Ham’s second son is Mizra, translated correctly, though a little misleadingly as Egypt. There is always it seems, an exception to the rule and in this case regarding point number two in the Introduction, this is it. To a degree, that is. The descendants of Mizra have paradoxically, migrated very far afield; yet they also live in their original historic homeland.
In Genesis 10:13-14 NET, we are introduced to Mizra’s seven sons. Taking our cue from especially Canaan and partially Cush, we would expect to find a handful of descended nations, rather than just one or seven. We are also met with a slight conundrum, though easily resolved. Mizra identifies as the people known as Arabs; locatedin North Africa and in the Middle East, as well as the peoples of Latino-Hispano descent throughout Central and South America, with the exception of Brazil [refer Chapter XXIII].
Mizraim [Mizra] was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, Pathrusites Casluhites (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorites.
Some versions list instead as: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim or Lubim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim and Caphtorim.
Footnotes: The Casluhites lived in Crete and eventually settled east of the Egyptian Delta, between Egypt and Canaan [on the coast]. Several commentators prefer to reverse the order of the words to put this clause after the next word, since the Philistines came from Crete (where the Caphtorites lived). But the table may suggest migration rather than lineage… [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America]
Mizraim is principally translated as Egypt in the Bible. Outside of the genealogy listings of Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, the word Mizraim is used once in Genesis 50:11 ESV, on the occasion of Jacob’s death, the father of Joseph.
11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.” Therefore the place was named Abel-mizraim [mourning (or meadow) of Egypt]; it is beyond the Jordan.
An accurate map [excepting Spain] of Mizra’s five eldest sons in North Africa and the Middle East [green]
and his two youngest sons in the New World [red].
Egypt is mentioned some seven hundred times in the Bible. The context usually implies all the sons of Mizra, or occasionally the principal son, Pathros. A couple of chapters address Mizra specifically, such as in Ezekiel 29:9-10 ESV:
… and the land of Egypt shall be a desolation and a waste. Then they will know that I am the Lord. “Because you said, ‘The Nile is mine, and I made it,’ therefore, behold, I am against you and against your streams, and I will make the land of Egypt an utter waste and desolation, from Migdol to Syene, as far as the border of Cush[refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut].
We will see that their descendants do live ‘as far as the border of Cush, in India today. In Isaiah 19:22-25 ESV we read of a future time, when three great peoples are at peace:
22 And the Lord will strike Egypt, striking and healing, and they will return to the Lord, and he will listen to their pleas for mercy and heal them. 23 In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria will come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians [Arabs] will worship with the Assyrians [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia]. 24 In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25 whom the Lord of hosts has blessed, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel my inheritance.”
The widespread assumption or belief – held by many people within and without Islam – is that the Arab people descend from Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham.
This has been supported largely because the Prophet Mohammad in the Quran was seen as being a spiritual successor to Abraham… thus in time, a physical descent was gradually assumed to be true. In the Bible, Ishmael – with the other sons of Abraham, from his second wife Keturah – are described as living in Arabia or the ‘wilderness.’ This was in the Arabian Peninsula – mainly including Saudi Arabia today. It is not calling Ishmael an Arab, but stating where he originally lived. The sons of Mizra though, have in turn become known as Arabs, due to their dwelling in Arabia, before fanning out, migrating both northeast and westwards into north Africa.
An article by Mark Durie, 2019, entitled, Ishamel is not the Father of the Arabs addresses this important question – emphasis & bold his:
‘The commonly held view that Ishmael was the father of the Arab nations is not supported by the Bible, nor by other historical evidence. For centuries, many Muslims, Christians and Jews have taken it for granted that the Arabs descended from Abraham through Ishmael. As Gerald Hawting put it:
“The idea that the Arabs are the physical descendants of Abraham through Ishmael is indeed taken by many, non-Muslims as well as Muslims, as a genealogical and historical fact.”
‘Authors and teachers often treat the word Ishmael as a kind of code for Islam or Muslims. According to Sir Fergus Millar, Professor Emeritus of Ancient History at Oxford University, it was Josephus, a Jewish historian writing in the first century CE, who first advanced the idea that Ishmael was the ancestor of the Arabs. In The Antiquities of the Jews Josephus stated that Ishmael was “the founder” of the Arabian nation, and Abraham was “their father”. From Josephus, this assumed connection between the Arabs and Abraham, through Ishmael, passed into the historical consciousness of Christians, and then made its way into early Islam.
The Qur’an does not speak of Ishmael or Abraham as ancestors of the Arabs – although it does have Abraham and Ishmael praying for Allah to make their descendants a Muslim people – but the link is established in the hadith literature, in traditions about Muhammad’s own genealogy. In this way Abraham and Ishmael came to be considered, in Islamic tradition, not only a spiritual antecedent of Muhammad as an Islamic prophet, but also the physical ancestor of (at least some of) the Arabs.
What does the Bible say? It speaks both of Ishmaelites, the descendants of Ishmael, and of Arabs, but does not join them together. I. Ephʿal has pointed out that the references to Ishmaelites are earlier in the Bible, and the references to Arabs later. Both refer to non-sedentary, nomadic peoples, but they are separated by centuries. Ephʿal concludes that references to “Ishmaelites” cease by the mid 10th century BCE, and the references to “Arabs” only commence in the mid-8th century BCE, so “there is no historical basis to the tradition of associating Ishmaelites with the Arabs”. The Bible does link the Ishmaelites with the Midianites, using these names as synonyms in two places.
Genesis describes Joseph as being sold to a caravan of camel-riding Ishmaelites who are also called Midianites (Genesis 37:25–28, 36; 39:1; see also Judges 8:22-24).
The evidence indicates that Ishmael was not the father of the Arabs, andneither was Abraham.The Ishmaelites were probably Canaanites, speaking, not an early form of Arabic, but a dialect similar to Hebrew. In time they disappeared or were absorbed into other groups, like so many other ancient peoples. Much later Josephus invoked Ishmael’s name to conjure up a genealogy for the Arabs. He has a lot to answer for. The rest, as they say, is history.’
We will look into this further when we study Ishmael. The author states they were probably Canaanites. Not to be confused with the sons of Ham; but rather, they were part of the later ‘Canaanites’ [refer Chapter XII Canaan & Africa]. Far from being assimilated into other peoples or disappearing, the Ishmaelites due to their numbers, have always been an influential people to the degree of Empire status more than once on the world stage [refer Chapter XXVIII].
Dr Hoeh says the following regarding Mizra – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Mizraim is commonly applied to Egypt. In fact, “Mizr” is the name which the natives still apply to Egypt today. The Greeks called the land Aegyptus [Aiguptos] – hence our Egypt. First, notice that… Mizraim first settled on the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. From there they spread through the Eastern Mediterranean isles and into Africa. The Philistines, who came from Mizraim, inhabited Southern Palestine even in the days of Abraham (Genesis 21:34). They are still there today – in the Gaza strip in Palestine – causing no end of trouble (Zechariah 9:6-7).
