The true Identity and Origin of Germany & Austria – Ishmael & Hagar

Chapter XXVIII

The identity of Ishmael has become complicated due to the subterfuge of an incorrect ancestral claim as we have discussed [refer Chapter XIV Mizra]. When Mohammed captured Arabia in 620 CE, he used passages from the Book of Genesis to claim that the Arabs were God’s people Ishmael and then established Islam as a religion. Added to this, Ishmael’s position as firstborn son to Abraham, yet to his wife’s handmaiden – Hagar was not a concubine – meant that he would not be the recipient of the firstborn blessings. We can make a strong assumption that Hagar and Keturah were from similar stock of probably not Nahor, possibly Haran, quite likely from a line of Peleg or most likely from another son of Arphaxad, Anar or Ashcol [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. The reason for this, is that Ishmael not only lived to the east in the Arabian wilderness, between Keturah’s sons and Joktan’s sons; but crucially, is more closely related to Keturah than Isaac’s children as evidenced by Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups. 

Today, the true descendants of Ishmael comprise the modern nation of Germany. Just as in the ancient past, Germany is sandwiched between the nations today in the west descended from Keturah and to the east by the nations from Joktan. The close geographic relationship between the Dutch of the Netherlands and the Germans of Deutschland was evident anciently when they were known as Hivites and Hittites. The original people of Hatti were in the main descendants of Nahor – Northern and Central Italians today. The Hatti migrated from Anatolia southeastwards when Ishmael’s people grew larger and pressed into their land. The Ishmaelites appropriated their territory and name and it is they, who are the later Hittites, that people are most familiar. The mighty nation and formidable military machine that dwelt to the west of the other historic imperialist state of the time – Assyria. 

The geographic, cultural and ethnic closeness shared between the two, explains the interplay between the names Midianite and Ishmaelite, sharing the family name of Midian. Today, both peoples can be called Germanic, as can a number of other nations – ranging from Austria in the east to England in the west, all part of the same family tree. The peoples of Ishmael and Keturah dwelt together in the wilderness – or the Arabian Peninsula – and are the original Arabians in the Bible. They did not become Arabs as we have studied. In Herman Hoeh’s article, he addresses Ishmael and shows the prevalent view that has so strongly taken hold:

‘Abraham’s firstborn son was Ishmael (Genesis 16:15). His descendants are called Arabs today. They still remember that they are descended from Abram’s son Ishmael. Ask any Arab. He’ll tell you so! Whenever you see the name “Ishmael,” or any name of Ishmael’s sons (Genesis 25:12-18), you will know that the prophecy is referring to the Arabs today. The Arabs have spread from Arabia throughout North Africa and eastward into the Far East. There is trouble in the Near East between Jordan and the Jews. Here is why.’

The Book of Jubilees describes the geographic proximity of the Ishmaelites and of the Sons of Keturah in chapter 20:12-13, “And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites.” 

Later, the mighty entity we call Rome, evolved and slowly enveloped the Etruscan state as it outgrew its boundaries – as it had done with the Hatti in Asia Minor. In modern times, the German states that formed modern Germany in 1870-1871 were also a sprawling borderless geographic area. The German concept of greater living space or lebensraum, particularly from 1871 to 1940 means German boundaries were continually expanding and changing. Adolf Hitler: “It is eastwards, only and always eastwards, that the veins of our race must expand. It is the direction which Nature herself has decreed for the expansion of the German peoples.”

Our study of Haran and his descendants, which include the Swiss means they are not as ‘German’ as we might have assumed [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. The Swiss resolutely do not identify with a ‘German’ tag. The Austrians on the other hand, are a different proposition to Switzerland. I recall a survey, which revealed that sixty percent of Austrians viewed themselves as being German – in other words, the same as Germans living in Germany. 

This is revealing, for the Austrians share Hagar as a mother with Ishmael or Germany. The two peoples are half brothers by their mother; as Germany-Ishmael is a half brother by his father Abraham with Keturah’s descendants, which include Denmark, the Netherlands and the other northwestern European nations comprising Scandinavia and the Low countries [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. We first read of Hagar and Ishmael in Genesis chapter Sixteen. We will concentrate on Hagar initially. It is alleged by Arab tradition that Pharaoh – Djer, the 3rd King of the 1st Dynasty, ruling from 1922 – 1868 BCE according to an unconventional chronology – had given Hagar to Sarai from his royal household in recompense for his transgression. It is very possible that Hagar was not a mere servant or concubine but rather, a daughter of the Pharaoh and a royal princess.

