known as the ‘MacGregor Label’ shows the first complete depiction of an Egyptian king with the so-called nemes headdress. The picture shows Den in a gesture known as “smiting the enemy”. In one hand Den holds a mace, in the other hand he grabs a foe by his hair. The hieroglyphs at the right side say “first smiting of the east”. It seems that Den sent troops to the Sinai Peninsula and the eastern desert a number of times.”

1866 Hammurabi defeated Larsa

1864 Hammurabi in his 30th year defeated a coalition led by Elam, including the Gutium [Arameans/Syrians] and Marhashi

1863 Hammurabi defeats Zimri-Lim [1877-1863 BCE] king of Mari.

1857 BCE Rebekah born

1852 Hammurabi died after 42 year reign

1847 BCE Abraham offers Isaac who is 30 years old as an offering on Passover [14th day of 1st month – March/April] – 400 years prior to the Exodus, on Passover [Genesis 15:13–14, Acts 7:6–7]

1842 Terah Died – Abraham’s father

1840 Sarah died age 127, 38 years before Abraham [Genesis 23:1]

1837 Isaac marries Rebekah at age 40 and Rebecca is age 20

1835 Abraham marries Keturah

1833 Zimran born

1831 Jokshan born

1829 Medan born

1827 Midian born 

1826 Pharaoh Hor-Den, 5th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty died

1825 Ishbak born

1823 Shuah born

1817 BCE Twins Esau and Jacob born, when Isaac is 60 years old and Rebekah, 40 years old

1815 to 1810 Jokshan’ sons Sheba and Dedan born

1811 to 1795 Midian’s sons Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida and Eldaah born

1802 BCE Abraham died at age 175 [Genesis 15:13–14] 

Esau sells birthright to Jacob at age 15 [1797 at age 20 according to Steve Rudd]

1790 Isaac and Rebekah meet Abimelech the Philistine king in Gerar as his father had previously. Could not be Pharaoh Narmer who ruled 18 years or Pharaoh Den who ruled 42. Therfore, Abimelech must be a different ruler in a different region, for Gerar is not in Egypt. 

1790 to 1780 Dedan’s sons Asshur, Letush and Leumm born

1777 Esau marries two Horite/Nephilim wives at age 40 [Deuteronomy 2:12, 22]

1775 BCE Leah and Rachel born

1760 Jacob flees from Esau to Laban in Paddan-Aram

1760 to 1755 Esau conquers the Horites and by 1737 moves to Seir

1754 Ishmael died

1753 Jacob age 64 marries Leah and Rachel who are 22 year old twins. Jacob worked 7 years for Rachel from when she was 15 years old; the time when he first met her.

1752 Reuben born when Leah was 23

1750 Simeon born from Leah

1748 Levi born from Leah

1746 Judah born from Leah – Judah the most like Jacob in nature and carrying twin genes – and Dan born from Bilhah

1744 Naphtali born from Bilhah and Gad born from Zilpah

1742 Issachar born from Leah

1742 Asher born from Zilpah 

1740 Zebulun and Dinah born from Leah – Zebulon and Dinah were twins, as the scripture doesn’t say Leah ‘conceived’ for Dinah’s birth, but that she followed – Leah 34 years old 

1727 Judah married Shuah 

1727 First son Er born

1726 BCE Joseph born [Genesis 37:3] – Rachel 49 years old. Judah’s second son, Onan born 

1725 Judah’s third son Shelah born

1720 Jacob flees Laban for Canaan after 40 years

Esau reconciles with Jacob [Genesis 33:1-16] and Jacob settles in Shechem

1718 to 1700 BCE Last king of 2nd Dynasty Khasekhemwy married to Queen Nimaathap and father of Djoser and possibly Sanakhte or Nebka the third king of the 3rd Dynasty

1700 to 1672/71 BCE Djoser or Netjerikhet – the dream interpretation Pharaoh – first king of the 3rd Dynasty. Djoser ruled either 19, 28/29 or 37/38 years. Various lists have either 4, 5 or 8 kings. Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of Djoser and the final ruler of the dynasty and Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled 24 years as both had Viziers. The other 2, 3 or 6 pharaohs sandwiched between these two. There appears to be an overlap between Huni and Amenemhet I of the 12th Dynasty and his seizing the power of both lands of Egypt, between 1677 and 1647 BCE, when he was assassinated.

1717 Dinah 25 years old, is taken by Shechem the son of Hamor. Her brothers Simeon age 33 and Levi age 31 exact terrible revenge [Genesis 34:1-31]

1709 Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt at 17 [Genesis 37:2]

Er married Tamar, then died and in 1708 Onan married Tamar and also died

1707 Shelah old enough to marry Tamar, but doesn’t and in 1706 Tamar tricked Judah into sleeping with her

“Judah had 5 sons: Er, Onan, Shelah, Pharez and Zerah. However we know from Genesis 38 that all of Judah’s sons were not born at the same time, in fact the first three were born much earlier than the last two. To see this, recall that Judah married the daughter of Shuah, a Canaanite, and he had three sons: his firstborn Er, second-born Onan and third-born Shelah (Genesis 38:1-5).  And when Er grew up Judah found him a wife named Tamar that he married (Genesis 38:6). However God slew Er for wickedness, at which point Judah told his next oldest son Onan to marry her (Genesis 38:7-8). Onan then married Tamar but refused to have children with her, therefore God slew him also (Genesis 38:8-10). So Judah’s next option was to give his third oldest son Shelah to Tamar, but he was too young (suggesting that he was born later than Er and Onan), so Judah told Tamar she must wait for Shelah to grow up before she can marry him (Genesis 38:11). However when Shelah was finally old enough to marry, Judah failed to give him to Tamar, at which point Tamar tricks Judah into laying with her (Genesis 38:12-26). As a result, Tamar becomes pregnant by Judah and eventually has twin sons, Pharez and Zarah. Thus, Judah’s sons Pharez and Zarah were born after his sons Er, Onan and Shelah had grown up and were old enough to marry.”

1705 Tamar gives birth to twins – Pharez and Zarah 

1702 Joseph propositioned by Potiphar’s wife and sent to prison

Rebekah died five years before Isaac at age 155, according to Book of Jubilees 35:27, age was 155 or 158; alternatively, but less likely according to Rabinical sources, she died in 1724 BCE age 133 and 27 years before Issac

1699 BCE Benjamin born and Rachel died at age 75 – Leah died after Rachel but apparently before Jacob moved to Egypt, as Leah is buried in Hebron. Somewhere between the ages of 75 and 87. Rachel buried in Bethlehem on the way to Ephrath [Genesis 35:19] and she died before Isaac.

1698 Reuben sleeps with Bilhah, when he is 52 years old 

Joseph interprets the Butler’s and the Baker’s dreams

1697 BCE Isaac died – Esau either died by hands of Jacob or 27 years later at Jacob’s funeral [refer Jubilees 37 & 38]*

1696 Joseph became Vizier to Pharaoh of Egypt and known as Imhotep, at 30 [Genesis 41:46]. Joseph married Asenath the daughter of Poti-Pherah, the priest of On 

During 1696 to 1689 the 7 years of plenty included the storing of surplus grain, 20%.

1691 Manasseh born [Genesis 41:51]

1690 Ephraim born [Genesis 41:52]

1689 to 1682 BCE 7 years of famine

1682 18th year of Pharaoh Djoser according to famine stele

1687 Joseph meets Benjamin for first time who is approximately 12 years old, ‘a boy, lad, little one, little child, young son’ [Genesis 43:7-8, 29-30, 34; 44:20, 30] 

Jacob moved to Egypt at the time of the Passover & Unleavened Bread – 14th to 21st Nisan [Genesis 46:5-27 – 66 people from Jacob’s family travelled to Egypt] – Genesis 47:9, at age 130, with Levi 61 years of age and 240 years until the Exodus.

“A frequently asked question is why Acts 7:14 says 75 souls came into Egypt with Jacob while Genesis 46:27 and Exodus 1:5 say only 70 souls came into Egypt with Jacob. These verses read as follows: “Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.” (Acts 7:14) ”And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.” (Genesis 46:27) ”And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.” (Exodus 1:5) First, notice that Genesis 46:27 speaks of the “house of Jacob”.  Now we know from Exodus 1:5 that the “house of Jacob” must only include those that came out of Jacob’s loins, so the seventy could only include sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters, etc from Jacob.  But in Acts 7:14 the seventy five are called “kindred”. The Greek word used here, G4772, means a “relative”. The same word, G4773, is used to refer to a “cousin”, Luke 1:36  And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren. 

So in Acts 7:14, the seventy five would have included not only the seventy “that came out of the loins of Jacob” (i.e., the “house of Jacob”), but also five relatives, possibly cousins, or more likely second-cousins or other more distant relatives (perhaps descendants of Abraham through Esau or Keturah, or more likely descendants of Abraham’s brothers, Nahor or Haran). We know Jacob lived for 40 years with Laban, who was the father of his wives Rachel and Leah, and Laban was the grandson of Nahor (which makes Jacob and Laban third cousin relatives), so we have a very good example of distant relatives living together. So who might these five relatives have been? One very good possibility is they were the wives of some of Jacob’s sons; notice we read in Genesis 46:26, All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob’s sons’ wives, all the souls were threescore and six; Genesis 46:27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten. Notice in verse 26 that the wives of Jacob’s sons were excluded in the numbering of 66 and 70!  So these five may very likely have been the wives of some of Jacob’s sons, but specifically ones that were relatives. Remember that Isaac’s wife Rebekah was a relative (she was the granddaughter of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, and thus a third cousin once removed of Isaac), and Jacob’s wives, Leah and Rachel, were also relatives (they were great granddaughters of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, and thus fourth cousins once removed), so it would not be at all surprising to find that some of Jacob’s sons also married descendants of Nahor as Isaac and Jacob did, and that these account for the other five souls that accompanied Jacob into Egypt.”

Levi’s sons: Gershon, Kohath and Merari [Genesis 46:8,11]. Kohath’s sons: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohath died 133 years of age. [Exodus 6:18-20, Numbers 26:59]. Amram married Jochebed [his (Great) Aunt – daughter of ‘Levi’] – Amram lived to 137 years of age – the parents of Aaron, Moses and Miriam.

“The family line of Levi, specifically the line of Levi-Kohath-Amram-Aaron, spanned Israel’s 430 year sojourn in Egypt. If Levi’s birth occurred… when Jacob was 69 years old, then this would fully account for Israel’s 430 years in Egypt… This solution allows a reckoning of the four generations of Genesis 15:13-16 that is in full agreement with the remarkably useful lifespan information provided in Exodus 6:16-20, as well as the various pieces of information regarding Jacob, his family and descendants given in Genesis and Exodus.  It should be noted that placing Levi’s birth either earlier or later than when Jacob was 69 years old would not provide a harmonious solution to all the Biblical references above. The Four Generations of Israel’s 430 Year Sojourn.’

Generation        Name                 Lifespan/Years in Egypt

First                     Levi                      76 (same year Levi died – Levi lived 76 years in Egypt and entered at 61 years of age)

Second                Kohath              133 (lived his entire life in Egypt)

Third                    Amram              137 (lived his entire life in Egypt)

Fourth                  Aaron                  84 (at the Exodus)

Total                                                430

Pharez had twin sons Hezron and Hamul – born just as Jacob, Judah and Pharez entered Egypt, Genesis 46:12, 26-27 – thus persons, sixty-seven and sixty-eight were Manasseh and Ephraim; while 69 and 70 were Hezron and Hamul. Only 66 people entered Egypt with Jacob, not 70. Seventy was the total of Jacob’s family members, not including wives. 

1686 Jacob blesses Ephraim age four and Manasseh age 5 [Genesis 48:12]

1685 to 1675 BCE Zarah had five sons, Zimri, Ethan, Heman , Calcol and Dara.

1672 Pharaoh Djoser died, when Joseph 54 years old

1671 to 1665 Sekhemkhet or Djoserty, 2nd king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 6 years

1665 to 1659 Khaba or Teti, 3rd king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 6 years

1659 1635 Huni or Qahedjet – could be same person as Khaba – 4th and final king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 24 years and Joseph now 91 years old 

1680 Mentuhotep II gains rulership of Egypt – beginning of Middle Kingdom and 11th Dynasty

1677 BCE Calcol born – Alleged founder or builder of Athens

1675 BCE Dara or Darda born – founder or builder of Troy 

1673 BCE Mentuhotep III commands first expedition to Punt

1670 BCE Jacob died age 147 years

Esau slain – Jasher 57:1-45*

1662 Mentuhotep IV

1655 Amenemhet I or Sehetepibre, reigned until 1626. 1st Pharaoh of XII Dynasty of Egypt

Pharaoh Amenemhet had no royal blood and had overthrown previous king… ‘Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands’. Amenemhat I was a vizier of his predecessor Mentuhotep IV, overthrowing him from power, scholars vary on if Mentuhotep IV was  murdered by Amenemhat I.

1635 Senusret I or Kheperkare, reigned to 1590. 2nd king – also known as Sesostris I or Senwosret I – one of the most powerful kings of this Dynasty and knew Joseph

1630 Simeon died at age 120

1627 Reuben died at age 125

Book of Jasher Chapter 62:1-6, 24 In that year, being the seventy-ninth year of the Israelites going down to Egypt, died Reuben the son of Jacob, in the land of Egypt; Reuben was a hundred and twenty-five years old when he died, and they put him into a coffin, and he was given into the hands of his children. And in the eightieth year died his brother Dan; he was a hundred and twenty years at his death, and he was also put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. And in that year [1626 BCE] died Chusham king of Edom, and after him reigned Hadad the son of Bedad, for thirty-five years [1626-1591 BCE]; and in the eighty-first year died Issachar the son of Jacob, in Egypt, and Issachar was a hundred and twenty-two years old at his death, and he was put into a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. And in the eighty-second year died Asher his brother, he was a hundred and twenty-three years old at his death, and he was placed in a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. And in the eighty-third year died Gad, he was a hundred and twenty-five years old at his death, and he was put into a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. 24. And in the eighty-ninth year died Naphtali, he was a hundred and thirty-two years old, and he was put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. 

1626 Zebulon died at age 114 and Dan died age 120

Book of Jasher 61:3-4  And Zebulun the son of Jacob died in that year, that is the seventy-second year of the going down of the Israelites to Egypt, and Zebulun died a hundred and fourteen years old, and was put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. And in the seventy-fifth year died his brother Simeon, he was a hundred and twenty years old at his death, and he was also put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children.
Amenemhet I assassinated

1620 Issachar died at age 122

1619 Asher died at age 123

1619 Gad died at age 125 

1617 Judah died at age 129

1616 BCE Joseph died at age 110 – 170 years until the Exodus

Book of Jasher 59:20-28 And Joseph lived in the land of Egypt ninety-three years, and Joseph reigned over all Egypt eighty years. And when the days of Joseph drew nigh that he should die, he sent and called for his brethren and all his father’s household, and they all came together and sat before him. And Joseph said unto his brethren and unto the whole of his father’s household, Behold I die, and God will surely visit you and bring you up from this land to the land which he swore to your fathers to give unto them. And it shall be when God shall visit you to bring you up from here to the land of your fathers, then bring up my bones with you from here. And Joseph made the sons of Israel to swear for their seed after them, saying, God will surely visit you and you shall bring up my bones with you from here. And it came to pass after this that Joseph died in that year, the seventy-first year of the Israelites going down to Egypt. And Joseph was one hundred and ten years old when he died in the land of Egypt, and all his brethren and all his servants rose up and they embalmed Joseph, as was their custom, and his brethren and all Egypt mourned over him for seventy days. And they put Joseph in a coffin filled with spices and all sorts of perfume, and they buried him by the side of the river, that is Sihor, and his sons and all his brethren, and the whole of his father’s household made a seven day’s mourning for him. And it came to pass after the death of Joseph, all the Egyptians began in those days to rule over the children of Israel, and Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who reigned in his father’s stead, took all the laws of Egypt and conducted the whole government of Egypt under his counsel, and he reigned securely over his people.

1612 Naphtali died at age 132

1611 Benjamin died prematurely age 88

1611 Levi died at 137 years of age

Book of Jasher Chapter 63:1-2 And in the ninety-third year died Levi, the son of Jacob, in Egypt, and Levi was a hundred and thirty-seven years old when he died, and they put him into a coffin and he was given into the hands of his children. And it came to pass after the death of Levi, when all Egypt saw that the sons of Jacob the brethren of Joseph were dead, all the Egyptians began to afflict the children of Jacob, and to embitter their lives from that day unto the day of their going forth from Egypt, and they took from their hands all the vineyards and fields which Joseph had given unto them, and all the elegant houses in which the people of Israel lived, and all the fat of Egypt, the Egyptians took all from the sons of Jacob in those days.

Exodus 1:8-11

English Standard Version

Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. 9 And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. 10 Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.” 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with heavy burdens. They built for Pharaoh store cities, Pithom and Raamses.

1593 BCE beginning of change of attitude by Egyptians towards the Israelites and beginning of affliction some 23 years after Joseph’s death and 18 years after Levi’s death with Pharaoh Amenemhet II, ruler from 1593 to 1558 BCE – Genesis 50:24-25, Exodus 1:8-22, Giving approximately 147 – age of Jacob when he died – years of affliction until the Exodus. Thus Moses recognised the affliction from say, age 10 in 1516 BCE, when the Israelites had already served for 77 years, with 70 years remaining.

1593 Amenemhet II or Nubkhaure ruled to 1558 BCE 3rd king – son of Senusret I and may or may not have known Joseph. If he was born in 1615 he would be 22 when becoming Pharaoh, thus plausible that he did not know Joseph at all.

1560 Senusret II or Khakheperre ruled until 1548 and 4th king of 12th Dynasty – son of Amenemhet II and definitely did not know Joseph

1548 Senusret III or Khakaure reigned to 1529, 5th king – most powerful of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs 

1536 BCE Moses’s sister Miriam born 

1529 BCE Amenemhet III or Nimaatre, 6th king and son of Senusret III

Nigel Hawkins: “Modern thinking using the revised chronology results in [a[ much clearer picture with the history [of] Israel and Egypt lining up and matching archaeological records. Abraham is considered to be a contemporary of Menes [Narmer]. Imhotep is considered to be the Joseph of the Bible and Djoser is considered to be the Pharaoh that he served. This would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites making them make mud bricks. Also of note is that the pyramid of Amenemhet III was made of mud bricks containing straw. Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty and lived 450 to 500 years after Pharaoh Djoser in the 3rd dynasty. He had only daughters who had a son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. 

It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses. The Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty in 1445 BC. He was the only Pharaoh of that dynasty. The Hyksos (15th & 16th dynasties) which were contemporary with Joshua and the Judges, came to an end when King Saul destroyed the Amalekites (Hyksos). Dynasty 17 was contemporary with dynasty 16. Amenhotep I and Thutmosis I of the 18th dynasty were contemporaries of David. Hatshepsut was the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon. Thutmosis III came to power during the reign of Jereboam and became the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. After Joseph’s death, the Israelites were given the task of making mud bricks. Interestingly, the core of the Pyramid of Amenemhet III is made of mud bricks containing straw. Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian dynasty which preceeded the Exodus in 1445 BC [1446 BCE].”

Modern Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) 

DateDynastyEgyptContemporary_in_Israel
2080BC1stMenesAbraham
1900BC3rdDjoser_+_ImhotepJoseph
1531BC12thAmenemhet_III (6th_Pharaoh)Moses
1445BC13thNeferhotep IThe Exodus (Moses)
1405 -1021BC15th_&_16thHyksosJoshua to Saul
1018BC18thAmenhotep I & Thutmosis IKing David
950BC18thHatshepsut [Queen of Sheba]Solomon
929BC18thThutmosis IIIJereboam

1529 Moses’s brother Aaron born 

1526 BCE Moses born 90 years after Joseph’s death – raised by Princess Sobeknefru and adopted by Amenemhet III 

1494 Moses co-rules as Amenemhet IV – also known as Amenemes IV or Maakherure – 7th king of 12th Dynasty, from the age of 32 

1486 Moses 40 years old – flees Eygpt: lives with Jethro of Midian and marries his daughter – Moses’s second wife 

1485 Caleb born [Joshua 14:7–10, Numbers 14:29–30, 34]]

1483 Amenemhet III died and from 1483 to 1479 Queen Sobeknefru or Sobekkare and Neferusobek, ‘the beauty of Sobek’ was the 8th and last ruler of the 12th Dynasty, daughter of Amenemhet III. She is the first ever known archeologically attested female Pharaoh

1464 Joshua born [Numbers 14:29–30, 34]

1457 Pharaoh Neferhotep I or Khasekhemre reigned 11 years until Exodus – purportedly the 21st king of the XIII Dynasty

1455 Moses’s father Amram died age 137

1446 BCE March 22nd, Exodus from Egypt [1 Kings 6:1, Psalm 105:23-45] – Pharaoh Neferhotep I not a firstborn as he did not die in the 10th plague.

It was 430 years from Abraham’s 100th year, when he was 99 years old to the Exodus – Exodus 12:40-41, Genesis 17:1-13, Galatians 3:15-17. The count of 400 years as per Genesis 15:13-14 and Acts 7:6-7 was the 130th year of Abraham and the 30th of Isaac in 1847 BCE.

“Thus, all one has to do is to add 430 years to Abraham’s year 99 and there is a grand total of 529 years from Abraham’s birth to the Exodus. Then add 46 years to the time that Joshua divided the land of the Amorites (Joshua 14:7-10) and the number 575 is reached from Abraham’s birth. But remember that Abraham lived to be 175 years of age (Genesis 25:7). So, one simply needs to subtract 175 from 575 and we arrive at exactly 400 years from Abraham’s death and the year when the sins of the Amorites reached maturity. This means that both the “400 years” in Genesis 15:13 are literal (to the very year), but that also the “430 years” of Moses (Exodus 12:40,41) and referred to by the apostle Paul (Galatians 3:14-19) are literal (to the very year).”

The New Egyptian Chronology – A revised Egyptian chronology results in startling new archeological discoveries which authenticate Old Testament histories, David Reagan

“… Rohl points out that our modern translations of this passage are based on the Masoretic text which dates from the 4th Century AD. Rohl shows that there are three more ancient versions of this text and that all three state that the 430 years was from the time the Hebrews entered the land of Canaan, not Egypt. The three older sources are The Septuagint (the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in about 280 BC), the writings of Josephus (who quotes the verse in his First Century AD writings, stating that he is quoting from Temple documents), and The Samaritan Version of the Torah (which dates from the 2nd Century AD). 

The Septuagint version reads as follows: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, that is which they sojourned in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years.” Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter XV:2) puts it this way: “They [the Israelites] left Egypt in the month of Xanthiens, on the fifteenth day of the lunar month; four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.” It appears that in the compilation of the Masoretic text, the phrase “and in the land of Canaan” was dropped either because of a scribal error or because of an exercise in interpretation.”

Moses 80 years of age – Battle with the Amalekite Hyskos after exiting Egypt. From 1446 to 1445 Dudimose II Pharaoh. The 1st of Tammuz was the 3rd new moon after leaving Egypt, some 2 1/2 months after the Exodus and when the golden calf incident occurred during the giving of the Law – the 10 Commandments – to Moses. 

1444 BCE Joshua 20 years old, Caleb 40 years old – spies sent out to spy Canaan while the Israelites camped at Kadesh-barnea [Numbers 14:29-30, 34, Deuteronomy 2:14] 

1406 Moses died at 120 years of age. His sister Miriam died the same year. 

New leader and successor to Moses, Joshua, crossed the Jordan River – the Battle of Jericho was fought

“Dame Kathleen Kenyon of the London Institute of Archaeology excavated the city of Jericho, the first major conquest by Joshua, in the 1950’s, finding a Middle Bronze Age city ingeniously defended by means of a wall 12 feet thick on a slope which was plastered smooth, preventing the enemy from gaining a foothold should they get past a deep ditch which was just outside the walls. The ditch itself was filled with bricks from the city walls, indicating the walls were pulled down. However, she could not connect this evidence with Joshua, as she was using the conventional chronology. Placing it within the time frame of the New Chronology confirms Joshua’s actions. The remains of the city wall’s bricks within the ditch would have allowed an army to penetrate rapidly into the city (Joshua 6). Further evidence found were many large jars filled with carbonized grain as well as other supplies and goods, indicating the city had fallen quickly. These supplies were also burned; the evidence of fire destroying every part of Jericho is overwhelming, as is recorded in Joshua 6:24; in places the layer of ash was more than three feet thick. The city was not resettled for well over 500 years, when in 850 B.C. King Ahab ordered a rebuilding to take place, which was confirmed in the archaeological record as taking place during the Late Bronze Age.

Other findings confirming Joshua’s actions included:

  • The cities of Bethel, Lachish, Hazor, Debir, Arad, and Hebron, written in the Biblical record as having been conquered by Joshua and put to the torch, were found with evidence of severe fire damage.
  • Joshua 15:14 and Judges 1:10 record mention of King Sheshai of Hebron, who was defeated by Joshua. Numerous scarabs found in various sites in Palestine record this man.
  • The name of Jabin, king of Hazor, was found on a tablet in the ruins of that city in 1992, the same Jabin who was defeated according to Joshua 11:1, 10.

After wondering forty years in the wilderness, Israel invaded the land of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. Though all the first men of war died in the wilderness, a new generation of Israelite men numbering 601,730 were armed for war [Numbers 26:51]. This means there were still about two and a half million people who crossed the River Jordan and were responsible for capturing the city of Jericho (again, if all the men were living men). However, we are told that 40,000 (not 600,000) did in fact cross the Jordan River (Joshua 4:13). Moses was including in each of the censuses the pedigrees of the Israelites (and these genealogical tables listed people with the living Israelites who could have numbered the actual amount of men Moses mentioned). 

In truth, Moses included the dead (the pedigrees) as well as those living in his census accounts. This means that even though the dead were dead, they still were reckoned by Moses (and by God) as having their inheritance along with the living Israelites to the Land of Canaan. This was simply a way in which all were guaranteed their right of inheritance… [Exodus 18:21].”

1402 Aaron died

1400 Seven nations defeated as per Acts 13:16-20 – Paul says ‘about 450 years’ which is 1850 BCE. It was in 1878 BCE [Genesis 17:1] when Abraham was told twice about receiving promises and fits with ‘about 450 years’ as stated by Paul. Caleb 85 years of age [Joshua 14:7,10-11] 7th year of conquest [Deuteronomy 2:14, Numbers 14:29-30, 34, Acts 13:16-20]. 

Just over 400 years from Abraham’s death – in 1802 BCE – and the year when the ‘sins of the Amorites reached maturity’ and they were defeated [Genesis 15:13–14, Joshua 14:7–10]. 

Joshua and the Elders judge for 53 years until 1354 when Joshua died at 110 years of age [Judges 2:8, Numbers 11:29, Exodus 33:11, Joshua 14:10, 24:29, 31], with the Elders administering fro the next four years. 

1390 The tribe of Dan heads north and takes the peaceful and isolated city of Laish, renaming it Dan. In the process confirming a pattern of idolatry that remains consistent throughout their history [Judges 17:1-18:31] 

1351 Sodomy and murder by the Benjaminites of the Levite’s concubine leads to civil war that has the tribe of Benjamin almost exterminated, to just 600 men [Judges 19:1-21:25] 

1350 Begins 8 years of oppression by Cushan-rishathaim the King of Aram-Naharaim [Judges 3:8] 

1342 to 1302 BCE 1. Othniel [God is force] from the tribe of Judah [1], was the first Judge of Israel and judges for 40 years, which includes a time of peace [Judges 3:7-11] – Othniel’s father Kenaz, younger brother of Caleb. Married Caleb’s daughter – his niece – Achsa or Achsah, which in Hebrew means: ‘serpent-charmer.’ Because of a promise Caleb made to his troops [Judges 1:12-13] 

Beginning of period of Judges in 1342 until 1015 BCE, the time of Samuel’s death is 327 years: 327 + 49 years until the beginning of the Temple in 966 + 104 years from the Exodus in 1446, equals 480 years total. 

1302 to 1284 King Eglon of Moab subjugates Israel [Judges 3:14]. Naomi, the mother-in-law of Ruth moved to the land of Moab.

1284 to 1204 BCE 2. Ehud meaning ‘strong’ was the second Judge for 80 years. Ehud was the left handed son of Gera from the tribe of Benjamin [1] Judges 3:30. His Judgeship included 80 years of peace after the 18 years of Moabite – with the Ammonites and the Amalekites – oppression, which ended with the death of King Eglon of Moab. 

1284 Ruth and Boaz moved to Bethlehem 

1267 The Fir Bolg comprising the tribe of Reuben returned to Ireland 

1230 The Tuatha de Danaan returned to Ireland; ruling for 174 years, to 1056 BCE 

1204 to 1184 A period of 20 years of oppression by King Jabin the Canaanite [Judges 4:2-3]

1191 to 1184 An additional period ran parallel of 7 years of oppression by Midianites and the Amalekites [Judges 6:1]

3. Shamgar, a third Judge in Israel, who appears to have been alive prior to the time frame of the fourth Judge Deborah and fifth Judge Gideon. The Bible does not provide the length of his service. His name in Hebrew means: cupbearer, fleer. Shamgar – possibly from the tribe of Benjamin [2] according to a couple of sources or Naphtali according to one source and thetribe of Simeon from another – was the son of Anath [Judges 3:31; 5:6]. He may have fought against Canaanite oppression and hence the reference to the Canaanite god Anath.

‘At the first mention, Shamgar is identified as a Biblical Judge, who repelled Philistine incursions into Israelite regions, and slaughtered 600 of the invaders with an ox goad [a little similar to Samson]. The other mention is within the Song of Deborah, where Shamgar is described as having been one of the prior rulers, in whose days roads were abandoned, with [travellers] taking winding paths, and village life collapsing… the subsequent textfollows on directly from the previous narrative.In several ancient manuscripts this reference to Shamgar occurs after the accounts of Samson rather than immediately after the account of Ehud, in a way that is more narratively consistent; some scholars believe that this latter position is more likely to be the passage’s original location. The Bible also indicates that he was the “son” of Anath (the name of a Canaanite deity). In recent years, arrowheads bearing the names ben-anat and Aramaic bar anat, dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC, have been discovered. This has led several recent scholars to theorize that the expression “son of Anath” probably designates a warrior title.’

1184 to 1144 BCE 4. Deborah in Hebrew means: bee, wasp. Deborah was a prophetess and the only female Judge of Israel and her judgeship included 40 years of peace [Judges 4:4–5:31]. She was the wife of Lapidath. Deborah was possibly from the tribe of Ephraim as she would ‘sit under a palm tree in the hill country* of Ephraim’, or more probably, she was of the tribe of Naphtali [1] – due to her close association with Barak. 4a. Barak in Hebrew means: Lightning and was from the tribe of Naphtali [2]. Barak was asked to lead by Deborah but chose not to be a Judge but remained an army commander. In 1184 Deborah burned Mt Tabor then Hazor during the campaign against Jabin.

“Archaeological digs have been conducted at many biblical sites in ancient Canaan. Of particular relevance here are those conducted at Hazor which confirm that it was ruled by an Ibin (etymologically similar to Jabin) and was destroyed by fire approximately 1200 BC in the standard chronology.” 

1184 to 1144 BCE 5. Gideon in Hebrew means: Feeler, Hewer, also known as Jerub-Baal. Land had rest for the same forty years during Gideon’s judgeship before he died in 1144 [Judges 6:1-8,11-8:32]. He was the son of Joash which in Hebrew means: great warrior. Gideon was from the tribe of East Manasseh [1]. Jerub-Baal in Hebrew means: let baal contend. Gideon defeated the Midianites and ended their 7 year oppression. Gideon had 70 sons born to his wives [Judges 8:30-31].

“In 2019 a pottery sherd was recovered from the Khirbet al-Ra’I dig site in central Israel that included the name Yrb’l (Jerubba’al), the alternative name for Gideon. This sherd has been dated to 1100-1050 BC, or about a century after where we would place Gideon, and while it may not be linked to THE Jerubba’al, it does attest to the name. If the dating is correct, this may refer to someone that was named after the famous hero.”

1144 BCE Eli born 

1144 to 1141 BCE 6. Abimelech in Hebrew means: father of a king. 2 Samuel 11:21 Abimelech was one son of Gideon by a concubine and thus from the tribe of East Manasseh [2]. Questionable whether he should be counted as Judge or a king, for he was an evil tyrant that ruled for a mere 3 years [Judges 9:1-22-57]. Abimelech murdered 69 of Gideon’s sons, except for the youngest Jotham who hid and escaped.

“The great temple of Ba’al Bereth at Shechem shows a destruction by fire in this period, consistent with that attributed to Abimilech in Judges 9.”

1141 to 1118 BCE 7. Tola in Hebrew means: crimson, warm colour. Tola was from the tribe of Issachar [1] and served for 23 years [Judges 10:1-2]. Though Tola was from Issachar, he like Deborah, lived and judged in the ‘hill country* of Ephraim’ [Judges 10:1]. Also, both Eli and Samuel were from the tribe of Levi, yet both served at Shiloh in the territory of Ephraim. 

1124 to 1106 A period of 18 years of Ammonite oppression [Judges 10:8]

1118 to 1096 BCE 8. Jair the Gileadite, from the tribe of East Manasseh [3]. Jair in Hebrew means: JAH [or God] enlightens. Served for 22 years and was the father of 30 sons, who all administered cites in Gilead [Judges 10:3-5].

1106 to 1100 BCE 9. Jephthah judged Israel for 6 years [Judges 11:1-12:7]. It was exactly 300 years after Israel crossed the Jordan in 1406 BCE, that Jepthah began to serve  Israel by fighting the Ammonites [Judges 11:26, Joshua 13:9-11]. Jephthah the Gileadite in Hebrew means: opposer – 6 years. Judges 10:6-12:7. Jepthah was the son of a harlot and his father’s name was Gilead from the tribe of East Manasseh [4]. 

1100 to 1093 BCE  10. Ibzan served as a Judge for 7 years [Judges 12:8-10]

‘Many scholars believe that the Bethlehem referred to in this passage is the Bethlehem in the territory of the Tribe of Zebulun, in Galilee (Joshua 19:15), rather than the more famous Bethlehem in the Tribe of Judah.’ 

In Hebrew, his name means: splendid. Jewish tradition supports Ibzan with being the same person as Boaz and from the tribe of Judah. Yet the chronology of the two men does not fit and as the Judges were principally from the north of Israel during the period, this lends weight to Ibzan representing the tribe of Zebulun [1]. Ibzan had 30 sons also 30 daughters. 

1093 to 1083 BCE 11. Elon served as a Judge for 10 years [Judges 12:9-12]. Elon was from the tribe of Zebulun [2] and his name in Hebrew means: oak, strong. 

1090 Samuel born – High Priest Eli had sons, Hophni and Phinehas [1 Samuel 1:3] who had become priests at age 25 [Numbers 8:24]. Eli’s eyes were growing dim when he was 66 years old, while Samuel was still a boy [1 Samuel 3:1-2; 4:15]; of about 12 years of age in 1078 BCE. Thus Eli’s age and that of his sons, means Samuel was born about 1090 BCE.

1083 to 1075 BCE 12. Abdon who served as a Judge for 8 years [Judges 12:13-15]. He like Ibzan, Jair and Gideon had a large family, with 40 sons and 30 grandsons and was the son of Hillel the Pirathanite. Abdon was from the tribe of Ephraim [1].Abdon in Hebrew means: service, servile.

1086 – 1046 BCE 13. Eli became a Judge at age 58 in 1086. Eli ruled from Shiloh in  Ephraim, though he was from the tribe of Levi [1]. In Hebrew, his name means: JAH is High. Eliled Israel as a Levitical high priest for 40 years and died at age 98 in 1046 BCE [1st Samuel 1:1-4:18; 14:3]. His specific line of descent was via Ithamar, the younger of Aaron’s two surviving sons. 

1086 Samson born

1070 Saul born 

1066 to 1046 14. Samson judged Israel for twenty years from the age of 20 until he died at the hands of the Philistines at age 40 [Judges 16:31]. His name literally means: the Sun or Sun man. and by extension distinguished, strong. Samson’s death culminated in the destruction of their main Palace and Temple complex and forty years of Philistine oppression from 1086 to 1046 [Judges 13:1]. Samson’s genealogical origin is not clear. It is normally attributed to the tribe of Dan, as his adoptive father Manoah was a Danite. Though events in Judges chapters 17 and 18 elude to the tribe of Ephraim and some commentators have suggested a strong case for Samson’s mother descending from the tribe of Judah [2].

1050 Jonathan born – ten years older than David

1046 – 1015 BCE 15. Samuel was a Nazarite like Samson [1 Samuel 1:11] and Judged [1 Samuel 7:15] as a Priest like Eli, from the age of 44 for 31 years [1 Samuel 3:1; 13:13]. Samuel in Hebrew means: heard of God. Samuel stands out as one of the final Judges and first in a line of prophets that lasted till Malachi and then John the Baptist in the New Testament [1 Samuel 3:20-21, 1 Chronicles 9:22]. Samuel anointed both Saul and David as kings. Samuel became Judge when Eli died at 98 years of age [1 Samuel 4:15-18] after 40 years as judge and the capture of the Ark 0f the Covenant seven months before the ending of the Philistine oppression by Samson [1 Samuel 6:1]. The Ark was returned and spent some twenty years in Kiriath-jearim [1 Samuel 2:18-4:1; 6:21; 7:1-8:1] from 1046 to 1026 when Saul was anointed king. When the Ark was captured, the Philistines burned Shiloh [1 Samuel 4:12-17]. Even though this is not stated in the bible, excavations confirm the the city’s destruction.

Did the Philistines destroy the Israelite Sanctuary at Shiloh? The Archaeological Evidence, Biblical Archaeology Review, June 1975: ‘Ms. Buhl, a Keeper of the National Museum of Denmark, recently wrote part of the final report on the Danish excavations at Shiloh. Ms. Buhl’s task was admittedly complicated by the fact that the Shiloh excavations had been carried out by a Danish expedition about 40 years earlier – in three campaigns in the 1920’s and early 1930’s under the direction of Hans Kjaer. Kjaer tragically died of dysentery a month after the last season began. As a result, no final report was ever written – until Ms. Buhl and a colleague assumed the task four decades later. Prior to his death, Hans Kjaer did publish two preliminary reports on the excavations containing a major finding for students of the Bible: Shiloh had been destroyed in about 1050 B.C., about the time that the Philistines had captured the Ark of the Lord – after it had been taken from the central sanctuary at Shiloh to lead the Israelite forces in battle. It seemed reasonable to conclude that the Philistines had destroyed the Israelite sanctuary at Shiloh following the fateful defeat of the Israelite army near Aphek.’

A twenty year period of peace ensued with the Philistines [1 Samuel 7:9-13]. Samuel was from the tribe of Levi [2] [1 Chronicles 6:31-33] and went on a circuit year by year to Bethel [in Ephraim on the border with Benjamin], Gilgal [in West Manasseh, near border with Benjamin] and Mizpah [in Benjamin] and judged from each city. Then he would return to his home in Ramah, located in the land of Benjamin [1 Samuel 7:16-17]. Samuel unwisely made his two sons judges when he was old, at about age 60 [1 Samuel 8:1-3]. They were so wicked, corrupt and unpopular; Israel demanded a king – to be like the other nations – and their rule was short-lived. Judges 21:25 ESV ‘In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.’

1040 BCE David born

1030 to 1026 BCE 16. Joel which in Hebrew means: JAH is God. 17. Abijah which in Hebrew means: JAH is Father. They judged in Beersheba in the land of Simeon.

“All of these judges are found in the book of Judges except for Eli and Samuel, who are found in 1st Samuel. Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, and Samuelare mentioned in (Hebrews 11:32) as “Heroes Of The Faith.” The “Spirit of the Lord” is said to have come upon 4 of these judges: Othniel (Judges 3:10), Gideon (Judges 6:34), Jephthah (Judges 11:29), and Samson (Judges 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14).”

 1026 Israel gathered at Mizpah to witness the anointed Prince Saul [I Samuel 8:3-22; 10:1 17-24], where previously the tribe of Benjamin had been nearly exterminated [Judges 20:1-48]. Samuel was age 64 and Saul was 44 years old – the exact same age as Samuel when he became a judge.

1025 Jabesh Gilead besieged by the Ammonites – Saul breaks the deadlock with a 330,000 man army and Samuel confirms and crowns Saul as king at age 65 and Saul 45 years old – at Gilgal [I Samuel 11:14-15]

1025 – 1010 Saul reigned for fifteen years and died – 1 Samuel 13:1, Acts 13:21, 1 Samuel 7:1-2.

1023 Jonathan defeated and killed the Philistine Garrison at Geba; after Saul had been king for two years [1 Samuel 13:1-4]. Jonathan single-handedly defeated 20 Philistines, scaling cliffs at Michmash at age 27 [I Samuel 14:1-52]. King Saul fights a war against Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah and the Philistines. 

1022 – 998 BCE Ahmose I – first king of the XVIII Dynasty – brother of Kamose, who ruled 3/5 years, as the last king of the XVII Dynasty

1022 Saul with a 210,000 man army, defeated King Agag the Amalekite; but by allowing him to live, loses the kingship [1 Samuel 15:1-35]. The same year, David at 17, is anointed by Samuel. David then entered the service of Saul at the Palace [1 Samuel 16:1-23]. David subsequently defeated the giant Goliath at the Battle of Sochoh with  the Philistines [1 Samuel 17:33]. The word ‘youth’ is the Hebrew word na’ar. The same word is used of Joseph at age 17. Jonathan age 28 befriends David who is 18. David becomes more famous fighting in Saul’s army [1 Samuel 18:1-7]. 

1020 David marries Saul’s daughter Michal, his first wife at age 20 and pays a dowry of 200 Philistine penises

1019 War with Philistines – end in defeat and victory for David 

1016 BCE David driven away by Saul after 6 years in the Palace. David living as a fugitive; spending 7 years on the run from age 23 to 30. 

1015 BCE Samuel died age 75 years in the 10th year of Saul’s reign confirmed by Josephus [1 Samuel 25:1], 5 years before Saul’s death. David’s wife Michal given to Paltiel 

1013 Philistines attack Keilah at harvest time and again defeated by David and his loyal mercenary followers 

1012 David cuts Saul’s robe in the cave he was hiding in, when Saul stopped to rest 

1011 Philistines invade the land and King Saul finally gives up his pursuit of David. David married Abigail 

1010 King Saul – 1 Samuel 31 Battle with the Philistines at Mount Gilbo – died age 60 and his son Jonathan died at age 40. David was 30 when Saul died [2 Samuel 5:4] 

1010 to 1008 BCE Saul’s son from his concubine Rizpah, Ish-bosheth briefly ruled Israel at age 40 [2 Samuel 2:10-11] 

1010 to 1003 BCE Reign of King David over the Kingdom of Judah from Hebron, for 7 years and 6 months, and from 1003 to 970 David reign over both the Kingdom of Judah and Israel from Jerusalem [2 Samuel 5:5]. David was a contemporary of Amenhotep I, or Djeserkare, the 2nd king – ruled either 21/27 years – and Thutmose I or Aakheperkara], the 3rd king – ruled 6/28 years – of the XVIII Dynasty. 

999 BCE Solomon born

998 – 978 BCE Amenhotep I the 2nd king of the XVIII Dynasty 

990 Rape of Tamar by her brother Amnon, age 20 [2 Samuel 13:1-2] 

988 Absalom has Amnon killed and flees to his grandfather, the king of Geshur 

985 Absalom returns to Jerusalem age 23 

983 David reconciles with Absalom, then his son plans mutiny for four years to take over David’s throne 

979 Absalom insurrection: declared king in Hebron and dies at age 29 

978 – 972 BCE Thutmose I – 3rd king of XVIII Dynasty 

972 – 960 BCE Thutmose II – 4th king of XVIII Dynasty 

971 Rehoboam born to Naamah the Ammonite princess and Solomon 

970 David died age 70 [2 Samuel 5:4] 

970 to 930 BCE Solomon reigned and died age 69 [1 Kings 11:42] 

966 Beginning of the building of Solomon’s Temple in 4th year of his reign – 480 years after the Exodus [1 Kings 6:1] 

960 to 945 BCE Queen Hatshepsut was the 5th Pharaoh of XVIII Dynasty. Queen Hatshepsut or Maatkare, also known as the Queen of Sheba and she visited King Solomon having a love affair and a son. 

959 Temple completed in 7 years [1 Kings 6:38] 

945 to 912 BCE Thutmose III or Menkheperre – 6th King of XVIII Dynasty – contemporary of Solomon, Rehoboam and Jeroboam

The kings of Judah ruled just shy of 350 years from the death of Solomon until captivity by the Chaldeans and the kings of Israel ruled just over 200 years until the captivity by the Assyrians. There is much debate on the synchronising of the two lines of kings. 

The answer is found in the fact that co-regencies over lap, inclusive counting is used for non-accession years and non-inclusive counting for accession years of monarchs, as per various scribes at different points in history. Thus, the chronology in the Bible is accurate, when understood from these perspectives. A final point is that Judah used the 1st of Tishri the 7th month as their new year [September/October] and Israel in turn used the 1st of Abib or Nisan the 1st month as theirs [March/April]. 

930 to 913 BCE 1 Judah. Rehoboam crowned first king of new Kingdom of Judah at 41 years of age and ruled 17 years

“The solar eclipse on June 2, 930 BCE in Gemini (‘twin brothers’ as a possible symbol of two countries with the kings of the similar names, Rehoboam and Jeroboam, after Solomon’s reign) might be symbolically related to the end of Solomon’s reign which lasted for about forty years. These dates correlate with extra-Biblical sources.”

930 to 910 BCE 1Israel. Jeroboam I first king of new Kingdom of Israel – All the kings of Israel were deemed evil, for there was not one counted as righteous except perhaps King Jehu in part. 

913 to 910 2J. Abijah 

912 to 887 BCE Amenhotep II 7th King of XVIII Dynasty 

910 to 869 3J. Asa 

910 to 909 2I. Nadab

909 to 886 3I. Baasha – murderd Jeroboam and all his family

887 to 877 BCE Thutmose IV – 8th king of XVIII Dynasty – famous for his Dream Stele 

886 to 885 4I. Elah 5I. Zimri ruled 7 days and murdered Baasha and his family

885 to 880 6I. Tibni

885 to 874 7I. Omri

877 to 840 BCE Amenhotep III – The Magnificent 9th king of the XVIII Dynasty – Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Amenhotep III ruled Egypt at the height of its power; building numerous temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. 

874 – 853 8I. Ahab and his Queen Jezebel – most evil king of Israel and wholesale child sacrifice during his reign 

874 to 846 Elijah

869 to 844 4J. Jehoshaphat 

853 – 852 9I. Ahaziah 

852 – 841 10I. Joram 

848 to 800 Elisha

844 to 836 5J. Jehoram 

841 to 814 11I. Jehu who was partially Good and principally bad – murdered many people and made piles of the heads of 70 royal princes [2 Kings 10:8]

840 to 824 BCE Amenhotep IV – 10th king of XVIII Dynasty. 

“Amenhotep IV became a pacifist, a monotheistic revolutionary who turned Egypt’s religious structure upside-down with his insistence that they worship one god, the sun (Aten); he changed his name to Akhetaten as a result. Abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship of Aten. This change was not popular with the Egyptian people and he was nearly wiped from Egyptian history. Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc… He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.”

836 to 835 6J. Ahaziah 7J. Queen Athaliah 

835 to 795 8J. Joash – began righteous, turning to evil in his old age 

824 to 821 BCE 11th and 12 rulers of XVIII Dynasty uncertain – Smenkhkare for 1 year and Neferneferuaten a Queen for 2 years, probably Nefertiti 

821 to 812 BCE Tutankhaten – 13th king of XVIII Dynasty. There were two more rulers after him with the dynasty ending 32 years later in 780 after his death at 18. He ascended the Egyptian throne at age 9 and changed his name to Tutankhamun; reinstating Amun worship over Aten, after just 20 years. 

814 to 798 12I. Jehoahaz 

810 to 790 Jonah [Prophet of Israel]

798 to 782 13I. Jehoash [Joash]

795 to 766 9J. Amaziah – began righteous, turning to evil in his old age 

793 to 753 14I. Jeroboam II

791 to 739 10J. Uzziah 

790 to 760 Joel 

785 to 725 Hosea 

780 to 760 Amos

753 to 752 15I. Zechariah – reigned for 6 months 16I. Shallum – 1 month

752 to 732 17I. Pekah 

752 to 742 18I. Menahem 

750 to 695 Isaiah 

749 to 733 11J. Jotham 

745 to 725 Micah

742 to 740 19I. Pekahiah

736 to 720 12J. Ahaz 

735 Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria planned to attack King Ahaz of Judah and install a puppet king, in the hope of a three way alliance against the King of Assyria, Tiglath-Pileser III [745-727 BCE]. Ephraim and Syrian War 735 to 732 BCE. Beginning of Ephraim’s fall, within 65 years [Isaiah 7:8].

732 to 723 20I. Hoshea – child sacrifice. From the first king Jeroboam I to the 20th king Hoshea was 208 years and the total years for reigns – not including co-regencies is 236 years. 

722 to 718 BCE The fall of the Kingdom of Israel to the Assyrian King Sargon II [722-705 BCE]

720 to 691 13J. Hezekiah 

696 to 641 14J. Manasseh 

670 to 667 BCE End of 65 years for Ephraim’s complete fall during reign of Assyrian King Esarhaddon [681-669 BCE]

660 to 630 BCE Nahum [Prophet of Judah]

641 to 639 15J. Amon 

639 to 608 16J. Josiah [2 Kings 23:16-17, 20, 23 – 18th year, 621 BCE] 17J. Jehoahaz 3 months 

630 to 620 Zephaniah

630 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II born 

628 to 588 BCE Jeremiah 

620 to 610 Habakkuk

608 to 597 18J. Jehoiakim 19J. Jehoiakin 3 months 

607 to 587/586 BCE The fall of the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem falls 587 and Temple is burned and destroyed 10th Av [Monday 28.08]

606 to 534 Daniel [Prophet of the captivity] 

605 Edom invades and occupies Judah Negev

597 to 586 20J. Zedekiah– From the first king Rehoboam to the 20th king Zedekiah was 344 years and the total years for reigns – not including co-regencies is 387 years. 

596 – 574 Ezekiel 

587 Obadiah 

562 Nebuchadnezzar II died – Tree banded for 7 times 360 prophetic years, equals 2520 years [Daniel 4:20-23]. 

“On March 25, 1957, the six ECSC [European Coal and Steel Community] members [Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg] signed the two Treaties of Rome… [one] Euratom, which was designed to facilitate cooperation in atomic energy development… and the European Economic Community (EEC).”

539 Fall of Babylon – Cyrus II the Great of the Medo-Persian Empire allows a remnant of the tribe of Judah to return to Jerusalem [Ezekiel 4:5-6]; 390 years after the death of King Solomon 

536 BCE Temple foundation laid 

520 to 518 Haggai [Prophet of the return to Jerusalem] 

520 to 510 Zechariah 

516 Temple finished and Ezra goes to Jerusalem 

457 BCE [Daniel 9:24-27] 70 Weeks Prophecy* 486 1/2 years to 30 CE [490 years minus 3.5 years as the Messiah taken in the midst of the ‘week’]. Ezra returns to Jerusalem from Babylon. 

444 Nehemiah to Jerusalem 

420 to 397 Malachi

170 BCE to 1990 CE Age Pisces – The Fish 

165 BCE Antiochus Epithanes IV material abomination of the Temple occurred on same day – 422 years later – as original destruction in 587 BCE, the 28.08. 

3 BCE Birth of John the Baptist on Passover in the Spring. Birth of Christ 6 months later in the Autumn, on the 11th September – the New Moon of the 1st day of Tishri, the 7th month.

30 CE Death of the Messiah on the Passover of the 14th Abib or Nisan – the 5th April.

Beginning of Ephesus Era of the Church [Revelation 2:1-7] — Christ’s death the beginning of the end of the physical sacrifices for 2300 years [Daniel 8:13-14, 25-27].

69 – 155 Polycarp Bishop of Smyrna and disciple of the Apostle John

70 CE Destruction of Temple 

100 John died 

130 to 196 Polycrates Bishop of Ephesus  

250 to 336 Arius 

300 CE Beginning of Smyrna Era [Revelation 2:8-11] 

650 Beginning of Pergamos Era [Revelation 2:12-17] 

800 Crowning of Charlemagne and count of 1260 years as per Isaac Newton 

1000 BCE 1260 [+30], 1290 [+45] and 1335 days for years [Daniel 12:10-12, Revelation 11:3; 12:6]

“The Holy Roman Empire established itself as the most powerful state. The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen… In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all’lsola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.”

1050 Beginning of Thyatira Era [Revelation 2:18-29] 

1140 to 1218 Peter Waldo – Pierre Vaudes, or de Vaux

1350 Beginning of Sardis Era [Revelation 3:1-6] 

1500 Beginning of Philadelphia Era [Revelation 3:7-13] – Protestant Reformation in 1517 and King James Bible 1611 

1844 BCE*

“From a Christian point of view, 1844 should be a memorable year, the year when God began the last part of the plan of salvation. 

There were many events that happened this year that have affected the world and people… 1) The not unknown Karl Marx began writing his work, The Communist Manifesto this year. Through this manifesto, Marx sought to kill God, and this manifesto came to play a major role in the spread of communism, primarily in Eastern Europe, Russia and later also in China, Cuba, and some other countries in Asia. These countries had or have, not entirely unexpectedly, according to the contents of the manifesto, non-Christian or anti-Christian regimes. We can probably state today that communism managed to put an end to the spread of the gospel where communism became dominant, even though there were and are underground groups in most countries.

2) … Charles Darwin, began in 1844 to collect his notes and thoughts for a book later known as The Origin of Species. According to Wikipedia, the book’s full title is: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. What Darwin [was] trying to do with this book is kick legs under the Bible’s creation theory and thus kill God’s claim that He created the heavens and the earth and all living things… and rested on the seventh day which He declared holy and blessed. Darwin’s theory of evolution… has been hammered into the school system for more than 150 years, and it is assumed that no critical questions will be raised about the theory. Already from the kindergarten stage, children today are taught (read: indoctrinated) this doctrine, while Christianity has been forbidden to learn (read: preach). Christianity has been effectively gagged into silence with the help of the so-called human rights. The theory of evolution has also gradually gained a foothold in several liberal churches, it has almost been implemented as a dogma in many denominations.