The Philistines (a branch of the family of Casluhim) settled originally on the Island of Crete in the Mediterranean. Crete is called, in the Bible, Caphtor (Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7). The Island of Caphtor was originally settled by the Caphtorim, a tribe of Mizraim (Genesis 10:14). Both the Philistines and the Caphtorim destroyed the Canaanites in South Palestine and lived in their place (Deuteronomy 2:23). No wonder there are so few Canaanites left! The main body of non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine today are not Canaanites, but Philistines!
The Pathrusim of Genesis 10:14 migrated from Asia Minor to central Egypt. Every prophecy shows Pathros to be a part of Egypt along the Nile (Jeremiah 44:1,5 and Ezekiel 29:14). The Naphtuhim probably settled in the extreme south of Egypt, founding the capital city of Napata among the black people of Africa.
The Lehabim – the word “Lehabim” means a people of reddish color – settled Libya originally. Libya is in North Africa. Today they are found scattered throughout the savanahs of the Western Sudan in Africa.
In this region today we find a people “of reddish brown or light chestnut color… with smooth hair, never woolly, straight and even aquiline noses… differentiating them from the [Black] type”. The original word “Lehabim” was shortened in Bible times to “Lubim” (II Chronicles 12:3; 16:8). The [Africans] call these people “fulbe”, meaning, probably, Lubim dwelling in the ancient land of Phut. In the central reaches of the Sahara (the great desert in North Africa) live the Ludim (Gen.10:14) – the lightest of the Egyptians.
For example the Arabs acknowledge that they are descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham.In Bible prophecy they are often mentioned by the name “Ishmael.”‘
We will learn that the Philistines are not the non-Jewish peoples or Palestinians of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, for they have travelled considerably farther afield. The final sentence is a good example of how the first thing heard, is the one that lingers the longest whether correct or incorrect. How easy it is to be indoctrinated without even realising. Just because a people claim to be someone does not make it necessarily so…
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Mizraim is derived from a Hebrew term, and is a plural word with the meaning double straits(SHD 4714, mitsrayim – dual of matsor (4693). This duality may refer to the distinction between the original kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptians referred to their land as Kmt in the hieroglyphs. In Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions Egypt was known as Musur and Musri, probably from the word Misr meaning simply, land. The Ugaritic inscriptions refer to Egypt as Msrm, while in the Amarna tablets it is called Misri. The term Misr is still seen in the modern Arabic name for the nation, Jumhuriyah Misr al-‘Arabiyah (the Arabic Republic of Egypt).’
An online Encylopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Mizraim is the dual form of matzor, meaning a “mound” or “fortress”… Some Ancient Egyptian inscriptions at the time of Pharoah Amenhotep IV refer to Egypt as Masara and to Egyptians as Masrawi.
According to Eusebius’ Chronicon, Manetho had suggested that the great age of antiquity of which the later Egyptians boasted had actually preceded the Flood andthat they were really descended from Mizraim, who settled there anew.A similar story is related by medieval Islamic historians… and the Persians… stating that the pyramids etc. had been built by the wicked races [the Nephilim & the line of Cain] before the Deluge, but that Noah’s descendant Mizraim (Masar or Mesr) was entrusted with reoccupying the region afterwards. The Islamic accounts also make Masar the son of a Bansar or Beisar and grandson of Ham, rather than a direct son of Ham… Some scholars think it likely that Mizraim is a dual form of the word Misr meaning “land”, and was translated literally into Ancient Egyptian as Ta-Wy (the Two Lands) by early pharaohs at Thebes who later founded the Middle Kingdom.
… according to George Syncellus the Book of Sothis, attributed to Manetho, identified Mizraim with the legendary first Pharaoh Menes, said to have unified the Old Kingdom and built Memphis. Mizraim also seems to correspond to Misor, said in Phoenician mythology to have been the father of Taautus who was given Egypt, and later scholars noticed that this also recalls Menes, whose son or successor was said to be Athothis.
… the author David Rohl has suggested a different interpretation: Amongst the followers of Meshkiag–kash-er (Sumerian ruler) was his younger ‘brother’ – in his own right a strong and charismatic leader of men. He is the head of the falcon tribe – the descendants of Horus the ‘Far Distant’. The Bible calls this new Horus-king ‘Mizraim’ but this name is, in reality, no more than an epithet. It means ‘follower of Asr’ or ‘Asar’ (Egyptian Arabic m-asr with the Egyptian preposition m ‘from’). Mizraim is merely m-Izra with the majestic plural ending ‘im’. Likewise,that other great Semitic-speaking people– the Assyrians – called the country of the pharaohs ‘Musri’ (m-Usri).’
Mizra denotes duality. In Hebrew it means: ‘double siege’ or ‘double distress’ from masor, ‘siege’ or ‘entrenchment’ and the verb sur, ‘to bind, besige’. Also mesar, ‘distress’ and the verb sarar, ‘to bind.’
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Egypt was known by the names Musuru, Musru, Misir or Masri in other languages, and Mizraim is probably simply a phonetic transliteration into Hebrew of any of them. The verb from which the noun derives, is part of a group of five different roots:
Sur I: to lean or incline
Sur II: to confine, secure or besiege
Sur III: to be an adversary
Sur IV: to form or fashion
Sur V: to be sharp
The word (mesar), meaning straights or distress, written in a dual form would yield the name Mizraim. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names assumes that this is what Mizraim would have meant to a Hebrew audience and reads Double Distress. But it should be noted that the name Mizraim means also Double Stronghold…’
An identifying clue to who and where the sons of Mizra are is the fact that the Arabic nations are invariably in a condition of strife and war – either against the state of Israel, Black Africans, minorities in their own countries, or most noticeably, their own people. This is a defining characteristic of the Arabic nations, foretold centuries ago.
Young’s Literal Translation
And I armed Egyptians against Egyptians, And they fought, each against his brother, And each against his neighbour, City against city, kingdom against kingdom. And emptied out hath been in its midst the spirit of Egypt. And its counsel I swallow up, And they have sought unto the idols, And unto the charmers, And unto those having familiar spirits, And unto the wizards.
The NET translates verse two as:
“I will provoke civil strife in Egypt: brothers will fight with one another, as will neighbors, cities, and kingdoms.
In Hebrew, Pathros means: ‘South Land’ from the Egyptian pe-te-res or ‘place of interpretation’ from the verb patar, ‘to interpret dreams.’
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Pathros is the name [for] Mizraim’s South Region. Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt, and southern Egypt was known as Upper Egypt. The name Pathros occurs half a dozen times in the Bible, always in clear association with Mizraim (Ezekiel 29:14, Isaiah 11:11). The writers of the Septuagint transliterated the name Pathros with Pa-athyris, meaning Belonging to Athor, but who Athor is remains a mystery.
Some words of interest: (pata), meaning to entice, deceive, persuade. Derivation(peti) means simple, foolish… (pat) means fragment, bit. The verb (rasas) means moisten. Derivation (rasis) means drop of dew. The identical but unused and not translatable root (rss) yields identical derivation (rasis), meaning fragment. Hence to the Hebrews the name Pathros may have sounded like Bits And Pieces, or even Wet Lands [the Nile], and Entreaty For A Drop, or any combination of the above.’