Genesis 16:1-15

English Standard Version

Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. She had a female Egyptian servant whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said to Abram, “Behold now, the Lord has prevented me from bearing children. Go in to my servant; it may be that I shall obtain children by her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. 3 So, after Abram had lived ten years [1902-1892 BCE] in the land of Canaan, Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her servant, and gave her to Abram her husband as a wife [not literally, but sexually as a wife]. 4 And he went in to Hagar, and she conceived. And when she saw that she had conceived, she looked with contempt on her mistress. 5 And Sarai said to Abram, “May the wrong done to me be on you! I gave my servant to your embrace, and when she saw that she had conceived, she looked on me with contempt. May the Lord judge between you and me!” 6 But Abram said to Sarai, “Behold, your servant is in your power; do to her as you please.” Then Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her. 7 The angel of the Lord found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring on the way to Shur. 8 And he said, “Hagar, servant of Sarai, where have you come from and where are you going?” She said, “I am fleeing from my mistress Sarai.” 9 The angel of the Lord said to her, “Return to your mistress and submit to her.” 

It is clear that there is no love lost between Sarai and Hagar, why the animosity, one can only speculate. It certainly intensified after Hagar conceived. The angel of the Lord did not speak with anyone that the Creator was not working with or had regard for. Hagar was wrong to be joyful over conceiving and gloating, thinking she had one over Sarai. Though we do not know what she had gone through to have that reaction.

Hagar was probably younger and possibly thought it would obtain her favour with Abram and lead to her and their son achieving a greater status in Abram’s family. One does not have to read long though, to appreciate that Abram only had eyes for Sarai. Later, when Hagar and Ishmael are cast out, the Creator again intervenes to spare their lives and ensure that their futures are safe and prosperous. The Book of Jasher contains a parallel account of Hagar’s first banishment in chapter Sixteen:

Jasher 16:25-36

25 For Hagar learned all the ways of Sarai as Sarai taught her, she was not in any way deficient in following her good ways. 26 And Sarai said to Abram, Behold here is my handmaid Hagar, go to her that she may bring forth upon my knees, that I may also obtain children through her… 29 And when Hagar saw that she had conceived she rejoiced greatly, and her mistress was despised in her eyes, and she said within herself, This can only be that I am better before God than Sarai my mistress, for all the days that my mistress has been with my lord, she did not conceive, but me the Lord has caused in so short a time to conceive by him. 30 And when Sarai saw that Hagar had conceived by Abram, Sarai was jealous of her handmaid, and Sarai said within herself, This is surely nothing else but that she must be better than I am. 33… and Sarai afflicted her, and Hagar fled from her to the wilderness. 34 And an angel of the Lord found her in the place where she had fled, by a well, and he said to her, Do not fear… now then return to Sarai thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 35 And Hagar called the place of that well Beer-lahai-roi, it is between Kadesh and the wilderness of Bered. 36 And Hagar at that time returned to her master’s house…

Genesis 21:14 

English Standard Version

So Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a skin of water and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, along with the child, and sent her away. And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. 

This incident came under the umbrella of, ‘it seemed a good idea at the time.’ The ultimate sending Hagar and Ishmael away, left them in a story state, ‘wandering in the wilderness.’ As mentioned previously in our discourse, if a people are mentioned more than once in the Bible, they are more than a territory or region, they have become an identifiable people or nation in their own right. This is what happened to Hagar. Reading between the lines, she obviously continued raising Ishmael who was a young teen. At a certain point she would have met a man who took her as a wife and had at least one child, a son with her. This son’s name is not given, though his descendants are in the Bible as Hagrites or Hagarenes. The only nation today that is smaller than Ishmael, yet easily identifiable as related as Hagar, is the nation of Austria.

Christian Churches of God in their article No. 212C, 2007 state: ‘The question as to whether Hagar remarried and had other children is considered by some to be a matter of conjecture. The question as to whether the Hagarites are the descendants of Ishmael, Hagar’s first-born or only son, or the sons of another tribe altogether is still to be solved. Perhaps the advances in DNA will tell us the definite solution once the tribes are properly identified and tested.’ Well, we can know now by studying the Austrian and German Haplogroups.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Hagar meaning: ‘flight, to be dragged off, pressed into service’ from a verb (hagar), to flee… the verb (garar), ‘sojourner, to drag out or away.’ From the Persian/ Greek verb (aggareuo), ‘to press into service…’ meaning mounted messenger (a royal courier who could requisite or press into service whatever he needed to deliver his message faster), which in turn is thought to be the source of the familiar noun (aggelos), meaning ‘messenger’ or ‘angel.’ 

‘Hagar travels south, possibly to go home to Egypt, but loses her way. The verb used to describe her “wandering” about in the wilderness of Beersheba is (ta’a), to err, go astray. A derivation of this verb is (to’a), error. Hagar wanders the desert until her supplies run out. Desponded and exhausted, Hagar abandons her son so that she won’t have to watch him die, and sits down a bow shot away from the boy to cry. Curiously, not her cries but the cries of the boy reach heaven, and God shows up. For the second time the Angel of YHWH speaks to Hagar, and promises her that Ishmael will be a great nation. God opens her eyes and she sees the well of Beersheba. This is fortunate for two reasons. First of all she and Ishmael now have water, but they also know again where they are. Quickened Hagar and Ishmael resume their journey. 