3) In the same year, 1844, an Iranian named Baha´u´llâh founded the Baha´i religion. This is the religion that most UN delegates profess today. This religion has as its main goal to unite all religions, merge them, and can be called an ecumenical forge. 

The telegraph. On May 24, 1844, Samuel Morse sent the first telegram from Washington to Baltimore, and the text he sent was apt: What hath God wrought? The railway. The first locomotive was built in 1813, and when George Stephenson built his Rocket in 1829 this innovation still needed to be developed. When the first railway line was planned in Dhio March 20, 1844, the development of the railway accelerated. And with these two innovations, the telegraph and the train, the world began to shrink. Modern archaeology. Saw the light of day in 1798 and thanks to this, the Elamite cuneiform was translated for the first time in 1844. 

This gave help to open the book of Daniel, which until then had been a sealed book… Codex Siniaticus Codex Siniaticus was found in a rubbish bin in an old monastery at Mont Sinai in Egypt.”

1900 Beginning of Laodicea Era [Revelation 3:14-22] 

1990 to 4150 Age of Aquarius – The Water Bearer 

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012:

“The Yuga Cycle doctrine tells us that we are now living in the Kali Yuga; the age of darkness, when moral virtue and mental capabilities reach their lowest point in the cycle. The Indian epic The Mahabharata describes the Kali Yuga as the period when the “World Soul” is Black in hue; only one quarter of virtue remains, which slowly dwindles to zero at the end of the Kali Yuga. Men turn to wickedness; disease, lethargy, anger, natural calamities, anguish and fear of scarcity dominate. Penance, sacrifices and religious observances fall into disuse. All creatures degenerate. Change passes over all things, without exception.” 

2025 End of Ascending Kali Yuga Age of 2,700 years and beginning of transitional Period of 300 years

2029 13th April Apophis Asteroid 

2068 12th April Apophis Asteroid 

2325 End of Transitional Period between Kali Yuga and new Satya Yuga Golden Age

2603 BCE 30,000 years since creation of Adam and Eve

3333 End of Millennium – Battle of Armageddon Magog, Meshech and Tubal [Revelation 20:13, 7-10; Ezekiel 38:1-23; 39:1-29] – Year of the Snake, time of the Dragon

4150 – 6310 Age of Capricorn – The Goat. Year 4150 equals 49 ages – a Biblical Jubilee [Leviticus 25:8-12] – of 2160 years since 101,690 BCE and the first Age of Aquarius

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Heaven & Hell

The doctrine of Heaven and Hell is a fundamental teaching in Christianity. On the one hand it provides great comfort to mourners that their beloved one has gone to a better place – to be with God in Heaven. Or have they, for all must admit to the thought that insidiously enters into our mind… ‘what if they were not that good really and have actually gone to Hell’, to join someone else, not so pleasant.

Is this prominent and powerful dogma the truth as taught by the Messiah and the apostles, or is it a false doctrine based on pagan, gnostic and demonic traditions?

Let’s begin with Heaven.

There are three heavens described in the scriptures.

1. Earth’s atmosphere: Genesis 7:11–12, Job 35:11, Jeremiah 16:4

2. Outer Space: Genesis 26:4, Deuteronomy 1:10, Psalm 8:3, Isaiah 13:10

3. God’s abode and throne: which is beyond the matter of the Universe. Maybe it is caught up in dark matter. Either way, it is in different dimensions and spacetime and what the Bible would call the spirit realm – Deuteronomy 26:15, 2 Corinthians 12:2, Revelation 4:1–2.

No human has ever gone to heaven [Acts 2:29, 34].

“No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.” [John 3:13 ESV]

Going to heaven when you die is a lie. When an animal dies, it is dead and gone forever. When a human dies, they are dead as in a long sleep [Romans 6:23]. Their spirit is retained by the Creator [Ecclesiastes 3:21].

Similar to a CD or cassette player, which represents the body. It’s only function is to play the cassette which has the required information on it. The Eternal keeps the cassette, our spirit. It is at a later date when all are resurrected that the data on the cassette, our spirit, will be reanimated in a new body [1 Corinthians 15:12–56].

Similarly, there are three hells described in the Bible.

1. Hades or Sheol: refers to the earth beneath our feet and where one who has died is buried – Genesis 37:35, Job 14:13, Psalm 88:3, Matthew 11:23, Luke 10:15.

2. Tartaroo: a specially created place designed to restrain specific angelic beings who rebelled out of time and their demonic offspring who should not have come into existence – Genesis 6:1–4, 1 Peter 3:19–20, 2 Peter 2:4–5, Jude 6.

3. Gehenna: a consuming fire and where the false doctrine about hell originates – Malachi 4:1–3, John 15:6, 2 Peter 3:7–13, Revelation 19:20; 20:10–15; 21:8.

As when we die we do not go to heaven, we do not go to hell either. But, there is a time in the future when all humankind will be given a choice – going full circle to Eden and Adam and Eve – and those who choose not to go with the one that leads to eternal life will be consumed in a fireball of destruction on this planet – a literal hellfire. There will be a new Earth, but anyone not getting with the program will be on the old one that will cease to exist with anyone unlucky enough to be on it [Revelation 21:1–5; 22:1–5].

And that is what the Bible actually says regarding Heaven and Hell.

What is a concern, is that pretty much every doctrine your local Catholic or Protestant church teaches you is incorrect. One wonders why people are disenfranchised with religion? That is why. They are not telling the truth. The problem isn’t with God or the Bible, its with people who claim to represent them and speak their own words and not what the scriptures say.

Based on an edited excerpt in answer to questions on Quora: Is there heaven and hell after death? – Where does a person go after they die? – Is there life after death?

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

post scriptum

The word rapture is not in the scriptures per se, though the concept certainly is [Matthew 24:40–41, 1 Thessalonians 4:17, 1 Corinthians 15:51–52].

Is it a teaching or doctrine of the Bible? Yes, it is and it is not ‘made up’.

A more accurate biblical name for the rapture is the first resurrection [1 Corinthians 15:20, 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 4:16, James 1:18, Revelation 20:5].

It applies to all true believers just prior to the Son of Man’s return at the beginning of the ‘Great Tribulation’ and the ‘time of Jacob’s trouble’ which precedes the ‘Day of the Lord’.

Later, there will be a second resurrection, where all who have lived and died yet not believed, will be given the opportunity to live again [ 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, Revelation 20:11–15].

Many who call themselves christian deny the hope of the resurrection [1 Corinthians 15:16–19].

Based on an edited excerpt in answer to the question on Quora: Someone told me that the word rapture or the rapture is not actually in the Bible and that it is made up. Is that true?

The Mighty Man

In the Book of Judges we are introduced to the men and women who became a Judge of Israel. Unlike most of the Kings of Judah and all of the Kings of Israel who were evil in the sight of the Eternal, the Judges were known for their spirituality and relationship with the Creator. Samson is a great example – like David or Jacob – of a powerful man of God who was also a flawed individual. This does not diminish his spirituality or his relationship with the Eternal. God does not judge the flaws in a person if they have a heart that seeks righteousness. This type of person has the Holy Spirit and doesn’t just do nice things for others. A converted person grows in thinking like God and becoming motivated like God. An inexplicable transformation that is difficult to quantify unless one undergoes the experience in their own life.

Judges 13:1-25

English Standard Version

And the people of Israel again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, so the Lord gave them into the hand of the Philistines for forty years [1086 – 1046 BCE].

These forty years began at the birth of Samson and ended with his death. The last twenty years coincided with the judgeship of Samson from age twenty to forty. The Philistines descend from Mizra and today include the Hispanic-Latino peoples of Central and South America; with the foremost nation being Mexico [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor].  

There was a certain man of Zorah, of the tribe of the Danites, whose name was Manoah. And his wife was barren and had no children. 3 And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman and said to her, “Behold, you are barren and have not borne children, but you shall conceive and bear a son. 4 Therefore be careful and drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, 5 for behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. No razor shall come upon his head, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womband he shall begin to save Israel from the hand of the Philistines.” 

These verses reveal that Manoah was from the tribe of Dan and by inference that his wife was too, though this is not stated, nor is her name given. Many postulate that  Manoah’s wife was actually from the tribe of Judah. This is to subscribe a dual lineage  to Samson and equate his supposed future descendant, the Antichrist as an apostate version of Christ, also with a Lion of Judah credential. Yair Davidy of Brit-Am Israel makes the claim that Samson’s lineage also includes the Messianic tribe of Judah.

Brit-Am Israel Newsletter, 1999 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson the superman hero came from the Tribe of Dan but his mother was from Judah. Samson, in some respects, was considered a forerunner of the [still future] Messiah who will come from Judah but his mother, according to the Midrash will be of the Tribe of Dan.’

Samson may well have a dual lineage, though not the one that most people might think. The Bible makes clear that the true Messiah has already been [Matthew 16:16] and Christ’s biological mother Mary, was descended from Judah; not the tribe of Dan [Luke 3:33].

6 Then the woman came and told her husband, “A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of the angel of God, very awesome. I did not ask him where he was from, and he did not tell me his name, 7 but he said to me, ‘Behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.’”

8 Then Manoah prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord, please let the man of God whom you sent come again to us and teach us what we are to do with the child who will be born.” 

9 And God listened to the voice of Manoah, and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field. But Manoah her husband was not with her. 10 So the woman ran quickly and told her husband, “Behold, the man who came to me the other day has appeared to me.” 11 And Manoah arose and went after his wife and came to the man and said to him, “Are you the man who spoke to this woman?” And he said, “I am.” 12 And Manoah said, “Now when your words come true, what is to be the child’s manner of life, and what is his mission?” 13 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “Of all that I said to the woman let her be careful. 14 She may not eat of anything that comes from the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, or eat any unclean thing. All that I commanded her let her observe.”

It is curious that the angel of the Lord had met with Manoah’s wife privately and, twice. Reading between the lines, had the Eternal’s Messenger played a role in healing her womb for a miraculous conception. The Son of Man, John the Baptist and Jeremiah all had the blessing of the Creator’s Holy Spirit working with them prior to their births, while yet still inside their mothers [Jeremiah 1:5, Luke 1:15, 41, Matthew 1:20]. 

Was a wondrous working performed for Samson’s mother? If so, it casts doubt on Manoah being Samson’s biological father. A similar scenario as that of Christ and his adoptive father, Joseph [Matthew 1:16].

15 Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “Please let us detain you and prepare a young goat for you.” 16 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “If you detain me, I will not eat of your food. But if you prepare a burnt offering, then offer it to the Lord.” (For Manoah did not know that he was the angel of the Lord.) 17 And Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “What is your name, so that, when your words come true, we may honor you?” 18 And the angel of the Lord said to him, “Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?” 19 So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering, and offered it on the rock to the Lord, to the one who works wonders, and Manoah and his wife were watching. 20 And when the flame went up toward heaven from the altar, the angel of the Lord went up in the flame of the altar. Now Manoah and his wife were watching, and they fell on their faces to the ground.

21 The angel of the Lord appeared no more to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of the Lord. 22 And Manoah said to his wife, “We shall surely die, for we have seen God.” 23 But his wife said to him, “If the Lord had meant to kill us, he would not have accepted a burnt offering and a grain offering at our hands, or shown us all these things, or now announced to us such things as these.” 24 And the woman bore a son andcalled his name Samson [H8123 – Shimshown: ‘like the Sun’].And the young man grew, and the Lord blessed him. 25 And the Spirit of the Lord began to stir him in Mahaneh-dan, between Zorah and Eshtaol [cities of Dan].

It is clear that Samson grew up in Manoah’s household as a son and that Manoah’s wife physically gave birth to Samson. What is not categorically stated is whether Manoah is Samson’s father or what family line Samson’s mother actually was. She may not have even been from a tribe of Israel. Regardless, Samson’s mother not descending from the tribe of Dan is supported by the prophecy in Revelation 7:4-8 of no-one in the time of the end being saved from Dan. Though it is not complete proof, for there may well have been converted Danites between the eponymous Dan and the future sealing of the 144,000 saints. Yet, placing all the scriptures regarding Dan and his tribe together, it paints the possibly remarkable picture of a. no Danite, has ever been called and b. Samson with only one biological parent – as the Messiah – was not from the tribe of Dan. 

Judges 14:1-20

English Standard Version

Samson went down to Timnah, and at Timnah he saw one of the daughters of the Philistines. 2 Then he came up and told his father and mother, “I saw one of the daughters of the Philistines at Timnah. Now get her for me as my wife.”3 But his father and mother said to him, “Is there not a woman among the daughters of your relatives, or among all our people, that you must go to take a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines?” But Samson said to his father, “Get her for me, for she is right in my eyes.”

4 His father and mother did not know that it was from the Lord, for he was seeking an opportunity against the Philistines. At that time the Philistines ruled over Israel. 5 Then Samson went down with his father and mother to Timnah, and they came to the vineyards of Timnah. And behold, a young lion [symbol of Dan & Judah] came toward him roaring. 

Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and although he had nothing in his hand, he tore the lion in pieces as one tears a young goat. But he did not tell his father or his mother what he had done. 7 Then he went down and talked with the woman, and she was right in Samson’s eyes.

8 After some days he returned to take her. And he turned aside to see the carcass of the lion, and behold, there was a swarm of bees in the body of the lion, and honey. 9 He scraped it out into his hands and went on, eating as he went. And he came to his father and mother and gave some to them, and they ate. But he did not tell them that he had scraped the honey from the carcass of the lion.

10 His father went down to the woman, and Samson prepared a feast there, for so the young men used to do. 11 As soon as the people saw him, they brought thirty companions to be with him. 12 And Samson said to them, “Let me now put a riddle to you. If you can tell me what it is, within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes, 13 but if you cannot tell me what it is, then you shall give me thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes.” And they said to him, “Put your riddle, that we may hear it.” 14 And he said to them,

“Out of the eater [meat] came something to eat [honey]. Out of the strong [lion] came something sweet.”

And in three days they could not solve the riddle.

One commentator says regarding Samson’s riddle – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson’s riddle tells us how to interpret Jacob’s blessing upon Judah. Judah was to bring forth the King-Messiah, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, who would die and be raised from the dead. That was Judah’s calling, and Jesus was indeed born of the tribe of Judah… Samson’s riddle may also be a prophecy that the descendants of the tribe of Dan will one day try to destroy the tribe of Judah [or Ephraim] in jealous revenge for God’s judgment on their idolatry. 

From the carcass of the young lion [Judah] the tribe of Dan (typified by the bees) will attempt to produce their own golden age (symbolized by honey) and confer immortality on mankind through occult enlightenment. The conspiracy of the tribe of Dan, aka the Synagogue of Satan, [is] to steal the messianic birthright from the tribe of Judah and establish a false messianic kingdom in Israel…’

15 On the fourth day they said to Samson’s wife, “Entice your husband to tell us what the riddle is, lest we burn you and your father’s house with fire. Have you invited us here to impoverish us?” 16 And Samson’s wife wept over him and said, “You only hate me; you do not love me. You have put a riddle to my people, and you have not told me what it is.” And he said to her, “Behold, I have not told my father nor my mother, and shall I tell you?” 17 She wept before him the seven days that their feast lasted, and on the seventh day he told her, because she pressed him hard. Then she told the riddle to her people. 18 And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down,

“What is sweeter than honey? What is stronger than a lion?”

And he said to them, “If you had not plowed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle.”

Samson assumes these men have slept with his wife.

19 And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon and struck down [H5221 – nakah: ‘slew, slayed’] thirty men of the town and took their spoil and gave the garments to those who had told the riddle. In hot anger he went back to his father’s house. 20 AndSamson’s wife was given to his companion, who had been his best man.

A very short marriage. Rightly or wrongly we obtain an impression of a man spoiled by his parents. Knowing your son is set apart by the Eternal for a special calling appears to have been inflated in Samson’s parent’s and in Samson’s own eyes. It was probably drilled into him from a young age. He displays a level of immaturity, impetuousness, and vanity in his, ‘get me that woman now’ attitude. Samson had brothers, though maybe he was the eldest and all hopes were pinned on him. 

Samson’s riddle to the Philistines was cocky and condescending, knowing they would never work it out. The threat of burning by fire was a typical Philistine response. His wife deserves an award for acting and perseverance and, yet Samson either displays weakness of character or a perverseness to reveal the answer, when he had held out nearly seven days. Why reveal the answer then? It is at odds that Samson would murder thirty men in cold blood, when the Spirit from the Lord had come upon him.

Judges 15:1-20

English Standard Version

After some days, at the time of wheat harvest [Feast of Tabernacles], Samson went to visit his wife with a young goat. And he said, “I will go in to my wife in the chamber.” But her father would not allow him to go in. 2 And her father said, “I really thought that you utterly hated her, so I gave her to your companion. Is not her younger sister more beautiful than she? Please take her instead.”

 3 And Samson said to them, “This time I shall be innocent in regard to the Philistines, when I do them harm.” 4 So Samson went and caught 300 foxes and took torches. And he turned them tail to tail and put a torch between each pair of tails. 5 And when he had set fire to the torches, he let the foxes go into the standing grain of the Philistines and set fire to the stacked grain and the standing grain, as well as the olive orchards. 6 Then the Philistines said, “Who has done this?” And they said, “Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because he has taken his wife and given her to his companion.” And the Philistines came up and burned her and her father with fire. 

7 And Samson said to them, “If this is what you do, I swear I will be avenged on you, and after that I will quit.” 8 And he struck them hip and thigh with a great blow, and he went down and stayed in the cleft of the rock of Etam.

Then the Philistines came up and encamped in Judah and made a raid on Lehi. 10 And the men of Judah said, “Why have you come up against us?” They said, “We have come up to bind Samson, to do to him as he did to us.” 11 Then 3,000 men of Judah went down to the cleft of the rock of Etam, and said to Samson, “Do you not know that the Philistines are rulers over us? What then is this that you have done to us?” 

And he said to them, “As they did to me, so have I done to them.” 12 And they said to him, “We have come down to bind you, that we may give you into the hands of the Philistines.” And Samson said to them, “Swear to me that you will not attack me yourselves.” 13 They said to him, “No; we will only bind you and give you into their hands. We will surely not kill you.” So they bound him with two new ropes and brought him up from the rock.

14 When he came to Lehi, the Philistines came shouting to meet him. Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and the ropes that were on his arms became as flax that has caught fire, and his bonds melted off his hands. 15 And he found a fresh jawbone of a donkey, and put out his hand and took it, and with it he struck 1,000 men. 16 And Samson said,

“With the jawbone of a donkey, heaps upon heaps, with the jawbone of a donkey have I struck down a thousand men.” 

17 As soon as he had finished speaking, he threw away the jawbone out of his hand. And that place was called Ramath-lehi. 18 And he was very thirsty, and he called upon the Lord and said, “You have granted this great salvation by the hand of your servant, and shall I now die of thirst and fall into the hands of the uncircumcised?” 19 And God split open the hollow place [a well] that is at Lehi, and water came out from it. And when he drank, his spirit returned, and he revived. Therefore the name of it was called En-hakkore; it is at Lehi to this day. 20 And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines twenty years. 

Three thousand men is an astonishing number of men to apprehend just one strong man. This shows that Samson’s strength was not natural but supernatural. Some will say that Samson killing a thousand men must be an exaggeration. But this kind of awesome strength would be difficult to counter in hand to hand combat. 

A terminator in hyper drive so-to-speak. Again though, the Spirit descends upon Samson in acts of violence and death. I bet Samson was thirsty after fighting a thousand men. Again, his manner is haughty with the Eternal. So far, there is not much to like about Samson. Though the stand out point in this chapter, is the fact the Philistines went straight to the territory of Judah, deliberately bypassing the tribe of Dan. Why would they do that, if Samson was a Danite? Was Samson’s mother from the tribe of Judah after all?

Judges 16:1-31

English Standard Version

Samson went to Gaza, and there he saw a prostitute, and he went in to her. 2 The Gazites were told, “Samson has come here.” And they surrounded the place and set an ambush for him all night at the gate of the city. They kept quiet all night, saying, “Let us wait till the light of the morning; then we will kill him.” 3 But Samson lay till midnight, and at midnight he arose and took hold of the doors of the gate of the city and the two posts, and pulled them up, bar and all, and put them on his shoulders and carried them to the top of the hill that is in front of Hebron.

The immense weight of the doors, posts and crossbar was carried by Samson for an incredible forty miles. It does not say that the Spirit descended on Samson, though it is assumed that this must have been a supernatural feat? The visit to a prostitute is casually understated, as it was centuries earlier when Judah inadvertently lay with his daughter-in-law. One wonders if the seventh commandment applies in these instances, or only if one is married. Again, was Samson actually a descendant of Judah?

After this he loved a woman in the Valley of Sorek, whose name was Delilah [H1807 – Dliylah: ‘feeble, languishing]. 5 And the lords of the Philistines came up to her and said to her, “Seduce him, and see where his great strength lies, and by what means we may overpower him, that we may bind him to humble him. And we will each give you 1,100 pieces of silver.” 6 So Delilah said to Samson, “Please tell me where your great strength lies, and how you might be bound, that one could subdue you.”

There were five principal cities of the Philistines and so maybe five Lords, meant possibly 5,500 pieces of silver – or more likely, each Lord contributed 220 pieces each. This would have been winning the lottery. We learn that Delilah’s love of Samson was dwarfed by a huge prize fund and she was willingly corrupted. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Delilah looks like it comes from the verb (dalal), meaning to be low or hang down… Noun (dalla) denotes a drooping bundle of hair or threads of warp hanging in loom. Whoever made up the name Delilah must have tinkered quite a bit with the root. The question is: why? The author could have called her a Low Life and named her Dalah, Dallah or Dalalah, and be done with it. 

Whatever the reason (or intended meaning), the name Delilah as it is written looks like it contains the word (layela), meaning night, and that evokes an association with the name of the fabulous night creature Lilith.’

Abarim Publications drawing attention to Delilah’s association with Lilith, is a detail we will look into further. 

7 Samson said to her, “If they bind me with seven fresh bowstrings that have not been dried, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 8 Then the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven fresh bowstrings that had not been dried, and she bound him with them. 9 Now she had men lying in ambush in an inner chamber. And she said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he snapped the bowstrings, as a thread of flax snaps when it touches the fire. So the secret of his strength was not known.

Samson uses his inventive sense of humour, to test Delilah and she happily fails his test – with all eyes on her massive payload. Saying that, Samson’s relationship with Delilah, was a complex, toxic love story. Central to it, is a sexual theme of a Dominatrix who grew frustrated at playing a pretend role of dominance to Samson’s fake submissive role and so wore him down to reveal his secret, so she could truly bind his supernatural strength. 

10 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Behold, you have mocked me and told me lies. Please tell me how you might be bound.” 11 And he said to her, “If they bind me with new ropes that have not been used, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 12 So Delilah took new ropes and bound him with them and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And the men lying in ambush were in an inner chamber. But he snapped the ropes off his arms like a thread.

13 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Until now you have mocked me and told me lies. Tell me how you might be bound.” And he said to her, “If you weave the seven locks of my head with the web and fasten it tight with the pin, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 14 So while he slept, Delilah took the seven locks of his head and wove them into the web. And she made them tight with the pin and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he awoke from his sleep and pulled away the pin, the loom, and the web.

15 And she said to him, “How can you say, ‘I love you,’ when your heart is not with me? You have mocked me these three times, and you have not told me where your great strength lies.” 16 And when she pressed him hard with her words day after day, and urged him, his soul was vexed[grieved, annoyed]to death. 17 And he told her all his heart, and said to her, “A razor has never come upon my head, for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother’s womb. If my head is shaved, then my strength will leave me, and I shall become weak and be like any other man.”

18 When Delilah saw that he had told her all his heart, she sent and called the lords of the Philistines, saying, “Come up again, for he has told me all his heart.” Then the lords of the Philistines came up to her and brought the money in their hands. 

19 She made him sleep on her knees. And she called a man and had him shave off the seven locks [braid, plait] of his head [for his hair had not been cut from birth]. 

Many have pondered what the length of Samson’s hair and his strength may have in common. Related to this is the connection between electricity and hair. Most people have felt or seen static electricity in hair. For instance when walking by analogue television sets in the past. A series of articles discuss the relevance of long hair and also its conductivity not just of physical electricity but the ramifications of being a spiritual conduit as well. 

The Spiritual Nature of Hair, Deva Kaur Khalsa – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Consider the possibility that the hair on your head is there to do more than just look good… Left uncut, your hair will grow to a particular length and then stop all by itself at the correct length for you… hair is an amazing gift of nature… which increases vitality, intuition, and tranquility.

… Often, when people were conquered or enslaved, their hair was cut as a recognized sign of slavery. It was also understood that this would serve as punishment and decrease the power of those enslaved. The bones in the forehead are porous and function to transmit light to the pineal gland, which affects brain activity, as well as thyroid and sexual hormones. Cutting bangs which cover the forehead impedes this process… Yogi Bhajan…’

“When the hair on your head is allowed to attain its full, mature length, then phosphorous, calcium, and vitamin D are all produced, and enter the lymphatic fluid, and eventually the spinal fluid through the two ducts on the top of the brain. This ionic change creates more efficient memory and leads to greater physical energy, improved stamina, and patience.”

‘Yogi Bhajan explained that if you choose to cut your hair, you not only lose this extra energy and nourishment, but your body must then provide a great amount of vital energy and nutrients to continually re-grow the missing hair.

In addition, hairs are the antennas that gather and channel the sun energy or prana to the frontal lobes, the part of the brain you use for meditation and visualization. These antennas act as conduits to bring you greater quantities of subtle, cosmic energy. It takes approximately three years from the last time your hair was cut for new antennas to form at the tips of the hair.

In India, a Rishi is known as a wise one who coils his or her hair up on the crown of the head during the day to energize the brain cells, and then combs it down at night. A ‘rishi knot’ energizes your magnetic field (aura) and stimulates the pineal gland in the center of your brain.’

“This activation of your pineal results in a secretion that is central to the development of higher intellectual functioning, as well as higher spiritual perception.” – Yogi Bhajan

‘… If you are finding some silver strands in your hair, be aware that the silver or white color increases the vitamins and energy flow to compensate for aging… you will find grace and calmness in a person with uncut hair from birth, if it is kept well. The Creator has a definite reason for giving you hair.’

The Truth About Hair and Why Indians Would Keep Their Hair Long, C Young – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This information about hair has been hidden from the public since the Viet Nam War… In the early nineties, Sally… was married to a licensed psychologist who worked at a VA Medical hospital. Sally said, “I remember clearly an evening when my husband came back to our apartment on Doctor’s Circle carrying a thick official looking folder in his hands. Inside were hundreds of pages of… studies commissioned by the government. He was in shock from the contents. What he read in those documents completely changed his life. From that moment on my conservative middle of the road husband grew his hair and beard and never cut them again…”

As I read the documents, I learned why. It seems that during the Vietnam War special forces in the war department had sent undercover experts to comb American Indian Reservations looking for talented scouts, for tough young men trained to move stealthily through rough terrain. They were especially looking for men with outstanding, almost supernatural, tracking abilities. Before being approached, these carefully selected men were extensively documented as experts in tracking and survival… Once enlisted, an amazing thing happened. Whatever talents and skills they had possessed on the reservation seemed to mysteriously disappear, as recruit after recruit failed to perform as expected in the field.

Serious causalities and failures of performance led the government to contract expensive testing of these recruits, and this is what was found. When questioned about their failure to perform as expected, the older recruits replied consistently that when they received their required military haircuts, they could no longer ‘sense’ the enemy, they could no longer access a ‘sixth sense’, their ‘intuition’ no longer was reliable, they couldn’t ‘read’ subtle signs as well or access subtle extrasensory information.

So the testing institute recruited more Indian trackers, let them keep their long hair, and tested them in multiple areas. Then they would pair two men together who had received the same scores on all the tests. They would let one man in the pair keep his hair long, and gave the other man a military haircut. Then the two men retook the tests. Time after time the man with long hair kept making high scores. Time after time, the man with the short hair failed the tests in which he had previously scored high scores. So the document recommended that all Indian trackers be exempt from military haircuts. 

In fact, it required that trackers keep their hair long.

Hair is an extension of the nervous system, it can be correctly seen as exteriorized nerves, a type of highly evolved ‘feelers’ or ‘antennae’ that transmit vast amounts of important information to the brain stem, the limbic system, and the neocortexNot only does hair in people, including facial hair in men, provide an information highway reaching the brain, hair also emits energy, the electromagnetic energy emitted by the brain into the outer environment. This has been seen in Kirlian photography when a person is photographed with long hair and then rephotographed after the hair is cut. When hair is cut, receiving and sending transmissions to and from the environment are greatly hampered. This results in numbing-out. Cutting of hair is a contributing factor to unawareness of environmental distress in local ecosystems. It is also a contributing factor to insensitivity in relationships of all kinds. It contributes to sexual frustration.

In searching for solutions for the distress in our world, it may be time for us to consider that many of our most basic assumptions about reality are in error. It may be that a major part of the solution is looking at us in the face each morning when we see ourselves in the mirror. The story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible has a lot of encoded truth to tell us. When Delilah cut Samson’s hair, the once undefeatable Samson was defeated.’

Human Hair – A Biological Necessity, Dr Birendra Kaur:

‘Nature put every hair on your body for a reason. The hair of the legs regulates the glandular system and stabilizes a person’s electromagnetic field. The hair under the armpits protects the very sensitive area where the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems come together; this affects the brain and your energy level. Eyebrows protect the eyes from sun and sweat… The hair on top of the head is very long, while the hair on the body is short. If it were only for warmth, the hair on the body would be long also. We only have long hair right over the brain… Hair is your antenna to receive a picture of the subtle world around you, to tell when people are lying, to feel things before they happen…

It has been proven scientifically that people who have long hair tend to be less tired, more energetic and less likely to become depressed. People who have long hair also conserve energy and don’t feel the cold of winter the same as people with short hair. A person who has short hair wastes his body’s energy. A person who cuts his hair over his lifetime forces the body to grow 22 meters of replacement hair. A person who keeps his hair only produces 1.5 meters of hair over his lifetime.

Think of the story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible! He lost his strength when she cut his hair! … Hair is a conductor of the body’s electromagnetic energy. Ever see how the antenna wire in an AM radio is coiled in a circle? That’s because of something called induction. Induction causes any conductor of electromagnetic energy to induce a current in adjacent conductors. This means that when you coil a conductor, the signal becomes much stronger. Hairs on top of the head act as antennae. They conduct energy into the body. Also, wearing the hair on top of the head protects the top of the head from sun and exposure, as well as channeling solar energy and improving vitamin D absorption.’ 

Hair, Our Antenna to the Subtle Realms, Paolo Da Floresta, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Your bones, your blood, your skin and your hair are all made of “mini-magnets”… your entire brain is made of magnets that interact with each other. You can even think of your hair as being magnetic flux lines exiting your body. Your hair plays many important roles for your body. The least known role is that of antenna. Your hair is capable of sending/receiving information to and from your body exactly like a radio antenna, and exactly like the antenna described in biology.

Just look at cats whiskers for an obvious example of how sensitive hairs are. Human hair can be found mainly around the most important parts of the body… This gives our body abilities we wouldn’t normally have… eye lashes… are designed to sense objects in close proximity, and to warn the eye of incoming threats. Ear and nose hairs are designed to detect objects as well, to help keep those places safe, and probably assist in hearing and smelling.

… women with long hair are sometimes more sensitive emotionally then women with short hair… men with long hair are more feminine then men with short hair. This is not always true, but I found it is more true than false… I found that when I let my facial hair grow, andI let the hair on the top of my brain grow, I can more easily put myself in other peoples perspective and get a good idea of what they are thinking at the time. I can sense their emotions and feelings as well. I also find it more easy to spot bad actors, or liars. I find that I am more in tune with the people in my surroundings. 

I also believe that hair type, and color, have a great effect on the abilities of the hair. For instance, there is a difference between dark haired people, and light haired people, and even people with fake hair colors. When changing the color of your hair, you change the available frequency range that your hair can send/receive. I also think that thick hair compared to thin hair have noticeable differences too. Also, curly hair, and straight hair effect the ability of the hair. When going bald, or getting gray hairs, this could be a sign of losing sensitivity, or gaining sensitivity (wisdom) of some sort, and no longer needing hair and relying on the mind alone. There is also other theories I can develop from this.

… many ancient [beliefs were] regarded as myth, mambo jumbo or hocus pocus by the west if it cannot be scientifically proven. Fortunately now, quantum physics in the last decade has [given] support [to] some of these myths. Crystals have the power to receive and transmit energy waves. The earliest radios used quartz crystals and were called “crystal sets.” The main composition of quartz crystal is silicon. Silicon is also a key mineral found in the hair, and undoubtedly contributes to its antenna ability. It is no accident that silicon is also the most essential component of computers; silicon enables computers to have mind-like properties including “memory.” 

Silicon is also an important mineral found in the brain, which is the seat of the mind. Silicon is what gives an iridescent sheen to some fruit such as strawberries and cucumbers. It is also found in whole barley and oats.’

The reader can consider this information, though it would strongly appear that there is truth in these summations. It is quite obvious to me that women are far more intuitive than men. If long hair produces deeper intuition among male soldiers who have grown their hair, then it could be an important component rather than just women being intuitive or psychic per se, because of their hormone levels or other feminine factors. In the case of Samson, who appeared to be almost washed in Spirit, his having very long hair may be a significant aspect of a heightened transmission and receiving ability. 

Then she began to torment [H6031 – anah: ‘be humiliated, looking down or browbeating’] him, and his strength [H3581 – koach: ‘power, force, might, of angels, chameleon, a large lizard’], left him. 20 And she said, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And he awoke from his sleep and said, “I will go out as at other times and shake myself free.” But he did not know that the Lord had left him. 21 And the Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes and brought him down to Gaza and bound him with bronze shackles. And he ground at the mill in the prison. 22 But the hair of his head began to grow again after it had been shaved.

If Samson’s first wife deserved an award, then Delilah deserved the whole acting academy. She wore Samson down to exhaustion. Samson, for a man with such incredible physical strength, could he really be a man of limited mental resolve? He had a fondness for the wrong women, yet neither the strength to stand up to them. It is curious that Samson’s strength can be described as the ‘power, force’ or ‘might of angels.’ It could be argued that he was merely supernaturally strong, like an angel. The possibilities broaden when this word also means ‘chameleon’ and of all things, ‘a large lizard.’ There is a school of thought that Samson was actually a Nephil. In fact, some even propose that Delilah was Nephilim.

23 Now the lords of the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to rejoice… 24 And when the people saw [Samson], they praised their god. For they said, “Our god has given our enemy into our hand, theravager of our country, who has killed many of us.” 25 And when their hearts were merry, they said, “Call Samson, that he may entertain us.” So they called Samson out of the prison, and he entertained them. They made him stand between the pillars. 26 And Samson said to the young man who held him by the hand, “Let me feel the pillars on which the house rests, that I may lean against them.” 27 Now the house was full of men and women. All the lords of the Philistines were there, and on the roof there were about 3,000 men and women, who looked on while Samson entertained.

The Philistines return the favour and cruelly mock Samson.

28 Then Samson called to the Lord and said, “O Lord God, please remember me and please strengthen me only this once, O God, that I may be avenged on the Philistines for my two eyes.” 29 And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and he leaned his weight against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other. 30 And Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines.” Then he bowed with all his strength, and the house fell upon the lords and upon all the people who were in it. 

So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he had killed during his life. 31 Then his brothers and all his family came down and took him and brought him up and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the tomb of Manoah his father. He had judged Israel twenty years.

Samson seeks revenge for his eyes and not for any altruistic reasons. He may have been given a special mission by the Eternal and he may have been a Judge of Israel. Though in irony to his being supposedly from the tribe of Judgement, the tribe of Dan, he appears the least likely of all Israel’s judges to have been deemed a wholesome or beneficial leader. Though Samson seemed to be ironically blind spiritually – yet while he  was given liberal doses of Holy Spirit – during his life, and then losing his literal eyesight; he did see his mission through to its desired end result, albeit in a roundabout way. His crusade of liberating Israel from the Philistine’s dominion was achieved through his killing of the five lords and the three thousand influential people from their royalty, aristocracy and wealthy merchant and commercial leaders.

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, Page 146 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The famous Samson was probably also a Rephaim. While the Old Testament [elucidates] on his fabulous accomplishments, his size is not given. In the Haggadah, however, he is called a Rephaim. Born near Beth-Shemesh in Lebanon [?], he is named after the Sun God Shamash. His mother was reportedly impregnated by “Yahweh’s envoy,” presumably one of the demi-gods. Samson refused to marry one of the Hebrew women and instead chose a Philistine woman, presumably because she was one of the Rephaim. Judges 14 describes one of his exploits which sounds very much like the parties of the Rephaim at Ugarit. When he was at Timnah, a town near Beth-Shamash, it is said that “Samson staged there a party for seven days because that is what the elite fighters used to do.” Samson’s home was just a few miles from Baalbek… the sacred place where the Mespotamian gods met and feasted… ‘

Boulay raises pertinent points. Some addressed by the Bible, others are not. It does not say what Samson looked like. Was he tall, or stocky or just a regular man and not remarkable in any way. Judges thirteen says Manoah was the husband of Samson’s mother. No where does it say that Manoah is Samson’s father. Did the Angel of the Lord impregnate her as we have surmised? The Spirit of the Lord began working with Samson when he was in the womb and when he was young, saying the Lord ‘blessed’ Samson. This sounds like a converted person and not the offspring of a dark Angel as the Haggadah may suggest. 

We know that Samson married a Philistine on purpose so that he could infiltrate their territory. Are there more question marks over Delilah? Abarim linked her to Lilith, of whom we have studied in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and touched upon in Chapter XXI Nimrod. Though Delilah would not be Lilith, could it be a hint that Delilah was more than human or used black magic, casting a spell on Samson. Is this how she wore Samson down so that he wanted to die, rather than keep his secret. For surely he realised that telling Delilah would be the end of him. 

It does raise the possibility that he had been enchanted or as the Bible hints at, enfeebled… which means ‘to weaken.’ Did Delilah use sorcery to weaken Samson’s mental control. 

Delilah was an Israelite not a Philistine, Jared Mithrandir, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Traditionally it is assumed that Delilah was another Pagan Philistine woman… In fact The Bible never says that. Samson had two earlier relationships with Philistine women, the one he married early on, and the harlot in Gaza… Neither of them are named… I don’t think any male Philistine characters are named at any-point in the Samson narrative… But Delilah has a name. Critics of The Bible starting with the assumption that [we are] supposed to think of Delilah as a Philistine like to point out that her name isn’t a Philistine name. 

It seems… to be [derived] from the Hebrew word for night Layil ([Strongs] number 3915, the same root as Lilith interestingly) and/or Dalah ([Strongs] number 1809) meaning to fail, to bring low or to empty, from which… Strongs interprets the name Delilah to mean “languishing”.  It’s similar to [Strongs] number 1808 Daliah which means branch.

She’s from a valley (not a city) called Sorek. This location is never mentioned (not by the same name at least) again in Scripture. In the movies Delilah is always sent to seduce Samson from the start. In The Bible it’s not like that, the Philistines come to her after they’ve been involved for awhile. The amount of Silver paid is debated. Is it really 1100 pieces from each lord as the KJV translation leads us to assume?  Or is that the total they all [pooled] together? It’s interesting that again we see betrayal linked with being paid in Silver, just like Judas with Jesus and Judah with Joseph.

I mentioned in an earlier post how there is disagreement… if Judges 17-18 actually follows 16. Now I believe they do follow 16. Judges 17 begins with a story involving Micah’s mother having 1100 shekels of Silver, the exact same amount Delilah was paid (either once or multiple times).  I don’t think that’s a coincidence, I think this is Delilah.

Others who’ve noticed that possible connection then assume Samson is Micah’s father…  Judges tends to note when a key character it’s following is conceived out of wedlock, and Samson and Delilah were never married. Also, if Samson was his father Micah* would be a Danite, and in chapter 18 Micah doesn’t think of the Danites as his kin… [though] maybe… he is the son of Samson. 

[Or Delilah] married someone afterwards, or perhaps she was a widow when she and Samson began their relationship. Which leads back to… [the] common [assumption], that Samson’s relationship with Delilah was bad to begin with.  The text of Judges doesn’t… seem to say that, Evil enters the relationship when The Philistines bribed Delilah.’

There is merit in the argument that Delilah was not a Philistine. Though the inference is that she is, but as we have learnt with Samson, if it doesn’t categorically state the fact, then serious doubt is cast. The familial link between Deliah and Micah is highly plausible. The author picks up on the discrepancy between Micah not being a Danite and Samson being his father. Yet, if Samson was not a Danite, this disappears and Samson may well be Micah’s father; with both being the tribe of Ephraim. 

Samson, Marc Zvi Brettler – emphasis & bold mine:

““Judges” is a poor translation of the Hebrew word shoftim, which in this context refers to local military leaders. They are presented in order of best to worst, culminating with Samson. Biblical leaders do not always present positive examples to emulate, and Samson certainly falls in this category. Born with supernatural strength and an obligation to God and his peopleSamson spends most of his short life carousing and inciting violence.

The first woman associated with him, not surprisingly, was his mother, who like many biblical female figures is unnamed. After much difficulty having children, an angel comes to give her the good news that she will bear a son. Reading between the lines, the text suggests that this angel is in fact his real father; a colloquial translation of Judges 13:6 is: “The man of God came on to me, and he looked like an angel of God, super-awesome!” His father’s divinity is one of the story’s explanations of Samson’s great strength, a theme that runs throughout the chapter. In fact, the name Samson, in Hebrew Shimson, derives from shemesh, “sun,” suggesting an original connection between Samson and the sun god.

The theme that God works in most unexpected ways is carried throughout the Samson stories – as is the theme of his appetite for sex and violence. For two chapters (14 and 15), Samson gets into various misadventures that ultimately involve killing Philistines – the more the merrier, and the more absurd the method, the more amusing. He is strong in these stories only when “the spirit of the Lord alight(s) upon him.” And God even performs miracles for him, splitting open a rock and creating a fountain when he is about to die of thirst after smiting one thousand Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey. That latter episode ends with the notice, “He led Israel in the days of the Philistines for twenty years,” suggesting that the story once ended there.

But more legends circulated about Samson, and some of these found their way into Judges. The next, very brief one tells how Samson was ambushed while visiting another woman – an unnamed prostitute in Gaza – and escaped by carrying off the city gates (16:1–3). Here he does not need to wait until “the spirit of the Lord alight[s] upon him,” but is naturally super-strong. 

This brings us to the last story – about Samson’s fourth woman, who is finally named, Delilah, a word that may be etymologically related to the word for “hair.” 

What are we to make of Samson? Some readers may see similarities to the Greek Heracles/Hercules… The Philistines, like the Greeks, came from the Aegean… instead of celebrating a Greek demi-god, they mock the Greek-related Philistines. It is hard to put together the different images of Samson, especially concerning the source of his strength: from his divine father, from his hair, or from the spirit of the Lord? 

The rabbis, who emphasized learning and religious observance over might, were quite ambivalent about Samson. While they praise his unselfish nature and exaggerate even more his heroic killing of Philistines, they also condemn his wandering eyes, which got him entangled with the women who led to his downfall. Invoking one of their favorite principles, measure for measure, they note: “Samson followed** his eyes, and that is why the Philistines blinded him.”’

In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

Judges 17:6; 21:25 English Standard Version

Where there is no vision, the people perish…

Proverbs 29:18 King James Version

“Here’s what I want you to do… buy medicine for your eyes from me so you can see, really see.”

Revelation 3:18 The Message

Edited excerpt from Chapter XXXIV Dan

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

The Majestic Man

Joseph, favourite son of Jacob, was chosen to be the recipient of the Birthright blessings which were usually reserved for the firstborn son. Jacob’s eldest sons though, Reuben, Simeon and Levi all disqualified themselves. Even so, Levi was chosen to be the Priestly tribe and even after his own personal misdemeanours, Judah was selected to receive the blessings of the throne, orb and sceptre of Royal rulership. 

Though Joseph was the eleventh of twelve sons, he was still a firstborn son of Jacob and his wife Rachel. When we first meet Joseph, Rachel was feeling the pressure as Leah was seven nil ahead when it came to children, or nine to two if the hand maiden’s sons are included. 

Genesis 30:22-24

English Standard Version

Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 And she called his name Joseph, saying, “May the Lord add to me another son!”

Abarim Publications – emphasis & Bold mine: 

‘The name Joseph meaning: ‘Increaser, May He Add’ from the verb (yasap), to add, increase, repeat or do again.

The name Joseph means Increaser, Repeater or Doubler, and even the fulfillment of his name is dual: Benjamin becomes Joseph’s younger brother, and Joseph himself becomes father of two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh (see Ezekiel 47:13).

For a meaning of the name Joseph, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads two meanings: (1) May He (Yahweh) Add (assuming that the “He” of our name is YHWH), and (2) Increaser. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads He Shall Add. And BDB Theological Dictionary has He Adds, Increases. Spiros Zodhiates (The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament) translates the name Joseph with May God Add, but note that the “God” part is implied and not actually incorporated in the name Joseph.’

From Genesis chapter thirty-seven through to chapter fifty, the narrative is dominated by Joseph’s life. Of which twelve chapters representing twenty-four percent of Genesis are devoted to Joseph. Slightly less than for Abraham from chapter twelve through to twenty-five, with twenty-six percent. Even Adam and Noah only have three chapters devoted to each of them, or six percent each of the Genesis story. Jacob on the other hand, ostensibly the most flawed of all the Patriarchs has eight chapters, or sixteen percent devoted to him and he also figures, though less than Joseph, prominently in the final thirteen chapters of Genesis; with over forty percent of the Book of Genesis devoted to Jacob’s life.  

We have discussed in previous sections regarding the brother’s betrayal of Joseph and selling him to the Ishmaelite traders at the behest of Judah. The early part of Genesis chapter thirty-seven is of interest as it provides the factors that led to his brothers hatred.

Genesis 37:2-11

English Standard Version

Joseph, being seventeen years old, was pasturing the flock with his brothers. He was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought a bad [H7451 – ra] report of them to their father. 

We learn that Joseph was with certain ones of his brothers. Specifically: Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher. We also learn that Jacob married Rachel and Leah’s handmaids, for they were not concubines of Jacob [Genesis 29:24, 29]. For whatever reason not divulged these four brothers were up to no good and Joseph told on them. At first reading, one would easily assume that Joseph was a tattle tale and acting like a spoilt brat, belying his youthful age. 

Though two reasons suggest otherwise. First, the Bible does not label him as such. If the charge of youthful foolishness were considered, it would have to be quickly dropped for when Joseph was harshly rejected by his brothers and while he served Potiphar in Egypt, Joseph for a young man was focused, efficient and honourable. Far from a spoilt brat. In fact, he accepted his brutal injustices with immeasurable maturity. 

Second, the bad report Joseph made of his brothers was not merely a superficial thing, it was a very serious matter. The Hebrew word ra is translated by the KJV as evil [442], wickedness [59], mischief [21], affliction [6], adversity [4] and harm [3]. It includes a wide range of negative meanings: ‘misery, distress, calamity, malignant’ and ‘grievous.’ 

As we have yet to discuss Jacob’s son Dan, more detail will be investigated in the next chapter. Though it can be stated that Dan is the bad boy or black sheep of the family and if he was involved, he may well have been leading the other three bothers down a dark path that Joseph had no choice but to divulge [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Support for Joseph being honourable in this incident is revealed by the fact that Joseph is rather unique in the scriptures and part of a very select band of people who do not have one word writ against them. Of all the prominent people in the Bible, not including peripheral characters, it is only Daniel and Christ whom have nothing negative recorded and for prominent women, only Ruth, Esther and Mary are included in this exceptional group. Recall that Daniel is also one of the three men described as most righteous in the Bible with Noah and Job. This may have some bearing on why the Eternal revealed the most profound and biggest impacting prophecies of all the prophets to Daniel; for the prophecies of the Book of Revelation through John are in may cases, amplifications of those originating in Daniel. 

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was the son of his old age. And he made him a robe of many colors. 4 But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peacefully to him.

With what we have just learned about Jospeh and the view the Creator had of him, it is clear that Jospeh didn’t act like the favoured son, it was Jacob who created the issue as verse four says. As Jacob is guilty of innumerable unwise decisions this should not come as a surprise; yet one would have thought that growing up in a family with a pronounced and marked divide between parents and sons as Jacob and Esau had with Isaac and Rebecca, that Jacob would have shied away from repeating this tragic scenario. 

As touched upon, for the want of a better explanation, the understanding that Joseph’s coat was tartan or plaid is interesting. Particularly, when we consider the two nation’s that have upheld this pattern more than any other, are Scotland – the tribe of Benjamin – and the United States.

Now Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers they hated him even more. 6 He said to them, “Hear this dream that I have dreamed: 7 Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and stood upright. And behold, your sheaves gathered around it and bowed down to my sheaf.” 8 His brothers said to him, “Are you indeed to reign over us? Or are you indeed to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

One would have to assume with what we know of Joseph’s character that he was being matter of fact and not boasting. Of course, what the brothers were not to know, is that the dream foretold of Joseph being their servant in saving his brothers from starvation in a few short years hence. Though regarding the distant future into our present time, Joseph as the preeminent brother, serves as the protector for all his brothers. 

A component of this story not readily touched upon, is that Joseph had the Holy Spirit and was one converted to the truth. His brothers were not and so could not understand spiritual matters the same way. This would have put considerable distance between himself and his brothers. It also explains why Jacob favoured Joseph over Judah, the son actually most like himself in character, for the son who was like himself spiritually. Recall that the Eternal had a different view from Jacob, in that though the Bible reveals Joseph’s people are special to the Creator, it is in fact Judah that He loves [Psalm 78:68]. In His mind, giving the royal sceptre of rulership for the very throne that His Son will return to sit in, was the greater blessing of favour. 

9 Then he dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?” 11 And his brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.

Jacob did not like hearing this from Joseph, yet considered the matter and deduced that it was of future importance with a positive outcome.

Genesis 39:1-10, 21-23

English Standard Version

Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there. 2 The Lord was with Joseph, and he became a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master. 3 His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord caused all that he did to succeed in his hands. 4 So Joseph found favor in his sight and attended him, and he made him overseer of his house and put him in charge of all that he had. 5 From the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had, in house and field. 6 So he left all that he had in Joseph’s charge, and because of him he had no concern about anything but the food he ate.

This is an incredible occurrence and shows it was more to do with the Eternal’s intervention on Joseph’s behalf, though of course, the Eternal was only able to bless Joseph and Potiphar’s household because Joesph was not only capable but obedient to the Creator. This enhances the case we have built regarding Joseph’s spirituality. To be clear, it is not that Jospeh was perfect, for all sin, but rather some people are more blameless than others and Joseph was such an individual. Potiphar was the captain of the Pharaoh’s personal retinue of soldier’s and thus a high ranking official who had a palatial residence adjacent to the actual palace of the Pharaoh. Joseph was merely seventeen when he arrived in Egypt in 1709 BCE.

Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance. 7 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” 10 And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he would not listen to her, to lie beside her or to be with her.

The Hebrew words here say that Joseph was not just handsome but also had a good physique. Notice his spiritual mindset; Joseph say’s it would be sinning against God to sleep with Potiphar’s wife, not just that he would be betraying his employer. It is a simple case of sexual harassment committed by Potiphar’s wife. Though Joseph could not divulge the reason, could Joseph have requested a transfer or found a way to move? When the opportunity arose and the house was empty, she made her move, grabbing his outer garment. Joseph flees, leaving it behind. 

Potiphar’s wife then frames Joseph for an indecent proposition and Potiphar in understandable anger sends Joseph to the prison reserved for the Pharaoh’s enemies circa 1702 BCE at the age of twenty-four. Though Satan had tried to tempt Joseph and thwart the Creator’s plan, it was not to be.

21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him steadfast love and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison put Joseph in charge of all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever was done there, he was the one who did it. 23 The keeper of the prison paid no attention to anything that was in Joseph’s charge, because the Lord was with him. And whatever he did, the Lord made it succeed.

In Genesis chapter forty we read of the Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker who are put into Joseph’s prison for misdemeanours circa 1698 BCE, when Joseph was twenty-eight. They both have dreams of which Joseph interprets them. He requests that the cupbearer who’s dream is favourable, remembers him to the Pharaoh, though he does not and Joseph remains in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh has a dream. None of his wise men or magicians can interpret it. Pharaoh’s cupbearer, then recalls his encounter with Joseph and finally remembers him to Pharaoh.

Genesis 41:14-16, 25-32, 37-57

English Standard Version

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the pit. And when he had shaved himself and changed his clothes [after six years in prison], he came in before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 16 Joseph answered Pharaoh, “It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer.” 

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 The seven lean and ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty ears blighted by the east wind are also seven years of famine. 28 … God has shown to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 There will come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt, 30 but after them there will arise seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will consume the land, 31 and the plenty will be unknown in the land by reason of the famine that will follow, for it will be very severe. 32 And the doubling of Pharaoh’s dream means that the thing is fixed by God, and God will shortly bring it about. 

Joseph then suggests Pharaoh appoints a wise and discerning person to oversee the storing of twenty percent of grain for each year of plenty and its division during the seven years of famine so that Egypt did not perish.