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim continues on Mizra’s fifth son Pathros – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The Pathrusim (SHD 6625, meaning southerners) were a tribe located at Pathros near Thebes in Upper Egypt. The namePathrosmeans region of the south (6624), possibly from the Egyptian Pa-To-Ris. The LXX refers to the people as the Patrosoniim.
In the apocryphal Book of Jasher, both the Pathrusim and Casluhim were recorded as the progenitors of the Pelishtim, Azathim, Gerarim, Githim, and Ekronim, who were associated with several prominent Philistine cities, such as Gerar, Gath and Ekron. The conclusions must be that if they did conjoin it was by branches. The main branch went south to Thebes while the cadet branch joined the Cashluhim and formed the five Philistine cities and hence also the five names in Jasher.
The Hebrew Pathrosand the gentilic Pathrusimare derived from the Egyptian p’’-t’’-rsy, which is a term used to designate the whole of Egypt above Memphis. In the Assyrian material Esarhaddon refers to himself as the king of Musur [Mizra], Paturisi [Pathros or Phut], and Kusi [Cush], meaning, from Isaiah 11:11, that Musur and the Hebrew Misrayim was restricted to Middle and LowerEgypt, thus leaving Pathros for the Thebaid. Jeremiah 44:1,15, Ezekiel 29:14and 30:14 refer to Pathros as the original home of the Egyptians. The gentilic Pathrusim occurs only in Genesis 10:14 and 1 Chronicles 1:12.’
The prominence of Pathros in the Bible and its central position in Egypt and the Nile points to its identity actually being, the modern nation of Egypt.
English Standard Version
In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, from Assyria [Russia], from Egypt [Mizra – Middle East and North Africa], from Pathros [Egypt], from Cush [India], from Elam [Turkey], from Shinar [Europe], from Hamath [Nigeria], and from the coastlands of the sea [East and South East Asia].
Jeremiah 44:1, 15
English Standard Version
The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Judeans who lived in the land of Egypt, at Migdol, at Tahpanhes, at Memphis, and in the land of Pathros… Then all the men who knew that their wives had made offerings to other gods, and all the women who stood by, a great assembly, all the people who livedin Pathros inthe land of Egypt,answered Jeremiah:
English Standard Version
… and I will restore the fortunes of Egypt and bring them back to the land of Pathros, the land of their origin, and there they shall be a lowly kingdom.
English Standard Version
I will make Pathros a desolation and will set fire to Zoan and will execute judgments on Thebes.
These verses reveal Pathros is very much the heart of Mizra, though a separate, prominent people or nation, who uniquely dwell in their original ancient homeland.
The flag of Egypt – with the Arab colours of Red, white and Black. Flags of the Arab nations either use these
core colours and or incorporate green, representing Islam.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country on the Earth and is an early cradle of civilisation. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire. Egypt declared itself a republic after a revolution deposing the monarchy in 1952. Egypt has endured decades of social and religious strife, with political instability. It has fought armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973; occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising the state of Israel.
Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic the official language.With a population of over 107,137,854 people, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East and the Arab world and second in Africa after Nigeria. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert which constitute most of Egypt’s territory, are sparsely populated.
Egypt is a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim World – a middle power worldwide. With a large and diversified economy, Egypt is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. Egypt has the third largest economy in Africa after Nigeria and South Africa. Egypt has the strongest military in Africa; while South Africa is 4th and Nigeria 5th. The other Arab nations in the top ten, after Egypt are Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya.
The ancient Egyptian name of the country km.t, means ‘black land’, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, as distinct from the deshret or ‘red land’ of the desert. An online Encyclopaedia states – emphasis mine:
‘The English name “Egypt” is derived from the Ancient Greek “Aigyptos”, via Middle French “Egypte” and Latin “Aegyptus”. “Misr”… is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while “Masr”… is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic.
The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew (“Mitzrayim”). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian “mi-is-ru” (“misru”)related to misru/misirru/misaru, meaning “border” or “frontier”.The Neo-Assyrian Empire used the derived term, Mu-sur.’
The Arab world inherited vast lands of mainly desert. The people live primarily, as shown, near water. This area of the world has been actively inhabited since the flood by many migrations and peoples so that the soil has become barren.
‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Egyptian global shipments during 2021.
- Mineral fuels including oil: US$13.2 billion
- Plastics, plastic articles: $2.7 billion
- Electrical machinery, equipment: $2.4 billion
- Iron, steel: $1.72 billion
- Fruits, nuts: $1.66 billion
- Fertilizers: $1.5 billion
- Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $1.3 billion
- Gems, precious metals: $1.2 billion
- Vegetables: $1.1 billion
- Aluminum: $780.4 million
Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 178.7% from 2020 to 2021. The most powerful gains were for Egyptian shipments of petroleum gases, crude oil and processed petroleum oils.
The sole decliner among Egypt’s top 10 export categories was gems precious metals, thanks to a -61% drop. The biggest loser year over year was exported gold.’
In Ezekiel 27:7 NKJV it says:
Fine embroidered linen from Egypt was what you spread for your sail…
King of Cotton, describes Egyptian cotton:
‘Egyptian cotton has not gained such a reputation without reason. Egyptian cotton “is” the world’s finest cotton and the following characteristics are what sets Egyptian cotton apart from other natural fibres:
The length of the fibre makes it possible to make the finest of yarns without sacrificing the strength of the yarn… [The thread count is the number of threads in each square inch and generally speaking, the higher the thread count, the more luxurious, dense and soft the material will feel]. The strength of the fibre makes fabrics more solid and more resistant to stress. Its ability to absorb liquids gives fabrics made of Egyptian cotton deeper, brighter and more resistant colours. Its softness feels like nothing else in the world. Egyptian cotton is hand picked which guarantees the highest levels of purity. In addition, hand picking puts no stress on the fibres – as opposed to mechanical picking – leaving the fibres straight and intact.
All these factors have resulted in Egyptian cotton being by far the best cotton in the world. Fabrics made of Egyptian Cotton are softer, finer and last longer than any other cotton in the world.’
The first born son of Mizra is Lud, translated in the plural as Ludim in the Bible. There is another Lud in the Bible, who is the fourth son of Shem. Sometimes translated as Lydia or Lydians, after the people who dwelt in Western Asia Minor. They have intermingled and become synonymous. We will give more attention to both the descendants of Lud later; though to highlight the confusion researchers have experienced in trying to keep them separate we will refer to Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis & bold mine :
‘Although there is a Semite of the same name, we find that Lud, grandson of Ham, was father of the Ludim. He was also the first-born of Mizraim.
The entry in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE) is as follows:
“In Genesis 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish…”
‘Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present. Mellink (ibid.) considers the Lydians of Asia Minor to be neither Hamitic nor Semitic. We dealt with the probable movement of the Semite Ludim to the Hindu Kush at the border of India and beyond into the Punjab in the papers Sons of Shem…’
Trying to split these two identities causes difficulty; once their mergence is understood it becomes clear. We have an identical situation with Mizra’s third son Lehab. The Lubim have merged with Phut [refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut] and both can be identified as ‘Libya’ in the Bible and togther, comprise the modern nation of Pakistan.