Ishmael becomes an archer and lives in the wilderness of Paran (in the Sinai desert between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba) with his Egyptian wife whom Hagar has obtained for him. Hagar becomes the grandmother of twelve princes, who form the great nation that God promised. That nation is not really named in Scriptures…[Ishmaelites, Hittites] Ishmael’s sons do not become the rivals of Israel as one may expect [they take a back seat to Moab, Ammon, the Midianites and Edom because geographically they are separated]. His son Kedar gets mentioned for their signature black tents, once positive in the Song of Solomon (1:5), and once negative by king David in Psalm 120:5. The prophet Isaiah mentions Ishmael’s first born son Nebaioth and his brother Kedar among the nations that will be gathered up into the Kingdom of God (Isaiah 60:7).

Although Hagar is an Egyptian, her name appears to be Semetic [correct, as descended from Arphaxad (the ruling class of Egypt) not Mizra (the actual Egyptians)]. If indeed so… the verb… is not used in the Bible and its meaning is subsequently unknown. NOBSE Study Bible… insist that the verb means to flee. BDB Theological Dictionary refers to the Arabic equivalent, meaning forsake or retire. An Arabic noun derived of this root serves as the name for Mohammed’s famous flight, the Hegira.’

1 Chronicles 5:18-20

English Standard Version

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh had valiant men who carried shield and sword, and drew the bow, expert in war, 44,760, able to go to war. 19 They waged war against the Hagrites, Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and he granted their urgent plea because they trusted in him.

1 Chronicles 5:10

English Standard Version

And in the days of Saul they waged war against the Hagrites, who fell into their hand. And they lived in their tents throughout all the region east of Gilead.

1 Chronicles 27:30-31

English Standard Version

30 Over the camels was Obil the Ishmaelite [German]; and over the donkeys was Jehdeiah the Meronothite. Over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagrite [Austrian]. 31 All these were stewards of King David’s property.

Psalm 83:6-8

English Standard Version

6… the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites [Germany], Moab [France] and the Hagrites [Austria], 7 Gebal and Ammon [French Quebec] and Amalek, Philistia [Spanish Latin America] with the inhabitants of Tyre [Brazil]; 8 Asshur [Russia] also has joined them; they [Russia] are the strong arm of the children of Lot [Moab & Ammon].

Psalm 83:6

Young’s Literal Translation

… Tents of Edom, and Ishmaelites, Moab, and the Hagarenes…

The Hagrites are mentioned as distinct people from Ishmael. Jetur and Naphish were sons of Ishmael. Jaziz the Hagrite oversaw the flocks – goats, sheep and cattle – of King David. Though Psalm 83:6-8 is non-prophetical and a listing of the chief enemies at the time of king David, they are indicative of the future European alliance against the sons of Jacob, as represented by Eber in Numbers 24:24; including the Hagrites.

Austria is mainly a mountainous landlocked country and with Switzerland, forms what has been characterised as the neutral core of Europe, gaining permanent neutrality in 1955. Austria has a population of 9,100,284 people; less than Sweden and more than Switzerland. Part of Austria’s prominence can be attributed to its geographic position at the centre of European traffic between east and west along the Danubian trade route, as well as north and south, through the Alpine passes. The capital of Austria is historic Vienna or Wien, the former seat of the Holy Roman Empire. 

Austria was first a prefecture, a margraviate formed from former territory of Bavaria; developing into a duchy and then an archduchy. In the sixteenth century, Austria rose to prominence via the Hapsburg – or Habsbur – Monarchy. The House of Hapsburg being one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. ‘Not only did the house occupy the throne of the Holy Roman Empire continuously between 1438 and 1740, it also occupied the thrones of the Kingdoms of Bohemia, England and Ireland (as a result of the marriage between King Philippe II of Spain and Mary I of England), Germany, Croatia, Hungary, Portugal, Spain as well as the second Mexican Empire and several Dutch and Italian principalities.’

Early in the nineteenth century, Austria established its own empire, becoming a great power and the driving force of the German Confederation. After its defeat in the  Austro-Prussian War of 1866 for hegemony of the German states, it sought its own course. In 1867, Austria formed an Austria-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Following WWI, a Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed – a union with Germany – but the victorious allied powers did not recognise the new state. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the Third German Reich, annexed Austria by the Anschluss – union. 

The German name for Austria, Osterreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrichi, which means ‘eastern realm.’ The word ‘Austria’ is a Latinisation of the German name; first recorded in the twelfth century and at the time, Upper and Lower Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria. German is the country’s official language, though many Austrians also speak a variety of Bavarian dialects. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Austrian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$28.9 billion
  2. Electrical machinery, equipment: $18.9 billion 
  3. Vehicles: $16.4 billion 
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $11.8 billion
  5. Plastics, plastic articles: $7.5 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $5.8 billion 
  7. Wood: $5.3 billion 
  8. Articles of iron or steel: $5.2 billion 
  9. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $4.8 billion 
  10. Paper, paper items: $4.5 billion 

Electrical machinery and equipment was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 16.4% from 2019 to 2020. The only other two top categories to gain were wood (up 6.1%) and pharmaceuticals (up 4.6%).’