37 This proposal pleased Pharaoh and all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?” 39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has shown you all this,there is none so discerning and wise as you are. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall order themselves as you command. Only as regards the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck. 43 And he made him ride in his second chariot. And they called out before him, “Bow the knee!”Thus he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no one shall lift up hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah. And he gave him in marriage Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On. So Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

From this account we can appreciate that the Eternal moved Pharaoh further beyond just appointing an overseer but actually elevating Joseph to Vizier of all his kingdom; while recognising that God’s spirit was working in Joseph. It was a wise decision on Pharaoh’s part and showed a level of humility in his character. Aside from Joseph having the Creator blessing him and Joseph being mature as well as good looking, it becomes apparent that Joseph must have been very personable and charismatic. The jealousy exhibited by his brothers makes more sense now we have a clearer picture of Joseph. It is Joseph’s integrity that makes him a good candidate as saviour of Egypt and thus a type of the Messiah himself, and so it is at the same age as Christ when he began his ministry at thirty, that Joseph embarks on his own ministry of service [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Psalm 105:16-21

English Standard Version

16 When he summoned a famine on the land and broke all supply of bread, 17 he had sent a man ahead of them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave. 18 His feet were hurt with fetters; his neck was put in a collar of iron;19 until what he had said came to pass, the word of the Lord tested him. 20 The king sent and released him; the ruler of the peoples set him free; 21 he made him lord of his house and ruler of all his possessions…

Joseph received a new Egyptian name, thus looking for the name Joseph in Egyptian records would be fruitless. There is considerable debate on what the name Zaphenath-paneah means. Of all the definitions I have found, the two that resonate the most are: ‘the man to whom secrets are revealed’ or ‘the Nourisher of the Two Lands, the Living One.’ Either way, it was through Joseph’s God and His revelation that life in Egypt was preserved. 

Joseph’s wife Asenath is unlikely to be an Egyptian as descended from Ham’s son Mizra [refer Chapter XXIV Mizra] but rather the Egyptian ruling elite. The Priest of On may have had a link with the same order as Moses’s father-in-law Jethro, the Priest of Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham] and the one true God. 

The city of On, known as Heliopolis – the City of the Sun – was a centre of worship of the sun god Ra. The priests of On were considered the most intelligent, cultured and learned people in Egypt. The High Priest of On held the title, Greatest of Seers. When Joseph married into this family, he joined a social class befitting a national leader. Implied is that the marriage was selected by Pharaoh because of his confidence that Joseph too, was a seer or prophet of the highest calibre. If this was the case, then Asenath must have embraced her husband’s faith in the God of Israel as nothing negative is mentioned of the marriage in the Bible. This high profile marriage ordained by Pharaoh, also removed any doubt about the shocking story circulating throughout Egypt, of a former prisoner legitimately rising to second in command of the whole of Egypt. 

The question remains, who was this unusually accommodating, good-hearted Pharaoh? In exact antithesis to the later hard-hearted Pharaoh of the Exodus. According to an unconventional chronology, not only are the Egyptian king lists misinterpreted by conventional chronology – as exposed by the revised chronology of David Rohl; in that dynasties can be hundreds of years out of alignment with the correct time frame – various Egyptian dynasties have been misunderstood as chronologically falling one after the other and not recognised as being concurrent. 

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep, and Amenemhet IV as Pharaoh of the Exodus, Anne Habermehl, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘From previous discussion it is clear that if the plagues and the Exodus caused the collapse of the concurrent 6th and 12th Dynasties, we need to look for our Exodus pharaoh at the end of one of these dynasties. The 12th Dynasty, ruling Lower Egypt in the north, is the one which would produce our Exodus pharaoh because the Children of Israel lived in the Delta there (the 6th Dynasty would have ruled Upper Egypt in the south). 

We suggest that Dynasties 3 to 12 cannot have reigned one after the other in the order that Manetho listed them. Dynasties 5 & 6 may have run concurrently with Dynasties 11 & 12. The First Intermediate Period (at the end of the 6th Dynasty) and Second Intermediate Period (at the end of the 12th Dynasty), both times of great disorder in Egypt, appear to be the same period, as mentioned earlier.Dynasties 7, 8, 9 and 10 would therefore have reigned after the Exodus at the same time as Dynasties 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Versions of this scheme have been offered by various revisionists (e.g., Courville, 1971, volume 1, page 101; Ashton & Down, 2006, page 206). This alone could potentially remove close to 500 of the 675 years by which we wish to shorten the secular timeline.’ 

I agree with the author’s proposal, in that the end of the twelfth dynasty matches the time of Moses, though I would differ on the Pharaoh of the Exodus as one that was in the thirteenth dynasty instead. This means the Pharaoh of Joseph’s dream interpretation is a king from the third dynasty. The first king of the third dynasty was Pharaoh Djoser or Netjerikhet. Records are unclear to his length of reign, from either 19 years according to Manetho; 28 or 29 years according to the royal annals; and 37 or 38 years according to other lists and historians. Lists for the dynasty have a variance of the number of kings, with either four, five or eight kings. I propose the middle number for the reign and the lower for the number of kings – which fits the chronology of Pharaohs until the time of Moses – and a date of reign for Joseph’s pharaoh circa 1700 to 1672/71 BCE. The Saqqara Tablet is viewed by this writer as the most accurate as it lists Djoser as the first of four kings and was found in a tomb near the Djoser Pyramid in Saqqara. 

Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of either Djoser or the final dynastic ruler of Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled for 24 years as the Pharaoh in question, as both had Viziers. The other three, six or most probably two rulers sandwiched between these two Pharaohs are not realistic candidates. As there was a turbulent transition from Huni to Amenemhet I, not matching the peaceful reign of Joseph, Huni is ruled out. Djoser was the son of the last 2nd Dynasty king, Pharaoh Khasekhemwy from 1718 to 1700 BCE, and his wife, Queen Nimaathap or Nimaethap, “Mother of the King of the Two Lands.” 

Djoser is derived from the Djed symbol for stability and is also associated with the god Osiris and appears on numerous monuments built during his reign. Though it was common for Pharaohs to have a Queen and lesser wives, Djoser only had one wife, who was his half-sister, Hetephernebti. They had a daughter called, Inetkawes. 

His passion was building projects, something he continued non-stop as soon as he assumed the throne. Cities had begun to grow in Egypt during the 1st Dynasty, though under Djoser they became widespread throughout Egypt, with architecture becoming more ornate. During his reign, the borders of Egypt were made secure and expansion into the Sinai was achieved through military expeditions. This led to lucrative turquoise and copper mining in the Peninsula, which created great wealth for Egypt. 

Djoser also defeated the Libyans or Phut [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and annexed parts of their lands. Overall, his reign was marked by great technological innovation and whereby, agriculture, the arts, trade and Egypt’s civil administration all flourished. 

There were a number of Viziers in Egyptian history, though it can be no coincidence that the first known Vizier as well as the most famous one was Imhotep, Vizier to Djoser. Not only chancellor to the Pharaoh, Imhotep was reputed to be an architect, engineer, physician as well as possibly a high priest at Heliopolis. Imhotep is credited to be the designer of the Step or otherwise named, Djoser Pyramid at Saqqara. This pyramid contains a large vertical shaft under it and the complex has many similar structures that appear to have been used to store grain. The name or title, Imhotep means: ‘he that comes in peace.’ Imhotep was a renowned scholar, contributing greatly to Egyptian society. Apart from Amenhotep, he is the only other Egyptian to be deified.  

Joseph, son of Jacob (Israel), was Imhotep, of Egyptian History, Nigel Hawkins, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Although Abraham did visit Egypt, it seems more likely that this practice was introduced by Joseph-Imhotep in the third dynasty.Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. 

Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit .

Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph’s bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom).’ 

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plentiful years the earth produced abundantly, 48 and he gathered up all the food of these seven years, which occurred in the land of Egypt, and put the food in the cities. He put in every city the food from the fields around it. 49 And Joseph stored up grain in great abundance, like the sand of the sea, until he ceased to measure it, for it could not be measured.

50 Before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph. Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore them to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh. “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my hardship and all my father’s house.” 52 The name of the second he called Ephraim“For God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.” 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Manasseh meaning: ‘Forgetting, Evaporating’ from the verb (nasha), to forget.

The name Manasseh is generally seen as derived from the verb… to forget but forgetting due to “evaporation” of a memory the way water evaporates due to solar heat, or the way a principle evaporates due to interest… [describing] an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it. This verb occurs very often and can usually be translated with (1) to lift or lift up, (2) to bear or carry, and (3) to take or take away. An identical verb (or rather the same one used in a specialized way) means to loan on interest. The practice of loaning on interest causes the principal sum to slowly but surely evaporate and was prohibited under Mosaic law. A third identical verb (or again the same one) means to deceive or beguile.

The name Manasseh is probably due to a grammatical form in Hebrew that is comparable to the English present continuous. It fixes the letter (mem) to the root. That would give the name Manasseh the meaning of Forgetting. Another reason why a mem may occur in front of a root is when it comes from a particle that means “from”. Hence the name Manasseh may also mean From A Debt. This is significant because Manasseh’s brother is named Ephraim, a name with a distinctly bitter secondary meaning. Perhaps Joseph named his son From A Debt, because he figured that besides his gratitude for being rescued, he felt that either God or his family owed him a debt for tearing him away from his father.

For a meaning of the name Manasseh, Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Forgetting, Forgetfulness. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Making To Forget.

The name Ephraim meaning: ‘Two-fold Increase, Doubly Fruitful, Exhausted, Ashes’ from the verb (para), to be fruitful. From the verb (‘pr), to be depleted.

We would expect the people from Ephraim to be called (Ephraimites), but that word does not occur in the Bible. Instead, the Bible mostly speaks of sons of Ephraim (Numbers 1:32, Joshua 16:5, 1 Chronicles 9:3). But on occasion, the Ephraimites are referred to as (Ephrathites), for instance in Judges 12:5, where the men of Gilead capture strongholds opposite Ephraim arrest fugitives of Ephraim and asks them if they are Ephrathites. 

The meaning of the name Ephraim is somewhat debated: Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names and NOBSE Study Bible Name List go after Genesis 41:52, “…For […] God has made me fruitful..”. and take the name from the Hebrew verb (para), meaning to bear fruit or be fruitful:

The verb (pararmeans to split, divide and usually make more, expand or multiply. This root belongs to an extended family that also contains (paras,) to break (through), (paras and parash), to spread out or declare, (paras), to break in two or divide, and (pa’ar) means to branch out or to glorify.

Noun (par) means young bull and (para) means young heifer. Note that the first letter (alephis believed to denote an ox-head, while its name derives from the verb, to learn or to produce thousands. The second letter, (beth) is also the word for house (or temple or stable). The familiar word “alphabet,” therefore literally means “stable of bulls” or “house of divisions” or “temple of fruitful learning”.

It’s not clear what the unused verb (‘apar) might have meant but it’s clearly not very positive and possibly has to do with being exhausted or depleted of inner strength and inherent merit. Noun (‘eper) means ashes, which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel. Noun (‘aper) means covering or bandage, which is what is applied over a limb when its inherent strength is broken.

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Two-fold Increase. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Doubly Fruitful. Taking the aleph from the Qual imperfect first person singular would yield a meaning of I Am Twice Fruitful.

It’s true that the aleph is quite a weak letter which is applied often without essentially changing the meaning of a word. But it’s perfectly conceivable, and perhaps even preferred, that father Joseph casts a wry word play in the naming of his sons.

He names his first born Manasseh (Making To Forget), because, “God has made me forget all my toil and all of my father’s house”. When his father’s house finally shows up, it becomes clear that Joseph had a hard time forgetting them and was in fact happy to see them. His second son he names Ephraim, a name with a strong connection to the word fruitfulness but equally so to the word for ashes, the symbol of worthlessness and grief. 

Perhaps Joseph was not at all happy for having been made to forget his father’s house, and deemed ‘fruitfulness in the land of affliction,’ the golden bars of a still dismal cage. Perhaps the duality of the name Ephraim does not denote a double portion of the same, but rather as a reminder that thecoin of his wealth and status had two sides.

53 The seven years of plenty that occurred in the land of Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. What he says to you, do.”

56 So when the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth.

Jospeh’s son Manasseh was born circa 1691 and Ephraim 1690 BCE. The seven years of plenty ran from 1696 to 1689 BCE, with the following years of famine during 1689 to 1682 BCE. Fourteen years of Joseph’s life from age thirty to forty-four years of age. This was no ordinary famine but a disaster of very serious consequence. The Famine Stela or Stele is an inscription in hieroglyphs, located on Sehel Island in the Nile River, which is near Aswan, Egypt. It records this very disaster and tells of a seven year period of drought and famine during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty. 

The stele is inscribed into a natural granite block with forty-two columns. There are three Egyptian deities on the top with Djoser facing them, with offerings in his outstretched arms. The account is set in the eighteenth year of 1682 BCE of Djoser’s reign, in the seventh year of the famine that had gripped Egypt and testifying of Djoser’s deep concern as the suffering and desperation of the people had grown to breaking point. 

This, in light of Joseph’s forward planning. What if none or little grain had been stored? It is at the end of seven years that the drought finally breaks and the river Nile begins to flow again. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia – italicisation theirs: 

‘The Famine Stela is one of only three known inscriptions that connect the cartouche name Djeser (“lordly”) with the serekh name Netjerikhet (“divine body”) of king Djoser in one word. Therefore, it provides useful evidence for Egyptologists and historians who are involved in reconstructing the royal chronology of the Old kingdom of Egypt.’

The stress that Djoser would have felt would make sense if after seven years, Egypt had been selling grain worldwide and not just locally. Even though Joseph had stored a consecutive yearly twenty percent of the vast abundance during the seven years of plenty, the demand in the next seven years may have meant it was a close run thing regarding dwindling grain supplies as the seventh year of famine ran its course. An extension of this period into an eighth year would then have been catastrophic and would support Djoser’s alarm as evidenced on the Famine Stela. 

The World Famine Verified, Lujack Skylark – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shang Dynasty emperor Cheng Tang [of which] some Chinese historians stated his reign began in 1747 B.C. There are others who believe his reign began in 1675 B.C. Chinese emperor Cheng Tang [1st king of the dynasty]… very early in the dynasty recorded a 7 year famine verifying Joseph’s account of the 7 year global famine in Egypt [1689-1682 BCE]. (Genesis 41:57) 

Grant Jeffery wrote a book called “Signature of God” where he said the Yemen marble tablet inscription [reputed to be written at the time of the famine] about people living in a Yemenite castle during the seven years of plenty and the seven years of famine confirm[s] the Genesis account. 

He also wrote about the Yemen stone found in a rich woman’s tomb where this woman sends her [servants] to meet Joseph [who is apparently mentioned by name]!

The pygmy Woolly Mammoths on Wrangel island die out [circa] 1700 B.C…’

“Wrangel island is north of Russia… The migrations of people’s during the worldwide famine is fascinating. Some archaeologist have given the migrations of these people’s from 1700-1500 B.C. window. The migrations at 1700 B.C. makes sense since people were migrating in search of food.”

‘The Kushite kingdom in eastern Africa arises [circa] 1700 B.C. as Africans fleeing famine come together living in close knit community along the Nile river south of Egypt. Some Black tribes migrate from central Africa and settle in southern Africa fleeing from famine. Archaeologist dated their artifacts to [circa] 1700 B.C. Nordic Bronze culture in northern Europe becomes established [circa] 1700 B.C. where bronze weapons are produced used in hunting wild game. Starving Indo-Europeans from western Russia migrate to central Europe and produce bronze weapons to hunt wild game [circa] 1700 B.C. Starving Indo-European tribes invade Dravidan dominated India [circa] 1700 B.C… [and] destroy the Dravidan Mohenjo-Daro civilization… Olmecs migrate into the Yucatan Peninsula [circa] 1700 B.C. Archaeologist[s] state the Olmecs invented plumbing and the Olmecs were interested in water conservation at this time in world history.’

As the famine was worldwide it impacted Jacob and his family in Canaan. He sent all his sons, except Benjamin to Egypt to purchase grain. We have discussed Genesis forty-two to forty-six and the highly charged meetings between Joseph and his estranged brothers of twenty-two years and then seeing his father Jacob, when studying Jacob, Judah, Reuben, Simeon and Benjamin [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. For the year now is 1687 BCE, two years into the famine. One cannot forget the bitter-sweet first meeting with his little brother Benjamin and the poignant  jolt of a reminder, that Joseph would never see his mother Rachel again. 

The one resounding point that beams very bright is that even though Joseph toys with his brother’s and father’s emotions; making them sweat a lot – of which the Creator does not condemn, for does He not put us through our paces when we are in the wrong? – none was done from bitterness, revenge or hatred. There is a hint of a sense of humour on Joseph’s part for dragging out the eventual reunion and the suspense created in so doing. No, what leaps out is Joseph’s profoundly all consuming emotion of ecstatic joy at finally being reunited with his family. He harboured only love and forgiveness towards his brothers who did not really know him. Here was truly a converted man, filled with the spirit of God. Joseph was a worthy type of the future deliverer and Saviour of all humankind. With his grandfather Isaac and his distant cousin Moses, he is in a select group of people to have been given a saviour’s role in imitation of the true Saviour.

In Genesis forty-five, Joseph finally reveals himself. It says in verse three, that his brothers ‘could not answer him.’ The understatement of the Book of Genesis and perhaps the whole Bible. The word dumbstruck comes to mind. It also says the brothers were ‘dismayed at his presence.’ I bet they were. Here was a ghost that had risen before them. A man who should have either been dead, at the bottom of some hideous mine or looking like skin and bone of a man twice his age, as part of a tortuous slave gang. Yet here he was; here was their long lost brother Joseph. Brother Joseph who just won’t go away. As a youngster following them, albeit at their father’s behest and here he was again, a shadow from if not the grave, a shadow from the past following them still. A phantom who was second in power and authority of at least Lower Egypt, if not all the land. 

It is testament to Joseph that he didn’t try to punch or slap any of them, considering the looks on their faces at that moment. Joseph instead alerts them to the five years remaining of famine and invites them to live in the land of Goshen in the Nile delta, where he can provide for them and nurture their flocks and wealth. Pharaoh learns of Joseph’s brothers and provides gifts and provisions for their return journey. Joseph’s sense of humour is exhibited in verse twenty-four, when his last words to his departing brothers are: “Do not quarrel on the way.” He knew them all too well. Jacob in verse twenty-six believing Joseph to be dead, understandably became numb and fainted from the shock of what his sons told him. 

Did Jacob ever find out what his sons had done to Joseph? Did the sons of Jacob dare  to divulge their crime and did Joseph’s honour mean he would not hurt his father in such a way, nor exact any kind of revenge on his brothers. It must have always been that slight bit awkward for the brothers when in Joseph’s presence and therefore, punishment enough. Until such time* that it did come to light…

On the journey down to Egypt, the Creator speaks to Jacob reassuring him, for Jacob must have known what had been said to his grandfather Abraham [Genesis 15:13].

Genesis 46:2-4

English Standard Version

2 And God spoke to Israel in visions of the night and said, “Jacob, Jacob.” And he said, “Here I am.” 3 Then he said, “I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you into a great nation. 4 I myself will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up again, and Joseph’s hand shall close your eyes.”

In Genesis forty-seven, Pharaoh Djoser meets five of Joseph’s brothers and Jacob. It is interesting to learn of Jacob’s view of his own life.

Genesis 47:9-10

English Standard Version

9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my sojourning are 130 years. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their sojourning.” 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from the presence of Pharaoh [as one king to another].

It was an important observation to Jacob that his life in comparison with his father Isaac of 180 years and his grandfather Abraham of 175 years had been shorter and more difficult. Jacob does live longer, though he dies younger at age 147. The difficulties in his life had in large part been caused by himself and here he does seem to be in contrast again, with his family. 

We also learn that the famine was so severe that when Egyptians ran out of money, they then had to purchase grain with their livestock and when that ran out, they then sold their lands to Pharaoh. After that, they were tenant farmers as Jospeh gave them seed to plant with the agreement they would give twenty percent of their harvests to Pharaoh. Skipping to the final chapter of Genesis, we learn of the respect towards Joseph and Jacob and their status as rulers and kings shown to them from the lands of Egypt and Canaan. 

Genesis 50:1-3, 7-11, 15-26

English Standard Version

Then Joseph fell on his father’s face and wept over him and kissed him. 2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 Forty days were required for it, for that is how many are required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days.

7 So Joseph went up to bury his father. With him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 as well as all the household of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s household. Only their children, their flocks, and their herds were left in the land of Goshen. 9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen. It was a very great company. 

10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, they lamented there with a very great and grievous lamentation, and he made a mourning for his father seven days. 11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.”

Joseph’s brothers ask for his forgiveness, concerned for their own safety after Jacob dies.

15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “It may be that Joseph will hate us and pay us back for all the evil that we did to him.” 16 So they sent a message to Joseph, saying, “Your father gave this command before he died: 17 ‘Say to Joseph, “Please forgive the transgressionof your brothers and their sin, because they did evil to you.”’ And now, please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.” Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18 His brothers also came and fell down before him and said, “Behold, we are your servants.” 19 But Joseph said to them, “Do not fear, for am I in the place of God? 20 As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today. 21 So do not fear; I will provide for you and your little ones.” Thus he comforted them and spoke kindly to them.

The New Egyptian Chronology – A revised Egyptian chronology results in startling new archeological discoveries which authenticate Old Testament histories, David Reagan – emphasis & bold mine:

Perhaps the most amazing revelation to be found in Rohl’s book relates to Joseph. The excavations at Tel ed-Daba (Avaris in Bible times) have revealed a large Egyptian-style palace dating from the early 13th Dynasty… Rohl concludes that this must have been the retirement palace of Joseph, built in the midst of his people. In 1987 the excavators began to uncover a large pyramid-style tomb adjacent to the palace. They discovered that the tomb had been carefully emptied in antiquity. There was no evidence of the ransacking that characterizes the work of grave robbers. Further, they discovered the head of a very large statue of the man who had been buried in the tomb. The head is most unusual in that it displays very un-Egyptian type features like a mushroom shaped coiffure or wig. The figure is also clean shaven. Most remarkably, this person is wrapped in a coat of many colors! Rohl concludes that this is a statue of Joseph…’

22 So Joseph remained in Egypt, he and his father’s house. Joseph lived 110** years. 23 And Joseph saw Ephraim’s children of the third generation. The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were counted as Joseph’s own.24 And Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die, but God will visit you and bring you up out of this land to the land that he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.” 25 Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here.” 26 So Joseph died, being 110 years old. They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

Joseph died in 1616 BCE. Most of his brothers had already died shortly before him, beginning with Simeon in 1630 BCE; with only three remaining brothers who died not long after Joseph, namely Naphtali, Benjamin and lastly, Levi in 1611 BCE.

Exodus 13:18-19

English Standard Version

18 But God led the people around by the way of the wilderness toward the Red Sea. And the people of Israel went up out of the land of Egypt equipped for battle. 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the sons of Israel solemnly swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones with you from here.”

There is an interesting parallel between Joseph and his descendant born exactly one hundred and fifty years later, Joshua from the tribe of Ephraim, the successor to Moses.

Numbers 13:8

English Standard Version

… from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea [Joshua] the son of Nun;

Joshua 24:29-32

English Standard Version

29 After these things Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being 110** years old. 30 And they buried him in his own inheritance at Timnath-serah, which is in the hill country of Ephraim, north of the mountain of Gaash. 31 Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua and had known all the work that the Lord did for Israel.

32 As for the bones of Joseph, which the people of Israel brought up from Egypt, they buried them at Shechem, in the piece of land that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of money. It became an inheritance of the descendants of Joseph [located in Samaria of the tribe of Ephraim].

Jacob and Joseph are included in the faith chapter of the Bible. The importance of Jacob’s blessing for Joseph’s sons was the beginning and fulfilment of the special birthright blessing of great national prosperity and preeminence for Abraham’s descendants that was filtered to his son Isaac, over Ishmael, then Jacob over Esau, then Joseph instead of Reuben and Simeon and split between his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Destiny did not decree for the peoples of Germany, the Jews, Northern Ireland or Wales to be the recipients of the principal birthright blessing. 

Hebrews 11:21-22

English Standard Version

21 By faith Jacob, when dyingblessed each of the sons of Joseph, bowing in worship over the head of his staff. 22 By faith Joseph, at the end of his life, made mention of the exodus of the Israelites and gave directions concerning his bones.

Edited excerpt from Chapter XXXIII, Manasseh & Ephraim

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Appendix III: R1b Haplogroup Lineages

The principle R1b Haplogroup for Western Europe is M269, of which the following Sub-Haplogroups derive, with the main nations associated with them: U106 Germany; U198 England; S116 Spain & Portugal; U152 France, Northern & Central Italy; M529 Wales, Scotland & Ireland; M222 Scots-Irish.

M207 R

M479 R2 South Asia, Central Asia

M124 R2a

L263 R2a1

P267 R2a2

FGC21706 R2b / FGC50339 R2b1 

M173 R1 

M420 R1a 

M459 R1a1

M198 [M17] R1a1a

M417 R1a1a1

L664 R1a1a1a Northwest Europe

M458 R1a1a1b1a1 Northeastern Europe

Z280 [S466] R1a1a1b1a2 Finno-Ugric and Balto-Slavic speakers

Z282 R1a1a1b1a Eastern Europe, Russia

Z284 R1a1a1b1a3 Germanic, Scandinavia, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Northern England 

Z93 R1a1a1b2 Central Asia, Southwest Asia, South Asia, India

M343 / M415 R1b 

L278 R1b1

L754 R1b1a 

PH155 R1b1b Bahrain, Bhutan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Xinjiang & Yunnan, China

M335 R1b1b1 / PH200 R1b1b2 Anatolia, Yunnan, Ladakh, India

V88 R1b1a2 [R1b1c] Levant Arab/North Africa 

M18 R1b1a2a [R1b1c1] Sardinia, Lebanon

V35 [R1b1c2] Sardinia

V69 [R1b1c3] R1b1c4 Egypt 

L389 [L388] R1b1a1

P297 R1b1a1a

M73 / M478 R1b1a1a1 Central Asia 

M269 / M520 R1b1a1b [R1b1a2 2003-2005, R1b1c 2005-2008, R1b1b2 2008-2011, R1b1a1a2 2011-2020] Europe

L23 / S141 R1b1a1a2a [0] Caucasus, Southern Italy, Greece, Central Europe – Z2103 R1b1a1a2a2 Balkans, Turkey 

L51 / M412 / S167  R1b1a1a2a1 [1] Central France 

L11 [S127, L151] R-P310 [S128/S129] P311 [S128] R1b1a1a2a1a [2] Central England 

Austria – North Western Europe, Norway – R-Z18 R1b1a2a1a1b Scandinavia, Iceland, Low countries, British Isles – P107 [R1b1b2a1b] Germanic 

U106 / M405 / S21 [R1b1b2a1] R1b1a1a2a1a1 [3] Benelux, Netherlands, Frisia, England, Norway, Germany, Austria L257/S186 Germanic [L217, Z14, Z16, Z17, Z18, Z19]

R-S499 / Z301 R1b1a2a1c2 Z301>L48 Germanic >Z9 / S268>Z30>Z27 & Z2>Z7>CTS4099 (1) Sweden, Germany, UK, Ireland & >Z8> [Z338>Z11 / S274 (2) Scandinavia, Germany, UK, Ireland, Spain & FGC1954 (3) Netherlands, France, Britain, Poland & Z1>Z344 (4) Norway, Germany, UK & >Z346 / S512 (5) Germanic >Z343 /S387

Z381 / S263 Britain, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland. R-S264 / Z156 R1b1a2a1a1c1 – R-M1994 R1b1a2a1a1c3 

U198/ S29 / M467 [R1b1b2a1a] R1b1a1a2a1a1a [3a] Southern England and Northern Germany, Germanic (British Saxon) L1 / S26 [R1b1b2a1c] Southern & Eastern England, Norway, Southern Germany, Spain 

L48 / S162 Western Europe 

S116 / P312 R1b1a1a2a1a2[4] Spain and Portugal

Z196 Iberia, Southwest France

DF27 R1b1a1a2a1a2a [5]

M153 [R1b1b2a2c] R1b1a1a2a1a2a1a1a1? [5a] Basque, Gascon, Iberia

M65 Basque

DF27 / M167 / SRY2627 [R1b1b2a2d] R1b1a1a2a1a2a1b1a1 [5b] Basque, (especially) Catalonia, Cornwall, Wales, Northeast Spain, Portugal, Southwest France, Bavaria, Dutch, Belgians

M126 [R1b1b2a2g1] [6a] Alpine Celts

M160 [R1b1b2a2g] [6b] Alpine Celts

U152 / S28 [R1b1b2a2g] R1b1a1a2a1a2b [6] [southern] Switzerland, Central/Eastern France and Italy [N & C], Jutland, Southwestern Norway, [R1b1b2h1?]

S68 [R1b1b2a2h] Sweden, Scotland

L165 / S28 Scotland

L2/ S139 Italy, Germany, Belgium, Britain, Ireland, Norway 

L20 / S144 England, France, Italy

M529 / L21 / S145 R1b1a1a2a1a2c1[7] Brittany and Ireland, Scotland and Wales, Northwest France, Southwest Norway 

P66 [R1b1b2a2f]] Northern Italy

M37 [R1b1b2a2a] Ireland

L193 Scottish Borders 

M222 [DF49/DF23] [R1b1b2a2e/R1b1a2a1a1b4b] R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a? [7a] West Scotland, Scots-Irish, North West Ireland

L238 / S182 Norway, Sweden 

DF19 Germany, Benelux, Britain

DF1 / L513 / S215 / L193 / S176 Scotland

L226 / S168 Central and Western Ireland

L159 / S169 Isle of Man, Hebrides, Norway, Denmark, Northern France, England, Scotland, Ireland

L176 / S179 Northeast Spain, Southwest France

L165 / S68 [R1b1b2a2h] Scandinavia, England, Northern Isles and Outer Hebrides

L1335 Scotland [Pict]

L371 Wales

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Appendix II: Haplogroup Overview

Top three Key mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups for select nations. In so doing, it clearly shows the palpable divide between the three main racial strains of Japheth, Ham and Shem. Conversely, it also highlights the familial nature of the three siblings with various crossover Haplogroups apparent; particularly between Ham and Shem. 

Japheth very much in contrast with his brothers and thus lending weight to their evolutionary link with whom the Bible names as the people of Day Six and who scientists unwittingly call Homo neanderthalensis. The stark isolation of the descendants of Canaan’s Haplogroups also lends weight to their original role as the first humans descended from Adam and Eve in the antediluvian age; from which all other ethnicities have sprung. Just not ‘out of Africa’ but rather from Noah and ‘off the Ark’ [refer Chapter I Noah and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

The maternal Haplogroups are listed first and paternal listed second. There are a few where there is just one line and so to decipher, the dominant Y-DNA Haplogroup is in bold.

Generally, the principle Japheth or East Asian mt-DNA Haplogroups alphabetically are B, D and M plus the American Indian additional Haplogroups of A and C. Whereas, the Y-DNA Haplogroups include the main East Asian Haplogroups of C,D, K and O, plus the additional American Indian Haplogroup of Q.

Japheth

Tiras: Amerindians 

A C B 

Q C R1 

Haplogroup Q is widespread and found in Asia, the Americas, Europe and the Middle East. One of its sub-clades, group Q1a3a4 is exclusively associated with the Native Americans.

Madai: Turkic-Mongol peoples of Central Asia

Kazakhstan  

C K O 

Y-DNA Haplogroup C is found in Central Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. The C1 lineage is exclusively in Japan. Haplogroup C2 is found in New Guinea, Melanesia and Polynesia. The Haplogroup C3 lineage is thought to have originated in Southeast or Central Asians, spreading into northern Asia, the Americas and Central Europe. Haplogroup C4 is restricted among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. Whereas Haplogroup C5 has a significant presence in India.

Turkmenistan

R1b J2

Haplogroup K is considered the ancestral Haplogroup for the major groups from L to P. Which includes the principle Asian Haplogroup O and the key European Haplogroups R1a and R1b. 

Uzbekistan

R1a J2 C

Kyrgyzstan

R1a C O

Gomer: Continental South East Asia 

Ashkenaz: Vietnam

B F M 

O Q C

Riphath & Diphath: Cambodia & Laos

O J2 C

Ararat: Myanmar

F C B

O D K

Minni: Thailand

O C D

Togarmah: North & South Korea

D M B

O C K

Javan: Archipelago South East Asia

Elishah: Malaysia & Singapore

M F B

O K C

Dodan: Philippines

O K C

Rodan: Polynesians & Micronesians

C O K 

Kitti: Indonesia

O K C

Tarshish: Japan

D M B

O D C 

Haplogroup D is present in Central Asia, Southeast Asia and Japan; with the highest frequencies in Tibet and Japan.

Magog, Tubal & Meshech: China 

O C K 

Lineage O represents nearly 60% of chromosomes in East Asia.

Ham

The key mt-DNA Haplogroups for the Hamitic and equatorial peoples of the world are L and M. The main Y-DNA Haplogroups for the same peoples are A, B, E, H, J, R1a and R1b.

Canaan: Sub-Saharan Africans

L0 L1 L2

E B A 

Y-DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny and with Haplogroup B, only appears in Africa. Haplogroup E is one of the most branched, comprising many sub-Haplogroups. E1b1b has a wide geographic distribution and is present in Western Europe, North Africa and the Near East. 

Cush: South Asia 

Havilah: Bangladesh

M U R

H R1a J

Sabtah: Nepal

R1a C H 

Sabteca: Jammu & Kashmir

R1a L H 

Seba: Sri Lanka

M U R

R1a L H 

Raamah: India 

M U R

R1a H L 

Haplogroup R1a is found in Central and Western Asia, India and throughout the Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

Sheba: Northern India

R1a H R2

Dedan: Dravidians of Southern India

H R1a J 

Haplogroup H is not as well studied or documented as some, though it is specific to the Indian sub-Continent.

South East Asian Negritos and Pacific Melanesians

C M K 

The highest frequencies of Y-DNA Haplogroup M are found in Melanesia and restricted to the geographical distribution of Papuan languages.

Sukki: Afghanistan

R1a Q L

Phut: Pakistan

R1a J L 

Haplogroup L is found predominantly in India and Pakistan and also in the Middle East and occasionally in Europe and mainly in Mediterranean countries.

Mizra: Arabs

J1 J2 E1b1b

Pathros: Egypt

L H J

E1b1b J1 J2

Casluh & Caphtor: Hispanic-Latinos of Spanish Central & South America

Mexico 

R1b Q J

Argentina 

R1b J E1b1b

Shem

The principle mt-DNA Haplogroups of Shem and the Europeans are H, T and U. The key Y-DNA Haplogroups for the West Eurasians are I1, I2a1, R1a and R1b

Lud: Iran 

H J U 

J R1a G

Elam: Turkey 

H J U

J R1b E1b1b

Asshur: Russia

H U5 J

R1a N I2a1

Aram –

Hul: Portugal

H J U5

R1b E1b1b J2

Mash: Brazil

H U T

R1b E1b1b J

Gether: Spain

H U5 HV0+V

R1b J2 E1b1b

Uz: Southern Italy & Sicily

H J K

R1b J2 E1b1b 

Arphaxad: Europe 

Anar & Ashcol: Finland

H U5 W

N I1 R1a 

The Y-DNA Haplogroup N has a wide distribution in northern Eurasia; stretching right across from Scandinavia to North and South Korea.

Joktan: Eastern Europe

Ophir: Ukraine

H U5 T2

R1a I2a1 R1b

Havilah: Poland

H U5 J

R1a R1b I1

Sheba: Romania

H J K

I2a1 R1a R1b

Uzal: Greece

H J T2

J2 E1b1b R1b 

Peleg: Western Europe

Nahor: Northern & Central Italy 

H T2 J

R1b J2 E1b1b 

Haran:  Switzerland 

H J T2

R1b I1 I2a1 

Haplogroup I is a clear definitive marker of a European Haplogroup and it is one of the most frequent Haplogroups among northwestern European populations in particular. 

Moab & Ammon: French

H K U5

R1b I1 E1b1b

Abraham & Keturah: Scandinavia & Benelux

Zimran: Norway

H U5 J 

R1b I1 R1a

Ishbak: Iceland

H J T2

R1b I1 R1a

Medan: Denmark

H J K

I1 R1b R1a

Shuah: Sweden

H U5 J

I1 R1b R1a 

Jokshan: Belgium

H K T2

Sheba: Flanders & the Flemish

R1b I1 E1b1b

Letush: Wallonia & the Walloons

R1b I1 R1a 

Asshur: Luxembourg

R1b J2 I2a2 

Midian: Dutch & Afrikaners

H T2 J

R1b I1 I2a2 

The extensive Haplogroup R is mainly represented by two major lineages: R1a and R1b. The members of R1b are the most common Y-DNA Haplogroup in Europe, with more than half of European men of belong to the different sub-clades of R1b.  

Ishmael & Hagar: Germany & Austria

H J U5

R1b R1a I1 

Esau: State of Israel, Jews

Sephardim

H HV0+V K

R1b J2 J1 

Ashkenazim

K H J

J2 E1b1b J1 

Jacob: British & Irish

Judah & Benjamin: England & Scotland

H J U5

R1b I1 R1a 

Simeon: Wales 

H J K

R1b I1 E1b1b 

Reuben: Northern Ireland 

R1b I2a2 I1

Gad: Ireland

H K J

R1b I1 I2a2 

Joseph –

Ephraim: United States of America, East, North & West

Half tribe of West Manasseh, the South

R1b E1b1b I1 

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

The Military Man & the Queen of the South

An article entitled: The Dynasty of Moses and the Queen of Sheba, by Hope of Israel Ministries, provides fascinating details of an amazing forerunner romance that preceded Solomon and the Queen of Sheba – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the book of Deuteronomy… God made Moses an amazing promise. After Israel had sinned, and made a golden calf to worship, Yehovah was furious. He declared to Moses: “I have seen this people, and behold, it is a stiffnecked people: Let me alone, that I may destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven: and I will make of thee a nation MIGHTIER AND GREATER THAN THEY” (Deuteronomy 9:13-14). Moses, however, interceded for the people, and turned away… God’s wrath from them (verses 18-19, 22-29).

However, prior to Moses leaving Egypt, the Jewish historian Josephus points out that he had been a great general who led Pharaoh’s army to victory over the kingdom of Ethiopia, which had conquered most of Egypt. While attacking the Ethiopian capital city, Tharbis, the daughter of the king of Ethiopia, became enamoured of Moses, seeing his valiant exploits, and bargained to deliver the city into his hands if he would but marry her. Moses agreed, and she fulfilled her promise – and Moses married her, and fulfilled the obligation of a husband to her, causing her to become pregnant (Josephus, Antiquities, II, x). This occurred sometime before 1532 B.C., when Moses was driven out of Egypt for slaying an Egyptian (Exodus 2: 11-15). The vitally important royal city where this conflict culminated was “Saba.” Josephus relates:’

Moses will be a subject of study in another chapter. Accordingly, Moses was born slightly later than the article proposes, in 1526 BCE. Moses fled from Egypt at forty years of age in 1486 BCE. His campaign in Cush would have been circa 1506 – 1496 BCE.

‘”…he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; and, joining battle with them, he beat them, and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians… the Ethiopians were in danger of being reduced to slavery, and all sorts of destruction; and at length they retired to SABA, which was a royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses afterward named MEROE, after the name of his own sister. The place was to be beseiged with very great difficulty, since it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, and the other rivers…” (Ant., II, X, 2).

The Greek historian Herodotus spoke of Meroe, or Saba, as “…a great city, the name of which is MEROE. This city is said to be the mother of all Ethiopia” (The History, p.142-143, quoted in The Sign and the Seal, p. 448).

When Egyptian history is properly restored and reconstructed, this event means that Moses’ son by Queen Tharbis became the progenitor of a line of Ethiopian kings. When Israel left Egypt in 1492 B.C., [1446 BCE] the land of Egypt was in a shambles – utterly destroyed, as the Papyrus Ipuwer states with awesome clarity in describing the plagues which fell upon that land – including the plague of blood. The papyrus also shows that invaders from the east, the Hyksos, conquered northern Egypt (lower Egypt) and dominated the region as cruel “shepherd kings” for about 500 years. These “Hyksos” were the Amalekites who fought the children of Israel in Sinai as they left Egypt (Exodus 18). They were not thrown out of Egypt until the reign of king Saul of Israel, who conquered the Amalekites in Arabia (I Samuel 15), and Samuel the prophet slew their king Agag (vs. 32-33).

At this same time, the famous and powerful Eighteenth Dynasty arose in southern Egypt and Ethiopia – a dynasty of dark-skinned kings and queens! Among the famous kings of this powerful dynasty, which overthrew the Hyksos and conquered northern (lower) Egypt, Immanuel Velikovsky writes in Ages in Chaos: “The kingdom of Egypt, after regaining independence under AHMOSEa contemporary of Saul, also achieved grandeur and glory under Amenhotep I, THUTMOSE I, Hatshepsut, and THUTMOSE III. Egypt, devastated and destitute in the centuries under the rule of the Hyksos, rapidly grew in riches” (p. 103).

Notice the strange sounding names of this line of kings from southern Egypt and Ethiopia — they contain the name of their ancestor, who was none other than the Biblical MOSES! Why would Egyptian kings of the most powerful dynasty that ever ruled Egypt be called by the name of Moses, and be named after Moses? Because this dynasty of kings and queens was descended from Tharbis, who became Queen of Ethiopia, and her husband was none other than Moses!

The first Pharaoh to incorporate moses as part of his name was a Pharaoh during the period of the Exodus, Pharaoh Dudimose I who reigned 1450 – 1446 BCE. Though he was contemporaneous with Moses, he was not the Pharaoh of the Exodus as we shall discover. Some commentators have stated ‘moses’ is a title or rank rather than a personal name, so as to minimise or eliminate Moses from Egypt’s historical record. It is very possible it became a title during and after the famous Moses had left his mark on Egyptian history.

‘As Josephus writes, after she delivered up the impregnable city of Saba to Moses, “No sooner was the agreement made, but it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and consummated his marriage, and led the Egyptians back to their own land” (Ant., II, x, 2).

Notice! The royal city where this marriage was consummated was “Saba.” Saba can be none other than the same as Sheba! Thus, the Queen of Sheba, whom Josephus says was the Queen of Ethiopia and Egypt, who visited Solomon in 992 B.C., [rather between 970 – 930 BCE] roughly 540 years after Moses married the Ethiopian princess, came from this same royal city of Saba-Sheba. This means that she was a royal descendant of Moses and Tharbis, the daughter of the king of Ethiopia — a descendant of Moses!

… God fulfilled his promise to make a powerful dynasty of kings from the loins of Moses. And in the days of Solomon, the Queen of Sheba – Hatshepsut [ruled Egypt 960 to 945 BCE], her Egyptian name, or Makeda, her Ethiopian name – like Tharbis, her ancestor, had a love affair or romance with a Hebrew leader – King Solomon. Thereby the royal lines of Moses [Tribe of Levi] and David [Tribe of Judah] became intertwined,and have ruled in the nation of Ethiopia [people of Cush] ever since…

The very name “Hatshepsut” itself may be indicative of the fact that this famous Queen, who visited the land of Punt, the “Divine Land,” and who built a temple on the banks of the Nile at Thebes in upper Egypt patterned after Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem, was indeed the Queen of Sheba. “Ha,” in Hebrew, means “the.” “Sut is a suffix which may relate to royalty. Thus her actual name is “Shep,” but nominatives are often interchangeable, and it could be rendered “Sheb,” that is, SHEBA — thus her very name could mean, “The Sheba Queen,” or “The Queen of Sheba.”

Interestingly, historians know that the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, at its most powerful, was a [black] dynasty – that is, Ethiopian or Nubian! On page 105 of his book Ages in Chaos, Velikovsky has a plate showing the visage of Queen Hatshepsut, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is a regal looking statue showing her distinctive Ethiopian features, or a mixture of Ethiopian and Semitic – but of course, for she was the descendant of Tharbis and Moses!

Was Hatshepsut the same person as the Queen of Sheba, or the Queen of Ethiopia, as Josephus states clearly that the Queen of Sheba was? The Ethiopian name of this Queen, who visited Solomon and had a son by him, was Makeda. Did Hatshepsut have this as her personal name? Velikovsky quotes the Karnak obelisk, in Breasted, Records, volume II, section 325, in its description of the famous Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut: “Thy name reaches as far as the circuit of heaven, the fame of MAKERE (Hatshepsut) encircles the sea” (Ages in Chaos, p. 105).

Makere is clearly the same name as Makeda, the Ethiopian name for the Queen of Sheba or Saba. The term “Sheba” or “Saba” refers to the name of the famous Ethiopian royal city at the confluence of the Nile and two other Ethiopian rivers, at the upper reaches of the Nile! The word “Ethiopia” is a Greek word meaning “burnt faces.” The Hebrew word Cush, translated as “Ethiopia,” was used in Biblical times to refer to “the entire Nile Valley south of Egypt, including Nubia and Abyssinia” (Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible, p. 5, quoted in The Sign and the Seal, p. 450). 

The 1955 Revised Constitution of Ethiopia confirms the age-old monarchy’s Divine Right to rule. It states: “The Imperial dignity shall remain perpetually attached to the line of Haile Selassie I, whose line descends without interruption from the dynasty of Menelik I, son of the Queen of Ethiopia, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Jerusalem…” (ibid., p. 24). Haile Selassie, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, claimed to be the 225th direct line descendant of Menelik I, the son of the Queen of Sheba or Saba, the royal city and “mother” city of all Ethiopia. Thus her Biblical name, “Queen of Sheba,” actually helps to prove her true identity!’

The above lineage claim of Haile Selassie of the nation of Ethiopia, is included for interest. If Moses’s first wife was from Cush, then it is not such a random act for Moses to later take a Cushite woman as his third wife. 

Was Hatshepsut the Queen of Sheba – or Merely the Queen of Theba? By Emmet Sweeney – emphasis & bold mine:

In the Old Testament she is named simply “Queen of Sheba,” but in the Gospel of Matthew [12.42] she is called “Queen of the South”Both these titles point directly to Egypt.

In the Book of Daniel the Ptolemaic pharaoh is named “King of the South” on several occasions. It may be that this was not the most common biblical designation for the Egyptian ruler, but its occurrence in Daniel, without any explanatory comments, proves beyond question that it was a commonly-used expression. And the king of the south shall be strong … and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north … and shall also carry captives into Egypt … So the king of the south shall come into his own kingdom and return to his own land (Daniel 11, v. 5-9).

It should be noted that the Book of Daniel is generally dated to the first century BC, whilst the Gospel of Matthew seems to have been written in the third quarter of the first century AD. Evidently, during this century or two, “monarch of the south” was an accepted term for the Egyptian ruler… Hatshepsut was… very definitely a Queen of the South. She was also, as we shall now see, a Queen of Sheba.

The capital of Egypt during the Eighteenth Dynasty was the mighty city of Thebes. Modern Egyptologists still use this name, which is derived from the Greeks. 

Where the Greeks got it has always been a mystery, since the native name of the metropolis, in the hieroglyphs, is read as Wa-se or Wa-she (actually, the glyphs used are that of the scepter – written as Uas-t by Budge – and that of a plant and an arm – written as Shema or Sh-a by Budge: thus Uas-sha or Was-sha). 

… Lisa Liel of Israel, an authority on both hieroglyphic and cuneiform scripts, pointed out to me that in her opinion the word should be read as Se-wa or She-wa, since the spellings of hieroglyphic names vary and in addition are often written not precisely as they should be pronounced. In fact, spellings often had more to do with aesthetics or religious sentiment than with strict phonetics. Thus the name Tutankhamen is actually written as Amen-tutankh (since the god’s name had to come first) and the names of the Senwosret pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty appear in the hieroglyphs as Wsr-t-sn. One might also note that various pharaohs whose names are made up of the elements Ka-nefer-reare alternately named Nefer-ka-ra (in actual fact the name appears in the hieroglyphs normally as Ra-nefer-ka). 

Now, if Thebes’ Egyptian name is really Shewa (Sheba) then a whole host of hitherto mysterious facts become comprehensible. First and foremost, we now know where the Greeks got the word Thebes (Theba). A normal linguistic mutation (lisping) turns “s” or “sh” into “th.” Thus for example the Persians called Assyria, Athuria. Secondly, we know why Josephus called the capital of Ethiopia (i.e. Upper Egypt/Nubia) by the name Saba or Shaba. Finally, we understand the significance of the name of another cult shrine of the god Amon – the oasis of Siwa.

Thus the two titles by which the Queen of Sheba is known in the biblical story clearly identify her as a queen of Egypt. Yet the connection between Egypt and the terms Queen of Sheba and Queen of the South still however leaves us with the question: Why did the biblical authors prefer these terms to “Egypt”? One possible answer, which may or may not be of value, is that the Jewish chroniclers were keenly aware of the Nubian (ie “Ethiopian”) origin of the Eighteenth Dynasty. To call the Queen of Sheba an Egyptian would thus, perhaps, have been (in their minds at least) a slight inaccuracy. 

We recall here that a generation or so after the time of Solomon, Israel was attacked by an “Ethiopian” ruler named Zerah. Everyone, even mainstream scholars, agree that this “Ethiopian” king was an Egyptian pharaoh (he is said to have brought an army of Libyans and Ethiopians against Israel), and the present writer agrees with Velikovsky in identifying this man with Amenhotep II [7th king of the 18th Dynasty 912-887 BCE] — a man whose Nubian ethnic identity is very clear in the portrayals of him that have survived.

There are scholars and commentators that refute Hatshephut as being the same person as the Queen of Sheba and the Biblical narrative as authentic; but in so doing, do not provide a viable, believable or provable alternative. 

Edited excerpt from Chapter XIII Cush & Phut

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Appendix I: Identity Index

An appendix designed for readers who cannot recall a particular identity – for there are a lot to remember – particularly helpful for those who may be new to the subject or possess a passing interest or surface level of knowledge. 

It also will be advantageous for those readers desiring to skip sections should their interest or concentration not extend to a full investment of time in reading the chronological and contextual background of information chapter by chapter. Though as a result, some identities on first reading, may be more difficult to assimilate and process than others. 

Japheth 

Tiras: Amerindians of North, Central & South America

Madai (Medes): Turkic-Mongol peoples of the Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan,         Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, partially Tajikistan, the Tatars of Russia and the Sami of Russia, Finland and Scandinavia

Gomer: Continental South East Asia 

Ashkenaz: Vietnam

Riphath: Cambodia

Diphath: Laos

Ararat: Myanmar

Minni: Thailand

Togarmah: North & South Korea

Javan: Archipelago South East Asia

Elishah: Malaysia & Singapore

Dodan: Philippines

Rodan: Polynesians & Micronesians

Kitti: Indonesia

Tarshish: Japan

Magog, Tubal & Meshech: China & Taiwan, Tibet, Bhutan

Ham 

Canaan: Sub-Saharan Africans

Sidon: South Africa

Arvad: Angola

Hamath: Nigeria

Cush (Ethiopia): South Asia 

Havilah: Bangladesh

Sabtah: Nepal

Sabteca: Jammu & Kashmir

Seba: Sri Lanka

Raamah: India 

Sheba: Northern India

Dedan: Dravidians of Southern India, South East Asian Negritos and Pacific Melanesians

Sukki: Afghanistan

Phut (Libya): Pakistan

Mizra: Arabs

Pathros: Egypt

Anam: North Africa

Naphtuh: Middle East, including Arabian Peninsula and the Levant

Ludim: with Iran

Lehab (Lubim): with Pakistan

Casluh & Caphtor (Philistines): Latino-Hispano of Spanish Central & South America, including Mexico, Colombia and Argentina 

Shem  

Lud (Lydia): Iran & Azerbaijan, Georgia

Elam (Persia): Turkey & Armenia

Asshur (Assyria): Russia

Aram (Syria):

Hul: Portugal

Mash: (Tyre): Brazil

Gether: Spain

Uz: Southern Italy & Sicily

Arphaxad: Europe 

Anar & Ashcol: Finland

Joktan: Eastern Europe – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Moldova, Bulgaria, Albania, Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo

Ophir: Ukraine

Havilah: Poland

Sheba: Romania

Uzal: Greece

Peleg: Western Europe

Nahor (Chaldeans): Northern & Central Italy 

Haran:  Switzerland 

Lot: French

Moab: Central & Southern France

Ammon: North Western France, Paris & French Quebec, Canada

Abraham & Keturah: Scandinavia & Benelux

Zimran: Norway

Ishbak: Iceland

Medan: Denmark

Shuah: Sweden

Jokshan: Belgium

Sheba: Flanders & the Flemish

Dedan – Leumm: Brussels

Letush: Wallonia & the Walloons

Asshur: Luxembourg

Midian (Hivites): Netherlands, the Dutch & Afrikaners, South Africa

Ishmael (Hittites): Germany

Hagar: Austria 

Esau (Edom)): State of Israel, Sephardic & Ashkenazi Jews 

Amalek: American Jews

Jacob (Israel): Irish & British = Celts, Angles, Frisians, Jutes, Vikings, Normans 

Judah: England

Benjamin: Scotland

Simeon: Wales 

Levi: Scattered (predominantly within Judah, Benjamin and Simeon)

Reuben: Northern Ireland 

Gad: Ireland

Issachar: Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) & South Africa

Zebulun: Republic of South Africa

Asher: Australia

Naphtali: New Zealand

Joseph: North America

Ephraim: United States of America, East, North & West

Half tribe of West Manasseh: Southern States

Half tribe of East Manasseh (Gilead, Machir): Canada

Dan: Scattered… predominantly located in the United States, Northern Ireland and Scotland and known respectively as Scotch Irish, Ulster Scots and Scots Irish

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

finalis verbum

The most damaging aspect of the Biblical identity doctrine has been the element of whatever someone new to the subject first hears, reads or learns of any given identity, it is this knowledge that becomes firmly entrenched and invariably never shifted. As Proverbs 18:17 ESV says, the first case heard always has the advantage, whether right or wrong by virtue of being first. 

‘The one who states his case first seems right, until the other comes and examines him.’

Any secondary information has an uphill battle to gain attention, let alone replace the previously incorrect knowledge if such is the case. 