Recall the verses we recently read in the preceding chapter: 2 Chronicles 12:3, 16:8, Nahum 3.9 and Ezekiel 30.5. All four verses translate Lubim or Lehab as Libya, the same as Phut. Libya refers to Phut, as does Lehab or Lubim; two identities, yet together they form a single nation. In Daniel 11.43 YLT, we see a fifth and final example of this:
… and he hath ruled over treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt [Mizra – the Arabs], and Lubim [Pakistan] and Cushim [India] [are] at his steps.
In Ezekiel 29:10 we read that Mizra’s people or ‘border’ would reach to Cush and so it does as Pakistan’s eastern border adjoins India.
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis & bold mine:
‘The term Lehabim (SHD 3853; sing. 3851) means flames or blades.It has been suggested that these people ought to be identified with the Lubim, arising from the proposal that “the one word may be a corruption of the other” (ISBE). The name Lubim is possibly the same as that of the country, Libya, to the northwest of Egypt. It is probably that the term Lybios as a son of Mizraim refers to the Ludim and the Lehabim who were conjoined, as were two other sons of Mizraim in North Africa, thereby forming the Philistines and also the Thebans.’
An astute point, particularly regarding the Philistines, which we will address in the next chapter; though I would suggest that the correct conjoining has been between Mizra’s son Lud-im and Shem’s son Lud and between Mizra’s son Lehab or Lubim and Ham’s son Phut or Libya.
Mizra’s second and fourth sons respectively are Anam and Naphtuh. I am placing them together as they account for the Arab peoples either side of Pathros. That is, the Arabic nations lying to the east and west of Egypt. They are only mentioned in the Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One genealogies and are therefore included in the general scriptures and prophecies pertaining to Mizra-im.
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The second son of Mizraim has a name meaning affliction of the waters (anamiym,SHD 6047), and apparently derives from an Egyptian word. The Septuagint uses the term Enemetiim. An Assyrian text from the time of Sargon II refers to certain people as Anami, although they were apparently located in Cyrene, Libya as Albright suggests and… equates them with the cuneiform A-na-mi found in a geographical text from the time of Sargon II and parallel to Kapara, who were the Caphtorim. Little else is known of this tribe.
As the fourth of the tribes descended from Mizraim, the Naphtuhim have a name which means openings (SHD 5320, naphtuchiym), and is considered a word of foreign origin. The Septuagint gives their name as Nephthalim. The ISBEentry for this group reads:
“A son of Mizraim… but, according to most modern authorities, a district or a dependency of Egypt. Brown-Driver-Briggs… suggests that the Naphtuhim were located in Lower Egypt, and a connection has been made with Na-Ptah, the Egyptian word for Memphis.”
Lambdin in his article… places the Naphtuhim between the Lehabim [Pakistan](which are identified with the Libyans) and the Pathrusim [Egypt]as inhabitants of Upper Egypt, and hence they are inhabitants of the Delta.’
The nations to the east of Egypt – in the Near East – lean towards an identification with Naphtuh and the nations to the west of Egypt – in North Africa – identify with Anam. Anam in Hebrew also means: ‘responding waters’ from the verb ana, ‘to answer’ and the noun mayim, ‘waters.’
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘There are four verbs of the form (‘nh), or perhaps one verb with four distinct usages: Verb (‘ana I) means to answer, respond or correspond, and… means time… (‘ana III) means to afflict, oppress or humble, Noun (‘anaw) refers to the poor, afflicted or needy.
It’s not immediately obvious where the name Naphtuhim comes from, or that it is Hebrew to start with. But as it is, the name Naphtuhim may have reminded a Hebrew audience of the root-group (patah), conveying meaning of to open or to engrave… and since the opening of the lips precedes speaking , and the opening of ears precedes hearing, our verb may also mean to speak and to hear… to the opening of constricting things… to loosen or release. Noun (petiha) denotes a drawn sword (the edge of a sword was known as the “mouth” of it).’
The most prominent nation in the Arab world aside from Egypt is Saudi Arabia, with a population of 36,136,300 people. Of the top ten nations with the most natural resources it is a formidable number two, behind China. Saudi Arabia by Arabic standards is a small country in the Middle East, slightly larger than Mexico. Saudi Arabia has some $34.4 trillion worth of natural resources – notably oil. Saudi Arabia has been the world’s leading exporter of oil since its discovery in 1938. Possessing 22.4% of the world’s reserves, the country’s economy relies heavily on its oil exports. It has the fourth largest natural gas reserves and other major natural resources include ‘copper, feldspar, phosphate, silver, sulfur, tungsten, and zinc.’
Saudi Arabia had a GDP of $792.97 billion in 2019, being the 18th largest economy in the world.The Saudi government owns and operates much of the country’s major industry through its oil company Aramco. Global environmental concerns drive an increased interest in developing non-fossil fuel energy sources, thus the Saudis look to diversify their economy, including encouraging private investment in healthcare and other service industries. The script on the Saudi Arabian flag is the shahada, the Islamic creed: ‘There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’
The combined populations of the twenty-four Arabic nations and territories is some four hundred and fifty million people. A united confederacy of Arabic nations would certainly be a formidable force and could well participate with the leadership and primary allies of the King of the South – Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Indonesia.
Dubai man and Saudi Arabian woman
Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2008 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa* (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. However, when attending to the relative contribution of the different L haplogroups, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Yemen are highly similar for their L3 (34%), L2 (36%) and L0 (21%) frequencies whereas in Oman and UAE the bulk of L lineages belongs to L3 (72%).’
Nearly all the main western Asia Haplogroups are detected in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs have only a minority sub-Saharan Africa* component of 7%, similar to the specific Haplogroup contribution of North Africa of 5% and a small Indian influence at 3%. The majority of the Saudi Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages have a western Asia provenance of up to 85%.
‘The majority (12) of the 19 M lineages found in the Arabian Peninsula that do not belong to M1 have matches or are related to Indian clades, which confirm previous results. Five undefined M lineages were genome sequenced.
It is confirmed that 5 of the 6 Saudi lineages analyzed have also Indian roots. All these Indian M sequences have been found in Arabia as isolated lineages that belong to clusters with deep roots and high diversity in India. Therefore, its presence in Arabia is better explained by recent backflow from India than by supposing that these lineages are footsteps of an M ancestral migration across Arabia.’
A third option is available that explains the link between the Indian peoples of Cush and the Arabs of Mizra and that is simply, that they are brothers. The theories on who migrated from where to where are based on an evolutionary view of history and therefore the issue remains perplexing for geneticists and ethnologists alike.
‘The high diversity of N1a in the Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia and Egypt raises the possibility that this area was a secondary center of expansion for this haplogroup. However, the highest diversity for N1b and N1c are in Turkey, and Kurds and Iranians, respectively. Macrohaplogroup R is the main branch of N and their major subclades (H, J-T, K-U) embraced the majority of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages. The Western Asia haplogroup H is the most abundant haplogroup in Europe and the Near East. However in the Arabian Peninsula its mean frequency is moderate…’
Haplogroups N, R and H are associated primarily with the descendants of Shem and Europe. There is some crossover into Ham’s descendants through intermarriage and mixing. The mtDNA N Haplogroup which is higher in the Turks and Persians, reflects their lineal descent from Shem and not from Ham [refer Chapter XVII and XVIII].