Continuing with the Book of Genesis and the story of Ishmael.

Genesis 16:1-15

English Standard Version

10 The angel of the Lord also said to [Hagar], “I will surely multiply your offspring so that they cannot be numbered for multitude.” 11 And the angel of the Lord said to her, “Behold, you are pregnant and shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, because the Lord has listened to your affliction. 

12 He shall be a wild [H6501* – pere: running wild, wild ass] donkey of a man, his hand against everyone and everyone’s hand against him, and he shall dwell over against [H6440 – paniym: before, amongst, toward, in the presence of] all his kinsmen.” 13 So she called the name of the Lord who spoke to her, “You are a God of seeing,” for she said, “Truly here I have seen him who looks after me.”14 Therefore the well was called Beer-lahai-roi; it lies between Kadesh and Bered. 15 And Hagar bore [1891 BCE] Abram a son, and Abram called the name of his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael.

We learn of Ishmael’s key traits in identifying him. His posterity were to become large. We are not looking for a small nation in western Europe, related to the Dutch, French and Italians. The interlinear does not include the word donkey. It is added because the Hebrew word for wild* is used elsewhere in connection with a wild ass or donkey. In this context it is mis-leading as Ishmael is not an out-of-control individual. He is energetic, forceful, his own man, with a ‘fiercely independent spirit’ over his family; though he is stubborn, a hunter and predatory. Other translations assist in the meaning of these verses.

New English Translation

He will be hostile to everyone, and everyone will be hostile to him…

New Century Version

“Ishmael… will be against everyone, and everyone will be against him. He will attack all his brothers.”

Common English Bible

“… he will fight everyone, and they will fight him. He will live at odds with all his relatives.”

The Message

“He’ll be a… real fighter, fighting and being fought, Always stirring up trouble, always at odds with his family.”

The Germans have fought wars against most of the major powers of Europe, past and present: Russia, Austria, France and England in evidence of their hostility. Germany has also invaded or attacked: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Austria – all his half-brothers. The more distant cousins of Poland, Czechoslovakia and so forth have not escaped Ishmael’s aggression. Germany dwells in the presence or amongst his brethren and borders: Denmark, the Netherlands, Flanders, Wallonia, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland. 

Verse twelve of Genesis chapter sixteen has been used by commentators to describe the Arab nations and on the surface it is a convincing fit. There are two, sizeable flaws in this argument. One, Ishmael was not predicted to be more than one nation in the past or the future – East and West Germany not withstanding. The twelve sons of Ishmael are similar to Nahor’s twelve sons, in that Germany like Italy was a region, then a confederation of many states for centuries before forming one distinct nation in 1871, following Italy in 1861 [refer Chapter XXV Nahor]. 

Two, the reader who has not overly skimmed or skipped ahead, will know with a good measure of surety, that we are searching for a nation that is kith and kin to those of western Europe and cannot, repeat cannot, be those people dwelling in north Africa or the Middle East [refer Chapter XIV Mizra]. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Ishmael Meaning: God Hears from (1) the verb (shama’), to hear, and (2) the word (‘el), God.

There are a surprising six men named Ishmael in the Bible:

  • The most famous Ishmael is the son of Abraham with Hagar.
  • A descendant of Jonathan (1 Chronicles 8:38).
  • The father of Zebadiah (2 Chronicles 19:11).
  • An officer under Joash (2 Chronicles 23:3).
  • The murderer of Gedaliah the Babylonian governor over the remnant in Judah (2 Kings 25:25).
  • A priest who divorced his foreign wife (Ezra 10:22).

Note that the proper ethnonym (Ishmaelite) occurs only once (1 Chronicles 2:17), and comes with a shorter version, which occurs just once… (1 Chronicles 27:30). The collective plural occurs six times (Genesis 37:25, 37:27, 37:28, 39:1, Judges 8:24 and Psalm 83:6). The name Ishmael consists of two elements. The first part comes from the verb (shama’), meaning to hear: The verb (shama’) means to hear and may also mean to understand or obey. The second part of the name Ishmael is (El)… that is Elohim, or God… The name Ishmael means He Will Hear God (Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names)…’

Genesis 17:15-25

English Standard Version

15 And God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name. 16 I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall come from her.” 17 Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said to himself, “Shall a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?” 18 And Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before you!” 19 God said, “No, but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring after him. 20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and multiply him greatly. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great [H1419 – gadowl: in ‘magnitude, extent’ and ‘importance’] nation. 21 But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this time next year.” 22 When he had finished talking with him, God went up from Abraham. 