Yet, the accurate definition and explanation of the nations’ identities in the Bible in our modern age is crucial in understanding prophecy and by extension history. The credibility of the Bible has been at stake and those who have taught erroneous identities have been unwittingly holding the Eternal’s word to ransom. Now is the time for the truth to go out to those who truly seek wisdom and understanding – for the latter days are upon us. J H Allen understood the foundational basis of this knowledge in proving the veracity of the Bible, as written under inspiration by holy men and not the ramblings of eccentric or fanatical prophets. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

We have been moved by the Holy Spirit to thus write concerning the earthly history of God’s chosen race, because so very little of it is known by the masses of our people, and yet it is the foundation upon which the entire structure of Christianity must rest. A knowledge of these earthly things not only renders the claims of Christianity impregnable, but they are also the basis upon which we must rest our faith for better things. For Jesus has said, “If I have told you of earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?” The truth… as set forth in this book – that is, the realization of the promises made to ISRAEL… has… [brought] more skeptics to the light of his truth, than in all our previous ministry… [and]… We are… sure… that the faith of those who have made shipwreck could not have failed, if they had known these things.’

Dictionary.com: 

‘Genetic evidence has undermined the idea of racial divisions of the human species and rendered race obsolete as a biological system of classification. Race therefore should no longer be considered as an objective category… There are times when it is still accurate to talk about race in society. Though race has lost its biological basis, the sociological consequences of historical racial categories persist. While the scientific foundation for race is now disputed, racial factors in sociological and historical contexts continue to be relevant. First recorded in 1490–1500; from Middle French race “group of people of common descent,” from Italian razza “kind, species”…’

We can say, Scottish people or the English nation rather than calling them what they are. The scientific community has imposed a politically correct use, or rather less use of the word race. It would make sense if the word was banned outright, yet it is still allowable for social or historical definitions, just not for the actual aspect it is defining – our biological inheritance. Whether we use other words such as ethnicity or ancestry, it does not make the physical, biological differences between peoples less obvious or disappear. 

Following are synonyms: tribe, clan, family, stock, line, breed, blood, colour, culture, nation, people, offspring, progeny, seed, stock, strain, ethnicity. Some of these words could have a more inflammatory impact than the word race in my opinion. There is an agenda to attack the White race. The expression, Black lives matter, could be better expressed as ‘all lives matter.’ There is pressure to make white people uncomfortable and to do away with a concept of white people. It is blatant discrimination. Will black, brown, red and yellow people also come under fire? 

The term race is unhelpful in relation to all humanity. I prefer mankind, or if you will, humankind; not the human race. We are a kind, as there are animal kinds. The races are like species within the kind. It is very hard to do away with genetic lines of people that make them common to each other and different to other racial lines. They are  simply, different races. 

With this in mind, Greg Doudna reflects the frustration and division this issue causes, in the questions he poses. The division, confusion and strength of emotion it arouses exist in part, because people do not appreciate the differences in people. This is heightened due to the fact people do not know who they are. Yet, I observe online, mammoth interest in tracing family ancestry and forming a sense of self-identity; particularly with the breakthrough with Haplogroups. People want to understand their own race or racial heritage. Ironically, Haplogroups have also contributed to people becoming even more scathing, condemning and incorrect in their summations. 

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna, 1989, 2006, pages 143-144 – Italics his:

‘…consider three questions. Think:

(1) Is there any biblical basis to such a notion of classification as a “white race” in history? 

Are Italians part of the “white race”? Why? Are Russians? What about Assyrian Christian Iraqis who descend from the Assyrians of old [not correct – refer Chapter XIV Mizra & Chapter XX Asshur]? What about Jordanians? Are Arab tribes who claim descent from Ishmael? Are Spaniards part of the white race? Are Portuguese? Are Greeks? Are Poles? How about Muslim Shi’ite Azerbaijanis from the Caucasus? How about Armenians and Georgians and Chechens from the Caucasus area, otherwise known as Caucasians, or in Russia known negatively as blacks (because their skin is typically darker and more “ethnic” looking than that of Russians)? Are these Caucasians, who are Russia’s blacks, members of the “white race”? (Remember, historically Armenians and Georgians from the Caucasus started out defining the so-called Caucasian/white race). Are Hungarians part of “the white race”? Rumanians? Czechs? Gypsies (Roma)? Albanians? Serbs? How about the Persians of Iran, Iran’s largest ethnic group, who descend from the ancient Aryan Persians [not correct – refer Chapter XVII Lud]?’

A resounding Yes to nearly all. Yes, they are white. They do descend from Shem. In the main, the author has selected the descendants from Shem’s sons Lud, Elam in part, Asshur and Aram in part, as well as a handful from Arphaxad in Eastern Europe. The exception above is the true Arab who descends from Mizra and Ham. It was white peoples living in the Caucasus Mountain area that were classified as Caucasian; not the Armenians or Georgians specifically, who came to dwell later. The Iranian Persians are Lud and not the original Persians from Elam, as we have studied [refer Chapter XVIII, Elam].

‘(2) What is the actual basis for such a notion of a “white race” in history?’

Again, a resounding yes. Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support the Bible record – of a major three way split as evidenced by Noah’s sons and the sixteen lines of variation represented by Noah’s grandsons – and provide the scientific data, for all those with a stubborn, ‘prove it to me with scientific facts only, and not all this Bible nonsense.’ [refer Chapter I Noah] 

The author’s use of the word notion three times is insightful as notion means: a general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something, an opinion, view, or belief, a fanciful or foolish idea; whim. The reality of the peoples of the earth being all one blood and from one source, yet each possessing a variety of physical, mental and emotional characteristics, is so much more than a notion.

1 Corinthians 3:18-20

New Century Version

18 Do not fool yourselves. If you think you are wise in this world, you should become a fool so that you can become truly wise, 19 because the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God

It is written in the Scriptures, “He catches those who are wise in their own clever traps.” 20 It is also written in the Scriptures, “The Lord knows what wise people think. He knows their thoughts are just a puff of wind.”

‘ Same questions as above, repeated. How did some of these groups get to be members of “the white race.” while others did not? Who decided, and why? And finally,

(3) Has this notion done more good or harm?

I leave these questions open, to encourage reflection. ‘

The constant reader knows the supreme Creator in His wisdom separated the races for His purpose. The powers that be, have separated peoples according to their self-serving agenda and yes, created more harm than good.

The Creator planned the different races. The Creator must be racist? The Creator chose to work more closely with one family. The Creator must be playing favourites? If both are true… deal with it. Or, if both are not true, then why do people think they are wiser than the Creator? 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, pages 224-225, emphasis his, bold mine:

‘… Benjamin Disraeli… [British] prime minister… was a Christianised Jew whose writings on race are so profound that they are today largely ignored by politically correct present-day historians. In his book Tancred… 1868, Disraeli wrote: “All is race – there is no other truth”… and in his book Endymion… he wrote: “No man will treat with indifference the principle of race. It is the key to history and why history is so often confused is that it has been written by men who were ignorant of this principle and all the knowledge it involves… Language and religion do not make a race – there is only one thing which makes a race, and that is blood”…’

In academic and scientific fields of research whether private or public, the key for support is monetary funding, sponsorship and donations. Hence, in the main there is pressure to only research, publish findings and to teach that which follows a curriculum or agenda as per the ones holding the purse strings. Independent research is thus few or far between or most often non-existent. 

Ellis Silver, pages 258-259 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Scientists [Anthropologists, ethnologists, geneticists, theologians, ministers] joining an organization have to follow their managers’ orders. Those managers will have been through the same school of indoctrination, and probably additional levels of it too. So they know what’s at stake [if] they try to investigate something that’s even slightly outside the mainstream. The penalties include:

  • loss of credibility
  • loss of funding
  • loss of tenure
  • ridicule from their peers
  • refusal by their peers to review their work
  • refusal by mainstream publications to review or publish their work

As a result, mainstream scientists refuse to have anything to do with these things, even if you provide them with irrefutable evidence. They don’t want to be associated with it. They see it as potentially career-damaging, and, as we’ve seen, they label it “pseudoscience” or “yet another stupid hoax” to emphasize their dismissal of it, usually without even looking at it. Another problem with scientific teaching [doctrinal belief] is that it follows a single, rigid pathway [creed]. Anything that isn’t on that pathway “can’t possibly be true.”’

The reason this work and its findings, has been collated together and why many could and would, not. Though in so doing, this writer has unintentionally and reluctantly, become a contrarian and an iconoclast. 

‘Contrarian: a person who takes an opposing view, especially one who rejects the majority opinion.

Iconoclast: a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition. A breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration.’

Lloyd Pye, pages 64-65 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘[There is] resistance to change within any status quo of the mainstream scientific [and scholarly] community. Truth has nothing to do with it; proof has even less to do with it than truth; and forget logic – logic is wasted on people with a sharp axe to grind. 

What counts in such disputes is usually about 50 years, two generations, which have to retire before any controversial new reality will be fully accepted. First is the status quo crowd at the time of discovery [or proposal]. They reject it because to them it means three very bad things:

  1. being wrong on a major issue;
  2. having to rewrite a large portion of their purview; and
  3. a ripple effect of doubt cast on everything else they have achieved or profess to know.

The next generation spawns two groups: those who cling to the old status quo, and those who accept the new reality. As a whole they never fully embrace it, but they produce enough converts to grant it limited acceptance, allowing it to be openly supported without committing career suicide. 

The converts then teach their views to the next generation, and when they take over they see to it that what had been a “heresy” is accepted wisdom. It always requires time, but time and the truth invariably win out. 

For as harsh as criticism is toward dissent from outside the scientific [or the historic research] establishment, dissent from within [identity adherents] is often worse.’

Why it may take decades for this work to be even remotely valued or viewed as credible. And, how long for any would be detractors or academic intelligentsia in desisting from impugning or assailing the material contained herein. It is of little consequence; they will not inherit the last word, but ultimately the truth and those precious souls that embrace it will. If this work impacts only a handful of people, or even just finds one – you; it will have been worth every hour of the thousands invested over the past thirty years. 

1 Kings 19:18 

Complete Jewish Bible

“… Still, I will spare seven thousand in Israel, every knee that hasn’t bent down before Ba’al…” 

Luke 12:32 

Common English Bible

“[and] little flock… your Father delights in giving you the kingdom.” 

Treasured reader, you have in your hands a seminal work. Not because of its author or writing; rather for its profound revelation, submitted humbly and solemnly. When we read to the end of the book that is called the Holy Bible; right through to the last chapter and on the very final page, it is the aspirants of truth and the followers of Him who declares it, that win…

Revelation 22:14-15

New Century Version

“Blessed are those who wash their robes so that they will receive the right to eat the fruit from the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Outside the city are the evil people, those who… love lies and tell lies.

Dedicated with heartfelt encouragement and admiration to those faithful and true sojourners some three centuries hence; who will complete the good work of the way to the One who gives life eternal and whom will value what is yet concealed herein, for today’s generation will not; for they look, but do not see, read, but do not comprehend, listen, but do not hear.

… “Go, and say to this people:

“‘Keep on hearing, but do not understand; keep on seeing, but do not perceive.’ Make the heart of this people dull, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed.”

Isaiah 6:9–10 ESV

“The dogmas of the quiet past, are inadequate to the stormy present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must rise – with the occasion. As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.”

Abraham Lincoln [1809-1865]

“About the times of the End, a body of men will be raised up who will turn their attention to the prophecies, and insist upon their literal interpretation, in the midst of much clamor and opposition.”

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

“… To the righteous and the wise shall be given books of joy, of integrity, and of great wisdom. To them shall books be given, in which they shall believe… and all the righteous shall be rewarded, who from these shall acquire the knowledge of every upright path.”

Book of Enoch 104:10-11

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Dan: The Invisible Tribe

Chapter XXXIV

The final chapter, for the final identity and the final piece of the puzzle – the darkly enigmatic, tribe of Dan. Of all identity research on the tribes of Israel, none has drawn more interest, discussion and articles than Dan the fifth son of Jacob. With Ephraim and Manasseh, it has proven to be a very popular tribe for investigation. In part because its identity has been incorrectly perceived as easy. The perplexing irony is that its appeal lays in Dan’s proclivity to leave his name wherever he travelled as a marker that neatly leaves a path for the identity buff to follow. What is then baffling is the fact that the people of Dan can be traced to Ireland and Britain, with the serpentine trail suddenly going cold. 

We follow the snakelike twists and turns of its tail, to then find that its head is hidden and for the serpent of Dan to be concealed and laying undisclosed. Aside from Judah, Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin, Dan receives a fair amount of air time in the Bible. His role in end time events increasing as the latter days encroach. So who is Dan, where is Dan and why is Dan hidden? 

Dan is like some of the other identities of Israel in that it is rather unanimous amongst identity adherents regarding his modern identification. The major blind is the nation of Denmark and the popular teaching that they constitute one half of Dan, as in Dan’s mark. We have discussed the nation of Denmark in Chapter XXVII Abraham, as well as the Danes, as in the true Vikings in Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali. The modern Danes are in fact the tribe of Medan, descended from Abraham and his second wife, Keturah. 

The other half of Dan, though warmer is still cold and that is ascribing them to the modern nation of Ireland. As discussed in Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, the Irish are in fact the tribe of Gad. Some more enterprising researchers have attributed Dan to Northern Ireland and this to their credit is much warmer again, though still not correct, for Northern Ireland is the tribe of Reuben. The tribe of Dan, or Tuathe de Danaan entered Ireland and fully explored Alba Britain from top to bottom, leaving their name as Dun in Scotland, Don in England and Din in Wales. Scotland is Benjamin, Wales is Simeon and England is Judah, but who is Dan? And where is Dan? 

It is recommended that Chapter XXIX Esau be read prior to this chapter. It would also be useful to read Chapters XXX through to XXXIII. 

We first meet Dan in Genesis chapter thirty, though the name Dan first appears in Genesis chapter fourteen. His birth happens after a major family domestic in Jacob’s household; which had been simmering for a good length of time, while Leah was providing son after son and her younger sister Rachel remained barren. There was anger and frustration on both sides, between Jacob and Rachel. Jacob desired a son from his favourite wife and Rachel wanted to remain important in his eyes by giving him a son. Rachel also felt under pressure to her fertile sister. It must have been quite an unhappy house until Bilhah conceived and then finally Rachel did with Joseph, many years later. Dan was born in 1746 BCE, some twenty years before Jospeh in 1726 BCE. 

Genesis 30:1-8

English Standard Version

When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, she envied her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children, or I shall die!”Jacob’s anger was kindled against Rachel, and he said, “Am I in the place of God, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?” 3 Then she said, “Here is my servant Bilhah; go in to her, so that she may give birth on my behalf, that even I may have children through her.” 4 So she gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob went in to her. 5 And Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son. 6 Then Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son.” Therefore she called his name Dan [Judged]. 7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Dan, meaningJudge from the verb (din), to judge, govern, contend or plead

Dan is the name of a tribe of Israel, which descended from Dan, the son of Jacob and Bilhah, the maid of Rachel (Genesis 30:6). Dan’s only full brother is Naphtali. But prior to the existence of Dan the tribe, there was a town (or region) named Dan, mentioned in the War of Four against Five Kings (Genesis 14:14). In Judges 18:7 we learn about a town called Laish, near Beth-rehob, which is razed to the ground by a gang of (Danites). They rebuild the town and call it Dan, after their tribal founder. The Oxford Companion to the Bible, however, claims that this city Dan is the same as the one mentioned in Genesis 14:14, and called so in retrospect. 

The verb (din) means to judge or govern. It’s an old verb that mostly describes the authority of a naturally superior (because that person is wiser, stronger, older) in contrast to the governing done by a formal government (by politically favored and appointed officials). The noun (dayyan) describes one such a leader, and noun (din) describes anything pertaining to primitive governing: a judgment, plea, complaint, contention. Noun (madon) literally describes a “place or judging” and is synonymous with the contending that goes on in such a place. Noun (medina) described the jurisdiction of one judge, and became the word for province.

For a meaning of the name Dan, BDB Theological Dictionary and the NOBSE Study Bible Name List agree on Judge. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Judge, Judging.’

As we have studied Genesis chapter fourteen in length in Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer and in Chapter XXVII Abraham we will briefly mention the association between the city of Dan and the other cities in the plain of the Elioud giants. The city may well have had a retrospective naming to it. Either way, the coincidence remains that as the land of Canaan was infested with Nephilim offspring in Abraham’s day; it was the area some of Dan’s descendants chose to migrate to in the north – from their original southerly location – that was an historic hotbed of Nephilim activity after the flood. It was in the area of Bashan that Mount Hermon was located where the Watchers had originally descended in the antediluvian epoch. The other tie in is the fact that the tribe of Dan has a connection with the Amalekites and Horites of whom Esau married into. The very same Amalekites and Horites that were descendants of Nephilim and were alive in Abraham’s time as stated in Genesis chapter fourteen [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Genesis 14:14

English Standard Version

When Abram heard that his kinsman [Lot] had been taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, 318 of them, and went in pursuit [northwards] as far as Dan.

We next meet Dan in Genesis chapter thirty-seven, which we discussed in the preceding section, Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim. Joseph gave a ‘bad report’ about his bothers Dan, Naphtali, Asher and Gad – the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. The word bad can be read as evil. As we will progress, we learn that Dan was the ‘black sheep’ of the family and as a ‘bad boy’ it is very possible he was leading his three brothers astray as the eldest of the four. This incident reveals the dark side to Dan and the inference is that he is the ring leader of a plan that will have far ranging implications for the entirety of his family right until the return of the Son of Man. 

It appears that Dan and his three brothers, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, did not have a good relationship with Joseph; with this incident prefacing the subsequent plot against Joseph’s life that changed the course of history. Reuben and Judah, the most prominent individuals in the story of the brothers’ betrayal of Joseph are always cast as the villains in the piece, yet a close inspection of Genesis chapter thirty-seven reveals that these two brothers endeavoured to spare the life of Joseph. The real villains are the group of four headed by Dan, who were concocting their plan to murder Joseph. Hence Joseph’s concern and report to Jacob. This has repercussions for Joseph’s and Dans’ relationship later. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

… such a betrayal of Joseph by Dan cannot help but be seen as an ancient type of another far greater betrayal, that instigated by Judas Iscariot toward the Messiah Himself.  

Indeed, the parallels are fascinating and compelling, for as there were twelve apostles, so there were twelve tribes of Israel, one of which would betray… Jesus.  And it can be stated without hesitation that of all the sons of Jacob, none even come remotely close to typifying the coming Messiah, other than Joseph who, in fact, is arguably the most complete type of Christ in all the Scriptures! In fact, it is impossible not to associate the betrayal of Joseph with the later infamous betrayal of the Savior.’

There are three very small verses about Dan – as recorded in Jacob’s prophecy – that are monumental in their ramifications. We will address them one at a time scripturally and then include the research of others and how it may all fit together. For to be honest, there is much conjecture involved with Dan and the full answer may remain allusive until all things are one day, resolved. 

Many commentators and Bible translations refer to Genesis forty-nine as the blessings of Jacob, yet in verse one, Jacob says: ‘… which shall befall you in the last days.’ Rather than a blessing it is an unpleasant synopsis of what is to happen to the various tribes, one great, Joseph; some good, Judah, Asher, Naphtali; some okay, Simeon, Levi, Zebulun, Gad, Benjamin; others not so good, Reuben, Issachar; and then Dan’s. Some tribes have their challenges highlighted or are given dire predictions. It is only Dan that is singled out as embracing an inner heart of evil.

Genesis 49:16-18

English Standard Version

16 “Dan [H1835 – Dan: a judge] shall judge [H1777 – diyn] his people [H5971 – am] as one [H259 – ‘echad: each, every, any, alike] of the tribes [H7626 – shebet] of Israel. 

Other translations of verse sixteen include – 

CEV: Dan, you are the tribe that will bring justice to Israel.

GNT: “Dan will be a ruler for his people. They will be like the other tribes of Israel.

MSG: Dan will handle matters of justice for his people; he will hold his own just fine among the tribes of Israel.

NABRE: “Dan shall achieve justice for his people as one of the tribes of Israel.

WYC: Dan shall deem his people, as also another lineage in Israel.

We are alerted in the first few words, that Dan is like all the other tribes, yet he isn’t like them at all. It is certainly a riddle and a word play is used, as it says Dan shall judge, which could be written as Dan shall Dan, or Judge shall judge. The second Hebrew word for Dan is subtly different from the name Dan. It can be translated as ‘plead the cause, contend, execute, strife.’ It can mean ‘to act as judge, minister, requite, vindicate, strive, to be at strife, quarrel.’ 

By extension it can also mean to ‘sail direct’ or ‘a straight course.’ This is ironic as the tribe of Dan were formidable sailors but didn’t exactly travel in straight lines whether by sea or land. 

It is the same word as used in Genesis 6:3 KJV, where the Creator says: ‘My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.’ This is an interesting coincidence as this was the final one hundred and twenty years prior to the flood, designed to wipe out the Nephilim related peoples; the period that Noah had to preach a warning and the age that humankind was ultimately going to live as maximum after Abraham’s generation. Here, Dan is linked to the Nephilim, a reoccurring theme that we will discover is confirmed throughout the Bible and history.

The Hebrew word used for people can be translated as nations [17], folk [2] and men [1]. It refers to ‘members of one’s people, compatriots, country-men, kinsman’ and ‘kindred.’ One would assume it means fellow Danites, though other verses hint at a broader application that may mean all the sons of Jacob. The word of real interest is for tribe, shebet. This word can be translated as rod [34], sceptre [10] and staff [2]. It means ‘branch, offshoot, club, spear, dart, truncheon’ and ‘clan.’ A ‘mark of authority’ and rulership. 

All the tribes rule themselves, though by varying degree. The United States, Ireland and South Africa have become Republics and detached from the Monarchy of England or Judah. The descendants of Zebulun and Issachar in South Africa are small in number and have been subservient to the earlier preeminence of the Afrikaner and now the majority Black rule; they are still visible and possessing tangible territory. Canada, Australia and New Zealand are independent nations, yet still pledge allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II. The countries of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are still attached to the House of Judah and form a United Kingdom, a Kingdom of Judah with England. Reuben of Northern Ireland and Simeon of Wales, again though small in number have a tangible and visible presence. 

This is where the difference lays with Dan. If he is judging or governing like the other tribes with a sceptre of rulership, what is he ruling, who is he ruling? Verse sixteen leaves more questions than it answers. What may be extracted from the verse is that Dan may not be ostensibly identifiable like his brothers, though he none-the-less exerts influence of some kind. Which means he judges whether from a legal or political criterion, and a business or finance standpoint.

17 Dan shall be a serpent [H5175 – nachash: a snake, serpent] in the way [H1870 – derek], a viper [H8207 – shphiyphon: (horned) adder] by the path [H734 – ‘orach], that bites [H5391 = nashak] the horse’s [H5483 – cuwc] heels [H6119 – aqeb] so that his rider [H7392 – rakab] falls [H5307 – naphal] backward. 

Other translations of verse sixteen include:

ERV: Dan will be like a snake at the side of the road. He will be like a dangerous snake lying near the path. That snake bites a horse’s foot, and the rider falls to the ground.

MSG: Dan is only a small snake in the grass, a lethal serpent in ambush by the road When he strikes a horse in the heel, and brings its huge rider crashing down.

WYC: Dan be made a serpent in the way, and (a) cerastes, that is, an horned adder, in the path, and bite he the feet of an horse, that the rider of him fall backward

The Hebrew word for serpent signifies a ‘fleeing serpent’, that is, one that is moving and the second word describing this serpent is revealing. We learn that Dan may be small, but packs a big punch, typical of a snake that can terrify and bring down a much larger creature as in a horse with a human rider. Though Dan was given a small inheritance, they would become a leading tribe – shrewd, clever and predatory. The snake is associated with wisdom as we have discussed. Wisdom can mean evil, cunning and immersed in the dark arts and the occult; or, it can relate to godly wisdom in handing situations diplomatically and effectively. Such as the instruction given by the Son of Man, to the disciples when they would later as Apostles, travel and preach. 

Matthew 10:16

English Standard Version

“Behold, I am sending you out as sheep in the midst of wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.

Equating the serpent with Dan is associating him with Samael the great Adversary and a chief entity of wickedness and evil. From the opening scriptures in the Garden of Eden as the Serpent to the very concluding chapters of this age, as the Dragon, Satan looms over the vast plot that is the Bible. This prophecy regarding Dan is shocking for it pertains to his attitude and action toward his own family. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis mine:

‘Is Jacob stating or implying here that Dan will be as the Adversary in the affairs of Israel in the end-time?  Was Dan’s father given a revelation of future betrayal within his own clan?  If so, this is disturbing news for latter-day Israel, and could well provide enquiring minds today with an invaluable key as to what part the tribe of Dan is destined to play in world affairs. 

The Hebrew word for adder is shphiyphon, and is derived from the root term shuwph, which means to gape, to snap at, to overwhelm, and is rendered to break, bruise, and cover. 

Thus it is quite apparent that Jacob’s perception of his son in this instance is far from positive. Thus Dan is prophesied to be an impediment, an opponent, and negative force in the latter days.’

Some translations use the word adder to identify the serpent, which is not as accurate as viper. For instance, the United Kingdom has a small adder, though it is too small, not aggressive enough and its venom is non-lethal to be a satisfactory explanation, of say the horse representing England, or the United Kingdom. 

Superficially, the horned adder could be reference to the venomous snake from southwestern Africa. The WYC translation makes reference to the cerastes species. In the United States there is the sidewinder, Crotalus cerastes, also known as the horned rattlesnake and sidewinder rattlesnake. It is a venomous fit viper species belonging to the genus Crotalus, the rattlesnake and is found in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico; with three subspecies currently recognised. 

Crotalus cerastes in Mesquite Springs, California

What is the Don’t Tread on Me Flag, 2021 – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

You have probably seen this flag before: A bright yellow banner with the image of a hissing coiled rattlesnake standing over a patch of grass and the words “DON’T TREAD ON ME,” sometimes without an apostrophe. Variants of this flag’s iconic snake design and motto are a common sight among American gun owners. What does this flag represent, and why is it so popular?’

‘Although often referred to as the “Don’t Tread on Me” flag, the correct name is the Gadsden flag, named after its designer, Christopher Gadsden, an American Revolution-era politician. The Gadsden flag’s history begins in 1775, when Christopher Gadsden, a Continental Colonel from South Carolina, designed the flag and presented it to the Colonial Marines,  the American Colonies’ amphibious infantry force. The Colonial Marines adopted Gadsden’s flag alongside another design (the Moultrie Flag, a blue flag with a white crescent overlaid with the word “LIBERTY”). Both flags served as symbols of the Continental Marines until 1798, at which point the unit transitioned into the modern-day United States Marine Corps.’ 

Christopher Gadsden – notice Gad and Dan are in his name – was known as ‘the Sam Adams of the South.’ A soldier and a statesman, Gadsden was a founding member of South Carolina’s Sons of Liberty chapter. He served as a delegate to both the First and Second Continental Congresses, as well as commander of the 1st South Carolina Regiment of the Continental Army. Gadsden was elected to the position of governor for South Carolina, but declined the position due to his health. He died in 1805 and was buried in Charlestown. The Gadsden Purchase in Arizona was named for his grandson, who was a diplomat.

‘After the Revolutionary War ended and the United States declared independence, the Gadsden flag fell into disuse, only occasionally flown in Charleston, South Carolina, as a historical symbol, until the flag’s modern resurgence in the 1970s. The Gadsden flag originally featured a plain yellow field, a coiled timber rattlesnake facing to the left, and the words “DONT TREAD ON ME.” Although modern incarnations later included the apostrophe, the original flag featured none.

The timber rattlesnake (scientific name: Crotalus horridus) is a highly venomous species of pit viper native to the eastern regions of North America. This snake was well-known and feared in all 13 of the original American colonies and was one of the first recurring American animal symbols. The words “Don’t Tread on Me” are a motto and a battle cry intended to warn the British crown that the colonies will defend themselves if attacked.

Crotalus horridus

Before the bald eagle became associated with the country’s most prominent symbols, such as the Great Seal, the Coat of Arms, and the Seal of the President, the timber rattlesnake was once one of the most frequently used animals to represent the United States.

In a well-known article, Benjamin Franklin suggested with sarcasm that the American colonists send rattlesnakes to England in exchange for the prisoners routinely transported from England to the Americas to protest against the British crown’s practices of penal transportation and forming penal colonies.

The Gadsden flag’s use of a snake to represent united colonies and their shared American identity is a call-back to the snake featured on the famous “ Join, or Die” illustration, said to have been drawn by Benjamin Franklin in 1754. Franklin’s version of the snake was depicted as dead and cut into segments, each named after a colony or a  region.’

By 1775, the rattlesnake was a very popular symbol of America. It could be found throughout the thirteen colonies on everything from buttons, badges, paper money and flags. No longer was the snake cut into pieces. It was now recognisably the American timber rattlesnake, coiled into an attack position with thirteen rattles on its tail. 

The flag took on a special historical significance at the Battle of Bunker Hill. This battle is still celebrated in Boston, where Colonel William Prescott famously gave the order not to fire “until you see the whites of their eyes.” 

Ships that carried marines had drummers and their drums featured the yellow of the Gadsden Flag with the now well known snake emblazoned on top. It included the words “Don’t Tread On Me” – now a famous motto that adorned the clothing and accessories of freedom fighters from coast to coast.

‘After the Gadsden flag’s adoption by the Colonial Marines, Franklin later noted in a 1775 issue of the Pennsylvania Journal that the snake “strongly resembles America,” favorably comparing the snake’s many traits with America, reasserting the snake’s significance as an American symbol.’

In December of 1775, ‘an Anonymous Guesser’ wrote a letter to the Pennsylvania Journal. Most scholars now agree that it was written by Benjamin Franklin. The letter suggested: “As I know it is the custom to have some device on the arms of every country, I supposed this may have been intended for the arms of America.” 

Franklin’s reasons included: a. The rattlesnake is only found in North America. b. The snake has ‘sharp eyes’ and ‘may therefore be esteemed an emblem of vigilance.’ c. The snake isn’t known for unprovoked attacks; though once it does attack, it doesn’t stop until it wins. d. Even before attacking, the rattlesnake gives ample warning in the form of its rattle. e. Franklin claimed in the letter that the snake’s tail had 13 rattles, none of which would work independently of one another.

‘The snake became a recurring element of many other American historical flags, most often used to represent the American identity and the union between the colonies (and later, the states)and as a symbol of defiance against British rule.’ 

The First Navy Jack, a United States Navy flag… features 13 horizontal stripes alternating between red and white, similar to the 13 stripes of the American flag, overlaid with a yellow-and-red timber rattlesnake and the words “DONT TREAD ON ME;” with no apostrophe. Although similar in layout, the background colors (red and white instead of yellow) and the snake’s position (slithering instead of coiled) make it easy to differentiate the naval jack from the Gadsden flag. The alternating red-and-white stripes are believed to be the first US Navy naval jack’s original design. The rattlesnake and motto were later added to the jack during the 19th century, calling back to the Gadsden flag.’

The snake could easily be perceived, as a symbol of the tribe of Dan. The real thirteenth tribe – rather than Manasseh as popularly expounded or Ephraim the literal fulfilment through birth – may actually be the tribe of Dan. The horse and its rider well might represent Ephraim, and Dan may have a role to play, in America’s downfall. A link between Dan and Ephraim is found in the Book of Jeremiah. It is a signifiant passage of scripture for in the past it describes Judah’s fall at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar II  and his Chaldean Empire with its capital in Babylon.

Jeremiah 4:5-15

English Standard Version

Declare in Judah, and proclaim in Jerusalem, and say, “Blow the trumpet through the land; cry aloud and say, ‘Assemble, and let us go into the fortified cities!’ 6 Raise a standard toward Zion, flee for safety, stay not, for I bring disaster from the north, and great destruction. 7 A lion has gone up from his thicket, a destroyer of nations [King of Babylon] has set out; he has gone out from his place to make your land a waste; your cities will be ruins without inhabitant… 9 “In that day, declares the Lord, courage shall fail both king and officials. The priests shall be appalled and the prophets astounded.” 10 Then I said, “Ah, Lord God, surely you have utterly deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, ‘It shall be well with you,’ whereas the sword has reached their very life.”

11 At that time it will be said to this people and to Jerusalem… 13 Behold, he comes up like clouds; his chariots like the whirlwind; his horses are swifter than eagles – woe to us, for we are ruined! 14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart from evil, that you may be saved. How long shall your wicked thoughts lodge within you?

15 For a voice [H6963 – qowl] declares [H5046 – nagad]from Dan [H1835 – middan] and proclaims [H8085 – shama] trouble [H205 – ‘aven]from Mount [H2022 – har: hill country, mountain, promote] Ephraim.

It is not clear if there is a voice from the city of Dan in the north and another in Ephraim in the south; or whether the voice is one from the tribe of Dan in Mount Ephraim. In fact, it may be a word play and so the verse could be read as ‘a voice declares judgement and proclaims affliction from Mount Ephraim.’ The expression Mount Ephraim, represents the political rulership and seat of power of Israel’s leading tribe. The word for voice is also translated as ‘proclamation’ and ‘thunderings.’ This is no normal voice, it obviously gains attention. 

The word declare is also translated as ‘expound, report’ or ‘messenger.’ It means ‘to be conspicuous, make known, announce, to inform of, to publish, confess, to front (stand boldly out), to expose, predict’ and ‘profess.’ 

A very public expression that gains possibly far reaching attention. If this prophecy were dual in nature, then it could be worldwide attention. The word proclaims is similar and can also be translated as ‘publish.’ Perhaps via the internet. It also means, ‘declare, to hear with attention or interest, give heed, to obey, to cause to hear, proclaim’ and ‘summon.’ There is no doubt that it is a major announcement. The Book of Hosea speaks of a prophet, a watchman of Ephraim which may be linked to this verse. 

Hosea 9:8

English Standard Version

The prophet is the watchman of Ephraim with my God; yet a fowler’s snare is on all his ways, and hatred in the house of his God.

The word trouble, can mean ‘affliction, wickedness, iniquity, vanity, unrighteous, evil, idol, idolatry, mourning, sorrow’ and ‘unjust.’ The word unjust is interesting in light of Dan meaning judge or justice. As the word mount in the Bible signifies a high place, hills or a mountain; it is also figurative for the government of a land. Hence today, Mount Ephraim is representative of the federal government of Capitol Hill in Washington DC. 

Other translations of Jeremiah 4:15

AMP: For a voice declares from Dan (far in the north), And proclaims evil from Mount Ephraim.

AMPC: For a voice declares from Dan (in the north) and proclaims evil from Mount Ephraim (the range dividing Israel from Judah).

CEV: before a message of disaster arrives from the hills of Ephraim and the town of Dan.

ERV: Listen! The voice of a messenger from the land of Dan is speaking. Someone is bringing bad news from the hill country of Ephraim:

MSG: What’s this? A messenger from Dan? Bad news from Ephraim’s hills! Make the report public…

NET: For messengers are coming, heralding disaster, from the city of Dan and from the hills of Ephraim.

VOICE: From the tribe of Dan in the north comes the first cry; news of disaster arrives from the hill country of Ephraim.

The voice from Dan and the proclamation from Mount Ephraim appear to be linked in purpose, regardless of the geographic relationship. Though ‘the north’ is not in the Hebrew, there must be a reason why three translations have chosen this expression. As both Asshur, Russia and Magog, China are described as being in the north, with Togarmah, Korea as the peripheral ‘far north’, it is feasible that Dan could well be associated with modern Mount Ephraim which is on a similar latitude with Beijing, China and Korea [Zephaniah 2:13, Ezekiel 38:6; 39:1]. Returning to Genesis forty-nine, verse seventeen. 

The word for in the way can be translated as ‘toward, journey’ and ‘manner.’ It means ‘road, path, direction, habit, custom’ and ‘passenger.’ It includes the connotation of a ‘course of life, of moral character’ a ‘mode of action.’ Path is similar and is translated as ‘highway, manner, race, traveller’ and ‘troops.’ It can mean ‘passing of life, way of living, wayfarer.’ It includes, ‘a well trodden road, a caravan.’ 

The word bite is enlightening for it is translated as bite [14] and as lend upon usury [2]. It means ‘to pay, give interest, lend for interest or usury.’ It includes ‘to strike with a sting (as a serpent’ strikes and bites with venom), ‘to press with interest on a loan.’ 

The mention of troops is significant as this hints at a military application in the course of the horse and rider. The addition of banking is not a surprise as war costs money. Also, part of bringing down any nation is successfully attacking its economy. Loans and debt being a primary method. 

The word for horse signifies a moving horse as ‘to skip (properly, for joy), a horse (as leaping), also a swallow (from its rapid flight).’ The word for heel is also revealing for it is translated as footsteps [3], horse hoofs [1], at the last [1] liers in wait [1]. It means ‘footprint, hinder part, rear of a troop’ as well as ‘the rear (of an army).’ The Hebrew word for rider means: ‘to mount and ride (on an animal or in a vehicle), to place upon, to despatch’ and ‘ride (in a chariot).’ 

The word fall is translated as ‘cast down’ [18], fall away [5], divide [5] and overthrow [5]. It means: ‘to fall (of violent death), to fall prostrate, to fall upon, attack, desert, fall into the hand of, to fall short, fail, waste away, be inferior to, apportion by lot, overwhelm, perish, rot, slay, throw down’ and ‘smite out.’ 

If the United States is the horse and rider, then its fall is spectacular. It’s fall, being its collapsed military strength. How would military power be undermined? Through economic, trade and monetary pressure. Banking, loans, debt and lack of confidence in the American currency, all spring to mind. Ephraim as we discussed in the previous chapter, one day seeks assistance from Assyria. At a certain point, the tables turn economically and Russia – with a German led European Union – gains the upper hand over the United States and by then, a probably solitary England. 

Many might find that difficult to believe in 2022. But a few decades from now, or centuries and the world could and would be, a very different place [refer article 2050]. 

Jeremiah has more to say regarding the downfall of Judah, Dan and the link with Ephraim.

Jeremiah 8:1-3, 6, 15-17, 19-22

English Standard Version

“At that time, declares the Lord, the bones of the kings of Judah, the bones of its officials, the bones of the priests, the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be brought out of their tombs. 2 And they shall be spread before the sun and the moon and all the host of heaven, which they have loved and served, which they have gone after, and which they have sought and worshiped. And they shall not be gathered or buried. They shall be as dung on the surface of the ground. 3 Death shall be preferred to life by all the remnant that remains of this evil family… 6… Everyone turns to his own course, like a horse plunging headlong into battle.

15 We looked for peace, but no good came; for a time of healing, but behold, terror. 16 “The snorting of their horses is heard from Dan; at the sound of the neighing of their stallions [H47 – ‘abbiyr] the whole land quakes [shakes, trembles]. They come and devour the land and all that fills it, the city and those who dwell in it.

The word of most interest is translated in the ESV as stallions and the King James version as ‘strong ones.’ It can also be translated as ‘bulls – which is interesting from an Ephraim perspective – mighty, stouthearted, valiant’ and significantly as ‘angels.’ It means ‘mighty’ and ‘valiant of men’ and ‘of angels.’ The link with the supernatural may not be coincidental. Does Dan form an alliance with the opponents of Ephraim? An inside job, perhaps.

17 For behold, I am sending among you serpents, adders [H6848 – tsepha]that cannot be charmed [H3908 – lachash], and they shall bite you,” declares the Lord.

This verse is remarkably similar to the verse we read in Genesis 49:17. The word for adder is different though and can be translated as cockatrice – a legendary monster that is a cross between a rooster and a snake – though still venomous. The word for charmed can be translated as ‘enchantment, orator’ and ‘prayer.’ It means ‘whispering, charming, amulets (worn by women), an incantation.’ These are serpents that cannot be reasoned with or changed and could be linked with the angelic ’strong ones’ of the preceding verse.

19… “Is the Lord not in Zion? Is her King not in her?” “Why have they provoked me to anger with their carved images and with their foreign idols?” [a proclivity of the tribe of Dan] 20 “The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved.” [like Dan waiting on salvation] 21 For the wound of the daughter of my people is my heart wounded; I mourn, and dismay has taken hold on me.

22 Is there no balm* in Gilead? [Canada] Is there no physician there? Why then has the health of the daughter of my people not been restored?

Before we look at verse eighteen in Genesis chapter forty-nine, it is worth noting that the snake or serpent could have more than a physical application and may include a spiritual application. The tie in would be the Seraphim that are literally, ‘fire-breathing flying serpents.’ Snakes with wings are dragons. The word serpent and dragon are one and the same and interchangeable. Satan is described as as a serpent and dragon in the Book of Revelation [12:9]. It was the Seraphim that produced Nephilim offspring and the tribe of Dan is heavily linked with the Nephilim and their children, the Elioud giants as we will discover. 

J R Church – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Those fallen angels who descended to Mount Hermon introduced the “seed of the serpent” into the human race [actually it was the Serpent with Eve Genesis 3:15]. Evidently, after the Flood, they consorted with members of the tribe of Dan, mixing the “seed of the serpent” into the human genome once again. The first time it happened, God judged the world with water. The next time, it will be by fire.’

In the Book of Isaiah there are prophecies regarding Babylon, Assyria and the Philistines. Three powers at the end of our age; all with an invested interest in the downfalls of England, Canada and especially America.

Isaiah 14:29-31

English Standard Version

29 Rejoice not, O Philistia [Mexico and Central, South America], all of you, that the rod [Assyria] that struck you is broken, for from the serpent’s root will come forth an adder [cockatrice], and its fruit [progeny, offspring] will be a flying [H5774 – owph: to cover, be dark, gloom] fiery serpent [H8314 – seraph: poisonous, burning, copper colour]. 30… I will kill your root with famine, and your remnant it will slay. 31 Wail, O gate; cry out, O city; melt in fear, O Philistia, all of you! For smoke comes out of the north [Russia, the United States or both], and there is no straggler in his ranks.

Here, the Philistines, principally the nation of Mexico have been attacked by the King of the North, Russia. The when Asshur has fallen, the Philistines are told not to rejoice as they too will be affected by the Day of the Lord. The smoke from the north could be a reference to their neighbour the United States, or a reference to Russia. The rest of the verse is eerily similar to what we have read in Genesis forty-nine and Jeremiah chapter eight. 

We will see shortly that as there is a root of Amalek in Ephraim, Ephraim is also described as a root that will ‘dry up’ and produce no more ‘fruit.’ And then, we have the Seraphim stated yet again. There can be little doubt now that the Seraphim are the angelic beings being discussed and not the animal that is called a snake. The inclusion of the King of the North [refer Chapter XX Asshur], added to what we will learn about the tribe of Dan, plus their connection with the United States has built a strong case for the supernatural involvement of dark angels at the time of the end and alarmingly, Dan’s alliance with them [refer Chapter XXI Nimrod]. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the serpent is representative of evil, of conniving, of worldly wisdom. It is first associated with the great deceiver, Satan the devil, who appeared in the Garden of Eden in the form of a serpent, and with subtlety beguiled Eve. Whether this creature was originally the precise description of what we know as a snake today is perhaps debatable, for the derivation of the Hebrew word nachash means to hiss, i.e. whisper a (magic) spell; to prognosticate; an enchantment or enchanter, and, as such, may be subject to more than one interpretation. 

… the serpent… is the sign of the Adversary, Satan the devil, and thus the spirit of the anti-Christ that will arise in the end-time. This is… stated… emphatically [in] the book of Revelation… “And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a GREAT RED DRAGON… And the great dragon was cast out, that old SERPENT, called the Devil, and Satan…”

The Greek word for dragon in verse 3 actually is defined as a fabulous kind of SERPENT, so called because of its keen power of sight (from the root ‘derke,’ signifying ‘to see’). It is used precisely 13 times in the Apocalypse to designate Satan the devil. Satan[’s]… chief servants… are also identified with the image of a serpent. Indeed we read in Revelation 9:15-19, that the power of the dreaded latter-day army that devastates one-third of the earth’s population is likened unto that of a serpent.

How interesting then that the first human being ever to be Scripturally identified with the serpent is none other than the fifth son of Israel… Dan himself, and this serpent connection to the tribe of Dan cannot be summarily dismissed as a casual use of this symbol. In fact, no other individual human beings are compared to the serpent in all the Scriptures save Dan and his descendants… 

It is also noteworthy that the biting of the horse’s heels is language eerily similar to what we read in the first great Messianic prophecy in Genesis 3:15, where Yahweh says to, of all creatures, the serpent: “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; it (Messiah – the ultimate seed of the woman) shall bruise your head, and you (the serpent) shall bruise his HEEL.”’

18 I wait [H6960 – qavah] for your salvation* [H3444 – yshuw’ah] , O Lord.

CEB: I long for your victory, Lord.

CEV: Our Lord, I am waiting for you to save us.

NET: I wait for your deliverance, O Lord.

NLV: I wait for Your saving power, O Lord.

The word wait can mean ‘look, wait for, gathered, look for, hope, expect, look eagerly for, lie in wait for, linger for, to collect, to be collected’ and ‘bind together.’ There is earnest expectation by Dan in the deliverance of the Eternal. The word salvation means ‘deliverance, health, saving, welfare, prosperity, victory’ and ‘aid.’ Dan for whatever reason has to wait for salvation or redemption from Christ. The big question, is why? 

We discussed Revelation chapter seven in the preceding chapter and the fact Joseph and Manasseh are stated as separate tribes both with 12,000 anointed and sealed saints at the time of the end. This is secondary to the glaring observation that Dan is not listed at all, even though verse four of revelation chapter seven says: ‘all the tribes.’ In fact, he is the only tribe omitted. The seriousness of not being counted as a tribe of Israel is elevated as this is a prophecy, yet to be fulfilled. This is not punishment for past actions of idolatry alone but ones committed at the time of the end. Much conjecture has been offered on the reasons why Dan is missing. 

An enduring belief is that the Antichrist – or the Beast and false Prophet as the Bible describes them as there is not one antichrist but many, as the Apostle John explains [1 John 2:18] – is from the tribe of Dan. This would not explain though why everyone from Dan is excluded. Another answer, is that the tribe of Dan had to wait for the Judge Samson. But, this also does not answer the question. We will study Samson shortly. 

Dan is not included due to the following three factors which are intertwined. First, the tribe of Dan is the one exception – apart from Levi – in not being an identifiable nation or territory. If this is the case, then Dan is a scattered tribe. 

The second factor is that the tribe of Dan is no longer considered Israelite. Meaning, no one from the tribe of Dan will be called, perfected, sealed or saved in the time of the end. The Danites will have to wait until the Gentiles are offered salvation [Genesis 49:18, Revelation 7:9]. 

Third, there is a sinister component that involves the whole bloodline of Dan having become contaminated and is therefore unacceptable before the Eternal [Genesis 3:14–15; 49:17, Jeremiah 8:17].

Numbers 2:25, 31

English Standard Version

25 “On the north side shall be the standard of the camp of Dan by their companies… 31… They shall set out last, standard by standard.”

EXB: … They will be the last to march out of camp, and they will travel under their own flag. 

TLB: … They brought up the rear whenever Israel traveled.

In the Camp of Israel, Dan was given two humbling positions that show he had been relegated to last of the sons of Jacob, though he was the fifth born. When the Israelites broke camp and travelled, the tribe of Dan was last to leave and ‘brought up the rear.’ The literal tail for the winding mass of people. When the Israelites stopped marching and set up Camp, the Tribe of Dan was in the north with Asher and Naphtali. This was the least favourable portion of the compass, as the north was the most exposed to the likelyhood of any potential attacks while trekking through the wilderness, as well as in Canaan when they eventually settled. In the Bible, from an Israelite perspective, evil and judgement descended from the north [Jeremiah 1:13-14; 10:22; Daniel 11:40, Ezekiel 38:15-16]. 

Regarding the Camp layout, Dan was one of the four principle tribes with Judah, Ephraim and Reuben. It is noteworthy that Dan is linked with these tribes, particularly Reuben and Ephraim. Bullinger refers to the Cherubim of the Eternal and their relationship with the camp formation of ancient Israel. The four square arrangement designed according to a pattern that is based on these celestial beings. The cherubim had four faces, a lion, an ox, or bull – and or a Unicorn – a man and an eagle. These four personalities became the signs of the four standard bearing tribes of Israel. The Lion for Judah, the Bull for Ephraim, a Man for Reuben and the Eagle for Dan. 

Similarly, the twelve constellations of the Zodiac are divided into four groups of three signs each with the signs representing the four principal tribes spearheading them. Thus Leo for Judah, Taurus for Ephraim, Aquarius for Reuben and Scorpio for Dan. We will investigate the dual nature of Dan’s symbols, the Eagle and the Snake and the third animal, the Scorpion that is the primary symbol for Scorpio. One commentator adds: ‘… just as each of the four Israelite standard-bearing tribes had a designated leader, so each of the four major constellations of the Zodiac has a star of the first magnitude associated with that sector of the heavens – [Regulus from Leo, Aldebaran from Taurus, Antares from Scorpio and Fomalhaut from Aquarius].’ 

The tribe of Dan forfeited Israelite status because they chose to side with the sons of Jacob’s enemies: the Philistines, Asshur, Edom and yes, Satan. In so doing they have been on the wrong side of the Genesis 3:15 prophecy and have contributed heavily to the enmity between the woman’s seed and the Serpent’s seed. In an ironic dual manner, the very rebellion of Dan will be used as a disciplinary hand that punishes his brothers for their evil ways and rebellion towards the Creator, during the tribulation. The Eternal sees fit to allow Satan to use the tribe of Dan with Edom and Asshur, to afflict the Celtic-Saxon-Viking descendants living in the British, Irish and New World nations. 

Dan’s link with the United States is interesting in view of the root of Amalek also in Ephraim as revealed in the Book of Judges. In fact, Ephraim itself is described as a root in Hosea 9:16, NIV: ‘Ephraim is blighted, their root is withered, they yield no fruit…’ The fact that Amalekites have Nephilim ancestry and that Dan is associated with the Nephilim blood line may be the powerful, yet simple reason why no one from that tribe is called or set apart at the end time. Hence, all from that tribe wait on their salvation, as in they are last to receive it or in the worst case scenario, the contamination is so severe, none receive salvation.

Deuteronomy 33:22

English Standard Version

And of Dan he said, “Dan is a lion’s cub [H1482 – guwr: whelp, young one] that leaps [H2187 – zanaq] from Bashan.”

In Moses’s prophecy every single one of the eleven sons receives positive comments and blessings from the Eternal even though most of the Israelites were never really faithful. The standout exception is the tribe of Dan. A single, short sentence – no blessing, nothing positive. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The reference to Dan being a lion’s whelp should have a familiar ring to it, for in the previously referenced passage in Genesis 49, Jacob used the identical expression to describe the tribe of Judah (Genesis 49:9). The root word for whelp in the Hebrew means to turn aside, to gather for hostile purposes. If the promised Messiah was predicted to come through the line of Judah, and He is the true Lion (Revelation 5:5), then what are we to make of Dan in this regard? If the true lion does not descend through Dan, then what lion does?  The answer may be found in the simple, well-known passage that reads:

“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the DEVIL, as a roaring LION, walks about, seeking whom he may devour” (I Peter 5:8).

‘It appears that the tribe of Dan was particularly despised and highly criticized by the tribe of Judah, and that enmity between these two people began early on in their history… Indeed, Moses’ words concerning Dan may contain in them a veiled hint that something dreadful would be associated with this tribe in the future.’

The word leap means ‘ to spring forward’ as in ‘to draw together the feet (as an animal about to dart upon its prey).’ In the same chapter, Gad is described as a lion that ‘crouches.’ In Genesis it speaks of a troop in Gad which Gad nips at the heels of the retreating invader. Both the lion and troop references are similar to Dan’s references we have just studied. For Gad, they refer to English troops and occupation, lending support that the horse and rider are a military-political regime that is toppled. In Genesis 49:9, Judah is also described as a ‘lion’s cub’ who also ‘crouches’ down. 

Researchers have focused on the ‘serpent by the way’ as the physical travels of the tribe of Dan and the leaving of their name as a sign post or marker on their route through Europe; rather than its application as a threat to Ephraim or its even wider implication that the tribe of Dan has been infiltrated by Nephilim. Similarly with their leap from Bashan, the focus has been on fleeing the land when the Assyrians encroached. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

Bashan is a fairly well-known word to most Bible students. It is a place name that is somewhat indirectly referred to in the 14th chapter of Genesis. This is where the famous account of Abram’s sensational rescue of Lot is recorded, but the key point with regard to our study is found in the earlier portion of the passage. As you will recall, there was war waged between the armies of the Siddim Vale, led by Bera king of Sodom, and a huge invading force of Babylonians under the leadership of Amraphel king of Shinar… The eastern hordes proved too strong for the southern Canaanites, and they were subjugated for some 12 years. In the 13th year they rebelled, and in the 14th year, a second, even more massive invasion from the east occurred, precipitating a great slaughter [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer].  We read in Genesis 14:5-7:

“And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in ASHTEROTH KARNAIM, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, and the Horites in their Mount Seir, unto El-paran, which is by the wilderness.  And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelled in Hazezon-tamar.”

‘While these ancient geographical names may have little relevance for most people today, they do provide us with some pertinent information concerning the area known as Bashan. The reference to Ashteroth Kernaim in verse 5 pinpoints the residence of the feared Rephaim class of giants.Even though they were defeated by the massive eastern forces (reportedly almost 1,000,000 strong) in this particular battle, they were by no means destroyed, and indeed they continued to populate this same locale for hundreds of years to come, for we read in the book of Joshua with respect to the Israelite victories:

“Now these are the kings of the land, which the children of Israel smote… Sihon, king of the Amorites… and the coast of Og king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, that dwelled at Ashtaroth and at Edrei, and reigned in Mount Hermon, and in Salcah, and in all Bashan” (Joshua 12:1-2, 4-5).

‘Bashan comprised the territory from Gilead in the south to Mount Hermon in the north, with the Jordan River as its western boundary and Salchah on its eastern extremity. This was not a part of the inheritance originally granted to the tribe of Dan. In order for the prophecy of Moses to be fulfilled, it was necessary that the Danites at some point extend their influence north into Bashan, and that event is recorded for us in a most intriguing passage in Judges 17-18.’