‘Haplogroup T shows regional heterogeneity in Saudi Arabia and has significantly lower frequencies in Southern Yemen and Oman countries.
Haplogroup U comprises numerous branches (U1 to U9 and K) that have different geographic distributions. In Saudi Arabia all of them have representatives albeit in minor frequencies, K (4%) and U3 (2.3%) being the most abundant clades. There is no geographical heterogeneity for the total U distribution in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, it is significantly different among the Arabian Peninsula countries, with Southern countries showing higher frequencies than the others.
As a whole, haplogroup J reaches its highest frequency in Saudi Arabia, where its regional distribution is also significantly heterogeneous but opposite to that found for (preHV)1. For the J, the West (37.5%) and Southeast (25.7%) regions have higher frequencies than the Central (17.6%) and North (16.3%) regions. Heterogeneity in the whole Peninsula is also significant being Saudi Arabia (21%) and Qatar (17.8%) the two countries with the highest J frequencies. However, the subclade distribution is different in each country. Subclade J1b is the main contributor (9.4%) in Saudi Arabia while other J subclades account for 14.5% in Qatar. With the Qatar exception, J1b is the most frequent subclade in the Arabian Peninsula.
Nevertheless, whereas the J1b branch TMRCA (11,099 ± 8,381 years ago) was contemporary to that of the northern J1b1a1, the recalculated age of the (preHV)1b branch (by adding all the new HVSI sequences found in the present survey to the ones previously used, was of only 4,036 ± 2,211 years ago which situates this expansion in the Bronze Age. These results could be satisfactorily explained if we admit an older Paleolithic implantation in Saudi Arabia of the J1b clade that, perhaps, with some other N and L clades would form the primitive population.’
‘Graphical relationships among the studied populations. MDS plot based on FST haplogroup distances. Codes are: Ce = Central Saudi Arab, Dz = Druze, Et = Ethiopian, Ke = Kenyan, No = Northern Saudi Arab, Nu = Nubian, SE = Southeastern Saudi Arab, Su = Sudan, We = Western Saudi Arab. Bd = Bedouin Arab, Eg = Egyptian, In = Iranian, Iq = Iraqi, Jo = Jordanian, Ku = Kurd, Om = Omani, Pa = Palestinian, Qa = Qatar, Sy = Syrian, Tu = Turk, UA = United Arab Emirates, Ye = Yemeni.’
Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route, multiple authors, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Although the bulk of the Arabian sequences (70%) belong to different clades of macrohaplogroup R, 13% percent of Arabian samples belong to haplogroup L, with a clear sub-Saharan African origin. One of the two L Arabian completely sequenced samples was a typical L2a1 lineage with a reversion at the 16309 position. The second is a derived L3i1a sequence, with its closest counterpart observed in Ethiopia pointing to a recent importation from northeastern Africa. Seven per cent of the Arabian samples were assigned to macro-haplogroup M, of which 4% are members of the North African haplogroup M1, and the remaining 3% conform a miscellaneous group of sequences from South, Southeast and Eastern Asian origins and sole representatives of Melanesia (Q1), Madagascar (M32c) or Australia (M42). In particular, the rare Arabian M sample completely sequenced in this study belongs to the Indian M42b1 clade, sharing only transversion 95C with a Munda sequence (MUN22) at the same clade. A sister branch of the Indian M42b, with a coalescence time estimation around 55 kya, has spread in Australia.’
Confirming the genetic link between the Melanesians and Indians of Cush and the Black Africans of Canaan with the Arabs of Mizra.
Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Observed in Iraqi Population, multiple authors, 2015:
‘Mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of [the] control region were sequenced from 100 random healthy unrelated individuals of three sequential generations [belonging] to the Arab [ethnicity of the] Iraqi population. The aim of this study was to [detect] the mtDNA haplotypes and [classify them] into mtDNA haplogroups [thereby] useful in forensic genetics applications and determining the Iraqi population history. The sequence variation within [the] D-loop control region were analyzed [and] the composition of haplogroups… showed [a] high frequency of haplogroups U, H, J, M, D[?], T and N[?] (18%, 14%, 10%, 9%, 7%, 7% and 7%, respectively), [a] moderate frequency of haplogroups L and I was (4%) [found] and B[?], A[?], R and K (2%), and [a] low frequency of haplogroup pre-HV (1%). This study [also indicated a] lack of V, P, Y, X[?], O, Z, Q, G, E and C haplogroups.’
A comparison of mtDNA Haplogroups from the aforementioned paper, consisting of Arab populations and others from West Asia and Europe. It throws light on the simplicity, yet subtle complexity of the Haplogroup sequencing which dictates the similarities, yet differences between ethnicities and races.
Pre-HV HV H U J M T I K L1 L3 W X V
Iraq 6 17 15 8 8 3 2 12 4 9
Syria 4 4 25 16 10 1 10 4 3 3 3
Palestinian 2 2 31 8 9 2 13 7 0.9 3 3
Arabia 4 4 13 11 21 5 0.8 4 11 2 2
Iran 6 6 17 22 14 8 2 8 2 2 3
Turkey 4 4 25 19 11 4 12 2 6 0.3 4 4
Slav 41 19 11 0.9 12 3 4 0.9 0.6 3
Italy 2 2 33 22 7 9 4 8 2 3 5
German 50 14 8 9 3 7 1 0.5 3
American 7 7 31 23 9 12 2 8 1 2
Notice the lack of Haplogroups M and L in the Europeans and West Asians – apart from admixture – which are indicative of Indians and sub-Saharan Africans respectively. The mtDNA Haplogroups I, H, V, J, T, U and K are typically associated with Europeans, the descendants of Shem; though they are also exhibited by the descendants of Ham.
Another set of figures from a different study though not identical, still highlights the relative percentage shift from an eastern Arab population in Saudi Arabia, towards a far westerly location in Morocco. Though obviously related, the Arabs have sprung from five different sons of Mizra and thus exhibit a broad range within the maternal mtDNA Haplogroups. The Haplogroup N percentage is comprised of the totals for Haplogroups I, W and X. The Haplogroup U total is made of sub-Haplogroups of U, with U2, U3, U4 and U5. Haplogroup T includes the sum of T1 and T2 and Haplogroup HV includes the percentage for HV0+V.
L H H1+H3 HV J T U K N
Lebanon 2 34 7 6 8 10 15 8 6
Syria 6 26 5 9 12 20 6 4
Iraq 8 17 2 11 13 9 17 5 4
Saudi Arabia 10 9 1 19 7 10 4 5
Palestine 11 27 3 10 8 9 7 3
Jordan 14 25 2 6 6 7 23 4 4
Morocco 21 28 16 9 5 5 16 5 3
Egypt 22 16 4 9 11 9 5 4
Algeria 25 31 12 9 4 5 10 3 2
Libya 28 17 9 10 6 12 5 3
Tunisia 28 28 12 7 5 8 14 10 3
Using the ancient mtDNA Haplogroup L – the defining marker Haplogroup for the related sub-Saharan Africans – Lebanon is one bookend, with the least and Tunisia is the other bookend with the highest level of L. Lebanon, like its neighbouring nations, possess far less Haplogroup L than their kin in North Africa who carry higher percentages. In contrast, the Arab nations of the Near East tend to have higher levels of Haplogroups J, T and U. Aside from Haplogroup L, Haplogroup H is also dominant amongst the Arabs, yet does not follow any geographical dispersion pattern as Haplogroup L portrays.