23 Then Abraham took Ishmael his son and all those born in his house or bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins that very day, as God had said to him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 

Abraham laughed an incredulous laugh. He did not have a disrespectful or disbelieving laugh; otherwise the Creator would have hauled him up for it. We learn that Abraham not only believed Ishmael had been provided as the son of promise, we also learn that his relationship with Ishmael was a close bond, so much so that Abraham was not desperate for another son and would have gladly had the birthright promises given to Ishmael. This is important to understand, as it impacts the events that follow. As Abraham’s intimate relationship with the Creator was remarkable, as his very friend, it lent itself to the Creator listening to Abraham and granting his wish as best as could be fulfilled, without impinging on the promises too Isaac.

The Creator says He will make Ishmael fruitful, multiply him greatly and make him a great nation. The word ‘fruitful’ means materially blessed. True to His word, the Creator has kept his promise to Abraham. The German nation is the fourth biggest economy in the world and up until recently the third largest. ‘Multiply greatly’ is reflected in that Germany has the second highest population in Europe behind Russia and the third highest European descended population after the United States and Russia. Germany’s status as a ‘great’ nation is beyond question. Germany’s scientific, industrial, commercial and cultural impact on western civilisation has been considerable. 

There are three superpower regions in the world, North America, China and a German led Europe. What is interesting in this equation, is that we have read the verse in the Book of Numbers revealing the ships of or from, Kittim-Indonesia going against Asshur and Eber. Now Eber represents western Europe. A German led, united Europe in league with Russia, could well and probably will be, the preeminent superpower of our far future. 

Ishmael was included as part of Abraham’s household in the requisite to be circumcised. He was included in the covenant blessing to all those that chose to follow ‘the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.’ Should Ishmael have chosen to follow a path closer to the one intended for Isaac, that Isaac’s descendants have not been overly successful in walking, Ishmael’s descendants would have been the recipients of yet even greater blessings.

Genesis 21:1-21

English Standard Version

The Lord visited Sarah as he had said, and the Lord did to Sarah as he had promised. 2 And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age at the time of which God had spoken to him. 3 Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah bore him, Isaac. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old [the blood coagulates the most on this day, as it a peak of vitamin K production], as God had commanded him. 5 Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him [1877 BCE]. 6 And Sarah said, “God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh over me.” 7 And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.” 

8 And the child grew and was weaned. And Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned. 9 But Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, laughing. 10 So she said to Abraham, “Cast out this slave woman with her son, for the son of this slave woman shall not be heir with my son Isaac.” 11 And the thing was very displeasing to Abraham on account of his son. 12 But God said to Abraham, “Be not displeased because of the boy and because of your slave woman. Whatever Sarah says to you, do as she tells you, for through Isaac shall your offspring be named. 13 And I will make a nation of the son of the slave woman also, because he is your offspring.” 

The Book of Jubilees also records the account:

17:4 And Sarah saw Ishmael playing and dancing, and Abraham rejoicing with great joy, and she became jealous of Ishmael and said to Abraham, ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman will not be heir with my son, Isaac.’ 

14  So Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a skin of water and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, along with the child, and sent her away. And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. 15 When the water in the skin was gone, she put the child under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went and sat down opposite him a good way off, about the distance of a bowshot, for she said, “Let me not look on the death of the child.” And as she sat opposite him, she lifted up her voice and wept. 

17 And God heard the voice of the boy, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, “What troubles you, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is. 18 Up! Lift up the boy, and hold him fast with your hand, for I will make him into a great nation.” 19 Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. And she went and filled the skin with water and gave the boy a drink. 20 And God was with the boy, and he grew up. He lived in the wilderness and became an expert with the bow. 21 He lived in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother took a wife for him from the land of Egypt.

We learn much from this chapter but are left scratching our head a little too. The word laughing can be more correctly translated as scoffing or mocking. Ishmael was sixteen or seventeen or so if Isaac was about two or three. For whatever reason, Sarah perceived it as sinister and a continued threat towards Isaac. Possibly, it went beyond a one time joke and may have shown a reoccurring pattern that had become a concern. Either Ishmael was bullying Isaac; unfairly using his age as an advantage, or he was merely playing with Isaac as if on an equal footing and it was mis-understood by Sarah because of her possible attitude towards Hagar. 

The Apostle Paul mentions the incident, expanding it further in Galatians 4:28-31, ESV: “Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of promise. But just as at that time he [Ishmael] who was born according to the flesh persecuted him [Isaac] who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. But what does the Scripture say? “Cast out the slave woman and her son, for the son of the slave woman shall not inherit with the son of the free woman.” So, brothers, we are not children of the slave but of the free woman.” The Greek word persecuted can mean ‘to put to flight; to chase away; to pursue.’

Abraham’s fondness for Ishmael meant he did not take the news well. The Creator  explains to Abraham that Sarah is reading the situation correctly and to send Hagar and Ishmael away. Not just Hagar, but Ishmael also had a relationship with the Creator, for his prayers are heard and answered and ‘God was with the boy.’ Ishmael became an expert hunter-soldier, though not in the vein of Nimrod. His wife from Egypt again, was most likely similarly related to Hagar and her pedigree.