We have already touched upon the fact that the Tribe of Dan or Tauthe de Dannan migrated to Ulster in Northern Ireland. As Northern Ireland is Reuben today – and Ireland is Gad – and the original land of Bashan was on the east side of the river Jordan where Reuben and Gad dwelt, the modern equivalent of Bashan is Ireland, particularly the northeast of the Isle. We have discussed the Elioud giants, the Fomorian that lived in Northern Ireland [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad] and their vanquishing by the Tuatha de Dannan. This means the tribe of Dan have leapt from Bashan. If so, where did they leap? As Bashan was the original home of the Watchers on Mount Hermon and later, the home of the giants, such as King Og, and then again, the home of the tribe of Dan, a spiritual component should be considered. 

Other translations of Deuteronomy 33:22

CEV: Tribe of Dan, you are like a lion cub, startled by a snake.

DRA: To Dan also he said: Dan is a young lion, he shall flow plentifully from Basan.

WYC: Also he said to Dan, Dan, a whelp of a lion, shall flow largely from Bashan.

These translations are insightful as they reveal an outpouring of people from Northern Ireland. Again, to where? We will look at the physical migrations of people linked with Ulster as well as the Nephilim tie in and what this means in-depth.

Judges 5:17

English Standard Version

… and Dan, why did he stay [remain, dwell, linger] with the ships?

When the Judge Deborah fought the Canaanites, certain tribes were keen to be involved, others were not. Half were not, as the war did not affect their lands directly. Other tribes were more keenly impacted and they gave their support. Dan did not, in fact he was unique in that a large proportion of their people were not even on land. Dan has a tradition of ocean going sailing. 

He is linked with the Grecian Isles in their early settlement by Shem’s descendants and as one of the first peoples of the son’s of Jacob to migrate to Ireland and Britain. Unger Bible Handbook, page 273: ‘Dan was the last of the tribes to receive his portion, which was the smallest of the twelve. It had… a line of seacoast…’

Ezekiel 27:19

King James Version

Dan [H2051 – Vdan] also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs [wares, trade]: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.

The word for Dan is different to any other meaning and translates as ‘and Dan’ or ‘even Dan.’ Strong’s says that it is a place or site uncertain. The Dan in question is associated in trade and economically with Javan, the Island nations from East and Southeast Asia. Some researchers postulate that it could be a reference to Dedanites of Dedan or the Dodanim of Dodan descended from Japheth. Though, these are different Hebrew words from Dan and should not be confused. 

The Hebrew Danites as the Greek Danaans, John R. Salverda – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Greeks say that the Danaans came to the city of Argos and demanded their portion of royalty there. They claimed to be descendants of Io and therefore members of the royal family… To accomplish this emigration, they are said to have invented the keeled ship, which enabled them to sail over the deep seas, and make their escape to Argos. The Greek claim that theDanaans invented the keeled ship, fits nicely with the Biblical claim that the Danites lived in ships, they were after all in possession of the seaport Joppa, where by all indications shipbuilding was a major industry. 

… in accordance with Greek mythology, the sons of [Jacob] also went to Argolis, following after the delinquent Danaans, to bring them back and punish them for their treachery. But it took them a bit longer to get there, leapfrogging from port to port along the coasts, in their less seaworthy unkeeled barges. By the time the sons of [Jacob] arrived at Argos, the Danaans were already established, with a degree of royal power, and the Argolian army was ready to defend them. Now, the sons of [Jacob], a mere posse in the face of an army, could not enforce a return upon the Danaans, and because they were told not to return empty handedly, they decided to quit their homeland back in Israel, and resolved to remain in Argos. The sons of [Jacob] sued for their portion of the royalty at Argolis on the same basis that the Danaans did, and they were recognized as well. 

Those Jacobites who made up the coalition of the willing in the struggle against Canaan (Sisera), were able to win the war through the efforts of a very brave woman named Jael. Jael was not a Jacobite instead she belonged to a race, known as the Kenites, who were, at that time, also at peace with the Canaanites. 

However, the Kenites were on friendly terms with the sons of Jacob as well, in fact, Zipporah, the wife of Moses was a Kenite (also called Midianite and Ethiopian), and the apostate Danite priesthood were her descendants. Jael herself was a relative who could not have been too far removed from the Danite priesthood, for it is noted right in the Scriptural account of the war, that her family was descended from the house of Hobab, who is therein called the father ­in ­law of Moses [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. It may have been this Kenite relationship to the Danite priesthood, combined with Danite treaty obligations mentioned earlier as necessitated by the close proximity of the Danite stronghold at Laish to Hazor the chief city of the northern Canaanites, that gave the Canaanite General Sisera the false sense of security that he must have had in order for him to take a nap in the tent of Jael. 

Jael deluded the weary Sisera completely and when he had fallen asleep, she took a pin and ran him through so that he died. Now, how many stories are there in which a man is beguiled into falling asleep by, and in the presence of, the woman who intends to murder him, and then while the man is sleeping the treacherous woman runs him through with a pin and kills him? I can think of only two, one is the Scriptural account of Jael and Sisera, and the other is the Greek myth that is known as “The Danaids.” Furthermore, it is not only this very particular story that coincides between the Scriptures and the myth, but also the placement sequentially of each tale. Just as the story of Jael and Sisera comes at the end of the war that saw a falling ­out between the Jacobites and their brothers the Danites, who “dwelt in ships,” so to, the Greek myth of the Danaids is the story of the subsequent reconciliation between the progeny of Danaus, who fled in ships from their brothers the sons of Aegyptus at the time of their quarrel. 

… the original waves of immigration to Argolis in Greece, the forefathers of the Mycenaean civilization, were the sons of Anak [the Anakim: a Nephilim descended race of Elioud giants], closely followed by the Danites and the Jacobites, but of these, predominantly the Danites, so much so, that throughout the writings of Homer, he usually refers to the Peloponnesian Greeks, by the general term “Danaans.”‘ 

Book of Jubilees 34:20

… and the name of Dan’s wife, ‘Egla…

Book of Jasher 45:7-8

7… and Dan went to the land of Moab and took for a wife Aphlaleth, the daughter of Chamudan the Moabite, and he brought her to the land of Canaan. 8 And Aphlaleth was barren, she had no offspring, and Yahweh afterward remembered Aphlaleth the wife of Dan, and she conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Chushim.

Genesis 46:23

English Standard Version

The son of Dan: Hushim.

In Genesis forty-six, the grandsons of Jacob are listed. All his sons have at least three sons or more. It is curious therefore that Dan is not only listed next to last, but is the only son to have less than three sons. In fact only one son is recorded [Numbers 26:42].  

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Additionally, only a single line is devoted to this tribe in the account. Indeed, rather than enumerate the actual children of Dan by their individual names, as is done with each of the other sons, he is given short shrift with only the general tribal name of Hushim given. In fact, in the Genesis 46 passage, you will note that the very last two sons listed are Dan and his brother Naphtali, even though they were much higher in the literal birth order. To put an even finer point on things, we read in verse 25 the following editorial notation: “These are the SONS OF BILHAH, which Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bare unto Jacob.” Notice carefully that the two sons of Bilhah, the 5th and 6th born of Jacob’s children, are listed dead last, even after the sons of Zilpah, Leah’s handmaiden.  Whether this was a comment originally made by Moses himself or a later insertion by Ezra, there absolutely has to be a strong reason for this kind of arrangement.  It is not haphazard, accidental, or even coincidental whatsoever.  Virtually the same thing can be seen in the second census recorded in Numbers 26. So it is abundantly clear that the children of Bilhah were the least favored in the family of Israel, and of those two tribes, Dan was at the bottom of the pile!’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Hushim meaning: ‘Hasters, Easily Moved Ones’ from the verb (hush), to hurry or hasten.

The name Hushim is assigned to two men and one woman in the Bible: The first male Hushim we read about is a son of Dan who apparently is also called Shuham (Numbers 26:42). The other male Hushim is mentioned as a son of Aher of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 7:12). The only female Hushim is one of three wives of Shaharaim; the other two being Baara and Hodesh. This Hushim’s sons are called Abitub and Elpaal (1 Chronicles 8:8).

The verb (hashash) means to hurry, or rather to be light-footed and hence quickly moved. Noun (hashash) describes chaff, which proverbially is so light that a breath of wind carries it off swiftly. Likewise, verb (hush) means to hurry or hasten. Adverb (hish) means quickly. This verb (hush) may also be used to mean to be agitated, worried or enjoyed.

The name Hushim is a plural form of a noun that has to do with hurrying, or being easily moved. That a name for a singular person would express a plurality is curious but not beyond understandable. The related name Thahash has probably to do with some water-dwelling creature, andperhaps thehushim were also some kind of creature or phenomenon that could be experienced as a single entity.Think of our words herd and swarm, or even the name Elohim, which also is a plural used singular.

For a meaning of the name Hushim, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Hasters. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names… reads Those Who Hasten The Birth, i.e. children prematurely born.’

The name of Hushim referring to being ‘light-footed’ and ‘moving quickly’ is interesting, in light of Dan’s proclivity to continually press forward or westwards in migration. As is their movement like a snake. Snakes for short distances – like a cat can travel exceptionally fast when threatened or provoked. It may also be a reference to Dan having a temper or being impulsive. Abarim Publications highlight the fact that Hushim is called Shuham in the Book of Numbers. Disturbingly, no descendants of Dan are listed in 1 Chronicles as there are for all the other tribes. In fact, very few people are listed in the Bible as descending from Dan, apart from his son or sons Hushim and Shuham and some 640 years after Dan’s birth, the most famous so-called Danite Samson, who was born circa in 1106 BCE. 

In the Book of Numbers there is a listing of fearsome warriors from each tribe, including Dan.

Numbers 1:12

English Standard Version

… from Dan, Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai [Numbers 10:25]…

Numbers 34:22

English Standard Version

Of the tribe of the people of Dan a chief, Bukki the son of Jogli.

Exodus 35:30-35

English Standard Version

30 Then Moses said to the people of Israel, “See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; 31 and he has filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, with intelligence, with knowledge, and with all craftsmanship, 32 to devise artistic designs, to work in gold and silver and bronze, 33 in cutting stones for setting, and in carving wood, for work in every skilled craft. 34 And he has inspired him to teach, both him and Oholiab the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan. 35 He has filled them with skill [wisdom of heart] to do every sort of work done by an engraver [gem cutter] or by a designer or by an embroiderer in blue and purple and scarlet yarns and fine twined linen, or by a weaver – by any sort of workman or skilled designer [Exodus 31:6; 38:23].

2 Chronicles 2:13-14

English Standard Version

13 “Now I have sent a skilled [cunning] man, who has understanding [expertise, master metalworker], Huram-abi, 14 the son of a woman of the daughters [a curious expression, emphasising a maternal lineage] of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre [Phoenician – refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. He is trained to work in gold, silver, bronze, iron, stone, and wood, and in purple, blue, and crimson fabrics and fine linen, and to do all sorts of engraving and execute any design that may be assigned him [an inventor], with your craftsmen [skilled artisans], the craftsmen of my lord, David your father.

The tribe of Dan produced at least two skilled artisans. Oholiab who assisted Bezalel from the tribe of Judah in the construction of the Tabernacle – the forerunner of the Temple, while the Israelites were sojourning for forty years. Huram-abi is reminiscent of the Kenites and their metallurgist skills as goldsmiths, including silver, bronze as well as gems. Notice Oholiab from Dan was filled with skill, but not with the Holy Spirit as Bezalel from Judah was.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Shuham meaning: ‘Depression’ From the verb (shuah), to be low or humbled.

The name Shuman occurs only once in the Bible. In Numbers 26:42 he is mentioned as the patriarch of the extensive Danite sub-clan of the Shuhamites. This Shuham may be the same as Hushim, the son of Dan… The name Shuman appears to be an intensive form derived from the verb (shuah), meaning to sink low… The verb (shahah) means to bow down or be bowed down, crouched or humbled. Adjective (shah) means low or lowly. Verb (shuah) means to sink, or to be bowed down or humbled. Nouns (shuha) and (shiha) mean pit. 

For a meaning of the name Shuham, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Depression. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names appears to go with the derived noun (shuha), meaning pit, and reads Pit-digger. BDB Theological Dictionary does not offer an interpretation of this name but does list it under the verb (shuah), meaning to sink down.’

With the difference in meaning for the names Hushim and Shuham, it is hard to credit they are the same person. Though no indication is given that they are two different sons or lineages. If Hushim is Shuham, then it shows a degradation and deterioration within Hushim and the line of Dan early in their history. We already have reason to believe that Dan had gone astray, when Joseph reported him and his half-brothers to his father. The tribe of Dan were renowned for their idolatrous demon worship; displaying out right rebellion in going contrary to the Eternal. This situation mirrors Esau’s decision to rebelliously and flagrantly flout the Eternal’s ethical, moral and legal code; in stark contrast to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

1 Kings 12:28-30

English Standard Version

28 So the king [Jeroboam] took counsel and made two calves of gold. And he said to the people, “You have gone up to Jerusalem long enough. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.” 29 Andhe set one in Bethel [meaning: ’House of God’ – city located in Ephraim], and the other he put inDan. 30 Then this thing became a sin, for the people went as far as Dan to be before one.

Even the coming Day of the Lord mentions the false religion promulgated by the descendants of Dan.

Amos 8:4-5, 7, 11-12, 14

English Standard Version

4 Hear this, you who trample on the needy and bring the poor of the land to an end, 5 saying, “When will the new moon be over, that we may sell grain? And the Sabbath, that we may offer wheat for sale, that we may make the ephah small and the shekel great and deal deceitfully with false balances… The Lord has sworn by the pride of Jacob…

11 “Behold, the days are coming,” declares the Lord God, “when I will send a famine on the land – not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord. 12 They shall wander from sea to sea, and from north to east; they shall run to and fro, to seek the word of the Lord, but they shall not find it.

14 Those who swear by the Guilt of Samaria [Ephraim], and say, ‘As your god lives, O Dan,’ and, ‘As the Way of Beersheba lives,’ they shall fall, and never rise again.”

The people of Dan became well known for their proclivity to name or rename every habitation after their progenitor. They also lost their original territory in the land of Canaan. It is another coincidence then, that the Tuathe de Dannan eventually vacated their territory in Northern Ireland.

Joshua 19:40-48

English Standard Version

40 The seventh lot came out for the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans. 41 And the territory of its inheritance included Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir-shemesh, 42 Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, 43 Elon, Timnah, Ekron [Philistine city], 44 Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, 45 Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon [Philistine city], 46 and Me-jarkon and Rakkon with the territory over against Joppa. 47 When the territory of the people of Dan was lost to them [or too little or small for them], the people of Dan went up and fought against Leshem, and after capturing it and striking it with the sword they took possession of it and settled in it, calling Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor. 48 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans – these cities with their villages.

Dan’s position in the family had worsened by this time. Their portion was too little or narrow for them and they received it last, even though they are the fifth born son. They were one of the larger tribes in population according to the census, yet received the smallest territory. This becomes a theme with Dan being listed last, near last or omitted from the record completely. For example, in the book of I Chronicles, the first nine chapters list family trees from Adam to Abraham, then the descendants of Ishmael, Keturah, Abraham’s second wife and Esau. From chapter two and going all the way through to chapter nine, the lineages of the sons of Jacob are recorded. Name after name of the Israelite descendants from all the sons, beginning with Judah and finally concluding with the family of Benjamin. Not one single word concerning the tribe of Dan is written. They are completely missing from the genealogical lists. This is a telling omission. In chapter six all of the Levitical cities throughout the land are named. Dan again, is left out. As though a deliberate effort to expunge Dan from the Biblical record. 

In the Book of Judges we are introduced to the men and women who became a Judge of Israel. Unlike most of the Kings of Judah and all of the Kings of Israel who were evil in the sight of the Eternal, the Judges were known for their spirituality and relationship with the Creator. Samson is a great example – like David or Jacob – of a powerful man of God who was also a flawed individual. This does not diminish his spirituality or his relationship with the Eternal. God does not judge the flaws in a person if they have a heart that seeks righteousness. This type of person has the Holy Spirit and doesn’t just do nice things for others. A converted person grows in thinking like God and becoming motivated like God. An inexplicable transformation that is difficult to quantify unless one undergoes the experience in their own life.

Judges 13:1-25

English Standard Version

And the people of Israel again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, so the Lord gave them into the hand of the Philistines for forty years [1086 – 1046 BCE].

These forty years began at the birth of Samson and ended with his death. The last twenty years coincided with the judgeship of Samson from age twenty to forty. The Philistines descend from Mizra and today include the Hispanic-Latino peoples of Central and South America; with the foremost nation being Mexico [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor].  

There was a certain man of Zorah, of the tribe of the Danites, whose name was Manoah. And his wife was barren and had no children. 3 And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman and said to her, “Behold, you are barren and have not borne children, but you shall conceive and bear a son. 4 Therefore be careful and drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, 5 for behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. No razor shall come upon his head, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb, and he shall begin to save Israel from the hand of the Philistines.” 

These verses reveal that Manoah was from the tribe of Dan and by inference that his wife was too, though this is not stated, nor is her name given. Many postulate that  Manoah’s wife was actually from the tribe of Judah. This is to subscribe a dual lineage  to Samson and equate his supposed future descendant, the Antichrist as an apostate version of Christ, also with a Lion of Judah credential. Yair Davidy of Brit-Am Israel makes the claim that Samson’s lineage also includes the Messianic tribe of Judah.

Brit-Am Israel Newsletter, 1999 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson the superman hero came from the Tribe of Dan but his mother was from Judah. Samson, in some respects, was considered a forerunner of the [still future] Messiah who will come from Judah but his mother, according to the Midrash will be of the Tribe of Dan.’

Samson may well have a dual lineage, though not the one that most people might think. The Bible makes clear that the true Messiah has already been [Matthew 16:16] and Christ’s biological mother Mary, was descended from Judah; not the tribe of Dan [Luke 3:33].

6 Then the woman came and told her husband, “A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of the angel of God, very awesome. I did not ask him where he was from, and he did not tell me his name, 7 but he said to me, ‘Behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.’”

8 Then Manoah prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord, please let the man of God whom you sent come again to us and teach us what we are to do with the child who will be born.” 

9 And God listened to the voice of Manoah, and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field. But Manoah her husband was not with her. 10 So the woman ran quickly and told her husband, “Behold, the man who came to me the other day has appeared to me.” 11 And Manoah arose and went after his wife and came to the man and said to him, “Are you the man who spoke to this woman?” And he said, “I am.” 12 And Manoah said, “Now when your words come true, what is to be the child’s manner of life, and what is his mission?” 13 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “Of all that I said to the woman let her be careful. 14 She may not eat of anything that comes from the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, or eat any unclean thing. All that I commanded her let her observe.”

It is curious that the angel of the Lord had met with Manoah’s wife privately and, twice. Reading between the lines, had the Eternal’s Messenger played a role in healing her womb for a miraculous conception. The Son of Man, John the Baptist and Jeremiah all had the blessing of the Creator’s Holy Spirit working with them prior to their births, while yet still inside their mothers [Jeremiah 1:5, Luke 1:15, 41, Matthew 1:20]. 

Was a wondrous working performed for Samson’s mother? If so, it casts doubt on Manoah being Samson’s biological father. A similar scenario as that of Christ and his adoptive father, Joseph [Matthew 1:16].

15 Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “Please let us detain you and prepare a young goat for you.” 16 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “If you detain me, I will not eat of your food. But if you prepare a burnt offering, then offer it to the Lord.” (For Manoah did not know that he was the angel of the Lord.) 17 And Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “What is your name, so that, when your words come true, we may honor you?” 18 And the angel of the Lord said to him, “Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?” 19 So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering, and offered it on the rock to the Lord, to the one who works wonders, and Manoah and his wife were watching. 20 And when the flame went up toward heaven from the altar, the angel of the Lord went up in the flame of the altar. Now Manoah and his wife were watching, and they fell on their faces to the ground.

21 The angel of the Lord appeared no more to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of the Lord. 22 And Manoah said to his wife, “We shall surely die, for we have seen God.” 23 But his wife said to him, “If the Lord had meant to kill us, he would not have accepted a burnt offering and a grain offering at our hands, or shown us all these things, or now announced to us such things as these.” 24 And the woman bore a son and called his name Samson [H8123 – Shimshown: ‘like the Sun’].And the young man grew, and the Lord blessed him. 25 And the Spirit of the Lord began to stir him in Mahaneh-dan, between Zorah and Eshtaol [cities of Dan].

It is clear that Samson grew up in Manoah’s household as a son and that Manoah’s wife physically gave birth to Samson. What is not categorically stated is whether Manoah is Samson’s father or what family line Samson’s mother actually was. She may not have even been from a tribe of Israel. Regardless, Samson’s mother not descending from the tribe of Dan is supported by the prophecy in Revelation 7:4-8 of no-one in the time of the end being saved from Dan. Though it is not complete proof, for there may well have been converted Danites between the eponymous Dan and the future sealing of the 144,000 saints. Yet, placing all the scriptures regarding Dan and his tribe together, it paints the possibly remarkable picture of a. no Danite, has ever been called and b. Samson with only one biological parent – as the Messiah – was not from the tribe of Dan. 

Judges 14:1-20

English Standard Version

Samson went down to Timnah, and at Timnah he saw one of the daughters of the Philistines. 2 Then he came up and told his father and mother, “I saw one of the daughters of the Philistines at Timnah. Now get her for me as my wife.” 3 But his father and mother said to him, “Is there not a woman among the daughters of your relatives, or among all our people, that you must go to take a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines?” But Samson said to his father, “Get her for me, for she is right in my eyes.”

4 His father and mother did not know that it was from the Lord, for he was seeking an opportunity against the Philistines. At that time the Philistines ruled over Israel. 5 Then Samson went down with his father and mother to Timnah, and they came to the vineyards of Timnah. And behold, a young lion [symbol of Dan & Judah] came toward him roaring. 

Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and although he had nothing in his hand, he tore the lion in pieces as one tears a young goat. But he did not tell his father or his mother what he had done. 7 Then he went down and talked with the woman, and she was right in Samson’s eyes.

8 After some days he returned to take her. And he turned aside to see the carcass of the lion, and behold, there was a swarm of bees in the body of the lion, and honey. 9 He scraped it out into his hands and went on, eating as he went. And he came to his father and mother and gave some to them, and they ate. But he did not tell them that he had scraped the honey from the carcass of the lion.

10 His father went down to the woman, and Samson prepared a feast there, for so the young men used to do. 11 As soon as the people saw him, they brought thirty companions to be with him. 12 And Samson said to them, “Let me now put a riddle to you. If you can tell me what it is, within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes, 13 but if you cannot tell me what it is, then you shall give me thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes.” And they said to him, “Put your riddle, that we may hear it.” 14 And he said to them,

“Out of the eater [meat] came something to eat [honey]. Out of the strong [lion] came something sweet.”

And in three days they could not solve the riddle.

One commentator says regarding Samson’s riddle – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson’s riddle tells us how to interpret Jacob’s blessing upon Judah. Judah was to bring forth the King-Messiah, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, who would die and be raised from the dead. That was Judah’s calling, and Jesus was indeed born of the tribe of Judah… Samson’s riddle may also be a prophecy that the descendants of the tribe of Dan will one day try to destroy the tribe of Judah [or Ephraim] in jealous revenge for God’s judgment on their idolatry. 

From the carcass of the young lion [Judah] the tribe of Dan (typified by the bees) will attempt to produce their own golden age (symbolized by honey) and confer immortality on mankind through occult enlightenment. The conspiracy of the tribe of Dan, aka the Synagogue of Satan, [is] to steal the messianic birthright from the tribe of Judah and establish a false messianic kingdom in Israel… 

It is through the agency of Jewish Kabbalists such as the Sephardim and the Lubavitch Movement that the Gentiles will be judged by a restored Sanhedrin that enforces the genocidal Noahide Laws worldwide.’

We will return to the symbolism of the Bees and the link with Dan. We have touched upon the Noahide Laws previously [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. The alarming aspect is that most people do not know what these laws are, nor do they realise that they will become law for everyone in the European or Western world in the future and that when that happens, all Christians – whether of the true church of God and body of Christ or of the myriad false branches that constitute the many denominations of Christianity – are in very big trouble. 

Zionism Exposed, The Noahide Laws – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Few Christians have heard of the Noahide Laws or know that they were signed into US law on March 20, 1991 by George H W Bush.   

The Noahide Laws are from the Babylonian Talmud and according to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, “They declared that the following six commandments were enjoined upon Adam: (1) not to worship idols; (2)not to blaspheme the name of God; (3) to establish courts of justice; (4) not to kill; (5) not to commit adultery; and (6) not to rob… A seventh commandment was added after the Flood-not to eat flesh that had been cut from a living animal.

These Noahide Laws are universal and binding upon Gentiles only [as opposed to the obligatory 613 covenant commandments required of Jews]. According to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, “The Talmud frequently speaks of ‘the seven laws of the sons of Noah,’ which were regarded as obligatory upon all mankind, in contradistinction to those that were binding upon Israelites only. (Tosef., ‘Ab. Zarah, ix. 4; Sanh. 56a). Note: The original Jewish Encyclopedia link has been removed since the publication of this website. 

The Penalty for Transgression of any Noahide Law is Decapitation – Christians will all be Decapitated. [A Handmaid’s Tale… anyone?] “With but a few exceptions, the punishment meted out to a Noachid for the transgression of any of the seven laws is decapitation.” (1906 Encyclopedia)

What few Christians know and what isn’t explicitly stated within the US legislation, is that the first and second Noahide laws, which prohibit idolatry and blasphemy, would be transgressed by [ALL] Christians. This is because the worship of Jesus Christ is considered idolatry and the name of Jesus is blasphemy according to the Talmud.’ 

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them:and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.” (Revelation 20:4) 

‘Courts will be established everywhere to issue warnings and to exact justice [the Judgement of Dan] for violations of the Noahide Laws. Some of these courts and even prisons will exist within churches. Few Christians are aware of the inordinate number of church elders today who have police/military backgrounds with some churches even having their own police force. 

“The Noachidæ (those who the Noahide Laws are binding upon) are required to establish courts of justice in every city and province; and these courts are to judge the people with regard to the six laws and to warn them against the transgression of any of them.” (1906 Jewish Encyclopedia)’

15 On the fourth day they said to Samson’s wife, “Entice your husband to tell us what the riddle is, lest we burn you and your father’s house with fire. Have you invited us here to impoverish us?” 16 And Samson’s wife wept over him and said, “You only hate me; you do not love me. You have put a riddle to my people, and you have not told me what it is.” And he said to her, “Behold, I have not told my father nor my mother, and shall I tell you?” 17 She wept before him the seven days that their feast lasted, and on the seventh day he told her, because she pressed him hard. Then she told the riddle to her people. 18 And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down,

“What is sweeter than honey? What is stronger than a lion?”

And he said to them, “If you had not plowed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle.”

Samson assumes these men have slept with his wife.

19 And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon and struck down [H5221 – nakah: ‘slew, slayed’] thirty men of the town and took their spoil and gave the garments to those who had told the riddle. In hot anger he went back to his father’s house. 20 And Samson’s wife was given to his companion, who had been his best man.

A very short marriage. Rightly or wrongly we obtain an impression of a man spoiled by his parents. Knowing your son is set apart by the Eternal for a special calling appears to have been inflated in Samson’s parent’s and in Samson’s own eyes. It was probably drilled into him from a young age. He displays a level of immaturity, impetuousness, and vanity in his, ‘get me that woman now’ attitude. Samson had brothers, though maybe he was the eldest and all hopes were pinned on him. 

Samson’s riddle to the Philistines was cocky and condescending, knowing they would never work it out. The threat of burning by fire was a typical Philistine response. His wife deserves an award for acting and perseverance and, yet Samson either displays weakness of character or a perverseness to reveal the answer, when he had held out nearly seven days. Why reveal the answer then? It is at odds that Samson would murder thirty men in cold blood, when the Spirit from the Lord had come upon him.

Judges 15:1-20

English Standard Version

After some days, at the time of wheat harvest [Feast of Tabernacles], Samson went to visit his wife with a young goat. And he said, “I will go in to my wife in the chamber.” But her father would not allow him to go in. 2 And her father said, “I really thought that you utterly hated her, so I gave her to your companion. Is not her younger sister more beautiful than she? Please take her instead.”

 3 And Samson said to them, “This time I shall be innocent in regard to the Philistines, when I do them harm.” 4 So Samson went and caught 300 foxes and took torches. And he turned them tail to tail and put a torch between each pair of tails. 5 And when he had set fire to the torches, he let the foxes go into the standing grain of the Philistines and set fire to the stacked grain and the standing grain, as well as the olive orchards. 6 Then the Philistines said, “Who has done this?” And they said, “Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because he has taken his wife and given her to his companion.” And the Philistines came up and burned her and her father with fire. 

7 And Samson said to them, “If this is what you do, I swear I will be avenged on you, and after that I will quit.” 8 And he struck them hip and thigh with a great blow, and he went down and stayed in the cleft of the rock of Etam.

Then the Philistines came up and encamped in Judah and made a raid on Lehi. 10 And the men of Judah said, “Why have you come up against us?” They said, “We have come up to bind Samson, to do to him as he did to us.” 11 Then 3,000 men of Judah went down to the cleft of the rock of Etam, and said to Samson,Do you not know that the Philistines are rulers over us? What then is this that you have done to us?” 

And he said to them, “As they did to me, so have I done to them.” 12 And they said to him, “We have come down to bind you, that we may give you into the hands of the Philistines.” And Samson said to them, “Swear to me that you will not attack me yourselves.” 13 They said to him, “No; we will only bind you and give you into their hands. We will surely not kill you.” So they bound him with two new ropes and brought him up from the rock.

14 When he came to Lehi, the Philistines came shouting to meet him. Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and the ropes that were on his arms became as flax that has caught fire, and his bonds melted off his hands. 15 And he found a fresh jawbone of a donkey, and put out his hand and took it, and with it he struck 1,000 men. 16 And Samson said,

“With the jawbone of a donkey, heaps upon heaps, with the jawbone of a donkey have I struck down a thousand men.” 

17 As soon as he had finished speaking, he threw away the jawbone out of his hand. And that place was called Ramath-lehi. 18 And he was very thirsty, and he called upon the Lord and said, “You have granted this great salvation by the hand of your servant, and shall I now die of thirst and fall into the hands of the uncircumcised?” 19 And God split open the hollow place [a well] that is at Lehi, and water came out from it. And when he drank, his spirit returned, and he revived. Therefore the name of it was called En-hakkore; it is at Lehi to this day. 20 And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines twenty years. 

Three thousand men is an astonishing number of men to apprehend just one strong man. This shows that Samson’s strength was not natural but supernatural. Some will say that Samson killing a thousand men must be an exaggeration. But this kind of awesome strength would be difficult to counter in hand to hand combat. 

A terminator in hyper drive so-to-speak. Again though, the Spirit descends upon Samson in acts of violence and death. I bet Samson was thirsty after fighting a thousand men. Again, his manner is haughty with the Eternal. So far, there is not much to like about Samson. Though the stand out point in this chapter, is the fact the Philistines went straight to the territory of Judah, deliberately bypassing the tribe of Dan. Why would they do that, if Samson was a Danite? Was Samson’s mother from the tribe of Judah after all?

Judges 16:1-31

English Standard Version

Samson went to Gaza, and there he saw a prostitute, and he went in to her. 2 The Gazites were told, “Samson has come here.” And they surrounded the place and set an ambush for him all night at the gate of the city. They kept quiet all night, saying, “Let us wait till the light of the morning; then we will kill him.” 3 But Samson lay till midnight, and at midnight he arose and took hold of the doors of the gate of the city and the two posts, and pulled them up, bar and all, and put them on his shoulders and carried them to the top of the hill that is in front of Hebron.

The immense weight of the doors, posts and crossbar was carried by Samson for an incredible forty miles. It does not say that the Spirit descended on Samson, though it is assumed that this must have been a supernatural feat? The visit to a prostitute is casually understated, as it was centuries earlier when Judah inadvertently lay with his daughter-in-law. One wonders if the seventh commandment applies in these instances, or only if one is married. Again, was Samson actually a descendant of Judah?

After this he loved a woman in the Valley of Sorek, whose name was Delilah [H1807 – Dliylah: ‘feeble, languishing]. 5 And the lords of the Philistines came up to her and said to her, “Seduce him, and see where his great strength lies, and by what means we may overpower him, that we may bind him to humble him. And we will each give you 1,100 pieces of silver.” 6 So Delilah said to Samson, “Please tell me where your great strength lies, and how you might be bound, that one could subdue you.”

There were five principal cities of the Philistines and so maybe five Lords, meant possibly 5,500 pieces of silver – or more likely, each Lord contributed 220 pieces each. This would have been winning the lottery. We learn that Delilah’s love of Samson was dwarfed by a huge prize fund and she was willingly corrupted. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Delilah looks like it comes from the verb (dalal), meaning to be low or hang down… Noun (dalla) denotes a drooping bundle of hair or threads of warp hanging in loom. Whoever made up the name Delilah must have tinkered quite a bit with the root. The question is: why? The author could have called her a Low Life and named her Dalah, Dallah or Dalalah, and be done with it. 

Whatever the reason (or intended meaning), the name Delilah as it is written looks like it contains the word (layela), meaning night, and that evokes an association with the name of the fabulous night creature Lilith.’

Abarim Publications drawing attention to Delilah’s association with Lilith, is a detail we will look into further. 

7 Samson said to her, “If they bind me with seven fresh bowstrings that have not been dried, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 8 Then the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven fresh bowstrings that had not been dried, and she bound him with them. 9 Now she had men lying in ambush in an inner chamber. And she said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he snapped the bowstrings, as a thread of flax snaps when it touches the fire. So the secret of his strength was not known.

Samson uses his inventive sense of humour, to test Delilah and she happily fails his test – with all eyes on her massive payload. Saying that, Samson’s relationship with Delilah, was a complex, toxic love story. Central to it, is a sexual theme of a Dominatrix who grew frustrated at playing a pretend role of dominance to Samson’s fake submissive role and so wore him down to reveal his secret, so she could truly bind his supernatural strength. 

10 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Behold, you have mocked me and told me lies. Please tell me how you might be bound.” 11 And he said to her, “If they bind me with new ropes that have not been used, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 12 So Delilah took new ropes and bound him with them and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And the men lying in ambush were in an inner chamber. But he snapped the ropes off his arms like a thread.

13 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Until now you have mocked me and told me lies. Tell me how you might be bound.” And he said to her, “If you weave the seven locks of my head with the web and fasten it tight with the pin, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 14 So while he slept, Delilah took the seven locks of his head and wove them into the web. And she made them tight with the pin and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he awoke from his sleep and pulled away the pin, the loom, and the web.

15 And she said to him, “How can you say, ‘I love you,’ when your heart is not with me? You have mocked me these three times, and you have not told me where your great strength lies.” 16 And when she pressed him hard with her words day after day, and urged him, his soul was vexed[grieved, annoyed]to death. 17 And he told her all his heart, and said to her, “A razor has never come upon my head, for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother’s womb. If my head is shaved, then my strength will leave me, and I shall become weak and be like any other man.”

18 When Delilah saw that he had told her all his heart, she sent and called the lords of the Philistines, saying, “Come up again, for he has told me all his heart.” Then the lords of the Philistines came up to her and brought the money in their hands. 

19 She made him sleep on her knees. And she called a man and had him shave off the seven locks [braid, plait] of his head [for his hair had not been cut from birth]. 

Many have pondered what the length of Samson’s hair and his strength may have in common. Related to this is the connection between electricity and hair. Most people have felt or seen static electricity in hair. For instance when walking by analogue television sets in the past. A series of articles discuss the relevance of long hair and also its conductivity not just of physical electricity but the ramifications of being a spiritual conduit as well. 

The Spiritual Nature of Hair, Deva Kaur Khalsa – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Consider the possibility that the hair on your head is there to do more than just look good… Left uncut, your hair will grow to a particular length and then stop all by itself at the correct length for you… hair is an amazing gift of nature… which increases vitality, intuition, and tranquility.

… Often, when people were conquered or enslaved, their hair was cut as a recognized sign of slavery. It was also understood that this would serve as punishment and decrease the power of those enslaved. The bones in the forehead are porous and function to transmit light to the pineal gland, which affects brain activity, as well as thyroid and sexual hormones. Cutting bangs which cover the forehead impedes this process… Yogi Bhajan…’

“When the hair on your head is allowed to attain its full, mature length, then phosphorous, calcium, and vitamin D are all produced, and enter the lymphatic fluid, and eventually the spinal fluid through the two ducts on the top of the brain. This ionic change creates more efficient memory and leads to greater physical energy, improved stamina, and patience.”

‘Yogi Bhajan explained that if you choose to cut your hair, you not only lose this extra energy and nourishment, but your body must then provide a great amount of vital energy and nutrients to continually re-grow the missing hair.

In addition, hairs are the antennas that gather and channel the sun energy or prana to the frontal lobes, the part of the brain you use for meditation and visualization. These antennas act as conduits to bring you greater quantities of subtle, cosmic energy. It takes approximately three years from the last time your hair was cut for new antennas to form at the tips of the hair.

In India, a Rishi is known as a wise one who coils his or her hair up on the crown of the head during the day to energize the brain cells, and then combs it down at night. A ‘rishi knot’ energizes your magnetic field (aura) and stimulates the pineal gland in the center of your brain.’

“This activation of your pineal results in a secretion that is central to the development of higher intellectual functioning, as well as higher spiritual perception.” – Yogi Bhajan

‘… If you are finding some silver strands in your hair, be aware that the silver or white color increases the vitamins and energy flow to compensate for aging… you will find grace and calmness in a person with uncut hair from birth, if it is kept well. The Creator has a definite reason for giving you hair.’

The Truth About Hair and Why Indians Would Keep Their Hair Long, C Young – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This information about hair has been hidden from the public since the Viet Nam War… In the early nineties, Sally… was married to a licensed psychologist who worked at a VA Medical hospital. Sally said, “I remember clearly an evening when my husband came back to our apartment on Doctor’s Circle carrying a thick official looking folder in his hands. Inside were hundreds of pages of… studies commissioned by the government. He was in shock from the contents. What he read in those documents completely changed his life. From that moment on my conservative middle of the road husband grew his hair and beard and never cut them again…”

As I read the documents, I learned why. It seems that during the Vietnam War special forces in the war department had sent undercover experts to comb American Indian Reservations looking for talented scouts, for tough young men trained to move stealthily through rough terrain. They were especially looking for men with outstanding, almost supernatural, tracking abilities. Before being approached, these carefully selected men were extensively documented as experts in tracking and survival… Once enlisted, an amazing thing happened. Whatever talents and skills they had possessed on the reservation seemed to mysteriously disappear, as recruit after recruit failed to perform as expected in the field.

Serious causalities and failures of performance led the government to contract expensive testing of these recruits, and this is what was found. When questioned about their failure to perform as expected, the older recruits replied consistently that when they received their required military haircuts, they could no longer ‘sense’ the enemy, they could no longer access a ‘sixth sense’, their ‘intuition’ no longer was reliable, they couldn’t ‘read’ subtle signs as well or access subtle extrasensory information.

So the testing institute recruited more Indian trackers, let them keep their long hair, and tested them in multiple areas. Then they would pair two men together who had received the same scores on all the tests. They would let one man in the pair keep his hair long, and gave the other man a military haircut. Then the two men retook the tests. Time after time the man with long hair kept making high scores. Time after time, the man with the short hair failed the tests in which he had previously scored high scores. So the document recommended that all Indian trackers be exempt from military haircuts. 

In fact, it required that trackers keep their hair long.

Hair is an extension of the nervous system, it can be correctly seen as exteriorized nerves, a type of highly evolved ‘feelers’ or ‘antennae’ that transmit vast amounts of important information to the brain stem, the limbic system, and the neocortex. Not only does hair in people, including facial hair in men, provide an information highway reaching the brain, hair also emits energy, the electromagnetic energy emitted by the brain into the outer environment. This has been seen in Kirlian photography when a person is photographed with long hair and then rephotographed after the hair is cut. When hair is cut, receiving and sending transmissions to and from the environment are greatly hampered. This results in numbing-out. Cutting of hair is a contributing factor to unawareness of environmental distress in local ecosystems. It is also a contributing factor to insensitivity in relationships of all kinds. It contributes to sexual frustration.

In searching for solutions for the distress in our world, it may be time for us to consider that many of our most basic assumptions about reality are in error. It may be that a major part of the solution is looking at us in the face each morning when we see ourselves in the mirror. The story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible has a lot of encoded truth to tell us. When Delilah cut Samson’s hair, the once undefeatable Samson was defeated.’

Human Hair – A Biological Necessity, Dr Birendra Kaur:

‘Nature put every hair on your body for a reason. The hair of the legs regulates the glandular system and stabilizes a person’s electromagnetic field. The hair under the armpits protects the very sensitive area where the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems come together; this affects the brain and your energy level. Eyebrows protect the eyes from sun and sweat… The hair on top of the head is very long, while the hair on the body is short. If it were only for warmth, the hair on the body would be long also. We only have long hair right over the brain… Hair is your antenna to receive a picture of the subtle world around you, to tell when people are lying, to feel things before they happen…

It has been proven scientifically that people who have long hair tend to be less tired, more energetic and less likely to become depressed. People who have long hair also conserve energy and don’t feel the cold of winter the same as people with short hair. A person who has short hair wastes his body’s energy. A person who cuts his hair over his lifetime forces the body to grow 22 meters of replacement hair. A person who keeps his hair only produces 1.5 meters of hair over his lifetime.

Think of the story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible! He lost his strength when she cut his hair! … Hair is a conductor of the body’s electromagnetic energy. Ever see how the antenna wire in an AM radio is coiled in a circle? That’s because of something called induction. Induction causes any conductor of electromagnetic energy to induce a current in adjacent conductors. This means that when you coil a conductor, the signal becomes much stronger. Hairs on top of the head act as antennae. They conduct energy into the body. Also, wearing the hair on top of the head protects the top of the head from sun and exposure, as well as channeling solar energy and improving vitamin D absorption.’ 

Hair, Our Antenna to the Subtle Realms, Paolo Da Floresta, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Your bones, your blood, your skin and your hair are all made of “mini-magnets”… your entire brain is made of magnets that interact with each other. You can even think of your hair as being magnetic flux lines exiting your body. Your hair plays many important roles for your body. The least known role is that of antenna. Your hair is capable of sending/receiving information to and from your body exactly like a radio antenna, and exactly like the antenna described in biology.

Just look at cats whiskers for an obvious example of how sensitive hairs are. Human hair can be found mainly around the most important parts of the body… This gives our body abilities we wouldn’t normally have… eye lashes… are designed to sense objects in close proximity, and to warn the eye of incoming threats. Ear and nose hairs are designed to detect objects as well, to help keep those places safe, and probably assist in hearing and smelling.

… women with long hair are sometimes more sensitive emotionally then women with short hair… men with long hair are more feminine then men with short hair. This is not always true, but I found it is more true than false… I found that when I let my facial hair grow, and I let the hair on the top of my brain grow, I can more easily put myself in other peoples perspective and get a good idea of what they are thinking at the time. I can sense their emotions and feelings as well. I also find it more easy to spot bad actors, or liars. I find that I am more in tune with the people in my surroundings. 

I also believe that hair type, and color, have a great effect on the abilities of the hair. For instance, there is a difference between dark haired people, and light haired people, and even people with fake hair colors. When changing the color of your hair, you change the available frequency range that your hair can send/receive. I also think that thick hair compared to thin hair have noticeable differences too. Also, curly hair, and straight hair effect the ability of the hair. When going bald, or getting gray hairs, this could be a sign of losing sensitivity, or gaining sensitivity (wisdom) of some sort, and no longer needing hair and relying on the mind alone. There is also other theories I can develop from this.

… many ancient [beliefs were] regarded as myth, mambo jumbo or hocus pocus by the west if it cannot be scientifically proven. Fortunately now, quantum physics in the last decade has [given] support [to] some of these myths. Crystals have the power to receive and transmit energy waves. The earliest radios used quartz crystals and were called “crystal sets.” The main composition of quartz crystal is silicon. Silicon is also a key mineral found in the hair, and undoubtedly contributes to its antenna ability. It is no accident that silicon is also the most essential component of computers; silicon enables computers to have mind-like properties including “memory.” 

Silicon is also an important mineral found in the brain, which is the seat of the mind. Silicon is what gives an iridescent sheen to some fruit such as strawberries and cucumbers. It is also found in whole barley and oats.’

The reader can consider this information, though it would strongly appear that there is truth in these summations. It is quite obvious to me that women are far more intuitive than men. If long hair produces deeper intuition among male soldiers who have grown their hair, then it could be an important component rather than just women being intuitive or psychic per se, because of their hormone levels or other feminine factors. In the case of Samson, who appeared to be almost washed in Spirit, his having very long hair may be a significant aspect of a heightened transmission and receiving ability. 

Then she began to torment [H6031 – anah: ‘be humiliated, looking down or browbeating’] him, and his strength [H3581 – koach: ‘power, force, might, of angels, chameleon, a large lizard’], left him. 20 And she said, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And he awoke from his sleep and said, “I will go out as at other times and shake myself free.” But he did not know that the Lord had left him. 21 And the Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes and brought him down to Gaza and bound him with bronze shackles. And he ground at the mill in the prison. 22 But the hair of his head began to grow again after it had been shaved.

If Samson’s first wife deserved an award, then Delilah deserved the whole acting academy. She wore Samson down to exhaustion. Samson, for a man with such incredible physical strength, could he really be a man of limited mental resolve? He had a fondness for the wrong women, yet neither the strength to stand up to them. It is curious that Samson’s strength can be described as the ‘power, force’ or ‘might of angels.’ It could be argued that he was merely supernaturally strong, like an angel. The possibilities broaden when this word also means ‘chameleon’ and of all things, ‘a large lizard.’ There is a school of thought that Samson was actually a Nephil. In fact, some even propose that Delilah was Nephilim.

23 Now the lords of the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to rejoice… 24 And when the people saw [Samson], they praised their god. For they said, “Our god has given our enemy into our hand, the ravager of our country, who has killed many of us.” 25 And when their hearts were merry, they said, “Call Samson, that he may entertain us.” So they called Samson out of the prison, and he entertained them. They made him stand between the pillars. 26 And Samson said to the young man who held him by the hand, “Let me feel the pillars on which the house rests, that I may lean against them.” 27 Now the house was full of men and women. All the lords of the Philistines were there, and on the roof there were about 3,000 men and women, who looked on while Samson entertained.

The Philistines return the favour and cruelly mock Samson.

28 Then Samson called to the Lord and said, “O Lord God, please remember me and please strengthen me only this once, O God, that I may be avenged on the Philistines for my two eyes.” 29 And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and he leaned his weight against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other. 30 And Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines.” Then he bowed with all his strength, and the house fell upon the lords and upon all the people who were in it. 

So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he had killed during his life. 31 Then his brothers and all his family came down and took him and brought him up and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the tomb of Manoah his father. He had judged Israel twenty years.

Samson seeks revenge for his eyes and not for any altruistic reasons. He may have been given a special mission by the Eternal and he may have been a Judge of Israel. Though in irony to his being supposedly from the tribe of Judgement, the tribe of Dan, he appears the least likely of all Israel’s judges to have been deemed a wholesome or beneficial leader. Though Samson seemed to be ironically blind spiritually – yet while he  was given liberal doses of Holy Spirit – during his life, and then losing his literal eyesight; he did see his mission through to its desired end result, albeit in a roundabout way. His crusade of liberating Israel from the Philistine’s dominion was achieved through his killing of the five lords and the three thousand influential people from their royalty, aristocracy and wealthy merchant and commercial leaders.

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, Page 146 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The famous Samson was probably also a Rephaim. While the Old Testament [elucidates] on his fabulous accomplishments, his size is not given. In the Haggadah, however, he is called a Rephaim. Born near Beth-Shemesh in Lebanon [?], he is named after the Sun God Shamash. His mother was reportedly impregnated by “Yahweh’s envoy,” presumably one of the demi-gods. Samson refused to marry one of the Hebrew women and instead chose a Philistine woman, presumably because she was one of the Rephaim. Judges 14 describes one of his exploits which sounds very much like the parties of the Rephaim at Ugarit. When he was at Timnah, a town near Beth-Shamash, it is said that “Samson staged there a party for seven days because that is what the elite fighters used to do.” Samson’s home was just a few miles from Baalbek… the sacred place where the Mespotamian gods met and feasted… ‘

Boulay raises pertinent points. Some addressed by the Bible, others are not. It does not say what Samson looked like. Was he tall, or stocky or just a regular man and not remarkable in any way. Judges thirteen says Manoah was the husband of Samson’s mother. No where does it say that Manoah is Samson’s father. Did the Angel of the Lord impregnate her as we have surmised? The Spirit of the Lord began working with Samson when he was in the womb and when he was young, saying the Lord ‘blessed’ Samson. This sounds like a converted person and not the offspring of a dark Angel as the Haggadah may suggest. 

We know that Samson married a Philistine on purpose so that he could infiltrate their territory. Are there more question marks over Delilah? Abarim linked her to Lilith, of whom we have studied in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and touched upon in Chapter XXI Nimrod. Though Delilah would not be Lilith, could it be a hint that Delilah was more than human or used black magic, casting a spell on Samson. Is this how she wore Samson down so that he wanted to die, rather than keep his secret. For surely he realised that telling Delilah would be the end of him. 

It does raise the possibility that he had been enchanted or as the Bible hints at, enfeebled… which means ‘to weaken.’ Did Delilah use sorcery to weaken Samson’s mental control. 

Delilah was an Israelite not a Philistine, Jared Mithrandir, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Traditionally it is assumed that Delilah was another Pagan Philistine woman… In fact The Bible never says that. Samson had two earlier relationships with Philistine women, the one he married early on, and the harlot in Gaza… Neither of them are named… I don’t think any male Philistine characters are named at any-point in the Samson narrative… But Delilah has a name. Critics of The Bible starting with the assumption that [we are] supposed to think of Delilah as a Philistine like to point out that her name isn’t a Philistine name. 

It seems… to be [derived] from the Hebrew word for night Layil ([Strongs] number 3915, the same root as Lilith interestingly) and/or Dalah ([Strongs] number 1809) meaning to fail, to bring low or to empty, from which… Strongs interprets the name Delilah to mean “languishing”.  It’s similar to [Strongs] number 1808 Daliah which means branch.

She’s from a valley (not a city) called Sorek. This location is never mentioned (not by the same name at least) again in Scripture. In the movies Delilah is always sent to seduce Samson from the start. In The Bible it’s not like that, the Philistines come to her after they’ve been involved for awhile. The amount of Silver paid is debated. Is it really 1100 pieces from each lord as the KJV translation leads us to assume?  Or is that the total they all [pooled] together? It’s interesting that again we see betrayal linked with being paid in Silver, just like Judas with Jesus and Judah with Joseph.

I mentioned in an earlier post how there is disagreement… if Judges 17-18 actually follows 16. Now I believe they do follow 16. Judges 17 begins with a story involving Micah’s mother having 1100 shekels of Silver, the exact same amount Delilah was paid (either once or multiple times).  I don’t think that’s a coincidence, I think this is Delilah.

Others who’ve noticed that possible connection then assume Samson is Micah’s father…  Judges tends to note when a key character it’s following is conceived out of wedlock, and Samson and Delilah were never married. Also, if Samson was his father Micah* would be a Danite, and in chapter 18 Micah doesn’t think of the Danites as his kin… [though] maybe… he is the son of Samson. 

[Or Delilah] married someone afterwards, or perhaps she was a widow when she and Samson began their relationship. Which leads back to… [the] common [assumption], that Samson’s relationship with Delilah was bad to begin with.  The text of Judges doesn’t… seem to say that, Evil enters the relationship when The Philistines bribed Delilah.’

There is merit in the argument that Delilah was not a Philistine. Though the inference is that she is, but as we have learnt with Samson, if it doesn’t categorically state the fact, then serious doubt is cast. The familial link between Deliah and Micah is highly plausible. The author picks up on the discrepancy between Micah not being a Danite and Samson being his father. Yet, if Samson was not a Danite, this disappears and Samson may well be Micah’s father; with both being the tribe of Ephraim. 

Samson, Marc Zvi Brettler – emphasis & bold mine:

““Judges” is a poor translation of the Hebrew word shoftim, which in this context refers to local military leaders. They are presented in order of best to worst, culminating with Samson. Biblical leaders do not always present positive examples to emulate, and Samson certainly falls in this category. Born with supernatural strength and an obligation to God and his people, Samson spends most of his short life carousing and inciting violence.

The first woman associated with him, not surprisingly, was his mother, who like many biblical female figures is unnamed. After much difficulty having children, an angel comes to give her the good news that she will bear a son. Reading between the lines, the text suggests that this angel is in fact his real father; a colloquial translation of Judges 13:6 is: “The man of God came on to me, and he looked like an angel of God, super-awesome!” His father’s divinity is one of the story’s explanations of Samson’s great strength, a theme that runs throughout the chapter. In fact, the name Samson, in Hebrew Shimson, derives from shemesh, “sun,” suggesting an original connection between Samson and the sun god.

The theme that God works in most unexpected ways is carried throughout the Samson stories – as is the theme of his appetite for sex and violence. For two chapters (14 and 15), Samson gets into various misadventures that ultimately involve killing Philistines – the more the merrier, and the more absurd the method, the more amusing. He is strong in these stories only when “the spirit of the Lord alight(s) upon him.” And God even performs miracles for him, splitting open a rock and creating a fountain when he is about to die of thirst after smiting one thousand Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey. That latter episode ends with the notice, “He led Israel in the days of the Philistines for twenty years,” suggesting that the story once ended there.

But more legends circulated about Samson, and some of these found their way into Judges. The next, very brief one tells how Samson was ambushed while visiting another woman – an unnamed prostitute in Gaza – and escaped by carrying off the city gates (16:1–3). Here he does not need to wait until “the spirit of the Lord alight[s] upon him,” but is naturally super-strong. 

This brings us to the last story – about Samson’s fourth woman, who is finally named, Delilah, a word that may be etymologically related to the word for “hair.” 

What are we to make of Samson? Some readers may see similarities to the Greek Heracles/Hercules… The Philistines, like the Greeks, came from the Aegean… instead of celebrating a Greek demi-god, they mock the Greek-related Philistines. It is hard to put together the different images of Samson, especially concerning the source of his strength: from his divine father, from his hair, or from the spirit of the Lord? 