The Lebanese while possessing the least of Haplogroup L, have the most of overall Haplogroup H at 33.8%. Jordan has the highest level of overall Haplogroup U, with close to 23% and Saudi Arabia has the highest percentage of Haplogroup J at 19.4%. Tunisia with 28.2%, edges Libya’s 27.5% for Haplogroup L.
Saudi Arabia: J [19.4%] – L [10.3%] – H [9%] – T2 [4.2%] – K [4.2%] –
T1 [2.3%] – HV [0.8%]
Lebanon: H [33.8%] – K [8.3%] – J [7.9%] – T1 [5.7%] – T2 [4.6%] –
HV [3.1%] – L [1.8%]
Egypt: L [21.8%] – H [15.7%] – J [8.8%] – T2 [6.1%] – T1 [5.3%] –
K [4.5%] – HV [4%]
Morocco: L [28.2%] – H [28.2% – K [4.8%] – J [4.7%] – T2 [4.2%] –
HV [2%] – T1 [0.7%]
Note that the dominant maternal Haplogroup for Arabs of North Africa is primarily L, followed by H and then J. Whereas in Arabia and the Near East, the dominant Haplogroups are H or J, as in the case for Saudi Arabia. Overall, the dominant and defining marker mtDNA Haplogroups for the Arabic peoples is primarily H, followed by L.
A considerable number of genetic disorders that are specific to Arabs, are located on a HLA segment on their chromosome 6. These segment mutations are then also markers for Arabs in genealogical and forensic profiling tests and studies, indicating they are a separate ethnic or racial family; not a mixture of European and South Asian or African peoples and certainly not a hybrid people.
Four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components characterise the populations in the Arab world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi. The Arabian component is the prime autosomal element in the Gulf region, though it is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant and Northeast Africa. Its presence is also found in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians which shows historical admixture.
The Levantine component is the principal autosomal element in the Near East and the Caucasus area. The Coptic component is the main autosomal element throughout Northeast Africa. It peaks amongst the Egyptian Copts in the Sudan and is found at high frequencies in the both the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa.The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Northwest of Africa and includes the Berber populations.
These four divisions equate to Mizra’s sons Pathros [Coptic], Anam [Maghrebi], Naphtuh [Levantine] and possibly Ludim [Arabian], if Naphtuh does not include the twin Levantine and Arabian components. Clarification on this will be covered in a separate chapter discussing Shem’s son Lud.
A genetic study published in the European Journal of Human Genetics in 2019, stated that West Asians, that is Arabs, are closely related to Europeans, Northern Africans and to Southwest Asians. I would concur with the latter two; though the first group is a little misleading. Arabs share certain Haplogroups at a higher frequency with Europeans from Southeastern Europe, though this does not hold to be true with the majority of Europeans. Northeastern and especially Northwestern Europeans, are genetically far removed from an Arab. Arab Haplogroups link them more closely with Indian, Pakistani and Black African peoples and a lesser degree to peoples of the Caucasus and Southeast Europe. The same cannot be said for the remainder of Europe. This scenario is reminiscent of the Indian-Aryan misnomer in Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush and Phut.
Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The Somalis and Ethiopians are sequestered to the right extreme of the plot, whereas the other North African group from Egypt is adjacent to a closely intertwined Levant/Peninsular Arab grouping. The Yemenis are the only population from the Arabian Peninsula that deviates from this spatial pattern, likely due to their… geographical isolation from the rest of the Peninsular Arabs.
When all branches of haplogroup U are considered together, there are no well-defined frequency clines observed except for the obvious lack of the haplogroup within the African continent.Upon sub-dividing the branches of the aforementioned haplogroup (only the most highly represented branches within the Iranian domain were further explored), clear region-specific gradients are detected.
For example, sub-haplogroups U2 and U7 are widely distributed throughout Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting their highest frequencies in the southwest Asian collections and displaying east-to-west frequency clines. It is noteworthy that both haplogroups are found in the Arabian Peninsula. Y-chromosomal haplogroup J is present in high frequencies throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, dissipating considerably in all directions. Haplogroup R, on the other hand, presents very high frequencies in the central Asian/southwest Asian regions, with levels decreasing immediately beyond the Indus Valley area. A slight increase in frequencies is observed in the Balkan Peninsula.’
- MDS plot based on observed frequency of mtDNA haplogroup distributions (stress=0.28852). (b) MDS plot based on observed frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup distributions (stress=0.12492).
Analysing the Haplogroup family trees of the world, it is evident, that mtDNA which is passed from mothers to all their children, includes the main East Asian and American Indian Haplogroups [alphabetically] of A, B, C, D. The key Haplogroups for Ham are L, H and U and we will learn the main Haplogroups of Shem are H, T and U.
Whereas, the Y-DNA Haplogroups passed from fathers only to their sons, includes the main Japheth Haplogroups [alphabetically] of C, D, K, O and Q. The key Shem Y-DNA Haplogroups we will learn, are I1, I2, R1a and R1b and the prime Haplogroups for Ham are A, B, E, H, J and R1.
The key Black African Y-DNA Haplogroups are in order of frequency, E, A and B. The E Haplogroup splits into the clades of E1b1a, E1b1b and E2. The primary mtDNA Haplogroups for the Africans include Haplogroups L0 to L6. The main Indian and Pakistani Y-DNA Haplogroups are for India: R1a, H, L, R2 and for Pakistan: R1a, J, L, R2. The principal mtDNA Haplogroups for Cush and Phut are M, U and R.
An intersting split occurs in the Arab world. Those nations to the west in North Africa, have a Y-DNA descending sequence of E1b1b, J1, J2, T/G, [R1b/R1a].
Those Arab nations eastwards in the Arabian Peninsula, Levantine and the Gulf, have nations who possess the same Haplogroups, though the majority in a markedly different order of J1, J2, E1b1b, G/T, [R1a/R1b].
The overview table supports three suppositions. Firstly, there is a clear difference between Arab Y-DNA Haplogroups and those of Europe – as we shall discover – with very high levels of E and J and very low levels of R1a and R1b. Secondly, there is a marked visible difference between the Arabs of North Africa and those of the Middle East – because they are from different sons of Mizra, Anam, Naphtuh and Lud – varying in their type and levels of Haplogroups E and J. Thirdly and related to the previous point, is the fact that Egypt though superficially looking as if it could belong to either group, is actually unique, aside from the Sudan – because it descends from another son of Mizra, Pathros.
‘(a) mtDNA haplogroup distributions (b) Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions.’
The prime mtDNA Haplogroups for Mizra are H, L and J. The Arab peoples possess Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups common to the Black africans, particularly E1b1b and a lesser degree, E1b1a, A and B. They similarly share in small quantities with India, Haplogroups R1a, L and H; while with Pakistan, they share small quantities of R1a, L and H and proportionate levels of Haplogroup J2.
To the south of Egypt, there are nations that include Arabs though they are not necessarily the majority. Black Africans are a substantial part of these populations. Countries such as Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Chad and Sudan.