Galatians 4:22-26

English Standard Version

22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one [Ishmael] by a slave woman and one [Isaac] by a free woman. 23 But the son of the slave was born according to the flesh, while the son of the free woman was born through promise. 24 Now this may be interpreted allegorically: these women are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery; she is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia; she corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother.

Genesis 28:8-9

English Standard Version

8 So when Esau saw that the Canaanite women did not please Isaac his father, 9 Esau went to Ishmael and took as his wife, besides the wives he had, Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth.

Genesis 36:3

English Standard Version

 … and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, the sister of Nebaioth.

Esau, eldest son of Isaac and elder brother of Jacob married Canaanite women and so to appease his father and mother, married a daughter of Ishmael, to keep it in the family so-to-speak. She has two different names in two separate records in Genesis which we will address when studying Esau [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. Ishmael’s twelve sons are listed in Genesis and the more prominent are mentioned in the Old Testament. Those in italics are mentioned once outside of this listing; those in bold, more than once. 

Genesis 25:12-18

English Standard Version

12 These are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s servant, bore to Abraham. 

13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, named in the order of their birth: Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael; and Kedar, Adbeel [grief of God], Mibsam [sweet smell], 14 Mishma [rumour], Dumah, Massa, 15 Hadad [thunder], Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah [eastward]. 

16 These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names, by their villages and by their encampments, twelve princes according to their tribes. 17 (These are the years of the life of Ishmael: 137 years. He breathed his last and died [1754 BCE], and was gathered to his people.) 18 They settled from Havilah [Poland] to Shur [the area between Mizra and Shem, Mediterranean Sea today], which is opposite Egypt [North Africa] in the direction of Assyria [Russia]. He settled over against all his kinsmen [Keturah, Scandinavia and the Low countries].

Germany has sixteen states or federated Lander, though three of them are city-states, Berlin the Capital included with Brandenburg, Hamburg and Bremen both included with Lower Saxony [Niedersachsen]. As Saarland is the smallest state and has a lower population density, I am including it with Rhineland-Palatinate [Rheinland-Pfalz]. This leaves a convenient twelve states. There are three dominant sons, then four quite prominent sons to match with the current German States, plus the remaining five. 

1 Chronicles 5:18-20

English Standard Version

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites… 19 … waged war against the Hagrites [Austria], Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands…

Jetur’s definition means, ‘defence, to border, succession’ and ‘mountainous*.’ Naphish means ‘revival, expansion’ from the noun nepesh, ‘breath of life.’ It can also mean ‘numerous, increase’ and ‘refreshment.’ Two states that strongly fit the profile for Jetur and Naphish, as they have wealth, high populations and are linguistically and culturally very similar to Austria-Hagar, with much in common and a high probability of ethnic admixture. Firstly, Bavaria or Bayern and its principal cities of Munich and Nuremberg. Bavaria has the second highest population, with nearly thirteen million people coupled with being the second wealthiest state in Germany. Bavaria is the largest state by area and is also mountainous* in the south. Baden-Wurttemberg and its principal city, Stuttgart is a high population state of nearly eleven million people – the third highest – and is also the third wealthiest state in Germany.

Isaiah 21:11

English Standard Version

The oracle concerning Dumah. One is calling to me from Seir [Edom], “Watchman, what time of the night? Watchman, what time of the night?”

Dumah means ‘[deadly] silence’ derived from the noun duma, ‘silence of death’.

Proverbs 31:1

English Standard Version

The words of King Lemuel. An oracle that his mother taught him:

As with Agur in Proverbs chapter Thirty, we do not know who King Lemuel is as he is not recorded in the list of the kings of Judah or Israel. He is a king though who put his trust in the Creator, the Covenant God of Israel and through the fear of the Lord learned wisdom. The name Lemuel means ‘belonging to God.’ With a minor punctuation change, it can be translated as CEB: “The words of King Lemuel of Massa, which his mother taught him…”

Massa was the seventh son of Ishmael and his name means ‘to lift up’ from the verb,  nasa. It can also mean ‘load’ and in this translation ‘burden’ or ‘oracle.’ King Lemuel is believed by some commentators to have been a king of Massa from Ishmael. 

Two states that may fit Dumah and Massa include Hesse or Hessen – the fifth richest state and containing the wealthiest city in Germany, the financial hub of Frankfurt am Main and the Rhineland-Palatinate with Saarland. Tema, the ninth born son is mentioned three times in the Bible. Tema means ‘south country’ from the root ymn, meaning ‘the right hand side, the southern direction’ also ‘admiration, perfection’ and ‘consummation.’

Job 6:19

English Standard Version

The caravans of Tema look, the travellers of Sheba [Flanders] hope.