The rabbis, who emphasized learning and religious observance over might, were quite ambivalent about Samson. While they praise his unselfish nature and exaggerate even more his heroic killing of Philistines, they also condemn his wandering eyes, which got him entangled with the women who led to his downfall. Invoking one of their favorite principles, measure for measure, they note: “Samson followed** his eyes, and that is why the Philistines blinded him.”’

In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

Judges 17:6; 21:25 English Standard Version

Where there is no vision, the people perish…

Proverbs 29:18 King James Version

“Here’s what I want you to do… buy medicine for your eyes from me so you can see, really see.”

Revelation 3:18 The Message

Judges 17:1-13

English Standard Version

There was a man of the hill country of Ephraim [Mount Ephraim], whose name was Micah. 2 And he said to his mother, “The 1,100 pieces of silver that were taken from you, about which you uttered a curse, and also spoke it in my ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it.” And his mother said, “Blessed be my son by the Lord.” 3 And he restored the 1,100 pieces of silver to his mother. And his mother said, “I dedicate the silver to the Lord from my hand for my son, to make a carved image and a metal image. Now therefore I will restore it to you.” 

Micah is described as coming from the ‘hill country of Ephraim’ or Mount Ephraim. Recall we have discussed the link between this area and Dan. 

Judges 1:34-35

English Standard Version

34 The Amorites pressed the people of Dan back into the hill country, for they did not allow them to come down to the plain. 35 The Amorites persisted in dwelling in Mount Heres, in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim, but the hand of the house of Joseph rested heavily on them, and they became subject to forced labor.

It cannot be ruled out that Micah was either a Danite from Mount Ephraim; or from the tribe of Ephraim. His mother possessing a similar amount of silver, may be Delilah and so Micah’s father may well be Samson. Credence to Micah being a Danite is the silversmith or metallurgist involved in the story, yet the creation of idols was an unfortunate proclivity of the tribe of Ephraim as well. Micah and his mother have strayed grievously into the worship of demons rather than obeying the Eternal Creator.

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Not only do we encounter the issue of idolatry in this chapter, we also should take note that it is connected in this case with Mount Ephraim and the area in the northern part of the land of Canaan.  Of course, this early period was long before the division of the United Monarchy, but Mount Ephraim would eventually be the ruling center of the northern kingdom of Samaria, and even at such an ancient date it is already associated with the sin of idolatry, something for which it would become notorious, leading ultimately to its destruction.’

4 So when he restored the money to his mother, his mother took 200 pieces of silver and gave it to the silversmith, who made it into a carved image and a metal image. And it was in the house of Micah. 5 And the man Micah had a shrine [house of gods], and he made an ephod and household gods [Teraphim], and ordained one of his sons, who became his priest.In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.**

7 Now there was a young man of Bethlehem in Judah, of the family of Judah, who was a Levite, and he sojourned there. 8 And the man departed from the town of Bethlehem in Judah to sojourn where he could find a place. And as he journeyed, he came to the hill country of Ephraim to the house of Micah. 9 And Micah said to him, “Where do you come from?” And he said to him, “I am a Levite of Bethlehem in Judah, and I am going to sojourn where I may find a place.” 10 And Micah said to him, “Stay with me, and be to me a father and a priest, and I will give you ten pieces of silver a year and a suit of clothes and your living.” And the Levite went in. 11 And the Levite was content to dwell with the man, and the young man became to him like one of his sons. 12 And Micah ordained the Levite, and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah. 13 Then Micah said, “Now I know that the Lord will prosper me, because I have a Levite as priest [Micah’s motive is selfish**].”

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… a certain young man, a Levite from Bethlehem-Judah… is on a journey… for a place where he can settle down and serve in his Levitical capacity. Immediately we sense something is rotten, because it was not the customary procedure in Israel for Levites to just wander around the countryside looking for work. In addition, Bethlehem-Judah was not one of the designated Levitical cities according to the [Levitical] commands. There were 48 of them throughout the land, giving the entire population relatively easy access to their services. 

It is even questionable as to whether or not this man, whose name was Jonathan, was a legitimate Levite at all, since his lineage, given in Judges 18:30, appears to come through the tribe of Manasseh, rather than Levi: “And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan.” 

Since Manasseh was not of the priestly line, this could be a mistranslation, as some have suggested, and perhaps was originally intended to state that Jonathan was descended from Moses, a Levite, since only a slight addition to the Hebrew is required to alter the name to Manasseh.’ 

Though he may have been a Levite, as the article highlights he was from a non-Levitical city which hints at the fact that he was not of the priestly line at all and if he descended from Gershom, the son of Moses then he definitely had no legitimacy in becoming a priest. Moses’s family was not included with the Levite Priests descending from his brother Aaron. The passage shows that though Micah was older than Jonathan, he had asked him to be a ‘father’ to him. This is in a spiritual sense and parallels the use and meaning of the word father as used by the Roman Catholic church. The Bible is emphatically clear that a true believer is not to call a priest or minster, a father[1 Peter 1:17].

Matthew 23:9

English Standard Version

And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven.

Judges 18:1-31

English Standard Version

In those days there was no king in Israel. And in those days the tribe of the people of Dan was seeking for itself an inheritance to dwell in, for until then no inheritance among the tribes of Israel had fallen to them. 2 So the people of Dan sent five able men from the whole number of their tribe, from Zorah and from Eshtaol, to spy out the land and to explore it. And they said to them, “Go and explore the land.” And they came to the hill country of Ephraim, to the house of Micah, and lodged there. 3 When they were by the house of Micah, they recognized the voice of the young Levite. And they turned aside and said to him, “Who brought you here? What are you doing in this place? What is your business here?” 

4 And he said to them, “This is how Micah dealt with me: he has hired me, and I have become his priest.” 5 And they said to him, “Inquire of God, please, that we may know whether the journey on which we are setting out will succeed.” 6 And the priest said to them, “Go in peace. The journey on which you go is under the eye** of the Lord [like the All-Seeing Eye on the Great Seal – refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim].”

7 Then the five men departed and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, how they lived in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and unsuspecting, lacking nothing that is in the earth and possessing wealth, and how they were far from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anyone. 8 And when they came to their brothers at Zorah and Eshtaol, their brothers said to them, “What do you report?” 

9 They said, “Arise, and let us go up against them, for we have seen the land, and behold, it is very good. And will you do nothing? Do not be slow to go, to enter in and possess the land. 10 As soon as you go, you will come to an unsuspecting people. The land is spacious, for God has given it into your hands, a place where there is no lack of anything that is in the earth [like the United States].”

11 So 600 men of the tribe of Dan, armed with weapons of war, set out from Zorah and Eshtaol, 12 and went up and encamped at Kiriath-jearim in Judah. On this account that place is called Mahaneh-dan to this day; behold, it is west of Kiriath-jearim. 13 And they passed on from there to the hill country of Ephraim, and came to the house of Micah.

14 Then the five men who had gone to scout out the country of Laish said to their brothers, “Do you know that in these houses there are an ephod, household gods, a carved image, and a metal image? Now therefore consider what you will do.” 15 And they turned aside there and came to the house of the young Levite, at the home of Micah, and asked him about his welfare. 16 Now the 600 men of the Danites, armed with their weapons of war, stood by the entrance of the gate. 17 And the five men who had gone to scout out the land went up and entered and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, while the priest stood by the entrance of the gate with the 600 men armed with weapons of war. 18 And when these went into Micah’s house and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, the priest said to them, “What are you doing?” 

19 And they said to him, “Keep quiet; put your hand on your mouth and come with us and be to us a father and a priest. Is it better for you to be priest to the house of one man, or to be priest to a tribe and clan in Israel?” [1 Kings 12:28-32] 20 And the priest’s heart was glad. He took the ephod and the household gods and the carved image and went along with the people.

21 So they turned and departed, putting the little ones and the livestock and the goods in front of them. 22 When they had gone a distance from the home of Micah, the men who were in the houses near Micah’s house were called out, and they overtook the people of Dan. 23 And they shouted to the people of Dan, who turned around and said to Micah, “What is the matter with you, that you come with such a company?” 24 And he said, “You take my gods that I made and the priest, and go away, and what have I left? How then do you ask me, ‘What is the matter with you?’” 

25 And the people of Dan said to him, “Do not let your voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows fall upon you, and you lose your life with the lives of your household.” 26 Then the people of Dan went their way. And when Micah saw that they were too strong for him, he turned and went back to his home.

Yair Davidiy:

‘The migrating warriors of Dan described themselves as “angry fellows” … implying that they were highly dangerous. The expression translated as “angry fellows” in Hebrew is “mari-nefesh” meaning literally “bitter of soul”. 

The “berserker” or crazed inspired warrior of Scandinavian tradition reflects an aspect of Dan. Samson also exhibited qualities of the berserker. The personality of Dan includes an element of manic depression, resentment, and hidden anger.’

27 But the people of Dan took what Micah had made, and the priest who belonged to him, and they came to Laish, to a people quiet and unsuspecting, and struck them with the edge of the sword and burned the city with fire. 28 And there was no deliverer because it was far from Sidon, and they had no dealings with anyone. It was in the valley that belongs to Beth-rehob. Then they rebuilt the city and lived in it. 29 And they named the city Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor, who was born to Israel; but the name of the city was Laish at the first. 30 And the people of Dan set up the carved image for themselves, and Jonathan the son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land. 31 So they set up Micah’s carved image that he made, as long as the house of God was at Shiloh.

The Hebrew Danites as the Greek Danaans, John R. Salverda – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Danites were a band of rovers, they were not satisfied with the size of the allotment which the official coalition of the Jacobites had afforded them, around Zorah and Eshtaol, so they defied the priesthood of Phinehas, appointed a Levitical priesthood of their own, (directly descended from Moses, not Aaron) and set out to found new lands. First they went up north, and, with the apparent approval, or at least the acquiescence of the Sidonians and the Upper Manassehites [half tribe of East Manasseh], they took the city of Laish, (This city, while the Scriptures, at Judges 18:7, say that it was “far from Sidon” itself, was very close to the Sidonian capitol at the time, a place called Hazor) killed all the Laishites, moved in, and called the place Dan, after their own tribal patriarch. They also held the seaport of Joppa, and it must have been their friendly relations with the seafaring Sidonians that allowed them to build a fleet of ships there.’ 

In summary, a Levite descended from Moses – and therefore not of the priestly line – living in Judah came upon the house of Micah who may have been either an Ephraimite or a Danite dwelling in Mount Ephraim. Micah’s mother may have been Delilah and by extension, his father might have been the dead Samson. Micah has an impressive shrine with important religious artefacts and items of worship. He is wealthy and offers the Levite a position in his household as a Priest. 

Later a party of Danite explorer-warriors looking for a new home – as they were wedged in a narrow strip of land with the burdens of a large population, Philistines and Canaanites pressing on them – happen upon Micah’s home as well. It must have been an impressive house as well as being near the main through road of Ephraim. 

The Bible says, they recognised the voice of the Levite, but we are not told of the past relationship. With the same selfish motives as Micah, but a higher wage and benefits on offer they make the greedy Jonathan an offer he can’t refuse. 

So the Levite Jonathan joins the renegade Danites. The Danites have taken every last vestige of items from Micah’s impressive and no doubt expensive shrine. Micah learns of the theft and chases the Danite party down and confronts them. The larger number of Danites threaten Micah with death if he persists in his foolish notion of wanting his things back. 

The Danites continue on their trek, exhibiting the perchance for violence by ambushing the defenceless and peaceful city of Laish, renaming it Dan. And so ends any substantial dialogue on Dan forever. It is interesting that this episode follows Samson and that 1,100 pieces of silver is mentioned. Strongly inferring that Micah, is Delilah’s son. And whether the plot relating to idolatry hints at Micah being a Danite or from Ephraim; with Danites visiting his home, the association between Dan and Mount Ephraim remains integral – appearing to be much more, than a coincidence of happenstance. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation their, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The city of Laish… was located in the extreme upper Jordan Valley, north of the Sea of Galilee. The residue of the tribe of Dan settled along the various tributaries that fed into the Jordan River at the base of Mt. Hermon. This area marked the northernmost point in all of Israel, and the expression “from Dan to Beersheba” (Judges 20:1…) became a common saying among the Israelites… indicating the boundaries of the land from north to south. 

… the tribe of Dan embraced idolatry and false worship more readily than any of the other children of Israel… Dan, in essence, became the facilitator of paganism for the children of Israel, and as such, the main polluter of God’s way among the people.

The choice of territory in which the Danites ultimately settled is, in itself, quite strategic… it put them as far away as possible from the rest of the nation, and especially from Shiloh, where the center of [true] worship in Israel was situated at this time in their history. In positioning themselves in this fashion, they were subjected to great temptation by the heathen societies to the north and west. Inevitably, given their location, they came under the influence of… the Edomite[s].

Esau vowed to kill his brother to whom he had sold the birthright, and to regain what he had lost through the treachery of Jacob. From this early conflict stems the great struggle between the descendants of these two individuals.  

Not only did the false worship center established in northern Israel by the Danites for hundreds of years vie directly with Shiloh for the spiritual allegiance of the people, there is evidence that this evil system may have had a direct connection with the crucifixion of [Jesus], for we read in [the] famous Messianic passage of Psalms 22 [1, 11-13]: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?… Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help. Many bulls have compassed me: strong BULLS OF BASHAN have beset me round. They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion”.

… the 22nd Psalm is unquestionably about the dying Messiah. Note it is said that “strong bulls of Bashan” were present at the crucifixion, and that they uttered slurs at Christ as He hung suffering and dying on the cross.  Bashan, the area to which Dan migrated, was famous for its strong bulls, and in this instance, they are used as a symbol for the enemies of Messiah, indeed, the very ones perhaps most responsible for His death. This statement may have far greater implications and repercussions than are normally attached to it.’ 

We shall now look at research on the migrations of Dan, comments on his identity and the role of Dan in the latter days. We will also look at a few options on who Dan is today – who and where his people might be. Be aware constant reader, a definitive answer on the tribe of Dan is not necessarily the outcome as Dan continually produces more questions than answers. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950: 

‘Dan was originally divided into two parts, one about Joppa, a seaport, and the other in the north of Palestine. Dan refused to fight along side the other tribes against the Gentiles (Judges 5:17). Dan would judge, or stand up to rule, his own people as one of the separate tribes of Israel indicating he would gain self-government in the following manner: “Dan shall be a serpent in the way, a horned snake in the part, that biteth the horse’s heels, so that his rider falleth, backward.” Ireland has done just that to England. In fact, the symbol of the illegal Irish Republican Army was the coiled snake! 

Dan would also be like a young lion leaping forth, an apt description of Denmark, which acquired the Virgin Islands, Greenland, Iceland and other islands in her heyday. Especially unique is the fact that of all the tribes Northern Dan still preserves their father’s name the Danes!’ 

As of time of writing, I have yet to locate a snake in any of the symbols of the Irish Republican Army. We have studied the Irish and the Danes. Though similar as cousins, they do not share Haplogroups reminiscent of brothers and are identifiable as Gad and Medan respectively. Although Dan was identifiable in two geographic locations in the past, there are no clues in the Bible that this would be a modern or repeated scenario. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation their, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… a segment of the tribe of Dan may have been the first of the Israelites to migrate beyond the confines of the early boundaries. So early, in fact, that their initial departure can be traced all the way back to the time of the Exodus itself, and perhaps even before that. 

Looking back into the annals of ancient history, we come upon the testimony of the Egyptian chronicler Hecataeus of Abdera.  Writing during the reign of Ptolemy I, Hecataeus records a remarkable story that is nothing less than that of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. The following is a most significant excerpt from his account:

“Once, when a PESTILENCE had broken out in Egypt, the cause of the visitation was generally ascribed to the ANGER OF THE GODS. As MANY STRANGERS dwelled in Egypt, and observed DIFFERENT CUSTOMS in religion and sacrifice, it came to pass that the hereditary worship of the gods was being given up in Egypt. The Egyptians, therefore, were of opinion that they would obtain no alleviation of the evil unless they REMOVED THE PEOPLE OF FOREIGN EXTRACTION. When they were driven out, the noblest and bravest part of them, as some say, under noble and renowned leaders, DANAUS and Cadmus, came to HELLES (GREECE) [by sea]; but the great bulk of them migrated into the land, not far removed from Egypt, which is now called JUDEA. These emigrants were led by Moses, who was most distinguished among them for wisdom and bravery” (Dr. Max Duncker, The History of Antiquity, I:456-466).

‘Another well-respected early historian is Diodorus of Sicily. He composed a 40-volume history of [the] world, and includes the following very similar information regarding the tribe of Dan:

“They say also that those who set forth with DANAUS, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country (Egypt); and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to circumcise their male children… the custom having been brought over from Egypt.  Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in Egypt” (History of the World, Book. I, section 28, pages 1-5).

‘… an element of the tribe of Dan migrated by sea to Greece, during the general time-frame of the Israelite exodus from Egypt, perhaps even somewhat earlier, as certain ancient testimony, especially that of Petavius in his History of the World, actually puts their departure as occurring within only a few years after the death of Joseph [1616 BCE]. This presumably would have been at a juncture when the Israelites were not yet slaves in Egypt, and might well have had the freedom to leave on their own volition.’ 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, Dan – The Serpents Trail, J H Allen, 1902 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The territory into and through which the ten tribes made their escape was just north of the Caucasus, which in ancient geography, as may be seen by consulting ancient maps, was known as the territory of the Sarmatians, while the pass, or gate, was sometimes called “The Sarmatian Gate.” 

Not a few have shown, and upon good grounds, that the name of Sarmatia was derived from Samaria, the earlier home of these wandering people, whose general name among themselves was Scoloti, but whom the Greeks called Scythians, or Nomades. From that word Scoloti we have the more modern name Scoti, and the still more modern Scots, which, of course, mean the same as the Greek, Scythia and Nomades, i.e., wanderers. 

But this is only one of the many names by which these wanderers, or Scots, may be traced, for in their western march across the European continent, which was necessarily slow, Ephraim did obey the prophetic injunction, “Set thee up waymarks,” (Jeremiah 31:21). And just here we must keep in mind the fact that in the ancient Hebrew there are no written vowels, and that in the word Dan there are only two letters used which are equivalent to the English D and N. Hence it makes no difference if the word is Dan, Don, Dun, Din or Den, it is equal to the Hebrew D-n, in which the speaker sounds the vowel according to characteristics of his own dialect. 

On the west side of the Black Sea, there is, according to ancient geography, a region which was called “Moesia,” signifying the land of the Moses-ites, and the people of which were called Moesi, or Mosesites. These people had such great reverence for a person whom they called Zal-moxis… T. R. Howlett says, “Zalmoxis, whom Herodotus supposed them to worship as a god, is without doubt Moses; Zal signifying “chief,” or “leader,” while Moxis and Aloses are but the Greek for the Hebrew Mosie, which is also rendered Moses in our tongue.”

Moesia was bounded on the south by Mace-Don-ia and the Dar-DAN-ells, and on the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia, which in some maps is Scythia, in others Gomer, there are the rivers D-n-iper, D-n-ister, and the DON. The fact that the Dnieper and the Dniester are written without a vowel between the D and the N is quite as significant as the fact that the Don has one. 

Professor Totten says: “There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of Europe mark their resting-places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names (Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream, Jor-dan – river of rest – from whose banks, so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its tribal proclivity for naming everything it captured (Judges 18:1-12-29) after their father, or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to trace these wanderers like a trail.”

… Jacob does not say, as many seem to think, that Dan in the last days shall become the ruler of the other tribes of Israel; for the Eternal One has said, “Judah is my law giver.” But what Jacob does say is, that Dan as one of the tribes of Israel shall render a verdict, or judge his people Israel. It may be that the word Israel, as used in the prophecy above, is used in its broadest sense, and includes both the house of Israel and the house of Judah.

It is now more than two hundred and fifty years since a Danish peasant, who, with his daughter, was following their plow in their native country. when the daughter’s plow turned up a bright and glittering something, which upon examination proved to be a golden trumpet. It was taken to the authorities, and, beyond all doubt, identified as one of the SEVEN Golden Trumpets used in the altar service of the temple at Jerusalem. 

This trumpet, which is now in the National Museum at Copenhagen, is ornamented with a lily and pomegranate the lily being the national flower of Egypt, and the pomegranate that of Palestine…

Just before Moses died… of Dan he said: “Dan is a lion’s whelp; he shall leap from Bashan.” Bashan was on Palestinean territory, hence Dan is to leap from that country, but it is left for history to tell where that leap landed him. That Dan’s leap landed him in Ireland is evident, for in that island we find to this day Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay and Don-e-gal City, with Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry just north of them. But there is also Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means “More Dan’s.” And, really, there are so many more that we have no space for them, except to mention Dangan Castle [Meath], where the Duke of Wellington was born, and to say that Dunn in the Irish language means just what Dan means in the Hebrew, i.e., a judge. 

It is remarkable that there is not only a river Don in Scotland, but also a river Doon, and that there is also a river Don in England. Also that these countries are as full of Dans, Dons and Duns as Ireland, for in them are not only such names as Dundee, Dunkirk, Danbar, Dunraven, and many others, but the name of DAN, the son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham, lies buried in the name of their capital cities… E-DAN-burgh and Lon-don. Surely Dan hath Dan-ed, or judged among his people, and thus fulfilled the sure word of prophecy.’

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘One additional piece of evidence of the substantial role of the Israelite tribes in the ancient world will be examined. Ezekiel 27 lists many ancient nations which traded in Tyre’s marketplace… [including] the tribe of Dan as having an identity separate and distinct from Israel and Judah. 

This fact was hinted at earlier in the reference to Judges 5:17 that “Dan remain(ed) in ships.” This passage indicates that the tribe of Dan… had a nautical identity. If a portion of the Danites had an identity separate from Israel and Judah, secular records should bear witness to that fact… and they do! 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica records that the Greeks listed the “Danaans,” or “Danuana” as a distinct, seafaring people who were present in the eastern Mediterranean Sea as early as 1230­ – 1190 B.C. This is the same time frame that Judges 5:17 ascribes a nautical identity to the Danites. Bibles which affix dates to chapter headings typically show a date around 1200 B.C. for Judges 5:17. Therefore, the biblical and secular accounts agree on the dating of the tribe of Dan’s separate, maritime identity.

These “Danaans” were part of a seafaring alliance of peoples known as the Sea Peoples who raided and settled Mediterranean coastlands at that time. The connection between the tribe of Dan and the Sea Peoples has also been noted in Biblical Archaeology Review, in an article which cites the work of Israeli archaeologist, Yigael Yadin, in the following comment: 

“…The Danites were originally not members of the Israelite confederation… They seem, rather, to have been connected with a group of the Sea Peoples called Danuna or Denyen in Egyptian sources, and known to the Greeks as the Danoi.”

‘Dan’s apparent independence from the other tribes occurred at a time when the Israelite tribes were loosely ruled by a series of Judges who predated the Israelite monarchical period. During that time, the Israelite tribes had no strong central government, and the tribes were free to pursue more independent paths. The fact that the “Danaans” were located in the eastern Mediterranean region also supports their being the tribe of Dan as that is precisely where one would expect the tribe of Dan to be present. It is also recorded that the “Danaans” furnished some of the earliest settlers of ancient Ireland. This account not only further supports a strong nautical tradition for the ancient tribe of Dan, but their presence in ancient Ireland also indicates that several of the Israelite tribes had roles in the early colonization of the British Isles. 

If Dan, one of the lesser tribes of Israel, was itself sufficiently numerous that the Greeks preserved its prominent, independent identity approximately two centuries prior to the reigns of Kings David and Solomon, it is easier to understand how great the entire Israelite nation could become when all twelve tribes were finally united under a strong ruler. 

As a maritime tribe, it would be especially easy for many Danites to sail away from Israel in their ships. Much of the tribe of Dan apparently sailed as far as Hibernia (modern Ireland) in their effort to quit the area. Their arrival in considerable force in Hibernia as the Tuatha De Danaans is recorded in the early histories of Ireland. The battles of the Danaans to establish a new homeland in Ireland have even been recorded in the annals of ancient Irish history. In her book, Ireland, Emily Lawless cited these ancient historical records that the Danaans fought a three ­day battle against the Firboigs which centered around a hill called Ben­levi, after which they built many stone forts. 

“Ben­levi” is of obvious Hebrew origin as it includes the name of the Israelite tribe of Levi. J.H. Allen’s, Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, records that “the greatest influx of the Tuatha de Danaan to Ireland” occurred around 720 B.C., just after the fall of Samaria .

The Irish islands called the Arans still have remains of old forts bearing the name of the tribe of Dan. Two forts on the Arans are called Dun Aonghasa and Dun Chonchuir. Ancient Hebrew did not write vowels so the vowels “u” in these words was added later. It is the consonants D­N which preserve the name of “Dan.” These forts have an antiquity “certainly predating Christ,” and “had been crumbling for long centuries before the Arans entered recorded history.” They have been attributed to the Firboigs at the time of “the legendary early invasions of Ireland,” although the name D­N attached to the castles indicates they may have been constructed (or conquered) by the Danaans, the tribe of Dan. Since the tribe of Dan had a habit of renaming existing geographic features after their tribal name when they came into an area (Judges 19:47), it is possible these forts were, indeed, built by the Firboigs [the tribe of Reuben – refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad], and renamed after the Danites conquered them. History has no record that the Danaans ever moved again after their arrival in Ireland.’ 

Recall, the Fir Bolgs were the tribe of Reuben. We will pick up on Collin’s comment on the tribe of Dan not moving. If this were true, then the Danaans would be in Northern  Ireland and not in the southern portion of Ireland as commonly taught by nearly all Israelite identity adherents. The Tuatha de Danaan, lived in and ruled from, Ulster and not anywhere near the southern part of Ireland. 

‘As an interesting digression, it is clear that the Irish have not forgotten their Danaan roots as a 1980s Irish band in Minneapolis named itself “De Danaan.” There was also an intriguing account in U.S. News and World Report Magazine which, noting the presence of then New York Mayor Ed Koch (a prominent American Jew) in the 1987 St. Patrick’s Day parade, added that Mayor Koch: 

“explained his presence at the head of the grand parade thusly: ‘It’s part of my roots. The 10 lost tribes of Israel we believe ended up in Ireland.’ ” 

Website 1Ephraimite provides an amplification on the derivation of ‘Tuatha Dedannan’ and includes the Encyclopaedia Britannica’s definition – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

“Firstly Tuatha Dedannan’s MODERN translation is “People of the Goddess Danu”, but which under the Old Irish spelling of Tuath Dedanaan translates as “Tribes of the God whose Mother is Anu”. The “D” is a 10th Century prosthetic addition because Christian scribes believed Anu was related to the continental Goddess Danu. But who are often referred to as the Tuatha De and referred to as the “Children of Don” within Britain. Reflecting in the fact that Tuatha, (meaning “Tribes”) is the plural of Tuath (meaning “tribe”) 

In Old Irish, tuatha means: ‘family’ or ‘clan’ and de Danaan means: ‘of Danu.’

‘Notice what’s said in the online Encyclopædia Britannica –

Tuatha Dé Danann, (Gaelic: “People of the Goddess Danu”), in Celtic mythology, a race inhabiting Ireland before the arrival of the Milesians (the ancestors of the modern Irish). They were said to have been skilled in magic, and the earliest reference to them relates that, after they were banished from heaven because of their knowledge, they descended on Ireland in a cloud of mist. They were thought to have disappeared into the hills when overcome by the Milesians. The Leabhar Gabhála (Book of Invasions), a fictitious history of Ireland from the earliest times, treats them as actual people, and they were so regarded by native historians up to the 17th century. In popular legend they have become associated with the numerous fairies still supposed to inhabit the Irish landscape.’

Fictitious because it contains, myth, legends and the fantastical. This doesn’t mean the contents are all fairy tales. Embellished maybe and allegorical. Anything that links the tribe of Dan with Nephilim, giants, angels and magic, which would include fairies, cannot be dismissed out of hand without investigation. Fairies are just another form of ‘little people.’ In the same category as leprechauns, Gnomes, Gremlins, Grey aliens and every other form of mythical or supernatural diminutive entity. 

According to Parker’s Astrology, the Eighth Astrological House is from October 24 to November 22 and Scorpio happens to be the eighth astrological sign. Now according to J R Church: ‘To Dan was given the symbol of Scorpio, which, in the ancient Egyptian zodiac was a snake.’ [Guardians of the Grail, page 117]. ‘And perhaps there is significance in the fact that the Eighth House of astrology rules the mysteries of sex, death and rebirth – and the occult.’ [Picknett and Prince, page 204] 

Legend records that the Tuathe de Danaan came to Ireland under the leadership of Nuada, a son of Danu. Among the Danaans were the leaders Dagda, Oghma, Goibhniu and Bres.* It is said they won the First Battle of Moytura, Magh Tuiredh against the Fir Bolgs because of their ‘technologically superior weapons and magic.’ The Fomorian giants had been the Danaan’s ally before their arrival in Ireland, but after some time, they became their deadly enemy. Under the leadership of Lugh, the Danaans defeated the Formorians in the Second Battle of Moytura. 

While the Tuatha De Danaan were at peace with the Fomorians, an alliance was agreed with no objections to the Danites settling in Ireland. The fact that the Fomorian giants were willing to share territory with humans is suspicious. It isn’t though, if the Danites already had a history of intermingling with the Elioud. In sealing the alliance, Balor gave his daughter Ethlinn or Eithne, in marriage to the Danaan Cian, the son of Dian Cecht or Connacht. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 151 – emphasis & bold mine:

… ancient Irish and Welsh legends articulate a remarkable history of giants… which included Fingall and his son Ossian… The Tuatha Denaan were fairy folk that settled Ireland sometime after 3000 BCE. Tuatha Denaan were the divine children of the matriarchal goddess [Dana and the god Dagda], thus making them also a Nephilim race. They were a magical race of gods with human personalities; they argued, killed, got drunk, committed adultery, and acted jealous. Tuatha Denaan reigned until they were driven to the otherworld by the Millesians… the Tuatha Denaan descendants [drove] out the Formorians, who were… giants… a race of monsters… hairy (a Nephilim trait), had one eye… similar to the Greek Cyclops.’

‘The Tuatha De Danaan arrived in a cloud of mist’ – though the 12th century Book of Invasions states that they wafted in through the air as a host of spirits – with the Fir Bolgs discovering they were in Connacht; having arrived from the west and the Atlantic Ocean about May 1. 

According to the Cath Maige Tuired, this mist was actually smoke from their burning ships. The Tuatha de Danaan had made the decision not to flee to their ships if they were defeated. Eochaid Mac Eirc was king of Ireland and the Fir Bolgs. The Danites were more advanced than the Fir Bolgs of Reuben. The respective emissaries looked each other over, with different clothes and the superior Danite weapons. For instance, their spears were razor sharp and well crafted compared to the Fir Bolg spears with blunt points. Recall, the Danite ability at metal working. They exchanged weapons and departed in peace. The Fir Bolgs decided to renege on dividing their portion of Ireland with the Tuathe de Danaan and declared war. The Fir Bolgs supposedly lost one hundred thousand warriors; including their King, Eochaid Mac Eirc. 

Though the Danite King Nuada did not die, he lost his right hand or arm, in the battle when he fought the Fir Bolg champion, Sreng. For the Danaan, losing any body part, resulted in losing the right to remain king. The Tuatha de Danaan choose a new king, choosing Bres.* A peace treaty was drawn up, with the Reuben Fir Bolgs receiving the province Connacht as their land; while the Danaan won the right to rule Ireland, while living in the northern province of Ulster. 

The Tuathe de Danaan of the ‘northern isles’ were reputed to have originated from four magical, otherworldly cities, each one ruled by a Druid – a Wizard or Bard. The cities were called Falias, Gorias, Findias and Murias. The Druids names were, in respective order: Morfesa, Esras, Uiscias and Semias. In each city there was a treasure or a talisman. The Danaan were adept in a variety of skills including arts and crafts, philosophy, medicine, music, warfare, science, and tellingly, the occult and magic. They were talented scholars, bards, druids, craftsmen and warriors and their descendants are described as having otherworldly powers.** 

From Manannan, much like Mahaneh-dan, a subsequent king, Lugh, possessed gifts of the Tuatha de Danaan. These magical gifts had come from the four great otherworldly cities. From Falias, the Danaan received the ‘talking stone of truth’ – for it would reveal the rightful king of Ireland – called Lia Fail. It was also known as the ‘Stone of Destiny.’ [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin] The second treasure was from the city Findias and it was a great magical sword, called Freagarthach, the Answerer, that Lugh and Nuada before him had wielded. Lugh also gave the ‘invincible spear’ which he had obtained from Gorias. The final treasure was from Murias and was the Cauldron of Dagda which could miraculously feed everyone without emptying. These gifts were from the goddess Danu and were to aid the Tuathe de Danaan in defeating the Fomorian giants. 

When the Milesians in turn, defeated the Danaans – who had sent the goddess Eriu against them – they either retreated to Tir na n-Og, the Land of Youth, led by The Dagda or continued to live on the land with the Milesians, but their underground homes, ‘subterranean palaces’, were hidden by magic from the eyes of mortals.’ 

As the Milesians had defeated Eriu, they purportedly named the Island Erin, the native form of her name. Notice the suffix Og and the link with the Nephil-Elioud giant of Bashan, King Og. The Tuatha de Danaan became known as the Daoine Sidhe. Their homes were known as the Sidhe mounds, or the Otherworld. The Tuatha de Danaan were also called the Aes Sidhe or the ‘People of the Sidhe.’ The term sidhe now means faery in the Irish language. In the Theosophy the Tuatha de Danaan are known as Davana. 

In the Otherworld, the Danaan remained young and seemingly immortal; as in, they could live a very long life and appear to remain young, but they could be killed and destroyed just like any mortal human. When they intervened in human wars, they were armed with invisibility, flaming lances and magical white shields. In the Ulster Cycle, the Tuatha de Danann were believed to be Celtic deities. Contrastingly, in the Fenian Cycle, the Danaans ‘had degenerated into nothing more than fey people’, literally the faery folk. The Tuathe de Danann became frequently associated with faeries – or little people.** 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 667 – emphasis mine:

The Tuatha Denaan were regarded… as the world’s most noble race… [their] mythologies are memories of opalescent fallen angels and the Shining Nephilim offspring they produced… pronounced shee (shay). The Irish called them the Sidhe Race; the Scots called the Fair(y) Folk the Sith Race; the Welsh called them the Tyleth Teg; the Cornish… the Fees; and the English… as the Still Folk, Fair Folk and the Fair Family… the Tuatha Denaan excelled over all other peoples of the earth in the proficiency of every art. Postdiluvian Tuatha hailed from Scythia and were also known as Royal Scyths… The Tuatha… traversed the Danube River, settling in Germany before migration onwards to Norway and Ireland.’

Yair Davidiy – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine: 

“Dana” is another way of pronouncing the Hebrew word [Dan]. It has been claimed that in Ancient Ireland, Dana was a goddess… It was not unknown for ancient peoples to personify themselves with the figure of a goddess. Even now Britain is sometimes represented by a feminine form in the name “Britannia”. Dan… once had widely spread posts throughout the Middle East… Dan had conquered Cyprus and Crete… [with] bases in Cilicia (northwest Syria and southeast Turkey), the north Galilee, and… the port of Jaffa in the land of Israel. An offshoot from the tribe of Dan at an early stage participated in a conquest of Greece that gave rise to Mycenean civilization. 

In Irish accounts the Tribe of Dana came from Greece and arrived via islands in the north which assumedly meant Scandinavia. One of these islands was given the name ASSAL which is also the appellation of a Middle Eastern principality in the region of Gozan on the Khabur River whereto part of the Northern Israelites had been exiled. An alternative Irish version says that the Dana came from the city of Dan at the foot of mount Libanus (Lebanon) in what was once the area of northern Israel. 

Even the account which says that the Dana came from or via Greece says that they had fought repeatedly (in Greece) against the Philistines. The Philistines had adjoined the territory of Dan in southeast Israel. The Tribe of Dan in Israel, as seen in the story of their hero Samson (Judges chapters 13-16), was constantly at altercations with the Philistine people. In the Land of Israel the original portion of Dan (in the south) had adjoined the Philistines and partly been taken over by them. Samson was a prototype for the Greek idol Hercules.’ 

We have established the link between a. Ephraim and the Philistines, b. between Ephraim and Dan and by extension – recall the roots of Ephraim and the Philistines with serpent-cockatrices for Dan and the Philistines – c. between Dan and Philistia. We will discuss what this may all mean later.

‘An Irish Historian, Thomas Moore, stated that the Tuatha de Danaan (i.e. Tribe of Dana), “after sojourning for some time in Greece… proceeded from thence to Denmark and Norway”. Geoffrey Keating (circa 1570 1646) understood from traditional Irish sources that, the Danaans were a people of great learning and wealth; they left Greece after a battle with the Assyrians, and went to Ireland; and also to Denmark, and called it “DAN-mares”,  “Dan’s country”. [1866 Edition, Volume 1, pages 195-199]

In Irish tradition THE TRIBE OF DANA were described as fair in complexion, wise, culturally advanced, and scientifically proficient. This description and the activities ascribed to the Dana fits the Civilization of Scandinavia during the so-called “Bronze Age”. This civilization was advanced and had contacts with Egypt, Cyprus, Greece, and the Middle East in general. 

Raymond F. McNair makes the following observation… “It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means “Judge,” just as Dan does in Hebrew!” It is also worth mentioning that many of the policemen, lawyers, and judges in the U.S.A. today are of Irish [tribe of Gad] descent. 

In Welsh sources the Tribe of Dana is paralleled by the People of DON. The Welsh spoke of the goddess Don and her consort Bile the god of the dead. Britain was nicknamed “the Honey Isle of Bile”. The name “Wales” derives from a permutation of the name “Bile”! BILE is the equivalent of Bel meaning the Canaanite Baal whom the Romans in Syria identified with Saturn [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The Romans considered Britain to be the domain of Saturn. They also equated the god Saturn with Israel. Another form of the name “Bile” is “Beli”. Hecateus of Abdera (300s BCE) said: “The most distinguished of the expelled foreigners followed Danaus and Cadmus from Egypt; but the greater number were led by Moses into Judaea.” 

The Welsh collection of legends (called Mabinogion) speaks of Beli son of Manogan king of Britain. Beli is thought to be a derivation of Belinus or Bile. Beli is named as the ancestor of Welsh royal houses and is apparently considered (in Welsh tradition) a member of the House of David. 

The Tudor monarchs of England had Royal Welsh origins: “… there is reason to believe that the Tudors* were descended from the old British kings who ruled at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions”.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 564-566 – emphasis & bold mine:

The first British Pendragon was Cymbeline from the House of Camelot, dating from 10 CE. The last British Pendragon was Cadwaldr of Gwynedd. He died 664 CE when Britain fell to the… Anglo Saxons. This was the Arthurian* Welsh dynasty, whereby Arthur, the great Celtic chief, led his people against the Saxons and the Romans. Before their downfall, the Royal House of Celtic Britain was known as the famous Red Dragon dynasty of Wales… The Dragon has been incorporated into the ensign of the Prince of Wales and appears on the Welsh flag [first sported by the Welsh king Vortigen in 410 CE following the Roman with drawl].”

‘The Prophet Joel condemned the major Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon for having sold Judaeans to the Greeks: “Yea, and what have you to do with me, Tyre, and Sidon, and all the coasts of Palestine?… “Because you have taken my silver and gold… The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have you sold unto the Greeks, that you might remove them far from your border” (Joel 3:4-6). 

Even so, revenge was destined to be taken: “When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Greece, and made you as the sword of a mighty man” (Zechariah 9:13). What exact events the above verses are referring to is unclear. 

Nevertheless, the Irish sources do state that a portion of their ancestors had been captives in Greece and had freed themselves. They also refer to possible Judean origins, in part. 

Judah through Tamar begat Pharez and Zerah. One of the sons of Zerah was Calcol (1 Chronicles 2:6). Calcol had been one of those whose name was remembered for their great wisdom (1 Kings 5:11). Calcol was also counted amongst the ancestors of the Irish. Camden (1551-1623) stated that Calcol of Judah sailed from Egypt to Spain (where the city of Zaragossa was named after Zerah), and then on to Ireland where he founded Ulladh. (”Ulladh” i.e. Ulster has actually a name similar in some types of Hebrew pronunciation to that of ELADAH of Ephraim (1 Chronicles 7:20). Zerah and Pharez were brothers born to Judah (son of Israel) from Tamar. In Southwest Britain Ptolemy recorded the Tamarus River. There was also a Tamarus River in northwest Spain where the Gaels had sojourned before moving to Ireland…

The red hand has been interpreted to represent Zarah of Judah father of Calcol… Bennett states that, “the ancient and traditional emblem of Ulster was and still is a Red Hand circled by a Scarlet Cord”. “Three of Ulster’s six counties, as well as the towns of Bangor and Dungannon, have the Red Hand as part of their official emblems” .’

From Ireland, the Scots migrated to Scotland, and the Red Hand, says Bennett: “appears in the Arms of several of the old families and in those of at least fourteen of the Clan Chiefs: Davidson, MacBain, MacNeil, MacNaughton, MacPherson, MacGillivray, MacDonald of Sleat, Clanranald, and Shaw of Rothiemurchus”. The Red Hand of Ulster …is a symbol used in heraldry to denote the Irish province of Ulster. It is less commonly known as the Red Hand of O’Neill and the Red Hand of Ireland. Its origins are said to be attributed to the mythical Irish figure… Labraid of the Red Hand… The symbol is strongly rooted in Irish Gaelic culture and is particularly associated with the Ui Neill clan of Ulster. The Red Hand symbol is believed to have been used by the Ui Neill clan during its Nine Years’ War (1594-1603) against the spread of English control. The war cry … “Red Hand to victory!” … was also associated with the Ui Neill. 

After Walter de Burgh became Earl of Ulster in 1243 the de Burgh cross was combined with the Red Hand to create the modern Flag of Ulster. The Red Hand was later included in the Northern Ireland flag and on the shields of counties Cavan, Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim and Monaghan.’ 

Ulster Independence Flag

The Red Hand has been interpreted by Identity experts as belonging to the descendants of Zarah, the son of Judah and in the main rightly so, as red is associated with Judah. We learned in Chapter XXIX Esau, that red is also strongly associated with Esau. It is interesting that the colour red stands out in Ulster symbolism, where the tribe of Dan dwelt for centuries. 

We addressed that where Esau is and in particular the Amalekite branch of the Jews –  primarily in the United States – there is also the Nephilim bloodline. We are discovering that the same applies with Dan. Dan as the black sheep and bad boy of Jacob’s sons has an identical motive and mission as Esau. Why exactly, is a mystery to unravel. Thus a trail of red may not just be a sign of Judah and Esau, but Dan too, because the colour red is associated with the secret mysteries that certain bloodlines are all tied. 

The tribe of Dan have left place name evidence of their sojourn through Asia Minor, Greece and the isles of the Aegean Sea, not to mention extensively throughout Europe and the British Isles. The records of the Tuathe de Danaan living underground are pervasive and should not be overlooked. There are thousands of miles of tunnel networks all over the world that are dated to ancient civilisations. Even today, under every big city there are masses of tunnel networks. Underground facilities are common and not just a modern invention. For instance, in the area formally known as Cappadocia in northeastern Turkey, thirty-six underground cities have been discovered so far, ‘with some going down eight levels. Some of these cities can hold a population of thousands. 

The ventilation system[s] are so efficient that even eight floors down the air is still fresh. Thirty vast underground cities and tunnel complexes have also been found near Derinkuya in Turkey.’ 

The tribe of Dan were not just described as serpentine but also worshipped Seraphs and allied themselves with their Nephilim brood. 

A researcher on the subject states – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Danaans derived from their serpent Moon goddess, Dana or Diana. The Danaans made the headquarters of their serpent worshipping culture on the island of Rhodes, a name that originates from a Syrian word for serpent. Rhodes was the home of the Danaan brotherhood of initiates and magicians known as the Telchines. The Greek historian, Diodorus, said these initiates had the ability to heal, change the weather, and ‘shape-shift’ into any form… The Danaans also settled on Cyprus and in ancient times it was known as Ia-Dan or the “Isle of Dan”… [the Danaan] traveled… to Britian where they became known as Tuatha de Danaan or the “People of the Sea”.’

The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom, Mark Amaru Pinkham:

‘The essence of Danaan science stems from music – the controlled manipulation of sound waves – and this becomes recorded in legend as the “music of the spheres.”’

The Telchines were regarded as Wizards and Magicians, even though to many they were merely Merchants and Warriors. They have been given mythical non-human status as spirits or demons, similar to the Tuathe De Danaan. They were excellent metallurgists, being skilled metal workers in brass and iron [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. A reminder of the Kenites and Danites; a further association between Esau and Dan.

The name Rhodes, which is connect[ed] to the German “Rot”, meaning red, as with Rothschild (Red-Shield) became a code name for the bloodlines. Malta, too, was an important center in 3500 B.C. and the home of a major Mystery School. Under Malta is a vast network of tunnels and megalithic temples where secret rituals took place and still do today. Malta’s original name was Lato, named after Mother Lato, the serpent goddess.  

The Knights Templar [precursor to the Freemasons] secret societywas formed in the late 11th century to protect the… ‘Le Serpent rouge’ the red^ serpent or serpent blood [bloodlines],together with their associated order, the highly secretive Priory of Sion. The goals of the Knights Templar and the Illuminati were then and are today to place these serpent bloodlines in all positions of power worldwide and thus form a… centrally controlled one world government.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 664-665 – emphasis & bold mine:

… bloodlines of the Tuatha [Danaan] were (and are to this day) considered sacred and divine; the bloodlines of Nephilim… Celts believed deities were their ancestors and not their creators, tracing their genealogies back through Celtes, Scythes, Albion, and Gog giants. These were the blond or red-haired, blue or green-eyed, fair-skinned descendants of the noble elven Celts. Celtic kings were always ceremoniously wed with mother goddesses. The Druids then kept these genealogies of Irish kings stretching back into the mists of time. This, then, accounts for the originating bloodline of the Irish as being fairy blood from Tuatha Denaan. Irish descendants of Tuatha later interbred with the migrated… Celts, who interbred with the descendants from the lost tribes of Israel… as well as the Scythians, who then interbred with the alleged descendants of Jesus in England [the true tribe of Judah [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]… They, in turn, interbred with… Benjamin royal blood [Wayne is referring to the French Merovingian Kings, as Benjamin is Scotland]… united into the Arthurian bloodline [of Wales, Simeon]… [culminating] in the Unicorn House of StuartThese genealogies [all contain] Fairy blood [Nephilim] and Dragon blood [line of Cain].’ 

The tribe of Dan’s emblems include the Lion, scorpion, Eagle and Serpent, but overriding these three and in a real sense an amalgamation of them all is its true symbol, the Dragon.  The people of Dan turned to the idolatry and worship of demons – Nephilim in discarnate form – and Baal worship, for they bred with Nephilim and Elioud. Dan threw his lot in with Esau and together they will instigate the events that bring on the great tribulation, the time of Jacob’s Trouble and the great Day of the Lord [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. Together they will rule the world to its terrifying crescendo. 

Thus preparing the way for the Beast – the One awaited for eons – and the false Prophet through a centralised world governance with a policy feasting on war, bloodshed and sacrifice. 

Dan’s astrological sign of scorpio symbolises the two paths of the Eagle and the Serpent – or scorpion – with the first representing a spiritual path upwards the second creature a carnal path going downwards. Like the claws of a scorpion, the Danites and Edomites are two pincers working together. The Jews through the Kabbalah, the descendant Freemasonry networks of the tribe of Dan and the overseeing Illuminati. 

Unger Bible Handbook, page 273: 

‘Dan’s position in the journey was on the North of the Tabernacle, with Asher and Naphtali. The standard of the tribe was of white and red^ and the crest upon it an eagle… Jacob had compared Dan to a serpent. Ahiezer substituted the eagle, the destroyer of serpents, as he shrank from carrying an adder upon his flag.’

Note the colours of red and white… colours typically associated with England, Northern Ireland and Wales – the full-blood brothers of Judah, Reuben and Simeon.

“… (priests) after the Order of Melchizedek… were the immortals to whom the term ‘phoenix’ was applied and their symbol was the mysterious two-headed bird now called an eagle, a familiar and little understood Masonic emblem.” (Hall, page 108) 

“… the two-headed eagle… is usually depicted in two colors of great mystical significance: red^ and white.” (Cirlot, page 93) 

Esau is an inheritor of the line and Way of Cain, through his spiritual rebellion against the Eternal and vengeful plans of destruction for his twin brother Jacob’s descendants; primarily the United States, England and Canada, as well as physically with his intermarriages with the Horites, the Amalekites and the Kenites. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 670-672 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It would seem, then, that Amalek and his descendants ruled over Seir, while the descendants of Esau reigned over Edom/Idumea… Edomites, unlike the descendants of Amalek in Sier, ran off the Horites and all other Nephilim from the land of Edom, warring with them with the help of God… Theosophists believe the descendants of Esau, and in particular the grandsons of Bashemath… were granted the right to reign as Owl queens and Dragon kings for eternity, in the same spurious spirit and legacy of Lilith… [pointing] to Isaiah 34:10-17, which links screech owls [Barn Owl] and Edom… screech owls were… an unclean bird associated with desolation, a night creature that hops much like a goat… a nocturnal spectre… a night demon… night monster… All is reminiscent of Lilith, the female Oupres, night witch… night vampire… the Hebrew word lilit… the original spelling for the screech owl [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

It was from the Edomite marriage (Eliphaz and Timna) into the lords of Edom that the Tuatha D’Anu Fairy kings (in part) emerged.’

So too, is Dan an inheritor of the antediluvian worship of the fallen dark Angels and their progeny the Nephilim. J R Church states: ‘… The Danites relocated to the northern reaches of the Promised Land. They settled at the foot of Mount Hermon in the territory of Bashan, and adopted the idolatrous Canaanite religion of Baal and Ashtaroth*.’ An older name for Mount Hermon is Mount Ba’al-Hermon. 

Song of Solomon 4:8

English Standard Version

Come with me from Lebanon, my bride; come with me from Lebanon. Depart from the peak of Amana, from the peak of Senir and Hermon, from the dens of lions [of Dan], from the mountains of leopards.

Psalm 29:5-6

King James Version

5 The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars; yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. 6 He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion [Hermon – Deuteronomy 3:8-9] like a young unicorn.

Psalm 22:12-13, 21

English Standard Version

12 Many bulls encompass me; strong bulls of Bashan surround me; 13 they open wide their mouths at me, like a ravening and roaring lion… [the Devil – 1 Peter 5:8]21 Save me from the mouth of the lion! You have rescued me from the horns of the wild oxen [unicorns]!

These verses do not draw attention to the heraldry symbols of the Lion of England and the Unicorn of Scotland, but the symbolism of the lion with Dan and the Bull and calf of Baal worship. It is not a coincidence that the lions of Bashan or Dan are linked to the Bull and Unicorn, symbols of Joseph. We have discussed in length in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega, Asherah and her role as consort and Mother to Baal, as well as Lilith, her daughter. 

A quote by an author, Johnson, page 315 is intriguing – emphasis & bold mine: 

Fortunately, a stone image of Asherah has survived… found in ruins of Dan, where the golden calf was worshipped in what is now northern Israel, (which) dates from the eighth century B.C.E. The Goddess strongly resembles her neighboring deities Anet, Astarte, Ashtaroth.*’

The rebellious Angels descended upon Mount Hermon and it was their headquarters. Located at the 33rd degree parallel latitude and longitude from the Paris meridian. Quote from unknown source: ‘“Prior to the adoption in 1884 of Greenwich as the international Zero Meridian, each country made use of its own. The French Zero Meridian… is still used on the official maps produced by the Institut Geographique National… (Giovanni Domenico) Cassini’s meridian arc is still marked upon French maps as the Paris Zero.” Note: Using the Greenwich Zero Meridian, the northern territory of Dan lies at 35.5 degrees longitude. However, if the Paris Zero Meridian is used, having a 2.5 difference from Greenwich, Dan is found to lie at the 33rd degree longitude and latitude.’ 

A comment online – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the sons of Lamech [Tubal-Cain (Tu-Baal Cain)] and descendants of Cain, as well as Hiram Abiff the architect (a different person than King Hiram of Tyre), are all greatly honored and celebrated in the Masonic rituals. King Solomon, a follower of El (Jehovah), cooperated with King Hiram, the Phoenician king of Tyre, in building the Temple at Jerusalem. King Hiram’s father was Abi-baal, and Hiram was succeeded as king of Tyre by his son Baal-Eser I

Here, in the cooperation between the Baal king of Tyre and the El king Solomon may be the beginning of “strange gods” insinuating themselves into the court of King Solomon. “For when Solomon was old his wives turned away his heart after other gods…” (1 Kings 11:4) Solomon by then “built a high place (mound)” for Chemosh and for Baal-Molech.) 1 Kings 11:7)’

It is no coincidence that Freemasonry has 33 levels of initiation into their secrets. The biggest secret once you have scaled all 33 degrees and beyond is that the Lord of Light they truly worship is not the Eternal One but his arch nemesis Samael. Freemasons are deceptively oblivious to the real god their highest hierarchy worships. Ancient texts reveal that the spiritual hierarchy of Samael is comprised of thirty-three gods and it is  this that forms the ultimate basis for the esoteric significance of this specific number. The number thirty-three may have a connection with the world prior to the great flood. The area of Babylon is situated on the 33rd degree north parallel. There is reason to believe that it was here that Cain travelled when he went to the Land of Nod. If this area had pre-flood significance, as it certainly did after the flood during the reign of Nimrod, then the ancient occult significance of the number thirty-three, is firmly established. 