The spread of Haplogroup E1b1b, M215, is shown below.
Egypt: E1b1b – J1 – J2 – T1 – R1b – G – E1b1a – R1a – A/B –
F [M89] – L – I – Q – K [M9]
Egypt: E1b1b [46%] – J1 [21%] – J2 [6.5%] – T1 [6%] – R1b [6%] –
G [5.5%] – E1b1a [3%] – R1a [2%] – A/B [1.3%] – F [1%] –
L [1%] – I [0.5%] – Q – [0.5%] – K [0.2%]
The Egyptians possess a variety of Haplogroups, though fundamentally their core marker Haplogroups are E1b1b, J1 and J2. Haplogroup E1b1b links them to their sub-Saharan African cousins; J1 to their brothers in the Mid-East and J2 with their cousins in South Asia. Haplogroups E1b1a, A and B represent Black African Haplogroups through admixture.
The approximate six percent of Haplogroup R1b in Egyptians is comprised of R1b-V88 at 2.97% and R1b-M269 also at 2.97%. R1b-V88 is a mutation of R1b found specifically in Arab peoples of Africa and likely the result of historical contact amongst migrating peoples. Whereas, R-M269 is the main R1b Haplogroup spread across Europe. It is found in lesser percentages in the Middle East as evidence of more recent intermarriage.
The nations descended from Anam, lay to the west of Pathros Egypt.
Libya: E1b1b – J1 – J2 – R1b – T1 – F – I – R1a – L – G – K – A/B
Libya: E1b1b [44.5%] – J1 [27.4%] – J2 [6.9%] – R1b [5%] – T [5%] –
F [4.6%] – I [2%] – R1a [1.7%] – L [1.5%] – G [1.1%] – K [0.6%] –
The breakdown of Libya’s R1b is R-V88 at 5.02%, with no R-M269. Thus recent admixture is virtually non-existent compared with historical contact. Libya’s maternal Haplogroups differed from Egypt, though the paternal Haplogroups align. Perhaps the Libyans are composed of a female lineage from Anam and a male line from Pathros.
Tunisia: E1b1b – J1 – J2 – F – R1b – E1b1a – T1 – G – R1a – K – A/B – I
Tunisia: E1b1b [72%] – J1 [16.5%] – J2 [3%] – F [2.6%] – R1b [2.1%] –
E1b1a [1.4%] – T1 [1%] – G [0.5%] – R1a [0.5%] – K [0.3%] –
A/B [0.1%] – I [0.1%]
The breakdown of Tunisia’s R1b is R-V88 at 1.83% and R-M269 at 0.33%.
Algeria: E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – F – K – R1a – Q – G – I
Algeria: E1b1b [59%] – J1 [22%] – R1b [9.5%] – J2 [5%] – F [3.8%] –
K [0.6%] – R1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] – G [0.5%] – I [0.1%]
The breakdown of Algeria’s R1b is R-V88 at 2.56% and R-M269 at 7.04%. Algeria is the opposite to Libya in that it shows more recent admixture.
Morocco: E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – G – A/B – F – I
Morocco: E1b1b [83%] – J1 [6.5%] – R1b [4.5%] – J2 [1.5%] –
G [0.5%] – A/B [0.9%] – F [0.2%] – I [0.1%]
The breakdown of Morocco’s R1b is R-V88 at 0.92% and R-M269 at 3.55%, similar to Algeria. The Berbers also live in Tunisia, the Western Sahara and Mauritania.
According to Reguig in a 2014 study, the Berbers in southern Morocco possess 98.5% E1b1b. An earlier study by Fadhlaoui-Zid in 2011 reported results for Berbers in northern and southern Tunisia of an amazing 100% for Haplogroup E1b1b.
On our journey so far, we have only come across two other peoples untouched by admixture, with a 100% Y-DNA Haplogroup: the Amerindian Mixe of Mexico with 100% of Haplogroup Q; and in part, the Taiwanese Aborigines with 7% O1b, 9% O2a1 and 84% O1a [or 91% O1], adding up to 100% overall for Haplogroup O.
A comparison of the North African nations shows that Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco carry a Y-DNA Haplogroup sequence which differs from that of Egypt; notably in Haplogroups E1b1b, T1 and G. Libya appears to align with Egypt, apart from Haplogroup G. The Libyan population is considerably smaller than the other four nations of North Africa and they live primarily in the west of their nation, close to the Tunisian and Algerian populations. They are included as Anam, though a paternal link with Egypt means they are a mixed people with Pathros. As one heads west, E1b1b increases and Haplogroups J1, J2, T and G in turn, decrease.
E1b1b J1 J2 T G
Libya 45 27 7 5 1
Egypt 46 21 7 6 6
Algeria 59 22 5 0.5
Tunisia 72 17 3 1 0.5
Morocco 83 7 1.5 0.5
Now comparing the nations to the northeast of Egypt:
Syria: J1 – J2 – R1b – E1b1b – R1a – T – G – L – I
Syria: J1 [30%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [13.5%] – E1b1b [11.5%] –
R1a [10%] – T [5%] – G [3%] – I [5%] – L [3%]
Iraq: J1 – J2 – E1b1b – R1b – R1a – I – T1a – G2a – E1b1a – L – N – Q
Iraq: J1 [43%] – J2 [19.5%] – E1b1b [9.5%] – R1b [9.5%] – R1a [5.5%] –
I [4%] – T1a [3.5%] – G2a [2.5%] – E1b1a [0.9%] – L [0.5%] –
Q [0.5%] – N [0.5%]
Iraq’s R1b is R-M269 at 9.8%, with no R-V88, hence admixture with Europeans has been more recent and due to Iraq’s location this is logical.
Kuwait: J1/J2 – R1a – E1b1b – G2a – R1b – T1a – I – H – K – L
Kuwait: J [84%] – R1a [6.7%] – E1b1b [6%] – G [3.4%] – R1b [1.3%]
Kuwait’s Haplogroups are represented by the Bedouin Arab; exhibiting a very high percentage of Haplogroup J.
Lebanon: J2 – J1 – E1b1b – R1b – G – L – T1 – I – L – R1a – Q – N
Lebanon: J2 [26%] – J1 [20%] – E1b1b [17.5%] – R1b [8%] – G [6.5%] –
L [5%] – T [5%] – I [5%] – R1a [2.5%] – Q [2%] – N [0.1]
Jordan: J1 – E1b1b – R1b – J2 – G – I – R1a – T
Jordan: J1 [31%] – E1b1b [26%] – R1b [18%] – J2 [13%] – G [3.5%] –
I [3.5%] – R1a [1.5%] – T [0.5%]
Palestinian Arab: J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1b – T – G – R1a
Palestinian Arab: J1 [38.5%] – E1b1b [19.5%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [8.5%] –
T [7%] – G [3%] – R1a [1.5%]
This grouping is clearly different from those nations lying to the west of Egypt. A number of the nations have a higher percentage of Haplogroup G, similar to Egypt, though unlike the rest of North Africa. Levels of E1b1b are far lower, with Haplogroup J1 being far more prominent than in North Africa. Lebanon stands out as the only nation with more J2 than J1. Haplogroup J2 being associated with West Asian and southern European nations.