Jeremiah 25:23-24

English Standard Version

23 Dedan [Wallonia, Brussels, Luxembourg], Tema, Buz [Northern Italy], and all who cut the corners of their hair; 24 all the kings of Arabia [northwestern Europe] and all the kings of the mixed tribes [Joktan] who dwell in the desert [eastern Europe]…

These verses link Tema with Belgium and northern Italy in trade and wealth. Coincidently, it was Roman soldiers who had their hair cut short, in contrast to other warring nations who had longer hair. 

Tema equates to Lower Saxony and the principal city states of Hamburg, Bremen and the city of Hanover. Lower Saxony is the second largest state by area and has the fourth highest population, with approximately eight million people. Hamburg has 1,787,408 people and Bremen has 557,464 people. Lower Saxony borders the Netherlands – Midian. The biggest farms are located in this state and Hamburg is the second biggest city in Germany after Berlin; it is the biggest port in Germany and the third busiest in all Europe. Bremen is the fourth busiest port behind Hamburg, Antwerp in Belgium is second and Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the busiest. These cities represent the traders oft mentioned in the Bible; from Ishmael, Midian, Sheba and Dedan. 

Isaiah 21:13-17

English Standard Version

13 The oracle concerning Arabia. In the thickets in Arabia you will lodge, O caravans of Dedanites [southern Belgium].14 To the thirsty bring water; meet the fugitive with bread, O inhabitants of the land of Tema. 

Notice the mention of water and the link with the city-ports of Hamburg and Bremen.

15 For they have fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, from the bent bow, and from the press of battle. 16 For thus the Lord said to me, “Within a year, according to the years of a hired worker, all the glory of Kedar will come to an end. 17 And the remainder of the archers of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar will be few, for the Lord, the God of Israel, has spoken.”

Kedar means ‘dark, turbid’ from the verb qadar, ‘to become dark’ also ‘blackness, sorrow.’ Turbid means, ‘cloudy, murky, opaque.’ Kedar is the second son of Ishmael and is mentioned the most frequently. He was a leader, warlike and military proficient and driven. It is a hint of and a precursor to, the militaristic capabilities of the Prussians. Kedar and Tema are linked in these verses as the two most dominant families and we find that Kedar and Tema are in fact neighbouring states.

Isaiah 60:6-7

English Standard Version

6  A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian [Netherlands] and Ephah [Holland]; all those from Sheba [northern Belgium]shall come. They shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall bring good news, the praises of the Lord. 7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to you; the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; they shall come up with acceptance on my altar, and I will beautify my beautiful house.

The wealth of second born son, Kedar and his influence is expressed with the firstborn son Nebaioth. Nebaioth is linked with Kedar – as Kedar is with Tema – and each are very likely located in northern Germany today, as speakers of Low German and the descendants of the Prussians. Nebaioth equates with the Capital Berlin; coupled with the state of Brandenburg. 

Ishmael has historically maintained a geographic and military closeness with Asshur, and so it is no coincidence that they lived adjacent to each other in the baltic region, becoming known as Prussians and Russians respectively.

Ezekiel 27:20-21

English Standard Version

20 Dedan [southern Belgium] traded with you in saddlecloths for riding. 21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your favored dealers in lambs, rams, and goats; in these they did business with you.

Kedar equates with North Rhine-Westphalia or Nordrhein-Westfalen, which is the richest state in Germany and has the highest population with nearly eighteen million people. Bonn was the capital of the old West Germany and four of the biggest cities in Germany are located there: Cologne, Dusseldorf, Dortmund and Essen. The total population of Germany is 84,272,659 people, the second highest in Europe and nineteenth highest in the world.

Psalm 120:5-6

English Standard Version

5 Woe to me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar! 6 Too long have I had my dwelling among those who hate peace.

Kedar, the west north west of Germany is compared to Meshech in the southeast of China, as peoples of war and not for the faint-hearted traveller or immigrant. 

Song of Solomon 1:5

English Standard Version

I am very dark, but lovely, O daughters of Jerusalem, like the tents of Kedar, like the curtains of Solomon.

Kedar means dark and the history of modern Germany has been dark. The state flags of Germany have a colour of black theme running through six of them, the current national flag contains black, as did the older flags of Imperial Germany and Prussia.

Isaiah 42:10-12

English Standard Version

10 Sing to the Lord a new song, his praise from the end of the earth… 11 Let the desert  [eastern Europe] and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits; let the habitants of Sela sing for joy, let them shout from the top of the mountains. 12 Let them give glory to the Lord…

A future, peaceful and happier time for the peoples of Kedar is predicted.

Jeremiah 2:10

English Standard Version

For cross to the coasts of Cyprus [Kitt-im – Indonesia] and see, or send to Kedar and examine with care; see if there has been such a thing.

Kedar is again associated with war, as ships will come from Kitt-im-Indonesia against Asshur-Russia and Eber or Western Europe, led by Ishmael-Germany. 