The ancient tribe of Dan has influenced the course of Freemasonry from its Knight Templar and Merovingian dynasty roots. The symbols of the tribe of Dan are common to the Merovingians and the Royal House of Stewart. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 542-543, 545, 567 – emphasis & bold mine:

The standard superficial symbol for Rosicrucianism is the rose cross, similar to that of the Templars, who wore it as their emblem, and of the Fisher Kings, who bore it as a birthmark – the Mark of Cain… rosi and crux… Latin words… Ros signifies dew, which to alchemists is the solvent of gold or an elixir. Crux… equivalent to light… from which Lux is derived… the root for… “light” and “Lucifer”… crux is the chemical hieroglyph for light… the authentic elixir of immortality… the five petal rose… is a symbol for reincarnation because it can fruit without being pollinated… it can die but be born again identical to itself… the oldest of the rose genera… the Rosa Rugosa, had five petals that modelled pentagonal/pentagram symmetry, like the guiding star of Venus… the orbit of Venus, when placed against a backdrop of the zodiac, forms a five-pointed star… the Rosi Crucis, is more accurately described as a dragon incurved to circle a red^ cross, known as the Mark of Cain. The Rosi Crucis was a lucid sign known to the ancient Egyptians as Ourobous… The formal Dragon Court remained… active in the English kingship through William the Conqueror and the Stuart kingship via Robert the Bruce. The Dragon Court was toppled in England after the fall of the Stuart dynasty, which was replaced by the Hanoverian dynasty of Germany that reigns to this dayin Britain, the Draconian order known as the Rosicrucian Anglicae has maintained the [Ordo Draconis] tradition to this day in secrecy… as well as in other mystic organisations of Great Britain.’

The number three in the Bible means ‘finality’ or ‘a decision.’ This is quite appropriate considering the momentous decision two hundred angels made with their leader Samyaza. The number thirty-three in numerology and the occult signifies a master number. Eleven through to ninety-nine are all powerful numbers. In numerology, the number thirty-three signifies ‘service.’ Again this is highly applicable to the dark Angels and their mission with Samyaza, who in turn was serving the aims of Samael the Serpent [Genesis 3:15]. 

In the occult, thirty-three is connected with opening the Third Eye and ‘attaining the highest spiritual consciousness attainable’ by a human being, with mastery over the self. The number 333 represents the transformation from the physical dimensions to the spiritual plane ‘through death, resurrection and ascension.’ The number 333 doubled, is also a veiled and hidden symbol of the more sinister 666. Numbers are extremely important to occultists, they are extremely important in the Bible and they are the foundation of every scientific endeavour, for all DNA and coding of life is a mathematical formula. All computer programs are binary numbers. Numbers are the base of everything that is alive, exists or is created. Much could be said on many significant numbers, not just the number thirty-three. So much in fact, that we will look into this subject in a separate article. For now, the two most famous 33’s in the Bible are the age of the Messiah when he was sacrificed and the number of Angels that followed Satan into rebellion, a third or 33.3% recurring. 

Cutting Edge – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Since the reign of Sir Francis Bacon and Queen Elizabeth I (1590 – 1603), Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry have ruled England and Europe with an increasingly iron hand. Once Adam Weishaupt established the Masters of the Illuminati on May 1, 1776, Freemasonry has been gradually moving the entire world into the Kingdom of Antichrist –[the] New World Order. This is the society where the ultimate goal is that from “The Christ” on downward, all the peoples of the world still living after the “Cleansing Cycle” will so spiritually evolve… that they will attain immortality on earth. The numeric symbol of this high degree of spiritual attainment will be ’33’, and the physical symbol will be the Third Eye that will open up physically between the eyes.

This is the ultimate goal; unfortunately, to achieve it, a lot of people are going to have to die… [a] tremendous amount of Witchcraft.. will be required to achieve this utopian state, for only a select few are truly “worthy” to pass through the cleansing cycle to live in this “New Heaven and New Earth” over which The Masonic Christ will rule. 

Throughout history, Freemasons, Rosicrucians, and occultists of the day have planned events that they planned, in order to move the world ever closer to the final ideal, keeping in mind the occult premise stated at the beginning of this article by Day Williams. Let us review it again:

“If a life is taken close to the northern 33rd Parallel, this fits with the Masons’ demonic mythology in which they demonstrate their worldly power by spilling human blood at a predetermined locale.” 

This terrible concept is completely fulfilled by the bloody “I Witch” symbol, where human blood^ has been planned to be shed in huge torrents so that, at the right moment, The Christ may appear. Remember the Guiding Spirit vision of Albert Pike, January, 1870, in which the demon revealed that three world wars would have to be fought to establish the New World Order and its reigning monarch, Antichrist. Both world wars in the 20th Century have been fought to establish the One World Government, Economy, and Religion of Antichrist. This Third World War seems to be right ahead of us, and out of the smoke, debris, and blood of this war Antichrist will come striding.’

The French Merovingian dynasty of kings are interesting as they are not descended from the tribe of Benjamin as proposed by a number of authors. If they are not descended from Lot [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon], then there could be cause to consider Dan, as we shall see. It may just be a coincidence but all the Merovingian kings wore their hair long as opposed to the Franks who cut their hair short. In fact the Merovingians forbade anyone who was not Merovingian from having long hair. The Merovingian kings ‘were called… long-haired kings as they never used to cut their hair, believing that there was power in long hair. 

For them, the cutting of the hair of the king was considered a symbolic loss of power [and authority]. A King who had his hair cut would be forced to step down.’

Author, Springmeier, page 80: 

Be Wise As Serpents revealed. . . how all the heads (presidents) of the LDS… [Mormons] have been descendants of the Merovingian dynasty, and they and the Masons have both used the Merovingian symbol the bee.’

Recall the bees of Samson’s riddle and the probability of the bees symbolising Dan. There is a belief that the modern descendants of the Merovingian line plan to rule the world from their future throne in Jerusalem and that their claim to be of the tribe of Judah descended from the children born to Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene is legitimate. However, the weight of evidence indicates that they are more likely to be descended from the tribe of Dan. 

There are people on earth today who are related to Christ, since they descend from Christ’s half brothers and sisters. There is no evidence that this writer is aware of, that the Messiah would or could sire children. His mission was to be an intercessor for humankind and a mediator between man and God. Getting married and having children was not part of the plan and would have been an unnecessary distraction, nor would it have been fair on a wife or children to lose their father so early [Romans 8:34; 1 Timothy 2:5].  

Many theologians and Biblical scholars support the idea that the Antichrist – though it is not explained whether they intend the Beast or false Prophet to fulfil the role – as being from the tribe of Dan. 

Mount Hermon: Gate of the Fallen Angels, J R Church, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Jacob prophesied that Dan would be “a serpent by the way, an adder in the path” (Genesis 49:17), and Moses prophesied, “Dan is a lion’s whelp: he shall leap from Bashan” (Deuteronomy 33:22). These two prophecies are remarkable, in that they connect Dan with the “seed of the serpent,” from which the Antichrist will emerge to claim the title “lion of Judah.”’

We have discussed at length in Chapter XXI Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega regarding the connection between Asshur, Nimrod, Azazel – also known as Abaddon & Apollyon – and Lilith. I do not subscribe to the Antichrist being from the tribe of Dan, though Dan is without a doubt part of the global conspiracy to enslave humankind and thereby transforming humanity into something they should not be – via the Mark of the Beast – and thus usher in the Antichrist rule of the Beast and false Prophet.

Hippolytus influenced thought on the origin of the Antichrist. The verses used clearly reveal Dan’s involvement and treachery; they are not obscure prophecies that the Beast or false prophet derive from the tribe:

‘For it is certain that he is destined to spring from the tribe of Dan, and to range himself in opposition like a princely tyrant, a terrible judge and accuser, as the prophet testifies when he says, “Dan shall judge his people, as one tribe in Israel”. But some one may say that this was meant of Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged his people for twenty years. That, however, was only partially made good in the case of Samson; but this shall be fulfilled completely in the case of Antichrist. For Jeremiah, too, speaks in this manner: “From Dan we shall hear the sound of the sharpness of his horses; at the sound of the neighing of his horses the whole land trembled.” And again, Moses says: “Dan is a lion’s cub, and he shall leap from Bashan.” And that no one may fall into the mistake of thinking that this is spoken of the Saviour, let him attend to this. “Dan”, says he, “is a lion’s cub” [A Discourse on the End of the World, and on the Antichrist, and on the Second Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, XVIII, XIX, XX]; ‘and by thus naming the tribe of Dan as the one whence the accuser is destined to spring, he made the matter in hand quite clear. For as Christ is born of the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist shall be born of the tribe of Dan. And as our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was spoken of in prophecy as a lion on account or His royalty and glory, in the same manner also has the Scripture prophetically described the accuser as a lion, on account of his tyranny and violence.’ (Kilde) 

His mentor Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon, unsurprisingly held the same view, as did other early church writers. Similar to the cherished belief that Germany is Assyria, The United States is Manasseh or that the Jews are Judah, so too is the promulgated belief that the Antichrist is from the tribe of Dan, thus precluding any other thought on the subject and its continuance in error. 

Against Heresies Volume 30, 1-2:  

‘Moreover, another danger, by no means trifling, shall overtake those who falsely presume that they know the name of Antichrist. For if these men assume one [number], when this [Antichrist] shall come having another, they will be easily led away by him, as supposing him not to be the expected one, who must be guarded against… This, too, the apostle affirms: ‘When they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden destruction shall come upon them.’ And Jeremiah does not merely point out his sudden coming, but he even indicates the tribe from which he shall come, where he says, ‘We shall hear the voice of his swift horses from Dan; the whole earth shall be moved by the voice of the neighing of his galloping horses: he shall also come and devour the earth, and the fulness thereof, the city also, and they that dwell therein.’ This, too, is the reason that this tribe is not reckoned in the Apocalypse along with those which are saved.’

On the Last Times, the Antichrist, and the End of the World, Ephraem the Syrian, 373 CE:

“At the end of the world at the final consummation… suddenly the gates of the north shall be opened… They will destroy the earth, and there will be none able to stand before them.  After one week of that sore affliction (tribulation), they will all be destroyed in the plain of Joppa… Then will the son of perdition appear, of the seed and of the tribe of Dan… He will go into Jerusalem and will sit upon a throne in the Temple saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and he will be borne aloft by legions of devils like a king and a lawgiver, naming himself God”

Dan: A Type of the Antichrist, St. Methodius of Olympus, 250-311 CE – bold mine:

“When the son of perdition appears, he will be of the tribe of Dan, according to the prophecy of Jacob. This enemy of religion will use a diabolic art to produce many false miracles, such as causing the blind to see, the lame to walk, and the deaf to hear.  Those possessed with demons will be exorcised. He will deceive many and, if he could, as our Lord has said, even the faithful elect. Even the Antichrist will enter Jerusalem, where he will enthrone himself in the temple as a god (even though he will be an ordinary man of the tribe of Dan to which Judas Iscariot** also belonged)”.

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… [there is a] very interesting pattern of similarity between Dan within the 12 tribes of Israel and Judas among 12 apostles… The most likely etymology for Judas’ surname, Iscariot, is man of Karioth. We read in Joshua 15:60 of a place in Judah named Kirjath-Jearim, also rendered Kiriath-Jearim. Due to the false worship associated with this area, it became known as Kiriath-Baal.  

“And there went from thence of the family of the Danites, out of Zorah and out of Eshtaol, six hundred men appointed with weapons of war. And they went up, and pitched in Kiriath-Jearim, in Judah. Wherefore they called that place Mananeh-Dan unto this day: behold, it is behind Kiriath-Jearim” (Judges 18:11-12).

The city of Kiriath-Jearim was apparently a border town, in close proximity to, if not on the very boundary itself, between the territory allotted to Judah and Dan. The Danites pitched their camp just to the west of Kiriath-Jearim, and, as they were wont to do, named the place after their father, calling it Mahaneh-Dan. So what we have here is the city of Kiriath-Jearim in Judah situated directly across the border from Mahaneh-Dan. Although named after the patriarch Dan by the Danites themselves, the area of Mahaneh-Dan actually came to be considered as the Dan sector of Kiriath-Jearim.  In other words, by the time of the first century A.D., there were really two Kiriaths, one in Dan, and the other just across the line in Judah. Interestingly, the plural for Kiriath is Kirioth. In effect, therefore, the name Judas Iscariot actually can be translated Judas of the two Kirioths. The usage of the plural in the case of Judas** indicates that he was most likely from the Danite Kiriath,otherwise the singular would have been employed, as was normally done, since the Jewish Kiriath was the more prominent of the two settlements.

In many respects, just as the end-time descendants of Dan, or a portion thereof, can be seen with reference to the predicted Anti-Christ, so can Judas Iscariot. Remember that there are only two individuals in all of Scripture that are called the son of perdition, an especially denigrating term, and they are Judas himself and the Anti-Christ [false Prophet] (John 17:12 & II Thessalonians 2:3).’

The following article begins with Dan and then spends time on Edom and the Jews. Though lengthy – as Edom and Dan go hand-in-hand – it is of value and an excellent expose of the ruling elite’s agenda. 

Merovingian Bloodline and the Black Nobility, Fritz Springmeier, 2000 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Gerald Massey’s A Book of the Beginning (1974)… goes in and shows in detail how the inhabitants of the British Isles came originally from Egypt. This is Important because the Druidism of the British Isles was simply a derivative from the Egyptian Satanic witchcraft/magic of Ancient Egypt. The Egyptian word Makhaut (clan or family) became the Irish Maccu and the Maccu of the Donalds (clan of Donalds) now reflected in the name [Mac-Don-ald]. 

The tribe of Dan was prophesied to be the black sheep of the nation of Israel which would bite the other tribes of Israel. The tribe of Dan had the snake and the eagle as its two logos. The tribe of Dan left its calling card all over Europe as it migrated west in the names of many places. 

Great Britain is the mother country of Satanism. Scotland has long been an occult center. The national symbol of Scotland is the dragon (the snake), and for years the chief of Scotland was called the dragon. The Gaelic language is an important language for Satanism, although English and French are also use[d] extensively by the Illuminati. The planning sessions for world takeover that some ex-Satanists experienced were held in French. The British Royal Family have long been involved with the occult. 

For more information on this there is a detailed examination of the Royal family and the occult in the book The Prince and the Paranormal – The Psychic Bloodline of the Royal Family by John Dale (1987). They have also been actively involved with Freemasonry. British MI6 has been a major vehicle for the Satanic hierarchy working behind the secret veil of Freemasonry to control world events. British MI6 is the most secret intelligence organization in the world.(It is properly known as British Secret Service not to be confused with the U.S. agency by that name but performing a different function entirely.) The British Royalty have served as important figureheads to British Freemasonry lending credibility and respectability. British Freemasonry has managed to keep itself free of much of the criticism that the other national Masonic groups have brought on themselves. However, much of the credibility of British Freemasonry is undeserved. 

True, British Freemasonry is what it portrays itself to the public for the lower levels. But, the lower level Masons by their dues and activities are unwittingly supporting an organization that is led by Satanists at the top. 

An example of the subterfuge constantly exercised on the public by Freemasonry is a book purportedly written by a non-Mason entitled The Unlocked Secret Freemasonry Examined. The book portrays itself as an unbiased and complete expose of Freemasonry. The book states unequivocally that the Masonic order called Societas Rosicrucian in Anglia is only open to Christians and is a “Christian Order”. 

However, Edith Star Miller reprints copies of a number of letters from the chief of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia which show that the English Grand Masonic Lodge, the SRIA, the OTO, and the German Illuminati are all working together. It identifies the true authors of Nazi philosophy whom British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli described as, “the hidden hand behind government”. 

And looking at the natural, over ninety percent of those “who say they are Jews”, are not. They lie because they have no kinship to Abraham, Isaac, and/or Jacob by blood. (Check Encyclopedias Judaica and Britannica, Jewish and Universal Jewish Encyclopedias.) And certainly not by faith. True Israelites who are Hebrews call them Ashkenazim or Khazars. These people earned the title of “Black” Nobility from their ruthless lack of scruple. They employed murder, rape, kidnapping, assassination, robbery, and all manner of deceit on a grand scale, brooking no opposition to attaining their objectives. These all have immense wealth. And money is power. 

The most powerful of the Black Nobility families are located in Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Britain, Holland and Greece in that order. Their roots may be traced back to the Venetian oligarchs who are of Khazar extraction. They married into these royal houses in the early part of the twelfth century. Many of these royal families no longer have kingdoms, and not all Black Nobility are royal houses. According to author John Coleman, a “Committee of 300” from this untouchable ruling class includes Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of Holland [now King Willem Alexander, crowned 2013], the Queen of Denmark [Margrethe II] and the royal families of Europe. 

Socialist politician and financial adviser to the Rothschilds, Walter Rathenau, writing in the Wiener Press (24 December, 1921) said, “Only 300 men, each of whom knows all others govern the fate of Europe. They select their successors from their own entourage. These men have the means in their hands of putting an end to the form of State which they find unreasonable.” Exactly six months after publication, Rathenau was assassinated. 

The Masonic-controlled Swiss banks owe their existence to these families. In 1815 the Jesuits and their Freemason allies among the crowned heads of Europe held the Congress of Vienna, whereby Swiss neutrality (already sanctioned by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648) was forever guaranteed; and no matter how many wars are provoked in which the common man has to do the fighting, the money of the Nobility in Switzerland should always be free from plunder. 

Nathan Rothschild’s financing of Britain resulted in the defeat of Rome’s enemy Napoleon, (as well as being the source of his wealth and influence). Since Gregory XVI conferred a Papal decoration on Kalman Rothschild for loaning the Vatican five million pounds in a period of difficulty, the Rothschilds have been the fiscal agents of the Vatican. 

According to William Cooper’s book “Behold A Pale Horse”, which I am coming more and more to appreciate, all nations have agreed to relinquish sovereignty to the Pope and submit future problems to the Vatican for solution once the NWO is established. This I have been unable to confirm but in general, this is what will happen. 

“All nations” can only refer to the Black Nobility who have agreed to relinquish sovereignty to Rome in return for the restoration of royal power under a NWO. This was foretold in Daniel 7:20 and Revelation 17:12-13, “The ten horns which you saw are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.” These ten horns were ten kings, represented in Daniel 2 by the ten toes of the image King Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream. They are the royal houses into which the old Roman Empire was divided after the fall of the last emperor Romulus Augustus, in AD 476. They were Alemani (Germany), Franks (France), the Burgundians (Switzerland), the Suevi (Portugal), the Anglo-Saxons (Britain), the Visigoths (Spain), the Lombards (Italy)…

It is imperative that we realize that privately, the Black Nobility refuse to ever recognize any government other than their own inherited and divine right to rule. They believe the United States still belongs to England. And work diligently behind the scenes to cause conditions whereby they might regain their crowns. Every royal and so-called noble dynasty past and present of Europe have seats on the “Committee of 300”, most often by nominees. There are just too many of these “royal” families for them each to have representatives on the “Committee of 300”. Precedence is determined by rank: first royal family members, then dukes, earls, marquises and lords, then finally “commoners”, who usually get the title of “Sir”. (Conspirator’s Hierarchy: The “Committee of 300”, Dr. John Coleman.) 

On September 30, 1931, British Prime Minister and Fabian Socialist Ramsay MacDonald, took Britain off the gold standard in obedience to the “Committee of 300”. In 1933, as one of his first presidential acts, FDR declared a banking holiday and ordered all US citizens to turn in all gold in their possession to the Treasury. Roosevelt handed over the gold supply of the USA to the privately-owned tax-exempt Federal Reserve, as the Seal of Solomon was attached to the Shield of Britannia, and the Judaistic symbol of the Serpent was placed around her Trident. 

In 1933 the U.S. owned 40% of the gold in the world. The debt of the US in 1963, was $1.25 trillion, and gold, subject to call by foreign nations, exceeded by $16 billions, the amount on hand at Fort Knox. By 1963, it was said that the Rothschilds had withdrawn all the gold from England [Judah] and the United States [Joseph] to their coffers in France [Moab & Ammon], Belgium [Sheba & Dedan], Switzerland [Haran]and Holland [Midian]. Remember that name. 

Michael S. Heiser, examines many of the intriguing details and nuances coincident to Mount Hermon: charam, khaw-ram’; a primitive root; to seclude; specifically (by a ban) to devote to religious uses (especially destruction)… to be blunt as to the nose: – make accursed, consecrate, (utterly) destroy, devote, forfeit, have a flat nose, utterly (slay, make away). The consonants that make up “hermon” are (in Hebrew) ch-r-m (the final “n” is a noun ending typically suffixed to geographic locations). 

The noun cherem means “devoted to destruction” (the imagery is of a holocaust offering)… a doomed object… extermination: (ac-) curse (-d, -d thing), dedicated thing, things which should have been utterly destroyed, (appointed to) utter destruction, devoted (thing), net. 

Mount Hermon was, according to 1 Enoch 6:1-6, the mountain to which the Watchers, the sons of God, descended when they came to earth and cohabited with human women. This connection with the incident described in Genesis 6:1-4 is consistent in view of the connections between the terms Rephaim, Anakim, and Nephilim… the broader area of which Mount Hermon was part was Bashan, a place of special cosmic-geographical significance… Mount Hermon was also associated with Baal worship and evil serpentine cults. The cult center Baal-Hermon is mentioned several times in the Old Testament (e.g., Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5:23). 

That the Israelites and the biblical writers considered the spirits of the dead giant warrior-kings to be demonic is evident from the fearful aura attached to the geographical location of Bashan. As noted above, Bashan is the region of the cities Ashtaroth and Edrei, which both the Bible and the Ugaritic texts mention as abodes of the Rephaim. What’s even more fascinating is that in the Ugaritic language, this region was known not as Bashan, but Bathan – the Semitic people of Ugarit pronounced the Hebrew “sh” as “th” in their dialect. Why is that of interest? Because “Bathan” is a common word across all the Semitic languages, biblical Hebrew included, for “serpent.” The region of Bashan was known as “the place of the serpent.” It was ground zero for the Rephaim giant clan and, spiritually speaking, the gateway to the abode of the infernal deified Rephaim spirits…’

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Dan’s relocation to the extreme north of Israel… placed it in close proximity to snow-capped Mount Hermon, the highest point in the land.  This area has a long and mysterious history. Ancient records, stories, legends, and myths abound with regard to the unusual and even sacred nature of this region… this area, which became the extreme northern boundary of Israel, attained almost mythical proportions in ancient times. Hittite, as well as Biblical, records confirm that Mount Hermon was considered anciently as a dwelling place of the gods. Names such as Baal-hermon, Baal-gad, and even Hermes (Mercury of Roman mythology. Hermes is derived from the name Hermon), emanate from this area. The mountain became a major center of pagan religious activity, including the worship of Pan. The region was even known as Paneas. Indeed, the Cave of Pan, which still today dominates the foot of Mount Hermon, was known as the passageway to Hades.

Later, in the days of Jeroboam, the northern ten tribes rebelled against the House of David and separated themselves from the southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The almost immediate result of this division is succinctly recorded for us in I Kings 12, where we read: ‘… And Jeroboam… took counsel, and made two calves of gold… And he set one in Bethel, and the other he put in DAN.  And this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one, even unto DAN.’ 

Note carefully the strategic part the area of Dan plays in this rebellion against God. The golden calf placed in Dan was situated at Mount Hermon, the historic site of pagan Canaanite worship, and the even more ancient locale of unspeakably evil pre-Flood activity that resulted in the destruction of the human race! Dan, in fact, became the center of… Baal-worship among the nations of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. 

I strongly suspect that Mount Hermon… is the original model of the fabled mountain of the gods. Virtually all ancient pagan civilizations had a sacred mountain, almost always located in the north, that was deemed to be the home of the gods. By far the most famous of these is Mount Olympus in Greece, but there are numerous others in different locales and historical eras. Mount Hermon is undoubtedly the oldest of these very hallowed places, and perhaps the most significant as well. The concept of the sacred mountain is that it constitutes the center of the world, the gateway to revelation, and the stairway to heaven. 

Where there was no mountain, the people constructed one. The Babylonian ziggurat, such as the infamous Tower of Babel, or the Egyptian pyramids on the Giza Plateau are prime examples of such human efforts. In fact, after the Tower of Babel debacle, the area of Mount Hermon once again assumed its sacred pre-Flood significance. Indeed,the Amorite word for this mountain was Senir (Deuteronomy 3:8-9), a variant of the name Shinar, thus evoking the location of Nimrod and the notorious incident at Babel.

This was then and had for centuries been a center for the worship of the god Pan. There was an impressive temple built in his honor at the base of Mount Hermon. Pan was the god of nature, noted for his voracious sexual appetite. He was the lusty god, known also as PallasHe was characterized as half-goat, and thus was a satyr, indeed the chief satyr, of which there were many in the ancient mythologies. The constellation Capricorn the goat-man was associated with him… The unicorn also became connected with Pan and his cult at Mount Hermon. 

Sirion, we are told in Deuteronomy 3:9, was the Sidonian name for Mount Hermon. With respect to the alternative name Pallas… the root words comprising the term Palestine are Pallas and Heth. Pallas we already know was another name for the god Pan, whereas Heth was the son of Canaan, and the father of the Hittites. The original word was Palesheth.  According to the Encyclopedia of Religion, the worship of Hermes and his son Pan at Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia was done under the name of Phales, which is derived from the word phallos, which gives us the term phallus or phallic. 

The name Hermon itself has a reference to a heap of stones, a landmark, a pyramid. Mount Hermon became popularly known as The Forbidden Place. It marked the northern limit of Israelite conquest in the days of Moses and Joshua.  In other words, it was the sign designating the place where Moses was to stop and go no farther. Hermon and beyond were considered outside the influence and protection of the true God. The stone heaps so often utilized in the worship system of the mystery religions were actually phallic symbols [including obelisks, menhirs and church steeples]. 

In reality, the renaming of the Promised Land by the term Palestine constitutes a brash, outright statement that this was the land of phallic-worship, part of the very ancient pre-Flood system instigated by the Nephilim, and reinstated through the descendants of Ham and Canaan after the Flood. 

Pan is also closely associated with music, and the pipe and flute most especially.  Although a rather obscure reference, we find in II Samuel 24:6[-7] a possible reference to Pan-worship being connected to the tribe of Dan. Note the following: “Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and they came to DAN-JAAN, and about to Sidon, and come to the stronghold of Tyre”. The place-name Dan-jaan… is intriguing. Most sources render it in one of two ways, either Dan of the woodland or forest, or Dan played a pipe (Merrill C. Tenney, Zondervan Pictorial Dictionary of the Bible, page 199). Both of these definitions can be viewed as having a relationship to Pan, since he was the god of nature, and thus of the forest and woodlands, and he has always been very closely associated with the musical instrument called a pipe or flute. In fact, the pan-flute is quite well known. Pan-worship was transported from Mount Hermon by a segment of Danites to Arcadia in Greece. 

The mythological origin of the Merovingian race is traced back to a water-beast known as the Quinotaur, which took the form of a sea-goat. This ancient story is derived from lore associated with the god Pan, who was, in fact, a sea-goat. The source of this mystical beginning to the Merovingians can be traced directly to the influence of the Danites who took Pan-worship to Arcadia and throughout Greece. Capricorn, the astrological sign connected to Pan, eventually became Baphomet and the Goat of Mendes, both of which are symbols of Satan, and were worshiped by the Knights Templar, the military wing of the Priory of Sion, established at the time of the First Crusade for the express purpose of aiding the re-establishment of the deposed Merovingian royal line over Europe. 

With respect to the subject of Freemasonry, the term Sion is strongly associated with the symbolism attached to this ancient evil craft. Note that this word is Sion, not Zion.  There is a difference, for in Deuteronomy 4, we read: “And this is the law which Moses set before the children of Israel… in the land of Sihon (one of the giants) king of the Amorites, who dwelled at Heshbon… and the land of Og (another giant) king of Bashan… From Aroer, which is by the banks of the river Arnon, even unto MOUNT ZION, which is HERMON” (Deuteronomy 4:44-48).

Notice that the King James Version of the Scriptures renders the name of Mount Hermon as Mount Zion. A check of the Hebrew used in this instance, however, reveals a mistranslation. Zion in Hebrew is Tsiyown, and is the name of the famous mountain of Jerusalem.  It is used often throughout the Old Testament, both in a heavenly, as well as an earthly, sense.  The key word in Deuteronomy 4:48, however, is not Tsiyown at all, but an entirely different term, Siyon, and indeed is the correct alternate name of Mount Hermon.  The term Sion is connected directly to the pagan idolatry centered around Mount Hermon, and its inclusion in Freemasonry is not coincidental, since this assumed fraternal organization has been for centuries the promulgator of the ancient mystery religion, and at its upper echelons is integrally involved in the age-old, on-going attempt to control the world. In this regard, Mount Hermon, Sion, Esau [the Jews – false Judah], Dan, Baal, Freemasonry… in the north, stand in total opposition to Jerusalem, Zion, Judah [England – true Judah], Yahweh, Messiah, and [the Law] in the south.

As an aside to this aspect of our study, it is instructive to know that in Celtic the word Sion means Mount of Stones or a Fortress. The Druids would build huge fires in the midst of their great stone circles or Sions, and the high priest would conduct worship services standing in the midst of the fiery stones. The central stone was called the Stone of the Covenant, and in Ireland, where there was much Danite migration and influence, it was known as Bethel – The House of God

… the Priory of Sion, a highly secret society connected with the Knights Templar… has been, since at least the time of the first Crusade (1099 A.D.), totally dedicated to the restoration of a particular royal house, the Merovingians… Even in our own day, the current European Council of Princes, ostensibly the advisory body to the European Union, consists of exactly 33 participating members, divided into the Council of Nine, and the Council of Twenty-Four

Every distinguished member of this assembly is of Merovingian lineage. The Merovingian dynasty is the royal bloodline that preceded Charlemagne and the Carolingian usurpers to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, a bloodline that claims divine descent, but as we shall soon come to see derives instead from the apostate Israelite tribe of Dan! This conclave is destined to become the occult hierarchy of Europe. The present head of the European Council of Princes is HRM Prince Michael James Alexander Stewart, 7th Count of Albany (Scotland), succeeding the Hapsburgs of Austria who had held the seat since 1946.  

It should also be of interest that the headwaters of the Jordan River emanate from Mount Hermon[and the Cave of Pan]. The name Jordan, as you can easily see, contains the word dan. It is derived from the Hebrew root word meaning to descend, and can be defined as the descent or the going down of Dan, and has always been associated with death. The Jordan River… winds its way like the serpent of Dan… Down, down, down, the river of Dan descends until it reaches the lowest land region on the face of the earth, the appropriately named Dead Sea, where forward motion finally ceases… Remember that Naaman the Syrian at first refused to bathe seven times in the Jordan, exclaiming that there were far better rivers in his own land. Perhaps this is why the Messiah agreed for John to baptize Him in the Jordan River, since it has such a connotation as the place of death!’          

Samael and the Tribe of Dan, Sons of Samael, Glorian – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The angel Samael is related with the sign of Aries, the sign that rules the head. Samael also rules the sign of Scorpio, which is in Yesod, the sexual organs (root of the Tree of Knowledge…). Since we are talking about the advent of Samael, we have to understand that we are talking about the advent of the power of God, about how the creative energy… above (the head, Aries) comes down to the sexual organs (Scorpio) in order for creation to exist… Samael relates to the Ox… [and] the Ox or the winged Bull [or winged Unicorn] relates to the vision of Ezekiel. Ezekiel says that the feet of the creature that he sees in his vision has legs and feet of a calf and [it] has six wings; these relate to the creatures that are around the Ancient of Days… the winged bull relates to the… Holy Spirit, thus this bull is the creative force… 

In the book of Genesis, when Jacob is blessing his children (the twelve tribes) he addresses Dan… Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent (Nachash) by the way, a viper (a Sephaphim, which another way to say fiery serpent in Hebrew) in the path [a Seraph in the path], that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward… the blessing to the tribe of Dan, the child of Jacob, is pointing directly to the serpent… The tribe of Dan is an archetype related with the serpent… Dan is the force of the serpent… 

This is an alchemical transformation of the animal forces related with the Ox [or Unicorn] from that vision of the creatures of Ezekiel: And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the color of burnished brass. – Ezekiel 1: 7. The calf’s foot is Kabbalistically pointing at… the physical body. This is why the devil is always symbolized with hooves, because the devil with calf’s feet symbolizes the sexual potency, the sexual energy in us. Sexual force is represented by the symbol of the cloven foot of the devil.

The Ox [or Unicorn]… is transformed when it descends… and thus becomes the devil’s foot, it becomes the serpent. How does the force of the Ox… of Samael… and the tribe of Dan, become a serpent? It is transformed into a serpent because it is energy, it is not a person. 

It is an energy that descends… and that we gather… from the atmosphere… through… the liver and through… spleen… the blood is created thanks to the liver and to the spleen; this is the blood that relates to the kingdom of Edom… which is the kingdom of the blood. Dom is blood in Hebrew which circulates in the body, the whole body. The creative force of God that descends… and as blood circulates in the body, and in the end expresses itself through the sexual organ which in this case is the devil’s foot that we have to tame, the devil that we have to conquer.

It is the devil that tempts us. This is the mystery of Baphomet, the sexual transmutation that is cryptically written in different parts of the Bible and that we have to understand. 

The heel of our horse (physical body) is the sexual force. Remember that when Jacob was born he was holding the heel of Esau. This is the meaning, the wisdom of Esau’s heel. The heel represents the sexual force, “so that his rider shall fall backward…”

And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. – Revelation 9: 1-3, 5, 6, 11. The angel of the bottomless pit is Abaddon, in Hebrew, and in Greek Apollyon. Since we are talking in Hebrew mythology, let us just take Abaddon. What does Abba mean? Abba means “father” in Hebrew. And what does Dan mean in Hebrew? It means “judge.” Abaddon is “the judge, the father.” Others say it is called “destruction.” Yes, it is also called destruction… Abaddon is Abba-Dan, the judgment of the father, which is symbolized as the Elder of Days in the vision of Ezekiel.’

This article shows the connection between the Bull veneration that has been a recurring theme in a number of chapters and Samael. We understand that Samael is a Seraph, yet the question remains, did he start as a Cherub. Did Satan transform from a Bull or Cherub to a Serpent or Seraph? [refer chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. If the heel is a symbol of sexual force then we also have another tie in between Dan and the Seraph created Nephilim. If as in the Days of Noah, there is another irruption of the Nephilim, then the tainting of humanities bloodlines and in particular affecting Ephraim will be to a much larger extent than imagined. 

The association between Edom and Dan is highly relevant, in remembering Jacob grasped Esau’s heel; while Dan as a serpent, will bite the horse’s heels [Genesis 25:26; 49:17]. 

We have fully investigated Azazel, the fallen dark Angel who is now in a place of restraint. He will be released and Abaddon is a title or description of him, as Satan – as an adversary, nemesis – is of Samael, or Christ who is appointed, is of Immanuel. The added interpretation of the word Abaddon to the destroyer – as ‘the Father’s judge – is fascinating in light of his role as the Beast and Antichrist fulfilment. 

Dan seems so out of character to his brothers that during my research I have considered that he was not Jacob’s son with Bilhah but rather an adopted son. His mother still being Bilhah, but rather Dan’s father actually being Reuben. Recall in Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, the account of the incest between Reuben and his stepmother Bilhah. It is possible that Jacob took Dan as his own to save face for himself, Bilhah and Reuben. In support of this scenario are three points to consider. 

Remember, a similar scenario was enacted [refer Chapter XI Ham] when Ham committed incest with Arphaxad’s wife, Rasuaya. The resulting child was Canaan and he was raised in Arphaxad’s house. It is not entirely implausible for Jacob to have been similarly magnanimous and adopted Dan. Note, the chronology for Reuben’s and Dan’s births would need to be reconsidered to follow this line of reasoning. Secondly, is that reading between the lines, Reuben had a high sex drive to put it politely. His giving the aphrodisiac mandrakes to Leah is a curious story and hints at more that is not said.  Especially when the forced act of incest by Reuben occurs later. Thirdly, the modern day nation of Reuben is Northern Ireland, the modern day fulfilment of Bashan. It is an interesting coincidence then, that Reuben though removed from the original Bashan to the south, beneath Gad and East Manasseh was still connected by being on the eastern side of the River Jor-dan

We have seen the connection with Elioud giants in Ulster as there were anciently in Bashan. Dan and Reuben are linked geographically in Ulster more than once as we shall discover when studying Dan’s ‘leap from Bashan.’ Though Reuben dwells in Northern Ireland today, the tribe of Dan chose to nestle – coiled as a serpent – in Ulster more than any other area of ancient Erin or the neighbouring isle and the region of Alba. Though Dan fully travelled the length of Britain from Cale-don-ia in the far north of Scotland, to Lon-don and Devon, Dum-nonia in the southeast and southwest of England respectively and Dun-oding in the west of Wales; it is Northern Ireland that has been Dan’s principal home. Has it been a connection with his real father Reuben that has kept him close? 

As Dan appears to lose his status as a son of Jacob, it would be reasonable to explain why Joseph’s inheritance was split into two through his sons. Meaning, eleven tribes were restored to twelve – as twelve is a powerful number in a foundational, advisory and ruling capacity. For instance, the twelve Apostles and the two times twelve Council of twenty-four Elders [Revelation 4:4]. 

Though the use of ‘the thirteenth tribe’ by author Koestler, was attention grabbing in describing Jacob’s brother; Esau is still not a son or, a tribe of Israel. Though the describing of Manasseh by identity researchers as the thirteenth tribe to support the use of the number thirteen in America’s founding documents and symbols is imaginative, the literal thirteenth tribe by birth is Ephraim – to whom the number thirteen more accurately applies, as Ephraim numerically dominates the United States. 

These three aside, the real thirteenth tribe by virtue of his excommunication from the family because of his betrayal towards Joseph and his not just straying into idolatry, but rushing headlong into wilful disobedience and into rebellion against the Creator, as Esau had done before him… is Dan. It is ironic that the very person Dan hated, is the one that replaced him with two sons, receiving a double portion of blessings in response. The irony extends even further to the fact that the majority of Dan’s descendants now live in Joseph’s territory. Yet, there is no better mechanism to bring down your enemy than from within. 

We have yet to identify a reason for Dan’s black sheep character traits, even though a motive for his hatred towards his brothers – with the exception of Reuben – appears to be traced back to Joseph and the ‘bad report.’ 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The predictable merging of the descendants of two patriarchs shouldn’t really be all that surprising, especially if we consider some of the numerous similarities between the two houses. The most obvious is that they shared a close family relationship, since Esau was Dan’s uncle. From the beginning, they both were considered lower in God’s eyes, as well as those of the rest of the peoples. They were, in effect, both rejects! They were also very much alike in character, as both exhibited the traits of craftiness, secrecy, deception, and violence, not to mention, of course, a strong penchant for the most despicable sort of religious practices imaginable!’

Even if Dan is Jacob’s son, the circumstances of his birth were after the serious domestic upset over Rachel’s barrenness and in contrast, Leah’s fertility fulsomeness. Thus, Dan was either born out of wedlock via Reuben or was the first son born out of the wedlock of Jacob’s first wives Leah and Rachel. While this may not appear at first to be of any real significance it did set Dan apart in particular from the first four of Jacob’s sons – Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah – then with Naphtali, Gad and Asher, being of lesser status in Jacob’s family. 

When Dan was born, what Rachel uttered about judgement, could be taken as the result of a bastard child that was not really her own through Jacob… Then Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son…” [Genesis 30:6, ESV]. 

Our next segment is a concerted effort of this writer to discover the truth. In following the tribe of Dan’s path, conjecture is required before conclusions can be gleaned; therefore, no offence or slight is intended to any peoples or groups discussed. As with the Jewish people, though there may be an evil element within the hierarchies that manipulate the nations of the world via ownership of big banks and major corporations, this is certainly not a reflection on everyone that is Jewish. And so similarly with anyone of Danite descent. 

Following the winding serpentine trail of Dan from Egypt, Canaan and Greece through Europe leads to the British Isles. After many years of researching going round in investigative circles – following a tail with seemingly no head – I realised that though there is evidence of Dan in both Ireland and England; there is stronger evidence of Dan in Scotland and Wales, with the strongest evidence of all of his location being in Ulster. 

We have already begun a case for Dan’s relationship with his possible progenitor Reuben. This also points to Northern Ireland. The Bible does not say Dan is scattered, though it does not reveal a permanent home of their own either. Similarly, in the Bible, the relationship between Dan and Judah is strong; Dan’s relationship with Ephraim is stronger. 

An important clue is the ‘leaping from Bashan.’ As evert time somewhere is recorded in the ancient past in the Bible, there is a modern equivalent. The leaping from Bashan is not from the Middle East to Britain, for other tribes have done that, but rather from where Bashan is today; that is, Ulster to Britain and back again. There are only one people that could fulfil this prophecy and they are the Scots-Irish. Let it be clear, this is not a blanket indictment on the Scots-Irish as an ethnic, ancestry group. The constant reader will know that suspicion is raised only towards the hierarchies within the tribe of Dan; of which, there is good cause to believe they are heavily involved in secret or not so secret, societies which are working against ‘the greater good.’ 

Discover Ulster-Scots, Who are the Ulster-Scots:

‘Despite the assertion that Scotch applies only to whisky and not to the people of Scotland, many Scotch-Irish in America are fiercely proud of this title and defend its use unfailingly, citing evidence from the period to substantiate their claim.’ 

In a letter dated April 14, 1573, the term is first used in reference to descendants of ‘gallowglass’ – Galloway, Scotland – mercenaries from Scotland who had settled in northeastern Ireland, by Elizabeth I of England, who wrote: “We are given to understand that a nobleman named Sorley Boy MacDonnell and others, who be of the Scotch-Irish race…’ 

For the purpose of this chapter, the term Ulster-Scots will be used for those peoples who live in Northern Ireland descending from Lowland Scots and Northern English. The term Scots-Irish will refer to those peoples that have emigrated from Northern Ireland to the nations of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and beyond. The term Scotch-Irish from Scotch-Airisch, will be the term to describe all those that have similarly emigrated, though in this instance, singularly to North America and principally the United States. ‘The earliest known American reference appeared in a Maryland affidavit in 1689-90′ though did not gain common usage until after 1850. 

The Scotch-Irish were one of the principal groups of settlers to the Southern United States whose influence is still widely felt in the South. Very interestingly, the Scots-Irish have ‘been called a people without a name’ and as a culture in America, ‘the invisible  people.’ The Scotch-Irish are those people whose ancestors had lived in Northern Ireland, some for several generations before emigrating to the United States. Historian David Hackett Fischer in Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, called them Borderers. This term encompasses the original Scots who first settled in Ulster from the borderlands of southern Scotland and northern England. He also says: 

‘Many scholars call these people Scotch-Irish. That expression is an Americanism, rarely used in Britain and much resented by the people to whom it was attached. “We’re no Eerish bot Scoatch,” one of them was heard to say in Pennsylvania.’

Principally from Galloway, Dumfries, Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Ayrshire, Argyllshire, the Lothians, Scottish Borders, Berwickshire, Northumberland, Cumbria and Yorkshire; there were also minorities that originated from Wales, the Isle of Man, the southeast of England, Flanders, the German Palatinate and France, which included the Huguenot ancestors of Davy Crockett. The Borderers were different from the Highlanders in that they didn’t wear kilts, belong to clans or speak Gaelic and who were robust, adventurous and rebellious. ‘Once in America, they formed a more-or-less cohesive unit, if that can be said of a people who nurtured a proud and sometimes argumentative spirit, and a disdain for authority’ according to Katharine Garstka, The Scots-Irish in the Southern United States, 2009.

The Scots-Irish: The Thirteenth Tribe, Raymond Campbell Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Many of the descendants of the original Scots-Irish settlers would happily wear kilts and tartan on commemorative days, though this would have been a shock to their ancestors, who took particular trouble to distance themselves from all things Celtic and Gaelic.’ 

These early immigrants tended to settle in large kinship groups – often due to lack of money – sharing the same last name – recall Dan has only one son recorded in the Bible – this made record keeping difficult at the time and also for genealogists today. This was so widespread that marrying someone of the same last name did not mean they were closely related as cousins, just that they originated in the same kinship group. 

Not only that, but it was customary to give a child the first name of the paternal grandfather or grandmother. Popular last names included: Campbell, McDonald and Galloway – remember that one – and first names of Robert, Richard, Andrew, Patrick, David, Archibald, Ronald, Wallace, Bruce, Percy and Howard for boys and Mary, Elizabeth, Anne, Catherine, Margaret, Janet and Marion for girls. 

The first trickle of Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland in the sixteenth century came from a Scottish culture of poverty prior to 1600 working small farms and living at subsistence level on over-farmed land. As the population of Scotland grew, they migrated the handful of miles across the water to the northern part of Ireland that was sparsely populated with large, bountiful tenant farms. The Nine Years War ended in March 1603 – the same month James came to the throne – when the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, chiefs Hugh O’Neill and Hugh O’Donnell, the leading families and founding clans of the ancient province of Ulster, surrendered to the English. 

In 1606 there was an independent Scottish settlement in east Down and Antrim; led by adventurers James Hamilton – a university don and spy – and Sir Hugh Montgomery, an Ayrshire laird. Montgomery was granted half of Conn O’Neil’s land – the King of Tír Eógain, anglicised as Tyrone – the largest and most powerful Gaelic lordship in Ireland, as a reward for helping Conn O’Neill to escape from English captivity. 

Hamilton forced himself in on the deal when he learned of it and the final settlement after a three year haggle, gave Hamilton and Montgomery a third of the land each. 

Paterson states – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In granting Hamilton the territory of Upper Clandeboy and Great Ardes, James emphasised the intention “… of inhabiting the same, being now depopulated and wasted, with English and Scottish men; and the carrying of men, cattle, corn and all other commodities from England and Scotland into the said territories. Also, to have liberty to alien (grant) to any English or Scottish men, or of English and Scottish name and blood, and not to have the mere Irish.” 

Ireland was formally an English possession, so it was important to emphasise English as well as Scottish settlement, though for reasons of geography and temperament, the new plantation was almost exclusively Scottish, as James himself clearly recognised it would be: ‘The Scots are a middle temper, between the English tender breeding and the Irish rude breeding and are a great deal more likely to adventure to plant Ulster than the English.’ 

An organised colonisation of the land began after the confiscation of huge tracts of land – in the south and west of Ulster – from Gaelic Irish nobility, known as the Flight of the Earls in 1607. King James I of England and Ireland [James VI of Scotland] initiated the process of pacification with the Plantation of Ulster Act in 1609. The motive was to solve the Catholic Irish restlessness and rebellion by encouraging Protestant, English speaking Scots and English. 

From the Irish Rebellion in 1641 until 1691 the end of the Catholic Jacobite War, Ulster was unstable with governance shifting between Irish Gentry and the English, including the Irish Confederate wars with Scotland and the wars of the Three Kingdoms with Cromwell. Due to a famine in Scotland, some fifty thousand people arrived in Ulster between 1690 and 1700. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine :

‘Ireland remained a dangerous frontier. Native Irish chieftains, deeply resentful of their changing circumstances, took to the wilds as outlaws, and as ‘woodkernes’ represented a real threat to the more isolated settlers, many of whom were wiped out in midnight raids. The descendants of the Scots migrants were later to face a similar threat on the American frontier. While the Irish raiders were tough, the Scots were even tougher. Many of the early migrants came from the Scottish borders, men with names like Armstrong, Bell and Elliot, where they had been hardened in an age-old struggle with the English.’ 

The irony is that as the English government encouraged immigration to Northern Ireland, they then in turn created an untenable environment that caused these Ulster-Scots to migrate again. 

Queen Anne’s 1703 Test Act required all crown officials, which broadened to include the military, civil service, educational institutions and municipal corporations to be of the Anglian Church of England. Those that did not vow allegiance to the Anglican faith were known as dissenters and could not vote or bear arms. The Ulster-Scots were staunchly Presbyterian. They were subsequently excluded from any power with even the Presbyterian clergy unable to perform marriages, baptisms or burials. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘As well as new modes of farming the Scots brought a strict Calvinist doctrine, which by the late 1630s was taking a firmly Presbyterian shape, as opposed to the episcopacy favoured by the king. Later in the century an Anglican opponent of the puritans detailed the impact of Scottish Presbyterianism on Ulster: 

“Hereupon followed the plantation of Ulster, first undertaken by the city of London, who fortified Coleraine and built Londonderry, and purchased many thousand acres of land in the parts adjoining. But it was carried on more vigorously, as most unfortunately withal, by some adventurers of the Scottish nation who poured themselves into this country as the richer soil; and, though they were sufficiently industrious in improving their own fortunes there, and setting up preaching in all churches whosesoever they fixed, yet whether it happened for the better or the worse, the event hath showed. 

For they brought with them hither such a stock of Puritanism, such as contempt of bishops, such a neglect of the public liturgy, and other divine offices of this church, that there was nothing less to be found amongst them than the government and forms of worship established in the church of England.” 

‘By 1707, the year that the Scottish parliament merged with its English cousin, the Protestant colony of Ulster was a hundred years old. The differences that had existed between the original settlers, whither Scots or English, had largely ceased to exist. It is now possible to discover a distinct Protestant Ulster identity, recognisably unique and distinct from the sources of origin. With the absence of outmoded feudalism, still present in Scotland, looser kinship ties, and a freer labour market the Ulster Protestants began to develop in an unanticipated direction. If anything religion provided the common bond, rather than race, uniting dissenters of differing faiths, though it is also true to say that the Scots settlers had acquired a cultural domination over their English counterparts. Though loyal to the crown, they were a people who, through decades of adversity, had become self reliant, and never quite lost the feeling that they were surrounded by a hostile world: ‘They learned from hard experience’, one commentator noted ‘that one must fight for what he has; that turning the other cheek does not guarantee property rights; in short, that might is right, at least in the matter of life and land ownership.’ 

Trade laws favoured English exporters over Irish and exorbitant rent increases when a lease expired, often the terms broken early, bankrupted many famers. Coupled with drought, sheep diseases and small pox which took its toll on the citizens of Northern Ireland, one thousand people in April 1717, made the eventful decision to make the arduous journey to Boston on the ship The Friends’ Goodwill; setting sail from Larne, County Antrim. Between 1717 and 1775 known as the ‘Great Migration’ that included five waves, it is estimated some two hundred and fifty thousand Ulster-Scots sailed to America, particularly from Counties Antrim, Down and Derry or Londonderry. About this time, the British took control of New France which allowed many Ulster-Scots to migrate to Canada, who were known as the Scotch-Irish Canadians.

The difference between the tribe of Dan who left Northern Ireland and the tribe of Reuben who remained is unwittingly highlighted by Paterson:

The contemporary image of the Ulster Protestant is most commonly that of the Orangeman, with all of his exaggerated loyalty to Britain and the Crown [tribe of Judah]. For the dispossessed of the 1770s the opposite was true: they had lost everything, and came to America with an intense hostility towards all things British [rather, English].’ 

The earliest immigrants to America arrived in New England, later heading to Pennsylvania. They were valued for their fighting prowess, protestant dogma, honesty, independence of spirit, work ethic which helped settle and secure the frontier. Many of the first permanent Scotch-Irish settlements were in Maine and New Hampshire. 

As further settlers arrived they followed the Great Wagon Road – thus avoiding areas settled by the English, Germans and Quakers – that traversed six hundred miles to Georgia, with many settling along the path. The numbers were such that Charleston, South Carolina became the second biggest arrival point after New York for ships from Ireland. 

The Scotch-Irish by 1730, had moved south to the lush Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and ‘always on the move’ the Scotch-Irish travelled ‘to the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky’ including Alabama and Texas; as ‘the restless’ Scotch-Irish with their ‘intrinsic wanderlust’ led the way westwards behind such ‘trailblazers as Daniel Boone.’ The Scotch-Irish were nomadic and they adopted the Scandinavian housing of log cabins, though still based on a standard Ulster house floor plan. They didn’t have many culinary skills and ate mostly mutton, lamb, and oats. Their music, unlike the Highlanders with their bagpipes, was played on fiddles and dulcimers. They also brought to America their traditions of storytelling, dancing and making ‘moonshine’ or illicit whiskey. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘For the original Quaker and Puritan settlers of the thirteen colonies, largely English in origin, the emigrants of Ulster, an increasingly common sight, were usually described as ‘Irish.’ To counter this misconception the newcomers adopted the older description of ‘Scots’. It was in this semantic exchange that a new breed took shape: they were the ‘Scots-Irish.’ For many years these people had lived on a frontier in Ireland, and it seemed natural for them to push on to a new frontier, where land was both plentiful and cheap, introducing a new urgency and dynamism into a rather complacent colonial society. Before long these ‘backwoodsmen’, distrustful of all authority and government, had established a hold on the western wilderness, fighting Indians and wolves in much the same way that they had once fought wolves and woodkern. In Pennsylvania the Scots-Irish established an almost complete domination of the outer reaches of the old Quaker colony. It was a dangerous life, but one which has established a lasting image in American history and folklore…’

The Scotch-Irish gravitated to the American frontier of settlement – as Danites before them had been at the forefront of exploration across Europe – and they were adept as middlemen between the Native American tribes and the colonial government in handling trade negotiations. After carving out a new life in Northern Ireland with the rewards short-lived and the untenable government oppression and living conditions, it was different in the United States, for they were unwilling to endure more tyranny in their new home and ‘they weren’t about to start over a third time.’ Recall, the Danites hard-pressed with too little land and neighbouring Philistines and Canaanites in their original allotment of land, striking out for the north. Also, the Tuathe de Danaan who burnt their ships off the coast of Connaught rather than admit defeat when starting a new life.

Garstka states – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Scots-Irish played a large role in the settlement of America, particularly in the southern United States. Their experiences in settling new lands in Ireland, and then again in the American colonies, helped to develop a hard-working, fearless, and sometimes brash, spirit. Occasionally lawless and violent, the Scots-Irish nevertheless had a big influence on the history of the United States; their descendants populated many frontier areas, and aspects of their culture, customs, and speech are still visible in parts of the south today.’ 

One of America’s biggest root problems: Scots-Irish culture, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

Article excerpt: The Scots-Irish Vote

Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen, psychology professors at the University of Michigan and University of Illinois, conducted an in-depth study in the 1990s examining what they dubbed the “Culture of Honor” prevalent in the South.