J1 J2 E1b1b G T
Lebanon 20 26 18 7 5
Syria 30 17 12 3 5
Jordan 31 13 26 4 0.5
Palestine 39 17 20 3 7
Iraq 43 20 10 3 4
Egypt 21 7 44 6 6
Egypt is even more distinct from this northeast group of Arabic nations. It is similar to some only in the lesser G and T Haplogroups. Aside from Lebanon, the other four peoples are linked with a discernible family alignment.
Comparing the nations to the east of Egypt in the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Arabia: J1 -J2 – E1b1a – E1b1b – T – R1a – G – Q – R1b – L
Saudia Arabia: J1 [40%] – J2 [17%] – E1b1a [8%] – E1b1b [7.5%] –
T [5%] – R1a [5%] – G [3%] – Q [2.5%] – R1b [2%] – L [2%]
The United Arab Emirates
UAE: J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1a – E1b1a – T – G – R1b – L – Q
UAE: J1 [35%] – E1b1b [11.5%] – J2 [10%] – R1a [7.5%] – E1b1a [5%] –
T [5%] – G [4%] – R1b [4%] – L [3%] – Q [2%]
Bahrain: J – E1b1b – R1a – R2a – H – G – K – L – B
Qatar: J – R1a – E1b1b – G – E1b1a [3%] – L – R1b – [R2a] – [B] – [I] – [T]
Qatar: J [67%] – R1a [6.9%] – E1b1b [5.6%] – G [2.8%] – E1b1a [3%] –
L [2.8%] – R1b [1.4%]
Qatar like Kuwait, exhibits a high percentage of Haplogroup J.
Oman: J – E1b1b – R1a – T – G – R1b – L – H
Oman: J [47.9%] – E1b1b [15.7%] – R1a [ 9.1%] – T [8.3%] –
G [1.7%] – R1b [1.7%] – L [0.8%]
Yemen: J1 – E1b1b – J2 – E1b1a – G – R1a – T
Yemen: J1 [72.5%] – E1b1b [13%] – J2 [8.5%] – E1b1a [3%] – G [1.5%]
This grouping is more closely related to the nations northeast of Egypt, though with the subtle difference of the third Haplogroup percentage shifting from R1b to R1a. Comparing Saudi Arabia with Iraq highlights their similarly and the support that both regions located in the Middle East comprise Naphtuh. The nations of North Africa are clearly more closely related as are the nations of the Middle East with the Arabian Peninsula to each other; while Egypt straddles the two regions.
J1 J2 E1b1b G T
UAE 35 10 12 4 5
Saudi Arabia 40 17 8 3 5
Yemen 73 9 13 1.5
Egypt 21 7 44 6 6
Yemen like Morocco is on the fringes of the Arab sphere and as Morocco has the highest levels of E1b1b, Yemen has the highest percentage of J1. Egypt, clearly is not like the others; yet is still obviously related. The lesser defining marker Haplogroups for Arabs are J2, T and G. The prime defining marker Haplogroups for Arabs are E1b1b and J1. Specifically
Haplogroup J1 M267
E1b1b J1 J2 T G J
Kuwait 6 3 84
Qatar 6 3 67
Saudi Arabia 8 40 17 5 3 57
Iraq 10 43 20 4 3 63
Syria 12 30 17 5 3 47
UAE 12 35 10 5 4 45
Yemen 13 73 9 1.5 82
Oman 16 8 2 48
Lebanon 18 20 26 5 7 46
Palestine 20 39 17 7 3 56
Jordan 26 31 13 0.5 4 44
Libya 45 27 7 5 1 34
Egypt 46 21 7 6 6 28
Algeria 59 22 5 0.5 27
Tunisia 72 17 3 1 0.5 20
Morocco 83 7 2 0.5 9
The comparison table shows that as Morocco and Yemen would each bookend the table for Haplogroup J1; it is Kuwait and Morocco who would bookend Haplogroup E1b1b. A combination of J1 and J2 though, highlights Kuwait as one bookend with Morocco for both Haplogroups of J and E. Again, Kuwait is at an extremity of the Arab region like Morocco and Yemen.
Morocco possesses the highest percentage of Haplogroup E1b1b at 83% and Kuwait the lowest with 6%. Yemen has the highest level of J1, at 73% and Morocco the least at 7%. Lebanon has the highest percentage of J2 at 26% and Morocco the least at 2%. For Haplogroup J overall, Kuwait has 84% compared to Morocco with the lowest, at 9%.
The dividing line between North Africa and the Mid-East is clear when observing mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups, with Egypt exactly in the centre. Libya as discussed, sits with North Africa regarding its mtDNA inheritance and with Egypt when comparing its Y-DNA sequence.
Comparing two sets of peoples each from Canaan’s descendants, Nigeria and Ethiopia; Cush, India and Pakistan; and Mizra, Egypt and Saudi Arabia; is revealing, for it displays their uniqueness and relatedness in equal measure.
A/B E1b1a E1b1b J1 J2 H L R1
Nigeria 13 68 4
Ethiopia 11 63
Egypt 1.3 3 46 21 7 1 8
Saudi Arabia 8 8 40 17 2 7
Pakistan 20 6 12 37
India 9 23 18 29
Unlike the seven sons of Japheth as studied in chapters II to X, who have very little variation in their Y-DNA paternal Haplogroup spread. For nearly all his sons carry Haplogroup O as a common denominator. If not O, then Haplogroup C unifies the majority, with Haplogroups K, D and Q playing lesser roles. Not so, with the four sons of Ham. The variation amongst Ham’s sons is the broadest of Noah’s three sons; more so than Shem’s five sons, as we will discover. In fact, it is hard to credit that Ham’s sons, Cush, Phut, Canaan and Mizra all came from him and that they are all brothers; until we put their primary Haplogroups together as in the above table.
Taking the African core Haplogroups A, B and E, these are the defining Canaanite Haplogroups. The Arab core Haplogroups are E and J. The Arabs are clearly related to the sub-Saharan Africans as they share E1b1b, which is a bridge Haplogroup for the two peoples, who are the brothers, Canaan and Mizra. The core Haplogroups for the South Asians are H, J, L and R1. These are the defining Haplogroups for Cush and Phut. Their bridge Haplogroup, which Canaan and Mizra do not exhibit, is H. India and Pakistan also share the bridge Haplogroups J2 and R1 with the Arabs, and so all these equatorial peoples are linked or bonded through the key bridge Haplogroups: E1b1b, J2, H1a and R1.
It is the Arabs, who non-coincidentally lie between the two, who have genetic material in common with Africans as much as they do with South Asians. Nigeria and India are polar opposites, though Egypt bridges the gap. This bears out the second point in the introduction regarding nations living adjacent to peoples who they are more closely related to, a concentric geography. All are brother nations as the sons of Ham: Mizra, Canaan, Phut and Cush.
Fools are rewarded with nothing but more foolishness, but the wise are rewarded with knowledge.
Proverbs 14:18 New Century Version
“I don’t imagine you will dispute the fact that at present the stupid people are in an absolutely overwhelming majority all the world over.”
“In the end truth always wins.”
George F Jowett
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