Nisbett argues that many of the cultural traits of the modern South can be traced back to the heritage of the population’s descendants. “The Scots-Irish were a herding people, while people from the north (of the U.S.) were English, German and Dutch farmers. Herding people are tough guys all over the world, and they are that because they have to establish that you can’t trifle with them, and if you don’t do that then you feel like you’re at risk for losing your entire wealth, which is your herd. This creates a culture of honor, and the Scots-Irish are very much a culture of honor, and they carried that with them from the Deep South to the Mountain South, and then out through the western plains.”

According to Nisbett, the Scots-Irish were a warlike people distrustful of a powerful central government, a result of the herder mentality as well as centuries of fighting, first against the English and Irish, then against Native Americans, then against the Yankees. As he points out, “The Scots-Irish are very much overrepresented in the military… and you find them there because they’re a fighting people.”’

‘It is said that no Scotch-Irish family felt comfortable until it had moved at least twice.’ As the Scotch-Irish moved inland and away from the Presbyterian influence, many became methodists or Baptists and some abandoned their faith altogether. Even so, the Scotch-Irish did not go to America to escape the strict rules of their Presbyterian faith. In fact, the customs of that religion formed the basis of the American government, with early officials influenced by the religion’s system of courts when building the American system. 

Thus the main legacy Scotch-Irish left behind for future generations was their religion. In each settlement they built a church in which to practice their Presbyterian faith. Economically, the Scotch-Irish had an impact because they practiced self-reliance: ‘God helps those who help themselves.’ Vann [2007] shows the Scotch-Irish played a major role in defining the Bible Belt in the Upper South during the eighteenth century. The Lower South being indicative of the half tribe of West Manasseh [refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim]. 

The image of a gun in one hand and a Bible in the other reminds of the Danites who plundered Laish with the sword in one hand and Micah’s stolen idols in the other. The other notable legacy was the origin of Country and Western music which derived extensively from Ulster-Scots folk music. In 1746, the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians created the College of New Jersey, later renamed Princeton University, one of the most prestigious Universities in the world, let alone America. 

Author and United States Senator Jim Webb puts forward in his book Born Fighting, 2004: ‘that the character traits he ascribes to the Scotch-Irish such as loyalty to kin, extreme mistrust of governmental authority and legal strictures, and a propensity to bear arms and to use them, helped shape the American identity.’ 

It is interesting to note that as the Danites were skilled metallurgists, the Scotch-Irish were responsible for the iron and steel industry developing rapidly after 1830 which became one of the dominant industries in America by the 1860s. In its most important centre Pittsburgh, as well as other cities. The leadership of the iron and steel industry nationwide was predominantly Scotch-Irish. New immigrants after 1800 made Pittsburgh a major Scotch-Irish stronghold. 

Thomas Mellon left Ulster in 1823 and became the founder of the famous Mellon clan, playing a central role in banking and the aluminum and oil industries. Their large numbers – at least one out of every fifteen Americans was Scotch-Irish and almost without exception supported America’s freedom fight, in contrast to the Scottish Highlanders – helping to ingrain their convictions into those of America’s. Many Scotch-Irish were to be found on the rolls of Revolutionary War patriots for valour. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia: 

‘A British major general testified to the House of Commons that “half the rebel Continental Army were from [Northern] Ireland”. Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, with its large Scotch-Irish population, was to make the first declaration for independence from Britain in the Mecklenburg Declaration of 1775.

The Scotch-Irish “Overmountain Men” of Virginia and North Carolina formed a militia which won the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780, resulting in the British abandonment of a southern campaign, and for some historians “marked the turning point of the American Revolution”.’

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

With the outbreak of the Revolution in 1775 the Scots-Irish, in interesting contrast to many of their Scottish cousins, were among the most determined adherents of the rebel cause. Their frontier skills were particularly useful in destroying Burgoyne’s army in the Saratoga campaign; and George Washington was even moved to say that if the cause was lost everywhere else he would take a last stand among the Scots-Irish of his native Virginia.’ 

Many of Washington’s generals were of Scotch-Irish stock including General Harry Know, General Dan Morgan and at least seven more. 

‘Serving in the British Army, Captain Johann Henricks, one of the much despised ‘Hessians’, wrote in frustration ‘Call it not an American rebellion, it is nothing more than an Irish-Scotch Presbyterian Rebellion.’ It was their toughness, virility and sense of divine mission that was to help give shape to a new nation, supplying it with such diverse heroes as Davy Crocket [scout, soldier, politician] and Andrew Jackson [seventh President]. They were indeed God’s frontiersmen, the real historical embodiment of the lost tribe of Israel.’ 

General Robert E. Lee was once asked this question: ‘What race of people do you believe make the best soldiers?’ His reply: ‘The Scots who came to this country by way of Ireland.’

The Ulster-Scots and the Southern Confederacy, Alex Greer – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When the first southern states… pulled out of the union early in 1861, the Ulster-Scots were apparently divided over secession. South Carolina was the first to secede, but it was the Low Country gentry which had initiated that state’s secession. 

The Up Country Ulster-Scots had had reservations… In Virginia, the Ulster-Scots in some of the western counties refused to acknowledge secession, which had been pushed for by the tidewater gentlemen. Thus a new state, West Virginia, was formed. The factor, which caused many Ulster-Scots to eventually support, and fight, for the Confederacy, was the coercive policy of President Abe Lincoln. When Arkansas, a state with a large Scots-Irish population, was asked by Lincoln to contribute troops to force the seceding states back into line, Arkansas joined the Confederacy. Tennessee, the largely Ulster-Scots ‘Volunteer state’, also rejected Lincoln’s call to arms in the spring of 1861, and thus became the last state to join the Confederate States of America. Whatever their differences with the tidewater English the back country Ulster-Scots closed ranks as fellow Southerners to defend their new independence, even if it meant fighting their kinfolk from the northern states. Also, it would appear that the Ulster-Scots gave the Confederacy one of its enduring symbols, the star-charged-blue satire on white and red background. This flag is based on St. Andrew’s Cross.’  

‘Having joined the Confederacy the Ulster-Scots were more than ready to fight. The most notable southern Ulster-Scots personality was Lieut.-General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. Jackson was very conscious of his roots as his biographer and chaplain R.L. Dabney pointed out in an 1867 biography. Sadly, Jackson was shot to death by one of his own men who mistook his patrol for a Union patrol at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia, on 10 May 1863. Jackson, along with the English-descended General Robert E. Lee (who had paid tribute to the Ulster-Scots), was a respected example of a Christian gentleman for future generations of Southerners. There were many units of the Confederate States Army which had a distinctly Ulster-Scots reputation, such as the 33rd and 42nd Virginia Infantry Regiments…Colonel Hamilton Jones, the Commanding Officer of the 57th North Carolina Infantry Regiment, wrote years after the war that “the high-spirited Scotch-Irish of North Carolina were unsurpassed in the qualities that go to make good soldiers. They do their duty well and valorously,and in fighting, in common with their comrades, they have fixed a standard for the American soldier below which it is hoped he will never fail.”’ 

Texas is a good example of the influence the tribe of Dan has had in shaping America.  Its location adjacent to Mexico and its struggle for independence is reminiscent of the original allotment for the tribe of Dan next to the Philistines [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor]. 

Texas also possesses a coast, though unlike the original small piece of land, Texas is the second biggest state after Alaska and thus the biggest continental State, with the second highest population of 30,097,526 people, behind California. Though it does not have the highest percentage of Scotch-Irish [1.1%], the state does contain the highest number with 287,393 people [2000 Census]. Scotch-Irish staked their claims in Texas and made their stand at the Alamo in 1838. Sam Houston, the man responsible for wresting Texas from Mexican control, was the grandson of an Ulster Presbyterian, as was the frontiersman and later Congressman, Davy Crockett. 

Other American regions today with significant Scotch-Irish descended populations, according to the 2000 Census: California 247,530, [0.7%]; North Carolina 274,149, [2.9%]; Florida 170,880, [0.9%]; Pennsylvania 163,836, [1.3%]; South Carolina, [2.4%] and Maine [1.7%]. Historically, Appalachia, the Ozarks and northern New England were heavily settled. 

The name Texas comes from the word Tejas, which means ‘hello friends’ in the Caddo [Hasnai] Indian language. Also, there is an apt motto for the state, which is ‘friendship.’ ‘The friendly spirit runs through every Texan soul. There are many fascinating aspects about the history of Texas, which has made it what it is today. One among them is the reason behind its nickname and the state flag’s history.’  

Flag of the Republic of Texas 1836-1839

Texas was once a province of Mexico and was called Coahuila y Tejas. Texas fought for independence during 1835 and 1836. The nickname originated because of only one star present on the 1836 flag of the Republic of Texas. The Republic of Texas was an independent country before becoming a part of the Union on December 29, 1845. The lone star also signifies Texans’ wish to be a different or unique state; as well as a reminder of how Texas was the only brave state to demand its own rights from Mexico.

The current flag of Texas was approved in 1839. On the Texas flag, the blue stripe on the left stands for loyalty, the white star is the ‘Lone Star’ and the colour red represents courage. The star has five points, one point for each letter of the state name, Texas.  

The Bonnie Blue flag was a banner associated at various times with the Republic of Texas, the short lived Republic of West Florida, and the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861. It consists of a single, five-pointed white star on a blue field. 

Its first known use was in 1810, when it was used to represent the Republic of West Florida. Later referred to as the Burnet flag, it was adopted by the Congress of the Republic of Texas in December, 1836. This version consisted of an azure background with a large golden star, inspired by the 1810 West Florida flag. The Bonnie Blue flag was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It was flying above the Confederate batteries that first opened fire on Fort Sumter, beginning the Civil War.

West Florida Flag 1810

Many of the founding fathers, including John Hancock and Charles Thomson, were of Scotch-Irish heritage. Twenty of the forty-six United States presidents, or forty-three percent boast Scotch-Irish bloodlines. Most notable or recent include: Ulysses S Grant, 18th, 1869-1877; Theodore Roosevelt, 26th, 1901-1909; Woodrow Wilson, 28th, 1913-1921; Harry S Truman, 33rd, 1945-1953; Lyndon B Johnson, 36th, 1963-1969; Richard Nixon, 37th, 1969-1974; Jimmy Carter, 39th, 1977-1981; George H W Bush, 41st, 1989-1993; Bill Clinton, 42nd, 1993-2001; George W Bush, 43rd, 2001-2009; Barack Obama, 44th, 2009-2017 and Vice President Al Gore, 45th, 1993-2001.

Notable Scotch-Irish Americans include:

Kim Basinger Actress

Brad Pitt Actor

Mel Gibson Actor

Burt Lancaster Actor

Steve Martin Actor

John Wayne Actor

David Lynch Director

Johnny Cash Musician

Hank Williams Musician

Elvis Presley Musician & Actor

Stephen King Author

John Steinbeck Author

Edgar Allen Poe Author

Mark Twain Author

Jack Dempsey Boxer

Arnold Palmer Golfer

Neil Armstrong Astronaut

Wyatt Earp Gunslinger

Billy the Kid Gunslinger

Bill Gates Microsoft Founder

J Paul Getty Industrialist

John D Rockefeller Oil Magnate

A recommended book on the Scotch-Irish is God’s Frontiersmen by Rory Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick says of the American Old West – emphasis & bold mine:

… the Scots-Irish people provided most of its pioneers… On each succeeding frontier to the Rocky Mountains, the Scots-Irish were prominent either as groups or as individuals. 

They spearheaded the thrusts through the Appalachians into Western Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Tennessee… In both Australia and New Zealand educated Ulster Scots were providing a remarkable proportion of the professional people – doctors, lawyers, engineers – on which the new colonial societies were built… (they were) a distinct racial group… A people who in many ways were the epitome of mobility and change.’

This is a remarkable description of the Danite qualities of exploration and a pioneering spirit. Further quotes supporting this aspect…

“… they were the most successful settlers… they could cope better… with frontier conditions… The English settlers who had come earlier had, after their initial thrust, been unenterprising, clinging for over a century to the Atlantic coastlines and river estuaries. The Ulster people, on the other hand, penetrated far and fast into the wilderness, having little fear of the unknown.” 

Their style was fearless, quick and effective – more rapid than any other immigrant group.’

‘Another characteristic was their “abiding hatred for totalitarian power”, as well as unfairness, inequity, bullying and abuse.’ 

The Ulster-Scots Agency contains the following articles that show the characteristics of Dan reflected in the Scotch-Irish: 

‘Ulster-Scots and Washington’s Generals – How men with Ulster connections helped
shape America through battle’

‘Ulster-Scots and United States Presidents – Presidents with Ulster connections who
helped shape America’

‘Ulster-Scots and the Presbyterian Church – How Ulster-Scots defined church life in
America’

‘From Folk to Country – How the Ulster-Scots influenced music in America’

‘The Ulster-Scots Legacy – Famous Americans with Ulster-Scots backgrounds’

‘The Declaration of Independence – The Ulster-Scots and America’s proudest
moment – the signing of the Declaration of Independence…’

The Scotch-Irish have had a lasting influence on American society. 

Lord Rosebery: 

“I love Highlanders, and I love Lowlanders, but when I come to that branch of our race that has been grafted on to the Ulster stem I take off my hat in veneration and awe”

The Scotch-Irish intermarried extensively and the reason that so many Americans can trace their roots to this group. Yet there are not Scots-Irish parades or ethnic neighbourhoods as these people became fully American.

Scotch-Irish ancestry by County 2013

In the 2000 United States Census, 4.3 million Americans [1.5% of the population] claimed Scotch-Irish ancestry. In 2019 the figure was 3,011,165 people [0.9%].  Author and former United States Senator Jim Webb suggests that the true number of people with some Scots-Irish heritage in the United States is more likely to be over twenty-seven million people, some 9.2% in 2004. This is because contemporary Americans with some Scotch-Irish heritage may regard themselves as either Irish, Scottish, or simply Amercian instead. We encountered this in the previous chapter with those Americans of a long line of English descent, now simply identifying as American.

Irish ancestry by contrast is predominantly in the northern States showing that they are not Gad, but rather Ephraim.

The numbers of people identifying as Scots-Irish or Dan in Ireland are approximately 24,500 people and in Ulster 345,101* people. In 1790, the population of America was 3,929,326 people of which some 400,000 were of Irish extraction and half of these were from the Province of Ulster.

The Ulster Diaspora between 1607 and 1680, accounted for 2,000 people from Northern Ireland going to the Americas – including the Caribbean and South America – with 2,000 people also going to Britain and 16,500 to Europe. Estimates for the period 1680 to 1750 range from 70,000 to 250,000 for Ulster-American emigration, with 4,000 people heading to Britain and 16,500 more to Europe. The Ulster Diaspora between 1750 and 1820 was approximately 150,000 people to North America, 20,000 to Britain, 5,000 to the British colonies and 2,000 people to Europe. The Ulster Diaspora from 1820 to 1890 included a scale of emigration between Ulster and North America little short of astounding. In the three phases 1820 to 45, 1845 to 51 and 1851 to 90, the total estimate for Ulster migration to North America was 1,317,000 people. 

The Ulster Diaspora between 1890 and 1960 saw a shift in where the Northern Irish migrated. The estimated total for Ulster emigration to North America in the period  of 1890 to 1960 was 363,000 people, to Britain 240,000 people and the British colonies, 30,000 people. Between 1890 and 1930 about eighty-five per cent of Ulster emigrants went to North America. After 1930 this distribution altered dramatically and swiftly. Between 1930 and 1960, close to seventy-five per cent of those leaving from Ulster counties went to Britain, whilst only twenty per cent crossed the Atlantic. 

How Scots-Irish (or Irish-Scot) are You? Scottish Origenes – emphasis & bold mine: 

Up to 30%* of Protestants in Northern Ireland (descendants of Lowlander Scots who settled in Ulster in Ireland from 1610 AD onwards) carry the R-M222 genetic marker. In addition about 12% of Catholic males on the island of Ireland and about 5% of all Scottish males also carry the R-M222 genetic marker.’ 

The population of Northern Ireland is 1,924,873 people. The Protestant component is forty-eight percent of the total which equals 923,939 people; whereas forty-five percent are Catholic, or number 866,192 people. These latter people have an affinity with those of the Republic to the south and could be in large part an extension of the tribe of Gad [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. Recall, Gad shall ‘enlarge’ his territory.

Deuteronomy 33:20-21

English Standard Version

20 And of Gad he said, “Blessed be he who enlarges Gad… 21 He chose the best of the land for himself, for there a commander’s [lawgiver’s or ruler’s] portion was reserved…

Those who claim Scots-Irish ancestry in Northern Ireland include approximately 346,477 people and this equates to 38% of the Protestant population – or 18% of the total population – and may represent the tribe of Dan. This leaves 564,979 people or thirty percent of the total population and these Protestant people equate to the tribe of Reuben. Recall that Reuben’s numbers would ‘be few.’

Deuteronomy 33:6

English Standard Version

“Let Reuben live, and not die, but let his men be few.” 

‘The R-M222 Y-DNA genetic marker first appeared in a single male who lived on, or near, the Inishowen peninsula in the far northwest of Ireland approximately 1,500 years ago (+/-300 years)

Clues as to why these R-M222 carriers began colonising throughout Ireland and Scotland can be found in their origin; Donegal (Dún nan Gall meaning ‘base or fort of the Foreigner’) and their descriptive surnames which they took with them like Gallagher (Ó Gallchobhair meaning ‘Foreign helper’) who upon settling along the west coast of Ireland acquired new surnames like Higgins (O’hUigin meaning ‘Viking’) and Halloran (O’hAllmhurain meaning ‘Pirate or Stranger from overseas’).

Some of the R-M222males who settled in Southeast Ulster took part in the subsequent Norse-Gael Conquest and colonisation of Southwest Scotland which was led by the King of Norway ‘Magnus Barelegs’ in about 1100AD. 

The land they conquered became ‘Galloway’ meaning ‘land of the foreign Gael’ a term used by the surrounding ‘Scots’ to describe the Gaels from Ireland who settled there. The Inishowen Gaels took with them to Galloway their genetic markers (like R-M222), their Gaelic language…

What’s particularly interesting is that Conquering Gaels and Vikings appear to have split Southwest Scotland between them, with the Gaelic-Irish (denoted by their ‘Mac’ surnames) colonising the area west of Dumfries town, while the Vikings (with surnames typically ending in ‘-son’) colonising the area to the east. 

While in Galloway in Southwest Scotland, the descendants of the Irish Gaels gradually adopted the English language (Gaelic was extinct as a language in Galloway by 1760 AD.) 

They adopted the Protestant faith, and approximately 500 years after their ancestors had first arrived in Galloway, many would return as English speaking Protestant Lowland Scots during the Plantation of Ulster that began in the early 17th Century.’ 

In northwest Ireland, particularly Sligo and northernmost Donegal, 21.5% of the population carry the R1b1b2e genetic fingerprint or R-M222, which is from the R1b-L21 sub-clade. The predominant R1b in Ireland is R-M269, with R-M222 being scarce in the Republic of Ireland. 

How Scots-Irish (or Irish-Scot) are You? Scottish Origenes – emphasis & bold mine: 

The I-M223 genetic marker appears to be much older than R-M222. While R-M222+ve males are  descended from the Celtic tribes that began arriving in Britain and Ireland from Central Europe from about 800BC onwards, I-M223+ve males appear to be the descendants of the pre-historic inhabitants of Southwest Scotland and Northeast Ireland. The close relationship between I-M223+ve Irish and Scots is reflected in the fact that it has proven impossible to determine whether the mutation that gave rise to I-M223 first appeared in a male who lived in Southeast Ulster in Ireland or within Southwest Scotland (21 miles separates both locations).’ 

 ‘All we know is that today, the I-M223 marker is prevalent among both the Pre-Plantation Gaelic Irish inhabitants of Southeast Ulster (County Down) and the Scottish male population of the far Southwest of Scotland (Wigtownshire and Southern Ayrshire). Notable Gaelic Clans that carry the I-M223 paternal genetic marker include the famous McGuinness Clan of Southeast Ulster (the Clan that gave you Arthur Guinness and Guinness Stout), and the Scottish Fergusons, MacWhirthers and MacCrackens who dominated Southwest Scotland. 

Interestingly, the I-M223 marker occurs in individuals named Hannah or Hanna; surnames which are associated exclusively with either Southeast Ulster in Ireland and Southwest Scotland. Given the inability to distinguish its Irish or Scottish origin, one must conclude that the ‘I-M223’ mutation is the ‘quintessential Scots-Irish’ paternal DNA marker.’ 

The tribe of Dan has truly leapt from Bashan, not once or twice but thrice. From Ulster to Scotland, from Scotland to Northern Ireland and from Northern Ireland to the United States and beyond. 

Deuteronomy 33:22

Expanded Bible

“Dan is like a lion’s cub, who jumps out of [and] leaps forth from Bashan.”

One of the puzzles of modern DNA studies has been a lack of DNA evidence for the Irish colonization of the Western Isles of Scotland, which historically gave rise to the Kingdom of Dalriada. It may simply be that there has been so much human movement back and forth between the Western Isles of Scotland and Northeast Ireland that the two populations are (at present) indistinguishable from one another! Given its proximity to Scotland, the descendants of Medieval Antrim in Northeast Ireland (which lies closest to Scotland) are ‘genetically’ more Scots than Irish (12 miles separate Antrim from Scotland). The descendants of even the Gaelic Irish in Northern Ireland (who are today overwhelmingly Catholic) tend to have earlier detectable links in their commercial DNA test results with Scotland (that includes the most notable O’Neill Clan). In fact, the Medieval surnames and prominent Clans of North Antrim are dominated by notable Scottish surnames that originated from the Western Isles, see attached image. BUT! over time, and as more and more people participate in commercial ancestral Y-DNA testing, it may become possible to dissect out each wave of migration between Scotland and Ireland and identify some new Dalriadan DNA markers.’

Recall the Rh- factor discussed in chapter XVI Moab & Ammon: ‘Of interest, is the high percentage of Rh- people in Ireland and Scotland. Particularly, the peoples of northwest Ireland, the Highland Scots and the western Islanders of Norway, who all have between 16 and 25% Rh negatives. The Norwegians are accounted by those Scots, who were transported to Norway as slaves. Scotland is a country where there is a strong variation of blood type frequencies based on location. Between 20 and a little bit over 30 percent of Rh- can be expected in most of the extreme northern and western regions. In the west coast region of Inverness, where the Rh negative percentage has been measured at 30.44%, the percentage of blood type O has also been noted as substantially high. Ireland is purported to have around 25% Rh negatives in several reports while others demonstrate a percentage nearer 15-16%. However studies have indicated that Northern Ireland has a high percentage of approximately 27%.’ 

All this information combined is significant as it points towards the revealing of the tribe of Dan as the Scots-Irish nestled particularly in Northern Ireland and to a lesser degree in Scotland. Dan’s strong association with Reuben in Ulster not being unexpected; nor its mass migration onto its full inheritance within Ephraim in the United States. 

All this after two waves of the Tuatha de Danaan travelled to Northern Ireland, with the first between circa 1600 and 1200 BCE, while the sons of Jacob were either in Egypt, or sojourning across the Sinai Peninsula and then again around the time of the Kingdom of Israel’s fall at the hands of the Assyrians during 721 to 718 BCE. 

The Haplogroups R1b and I1 with I2a1 are the main Y-DNA Haplogroups for all the sons of Jacob and are indicative of the Scots, Irish and the peoples of Ulster and Northern Ireland. If a residue of the tribe of Dan is nestled within these half brother nations, then they will exhibit unique clades of both. It appears that R-M222 and I-M223 are those markers. The descendants of Dan, the true thirteenth tribe of Israel; like a highly elusive serpent… have been found.

But the Spirit explicitly and unmistakably declares that in later times some will turn away from the faith, paying attention instead to deceitful and seductive spirits and doctrines of demons, misled by the hypocrisy of liars whose consciences are seared as with a branding iron…

1 Timothy 4:1-2 Amplified Bible

Thine hope that many, could well receive;

     alas ‘twas vanity, thy seeker’s mind did conceive.

Ye scattered, thy hand doth write, an urgent plea to thine precious few;

     strike a chord, thee with sight, a gift immeasurable and true.

Orion Gold

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Manasseh & Ephraim – the Birthright Tribes

Chapter XXXIII

The identities of Asshur, Edom, Judah and Dan have been investigated, discussed and written about more than all the other Biblical identities put together, many times over. Anyone with more than a passing interest in the Bible and conversant in the scriptures, will recognise that these four peoples feature significantly in the end time prophecies. We have investigated three of the four and deduced their correct identities as all three so far have been inaccurate, in some instances for hundreds of years. All having major repercussions in interpreting Bible prophecy of future world events. 

The prevalent view has been that Asshur as ‘the instrument of God’s wrath’ in bringing Israel to its knees in repentance is the nation of Germany. Yet, geography, history, migration, with mt-DNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups have shown that the Germans are in fact Ishmael [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael]. As the dominant nation of the descendants of Peleg – from Eber, from Arphaxad and from Shem in Western Europe – the Germans are also the leading nation of Joktan’s descendants also from Eber, in Eastern Europe. A German led European Union will ally itself with the Assyrians [Numbers 24:24]. Our studies have revealed it is in fact Russia who is Asshur and modern day Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. They are the King of the North and the instrument of God’s wrath against Israel and Judah [Zephaniah 2:13, Isaiah 10:5]. 

Coupled with this, is the extraordinary switch of identities between Esau and Judah, where the Jews are not Judah but rather Edom and the tribe of Judah is not the Jewish people but actually the nation of England [refer Chapter XXIX Esau & Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. It is against this panorama of mistaken identities and incorrect interpretation of Biblical prophecy that we now arrive to the most written about and most sought after tribal identity, Joseph. The son of Jacob chosen to be the recipient of the Birthright blessings usually given to the firstborn son. Jacob’s eldest sons, Reuben, Simeon and Levi all disqualified themselves. Even so, Levi was chosen to be the Priestly tribe and even after his own personal misdemeanours, Judah was selected to receive the blessings of the throne, orb and sceptre of Royal rulership. 

Though Joseph was the eleventh of twelve sons, he was still a firstborn son of Jacob and his wife Rachel. We will learn that the blessing prophecy to Joseph and his sons Manasseh and Ephraim are specific enough to quickly identity these peoples in our modern world. It is thus beyond all belief and comprehension, that for nearly five centuries the identification of Jacob’s grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim has been, quite simply… wrong. 

When we first meet Joseph, Rachel was feeling the pressure as Leah was seven nil ahead when it came to children, or nine to two if the hand maiden’s sons are included. 

Genesis 30:22-24

English Standard Version

Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 And she called his name Joseph, saying, “May the Lord add to me another son!”

Abarim Publications – emphasis & Bold mine: 

‘The name Joseph meaning: ‘Increaser, May He Add’ from the verb (yasap), to add, increase, repeat or do again.

The name Joseph means Increaser, Repeater or Doubler, and even the fulfillment of his name is dual: Benjamin becomes Joseph’s younger brother, and Joseph himself becomes father of two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh (see Ezekiel 47:13).

For a meaning of the name Joseph, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads two meanings: (1) May He (Yahweh) Add (assuming that the “He” of our name is YHWH), and (2) Increaser. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads He Shall Add. And BDB Theological Dictionary has He Adds, Increases. Spiros Zodhiates (The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament) translates the name Joseph with May God Add, but note that the “God” part is implied and not actually incorporated in the name Joseph.’

From Genesis chapter thirty-seven through to chapter fifty, the narrative is dominated by Joseph’s life. Of which twelve chapters representing twenty-four percent of Genesis are devoted to Joseph. Slightly less than for Abraham from chapter twelve through to twenty-five, with twenty-six percent. Even Adam and Noah only have three chapters devoted to each of them, or six percent each of the Genesis story. Jacob on the other hand, ostensibly the most flawed of all the Patriarchs has eight chapters, or sixteen percent devoted to him and he also figures, though less than Joseph, prominently in the final thirteen chapters of Genesis; with over forty percent of the Book of Genesis devoted to Jacob’s life.  

We have discussed in previous sections regarding the brother’s betrayal of Joseph and selling him to the Ishmaelite traders at the behest of Judah. The early part of Genesis chapter thirty-seven is of interest as it provides the factors that led to his brothers hatred.

Genesis 37:2-11

English Standard Version

Joseph, being seventeen years old, was pasturing the flock with his brothers. He was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought a bad [H7451 – ra] report of them to their father. 

We learn that Joseph was with certain ones of his brothers. Specifically: Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher. We also learn that Jacob married Rachel and Leah’s handmaids, for they were not concubines of Jacob [Genesis 29:24, 29]. For whatever reason not divulged these four brothers were up to no good and Joseph told on them. At first reading, one would easily assume that Joseph was a tattle tale and acting like a spoilt brat, belying his youthful age. 

Though two reasons suggest otherwise. First, the Bible does not label him as such. If the charge of youthful foolishness were considered, it would have to be quickly dropped for when Joseph was harshly rejected by his brothers and while he served Potiphar in Egypt, Joseph for a young man was focused, efficient and honourable. Far from a spoilt brat. In fact, he accepted his brutal injustices with immeasurable maturity. 

Second, the bad report Joseph made of his brothers was not merely a superficial thing, it was a very serious matter. The Hebrew word ra is translated by the KJV as evil [442], wickedness [59], mischief [21], affliction [6], adversity [4] and harm [3]. It includes a wide range of negative meanings: ‘misery, distress, calamity, malignant’ and ‘grievous.’ 

As we have yet to discuss Jacob’s son Dan, more detail will be investigated in the next chapter. Though it can be stated that Dan is the bad boy or black sheep of the family and if he was involved, he may well have been leading the other three bothers down a dark path that Joseph had no choice but to divulge [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Support for Joseph being honourable in this incident is revealed by the fact that Joseph is rather unique in the scriptures and part of a very select band of people who do not have one word writ against them. Of all the prominent people in the Bible, not including peripheral characters, it is only Daniel and Christ whom have nothing negative recorded and for prominent women, only Ruth, Esther and Mary are included in this exceptional group. Recall that Daniel is also one of the three men described as most righteous in the Bible with Noah and Job. This may have some bearing on why the Eternal revealed the most profound and biggest impacting prophecies of all the prophets to Daniel; for the prophecies of the Book of Revelation through John are in may cases, amplifications of those originating in Daniel. 

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was the son of his old age. And he made him a robe of many colors. 4 But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peacefully to him.

With what we have just learned about Jospeh and the view the Creator had of him, it is clear that Jospeh didn’t act like the favoured son, it was Jacob who created the issue as verse four says. As Jacob is guilty of innumerable unwise decisions this should not come as a surprise; yet one would have thought that growing up in a family with a pronounced and marked divide between parents and sons as Jacob and Esau had with Isaac and Rebecca, that Jacob would have shied away from repeating this tragic scenario. 

As touched upon, for the want of a better explanation, the understanding that Joseph’s coat was tartan or plaid is interesting. Particularly, when we consider the two nation’s that have upheld this pattern more than any other, are Scotland – the tribe of Benjamin – and the United States.

Now Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers they hated him even more. 6 He said to them, “Hear this dream that I have dreamed: 7 Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and stood upright. And behold, your sheaves gathered around it and bowed down to my sheaf.” 8 His brothers said to him, “Are you indeed to reign over us? Or are you indeed to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

One would have to assume with what we know of Joseph’s character that he was being matter of fact and not boasting. Of course, what the brothers were not to know, is that the dream foretold of Joseph being their servant in saving his brothers from starvation in a few short years hence. Though regarding the distant future into our present time, Joseph as the preeminent brother, serves as the protector for all his brothers. 

A component of this story not readily touched upon, is that Joseph had the Holy Spirit and was one converted to the truth. His brothers were not and so could not understand spiritual matters the same way. This would have put considerable distance between himself and his brothers. It also explains why Jacob favoured Joseph over Judah, the son actually most like himself in character, for the son who was like himself spiritually. Recall that the Eternal had a different view from Jacob, in that though the Bible reveals Joseph’s people are special to the Creator, it is in fact Judah that He loves [Psalm 78:68]. In His mind, giving the royal sceptre of rulership for the very throne that His Son will return to sit in, was the greater blessing of favour. 

9 Then he dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?” 11 And his brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.

Jacob did not like hearing this from Joseph, yet considered the matter and deduced that it was of future importance with a positive outcome.

Genesis 39:1-10, 21-23

English Standard Version

Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there. 2 The Lord was with Joseph, and he became a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master. 3 His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord caused all that he did to succeed in his hands. 4 So Joseph found favor in his sight and attended him, and he made him overseer of his house and put him in charge of all that he had. 5 From the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had, in house and field. 6 So he left all that he had in Joseph’s charge, and because of him he had no concern about anything but the food he ate.

This is an incredible occurrence and shows it was more to do with the Eternal’s intervention on Joseph’s behalf, though of course, the Eternal was only able to bless Joseph and Potiphar’s household because Joesph was not only capable but obedient to the Creator. This enhances the case we have built regarding Joseph’s spirituality. To be clear, it is not that Jospeh was perfect, for all sin, but rather some people are more blameless than others and Joseph was such an individual. Potiphar was the captain of the Pharaoh’s personal retinue of soldier’s and thus a high ranking official who had a palatial residence adjacent to the actual palace of the Pharaoh. Joseph was merely seventeen when he arrived in Egypt in 1709 BCE.

Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance. 7 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” 10 And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he would not listen to her, to lie beside her or to be with her.

The Hebrew words here say that Joseph was not just handsome but also had a good physique. Notice his spiritual mindset; Joseph say’s it would be sinning against God to sleep with Potiphar’s wife, not just that he would be betraying his employer. It is a simple case of sexual harassment committed by Potiphar’s wife. Though Joseph could not divulge the reason, could Joseph have requested a transfer or found a way to move? When the opportunity arose and the house was empty, she made her move, grabbing his outer garment. Joseph flees, leaving it behind. 

Potiphar’s wife then frames Joseph for an indecent proposition and Potiphar in understandable anger sends Joseph to the prison reserved for the Pharaoh’s enemies circa 1702 BCE at the age of twenty-four. Though Satan had tried to tempt Joseph and thwart the Creator’s plan, it was not to be.

21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him steadfast love and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison put Joseph in charge of all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever was done there, he was the one who did it. 23 The keeper of the prison paid no attention to anything that was in Joseph’s charge, because the Lord was with him. And whatever he did, the Lord made it succeed.

In Genesis chapter forty we read of the Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker who are put into Joseph’s prison for misdemeanours circa 1698 BCE, when Joseph was twenty-eight. They both have dreams of which Joseph interprets them. He requests that the cupbearer who’s dream is favourable, remembers him to the Pharaoh, though he does not and Joseph remains in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh has a dream. None of his wise men or magicians can interpret it. Pharaoh’s cupbearer, then recalls his encounter with Joseph and finally remembers him to Pharaoh.

Genesis 41:14-16, 25-32, 37-57

English Standard Version

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the pit. And when he had shaved himself and changed his clothes [after six years in prison], he came in before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 16 Joseph answered Pharaoh, “It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer.” 

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 The seven lean and ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty ears blighted by the east wind are also seven years of famine. 28 … God has shown to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 There will come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt, 30 but after them there will arise seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will consume the land, 31 and the plenty will be unknown in the land by reason of the famine that will follow, for it will be very severe. 32 And the doubling of Pharaoh’s dream means that the thing is fixed by God, and God will shortly bring it about. 

Joseph then suggests Pharaoh appoints a wise and discerning person to oversee the storing of twenty percent of grain for each year of plenty and its division during the seven years of famine so that Egypt did not perish.

37 This proposal pleased Pharaoh and all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?” 39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has shown you all this, there is none so discerning and wise as you are. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall order themselves as you command. Only as regards the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck. 43 And he made him ride in his second chariot. And they called out before him, “Bow the knee!” Thus he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no one shall lift up hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah. And he gave him in marriage Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On. So Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

From this account we can appreciate that the Eternal moved Pharaoh further beyond just appointing an overseer but actually elevating Joseph to Vizier of all his kingdom; while recognising that God’s spirit was working in Joseph. It was a wise decision on Pharaoh’s part and showed a level of humility in his character. Aside from Joseph having the Creator blessing him and Joseph being mature as well as good looking, it becomes apparent that Joseph must have been very personable and charismatic. The jealousy exhibited by his brothers makes more sense now we have a clearer picture of Joseph. It is Joseph’s integrity that makes him a good candidate as saviour of Egypt and thus a type of the Messiah himself, and so it is at the same age as Christ when he began his ministry at thirty, that Joseph embarks on his own ministry of service [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Psalm 105:16-21

English Standard Version

16 When he summoned a famine on the land and broke all supply of bread, 17 he had sent a man ahead of them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave. 18 His feet were hurt with fetters; his neck was put in a collar of iron; 19 until what he had said came to pass, the word of the Lord tested him. 20 The king sent and released him; the ruler of the peoples set him free; 21 he made him lord of his house and ruler of all his possessions…

Joseph received a new Egyptian name, thus looking for the name Joseph in Egyptian records would be fruitless. There is considerable debate on what the name Zaphenath-paneah means. Of all the definitions I have found, the two that resonate the most are: ‘the man to whom secrets are revealed’ or ‘the Nourisher of the Two Lands, the Living One.’ Either way, it was through Joseph’s God and His revelation that life in Egypt was preserved. 

Joseph’s wife Asenath is unlikely to be an Egyptian as descended from Ham’s son Mizra [refer Chapter XXIV Mizra] but rather the Egyptian ruling elite. The Priest of On may have had a link with the same order as Moses’s father-in-law Jethro, the Priest of Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham] and the one true God. 

The city of On, known as Heliopolis – the City of the Sun – was a centre of worship of the sun god Ra. The priests of On were considered the most intelligent, cultured and learned people in Egypt. The High Priest of On held the title, Greatest of Seers. When Joseph married into this family, he joined a social class befitting a national leader. Implied is that the marriage was selected by Pharaoh because of his confidence that Joseph too, was a seer or prophet of the highest calibre. If this was the case, then Asenath must have embraced her husband’s faith in the God of Israel as nothing negative is mentioned of the marriage in the Bible. This high profile marriage ordained by Pharaoh, also removed any doubt about the shocking story circulating throughout Egypt, of a former prisoner legitimately rising to second in command of the whole of Egypt. 

The question remains, who was this unusually accommodating, good-hearted Pharaoh? In exact antithesis to the later hard-hearted Pharaoh of the Exodus. According to an unconventional chronology, not only are the Egyptian king lists misinterpreted by conventional chronology – as exposed by the revised chronology of David Rohl; in that dynasties can be hundreds of years out of alignment with the correct time frame – various Egyptian dynasties have been misunderstood as chronologically falling one after the other and not recognised as being concurrent. 

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep, and Amenemhet IV as Pharaoh of the Exodus, Anne Habermehl, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘From previous discussion it is clear that if the plagues and the Exodus caused the collapse of the concurrent 6th and 12th Dynasties, we need to look for our Exodus pharaoh at the end of one of these dynasties. The 12th Dynasty, ruling Lower Egypt in the north, is the one which would produce our Exodus pharaoh because the Children of Israel lived in the Delta there (the 6th Dynasty would have ruled Upper Egypt in the south). 

We suggest that Dynasties 3 to 12 cannot have reigned one after the other in the order that Manetho listed them. Dynasties 5 & 6 may have run concurrently with Dynasties 11 & 12. The First Intermediate Period (at the end of the 6th Dynasty) and Second Intermediate Period (at the end of the 12th Dynasty), both times of great disorder in Egypt, appear to be the same period, as mentioned earlier.Dynasties 7, 8, 9 and 10 would therefore have reigned after the Exodus at the same time as Dynasties 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Versions of this scheme have been offered by various revisionists (e.g., Courville, 1971, volume 1, page 101; Ashton & Down, 2006, page 206). This alone could potentially remove close to 500 of the 675 years by which we wish to shorten the secular timeline.’ 

I agree with the author’s proposal, in that the end of the twelfth dynasty matches the time of Moses, though I would differ on the Pharaoh of the Exodus as one that was in the thirteenth dynasty instead. This means the Pharaoh of Joseph’s dream interpretation is a king from the third dynasty. The first king of the third dynasty was Pharaoh Djoser or Netjerikhet. Records are unclear to his length of reign, from either 19 years according to Manetho; 28 or 29 years according to the royal annals; and 37 or 38 years according to other lists and historians. Lists for the dynasty have a variance of the number of kings, with either four, five or eight kings. I propose the middle number for the reign and the lower for the number of kings – which fits the chronology of Pharaohs until the time of Moses – and a date of reign for Joseph’s pharaoh circa 1700 to 1672/71 BCE. The Saqqara Tablet is viewed by this writer as the most accurate as it lists Djoser as the first of four kings and was found in a tomb near the Djoser Pyramid in Saqqara.

Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of either Djoser or the final dynastic ruler of Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled for 24 years as the Pharaoh in question, as both had Viziers. The other three, six or most probably two rulers sandwiched between these two Pharaohs are not realistic candidates. As there was a turbulent transition from Huni to Amenemhet I, not matching the peaceful reign of Joseph, Huni is ruled out. Djoser was the son of the last 2nd Dynasty king, Pharaoh Khasekhemwy from 1718 to 1700 BCE, and his wife, Queen Nimaathap or Nimaethap, “Mother of the King of the Two Lands.” 

Djoser is derived from the Djed symbol for stability and is also associated with the god Osiris and appears on numerous monuments built during his reign. Though it was common for Pharaohs to have a Queen and lesser wives, Djoser only had one wife, who was his half-sister, Hetephernebti. They had a daughter called, Inetkawes. 

His passion was building projects, something he continued non-stop as soon as he assumed the throne. Cities had begun to grow in Egypt during the 1st Dynasty, though under Djoser they became widespread throughout Egypt, with architecture becoming more ornate. During his reign, the borders of Egypt were made secure and expansion into the Sinai was achieved through military expeditions. This led to lucrative turquoise and copper mining in the Peninsula, which created great wealth for Egypt. 

Djoser also defeated the Libyans or Phut [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and annexed parts of their lands. Overall, his reign was marked by great technological innovation and whereby, agriculture, the arts, trade and Egypt’s civil administration all flourished. 

Djoser

There were a number of Viziers in Egyptian history, though it can be no coincidence that the first known Vizier as well as the most famous one was Imhotep, Vizier to Djoser. Not only chancellor to the Pharaoh, Imhotep was reputed to be an architect, engineer, physician as well as possibly a high priest at Heliopolis. Imhotep is credited to be the designer of the Step or otherwise named, Djoser Pyramid at Saqqara. This pyramid contains a large vertical shaft under it and the complex has many similar structures that appear to have been used to store grain. The name or title, Imhotep means: ‘he that comes in peace.’ Imhotep was a renowned scholar, contributing greatly to Egyptian society. Apart from Amenhotep, he is the only other Egyptian to be deified.  

Joseph, son of Jacob (Israel), was Imhotep, of Egyptian History, Nigel Hawkins, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Although Abraham did visit Egypt, it seems more likely that this practice was introduced by Joseph-Imhotep in the third dynasty.Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. 

Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit .

Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph’s bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom).’ 

Imhotep

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plentiful years the earth produced abundantly, 48 and he gathered up all the food of these seven years, which occurred in the land of Egypt, and put the food in the cities. He put in every city the food from the fields around it. 49 And Joseph stored up grain in great abundance, like the sand of the sea, until he ceased to measure it, for it could not be measured.

50 Before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph. Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore them to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh. “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my hardship andall my father’s house.” 52 The name of the second he called Ephraim, “For God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.” 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Manasseh meaning: ‘Forgetting, Evaporating’ from the verb (nasha), to forget.

The name Manasseh is generally seen as derived from the verb… to forget but forgetting due to “evaporation” of a memory the way water evaporates due to solar heat, or the way a principle evaporates due to interest… [describing] an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it. This verb occurs very often and can usually be translated with (1) to lift or lift up, (2) to bear or carry, and (3) to take or take away. An identical verb (or rather the same one used in a specialized way) means to loan on interest. The practice of loaning on interest causes the principal sum to slowly but surely evaporate and was prohibited under Mosaic law. A third identical verb (or again the same one) means to deceive or beguile.

The name Manasseh is probably due to a grammatical form in Hebrew that is comparable to the English present continuous. It fixes the letter (mem) to the root. That would give the name Manasseh the meaning of Forgetting. Another reason why a mem may occur in front of a root is when it comes from a particle that means “from”. Hence the name Manasseh may also mean From A Debt. This is significant because Manasseh’s brother is named Ephraim, a name with a distinctly bitter secondary meaning. Perhaps Joseph named his son From A Debt, because he figured that besides his gratitude for being rescued, he felt that either God or his family owed him a debt for tearing him away from his father.

For a meaning of the name Manasseh, Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Forgetting, Forgetfulness. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Making To Forget.

The name Ephraim meaning: ‘Two-fold Increase, Doubly Fruitful, Exhausted, Ashes’ from the verb (para), to be fruitful. From the verb (‘pr), to be depleted.

We would expect the people from Ephraim to be called (Ephraimites), but that word does not occur in the Bible. Instead, the Bible mostly speaks of sons of Ephraim (Numbers 1:32, Joshua 16:5, 1 Chronicles 9:3). But on occasion, the Ephraimites are referred to as (Ephrathites), for instance in Judges 12:5, where the men of Gilead capture strongholds opposite Ephraim arrest fugitives of Ephraim and asks them if they are Ephrathites. 

The meaning of the name Ephraim is somewhat debated: Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names and NOBSE Study Bible Name List go after Genesis 41:52, “…For […] God has made me fruitful..”. and take the name from the Hebrew verb (para), meaning to bear fruit or be fruitful:

The verb (parar) means to split, divide and usually make more, expand or multiply. This root belongs to an extended family that also contains (paras,) to break (through), (paras and parash), to spread out or declare, (paras), to break in two or divide, and (pa’ar) means to branch out or to glorify.

Noun (par) means young bull and (para) means young heifer. Note that the first letter (aleph) is believed to denote an ox-head, while its name derives from the verb, to learn or to produce thousands. The second letter, (beth) is also the word for house (or temple or stable). The familiar word “alphabet,” therefore literally means “stable of bulls” or “house of divisions” or “temple of fruitful learning”.

It’s not clear what the unused verb (‘apar) might have meant but it’s clearly not very positive and possibly has to do with being exhausted or depleted of inner strength and inherent merit. Noun (‘eper) means ashes, which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel. Noun (‘aper) means covering or bandage, which is what is applied over a limb when its inherent strength is broken.

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Two-fold Increase. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Doubly Fruitful. Taking the aleph from the Qual imperfect first person singular would yield a meaning of I Am Twice Fruitful.

It’s true that the aleph is quite a weak letter which is applied often without essentially changing the meaning of a word. But it’s perfectly conceivable, and perhaps even preferred, that father Joseph casts a wry word play in the naming of his sons.

He names his first born Manasseh (Making To Forget), because, “God has made me forget all my toil and all of my father’s house”. When his father’s house finally shows up, it becomes clear that Joseph had a hard time forgetting them and was in fact happy to see them. His second son he names Ephraim, a name with a strong connection to the word fruitfulness but equally so to the word for ashes, the symbol of worthlessness and grief. 

Perhaps Joseph was not at all happy for having been made to forget his father’s house, and deemed ‘fruitfulness in the land of affliction,’ the golden bars of a still dismal cage. Perhaps the duality of the name Ephraim does not denote a double portion of the same, but rather as a reminder that thecoin of his wealth and status had two sides.

53 The seven years of plenty that occurred in the land of Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. What he says to you, do.”

56 So when the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth.

Jospeh’s son Manasseh was born circa 1691 and Ephraim 1690 BCE. The seven years of plenty ran from 1696 to 1689 BCE, with the following years of famine during 1689 to 1682 BCE. Fourteen years of Joseph’s life from age thirty to forty-four years of age. This was no ordinary famine but a disaster of very serious consequence. The Famine Stela or Stele is an inscription in hieroglyphs, located on Sehel Island in the Nile River, which is near Aswan, Egypt. It records this very disaster and tells of a seven year period of drought and famine during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty. 

The stele is inscribed into a natural granite block with forty-two columns. There are three Egyptian deities on the top with Djoser facing them, with offerings in his outstretched arms. The account is set in the eighteenth year of 1682 BCE of Djoser’s reign, in the seventh year of the famine that had gripped Egypt and testifying of Djoser’s deep concern as the suffering and desperation of the people had grown to breaking point. 

This, in light of Joseph’s forward planning. What if none or little grain had been stored? It is at the end of seven years that the drought finally breaks and the river Nile begins to flow again.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – italicisation theirs: 

‘The Famine Stela is one of only three known inscriptions that connect the cartouche name Djeser (“lordly”) with the serekh name Netjerikhet (“divine body”) of king Djoser in one word. Therefore, it provides useful evidence for Egyptologists and historians who are involved in reconstructing the royal chronology of the Old kingdom of Egypt.’

The stress that Djoser would have felt would make sense if after seven years, Egypt had been selling grain worldwide and not just locally. Even though Joseph had stored a consecutive yearly twenty percent of the vast abundance during the seven years of plenty, the demand in the next seven years may have meant it was a close run thing regarding dwindling grain supplies as the seventh year of famine ran its course. An extension of this period into an eighth year would then have been catastrophic and would support Djoser’s alarm as evidenced on the Famine Stela. 

The World Famine Verified, Lujack Skylark – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shang Dynasty emperor Cheng Tang [of which] some Chinese historians stated his reign began in 1747 B.C. There are others who believe his reign began in 1675 B.C. Chinese emperor Cheng Tang [1st king of the dynasty]… very early in the dynasty recorded a 7 year famine verifying Joseph’s account of the 7 year global famine in Egypt [1689-1682 BCE]. (Genesis 41:57) 

Grant Jeffery wrote a book called “Signature of God” where he said the Yemen marble tablet inscription [reputed to be written at the time of the famine] about people living in a Yemenite castle during the seven years of plenty and the seven years of famine confirm[s] the Genesis account. 

He also wrote about the Yemen stone found in a rich woman’s tomb where this woman sends her [servants] to meet Joseph [who is apparently mentioned by name]!

The pygmy Woolly Mammoths on Wrangel island die out [circa] 1700 B.C…’

“Wrangel island is north of Russia… The migrations of people’s during the worldwide famine is fascinating. Some archaeologist have given the migrations of these people’s from 1700-1500 B.C. window. The migrations at 1700 B.C. makes sense since people were migrating in search of food.”

‘The Kushite kingdom in eastern Africa arises [circa] 1700 B.C. as Africans fleeing famine come together living in close knit community along the Nile river south of Egypt. Some Black tribes migrate from central Africa and settle in southern Africa fleeing from famine. Archaeologist dated their artifacts to [circa] 1700 B.C. Nordic Bronze culture in northern Europe becomes established [circa] 1700 B.C. where bronze weapons are produced used in hunting wild game. Starving Indo-Europeans from western Russia migrate to central Europe and produce bronze weapons to hunt wild game [circa] 1700 B.C. Starving Indo-European tribes invade Dravidan dominated India [circa] 1700 B.C… [and] destroy the Dravidan Mohenjo-Daro civilization… Olmecs migrate into the Yucatan Peninsula [circa] 1700 B.C. Archaeologist[s] state the Olmecs invented plumbing and the Olmecs were interested in water conservation at this time in world history.’

As the famine was worldwide it impacted Jacob and his family in Canaan. He sent all his sons, except Benjamin to Egypt to purchase grain. We have discussed Genesis forty-two to forty-six and the highly charged meetings between Joseph and his estranged brothers of twenty-two years and then seeing his father Jacob, when studying Jacob, Judah, Reuben, Simeon and Benjamin [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. For the year now is 1687 BCE, two years into the famine. One cannot forget the bitter-sweet first meeting with his little brother Benjamin and the poignant  jolt of a reminder, that Joseph would never see his mother Rachel again. 

The one resounding point that beams very bright is that even though Joseph toys with his brother’s and father’s emotions; making them sweat a lot – of which the Creator does not condemn, for does He not put us through our paces when we are in the wrong? – none was done from bitterness, revenge or hatred. There is a hint of a sense of humour on Joseph’s part for dragging out the eventual reunion and the suspense created in so doing. No, what leaps out is Joseph’s profoundly all consuming emotion of ecstatic joy at finally being reunited with his family. He harboured only love and forgiveness towards his brothers who did not really know him. Here was truly a converted man, filled with the spirit of God. Joseph was a worthy type of the future deliverer and Saviour of all humankind. With his grandfather Isaac and his distant cousin Moses, he is in a select group of people to have been given a saviour’s role in imitation of the true Saviour.

In Genesis forty-five, Joseph finally reveals himself. It says in verse three, that his brothers ‘could not answer him.’ The understatement of the Book of Genesis and perhaps the whole Bible. The word dumbstruck comes to mind. It also says the brothers were ‘dismayed at his presence.’ I bet they were. Here was a ghost that had risen before them. A man who should have either been dead, at the bottom of some hideous mine or looking like skin and bone of a man twice his age, as part of a tortuous slave gang. Yet here he was; here was their long lost brother Joseph. Brother Joseph who just won’t go away. As a youngster following them, albeit at their father’s behest and here he was again, a shadow from if not the grave, a shadow from the past following them still. A phantom who was second in power and authority of at least Lower Egypt, if not all the land. 

It is testament to Joseph that he didn’t try to punch or slap any of them, considering the looks on their faces at that moment. Joseph instead alerts them to the five years remaining of famine and invites them to live in the land of Goshen in the Nile delta, where he can provide for them and nurture their flocks and wealth. Pharaoh learns of Joseph’s brothers and provides gifts and provisions for their return journey. Joseph’s sense of humour is exhibited in verse twenty-four, when his last words to his departing brothers are: “Do not quarrel on the way.” He knew them all too well. Jacob in verse twenty-six believing Joseph to be dead, understandably became numb and fainted from the shock of what his sons told him. 

Did Jacob ever find out what his sons had done to Joseph? Did the sons of Jacob dare  to divulge their crime and did Joseph’s honour mean he would not hurt his father in such a way, nor exact any kind of revenge on his brothers. It must have always been that slight bit awkward for the brothers when in Joseph’s presence and therefore, punishment enough. Until such time* that it did come to light…

On the journey down to Egypt, the Creator speaks to Jacob reassuring him, for Jacob must h