Jeremiah 49:28-33

English Standard Version

28 Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon struck down. Thus says the Lord: “Rise up, advance against Kedar! Destroy the people of the east! 29 Their tents and their flocks shall be taken, their curtains and all their goods; their camels shall be led away from them, and men shall cry to them: ‘Terror on every side!’ 30 Flee, wander far away, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Hazor! declares the Lord. For Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has made a plan against you and formed a purpose against you. 31 “Rise up, advance against a nation at ease, that dwells securely, declares the Lord, that has no gates or bars, that dwells alone [H910 – badad: securely, in safety, in ‘freedom from attack’].32 Their camels shall become plunder, their herds of livestock a spoil. I will scatter to every wind those who cut the corners of their hair, and I will bring their calamity from every side of them, declares the Lord. 33 Hazor shall become a haunt of jackals, an everlasting waste; no man shall dwell there; no man shall sojourn in her.”

It is not clear who Hazor is though they are linked to Kedar. The name Hazor means ‘Village, Trumpet, Enclosure’ from the verb hasar, ‘to begin to cluster or gather.’ The word can also mean ‘fence’ or ‘castle.’ The verses indicate that they are close to the sea, with the nearest being the Wadden Sea or North Sea.

The idea that the modern nation of Germany is Assyria can be traced to Edward Hine in 1870, an early proponent of British Israelism. Edward Hine compared ancient Assyria and Israel to nineteenth century Britain and Germany. John Wilson in 1840, ‘the intellectual founder of British Israelism’ considered that all Germanic people – including the Dutch and Scandinavians – descended from the tribes of Israel. British Israelites did not necessarily welcome Hine’s solution – maintaining that other northwestern European nations were also descended from Israel; who believed all the tribes of Israel were located in Britain, with Manasseh migrating to America. ‘Hine had identified the Ten Tribes as being together in Britain in that Ephraim were the drunkards and ritualists, Reuben the farmers, Dan the mariners, [Zebulun] the lawyers and writers, Asher the soldiers’ and so forth and ‘that these tribes were regional or local people in Britain.’

All the theories have merit in that Wilson recognised the familial similarities between the northwestern European nations as did British Israelites, even though they mis-identified the continental people. Hine as it turns out was the most correct regarding Israel; then he went out on a tangent in identifying Germany as Assyria. Hine rightly believed that the ancient peoples recorded in the Bible must also be identifiable in our modern age, if the Bible is true and prophecy is to be fulfilled. Hine postulated that if a people were ‘lost’ then it meant that they had migrated to new regions, relevant exonyms and autonyms had evolved or changed and their histories long forgotten. 

Unfortunately, as with Anglo-Israelism itself, any proposed German-Assyrian connections do not gain any support amongst mainstream historians, anthropologists, ethnologists, archaeologists or linguists. I would have to agree with the mainstream experts, as the theories presented are all wrong to some degree and have not done the discipline any favours. The hope is that a gradual sea-change can occur. The fast-growing fascination developing amongst the public regarding their individual genetic identity and Haplogroup ancestry is hopefully just the tip, of a very big ice-berg of people beginning to understand and appreciate the compelling data on ethnic diversity – not only specific to them but on a national scale – as addressed in this work.

Apart from Assyria, a growing teaching amongst knowledgeable identity adherents, is that Germany or at least in part, is descended from either Jacob’s son, Judah or Gad. Though these too are inaccurate, it is encouraging to see that people are beginning to shake off the longstanding, mis-leading German-Asshur paradigm. On one author’s internet site, – who teaches Germany is Assyria – there is a list provided of postulated ancestors for the Germans of which all apart from Judah and Gad, I was not aware and of course the one listed at number seven, caught my eye immediately.

Asher: a son of Jacob

Ashkenaz: a son of Gomer

Canaan: a son of Ham

Edom: Esau, a son of Isaac

Gad: a son of Jacob

Gomer: a son of Japheth

Ishmael: a son of Abraham

Judah: a son of Jacob

Simeon: a son of Jacob

We have already addressed Ashkenaz, Canaan and Gomer. The four sons of Jacob we will study in depth and identify as not being the ancestors of Germany. We will also  investigate Esau and his grandson Amalek; convincingly ruling them out of contention, which leaves only… Ishmael. It is intriguing that this author has heard Ishmael offered as an identity for modern Germany. Regrettably, the author has chosen to concentrate on providing evidence only about Assyria for his research. I would have been extremely interested to learn his views on Ishmael; particularly as he has devoted over thirty years to the subject, publishing a three hundred page work on the German identity.

An example of the damage caused by a mis-identification of a Biblical nation is highlighted by Greg Doudna. This author came to understand a profound truth in his early twenties – during the early 1970s – regarding who the United States of America was in the Bible. Identity believers and British-Israelites have unanimously and incorrectly deduced that the United States is descended from Manasseh, the eldest son of Joseph. This precious gift of insight has since been rejected by the author and he has gone even further, to dis-believe the whole identity teaching. His insight was a major part of my research beginning in the 1990s, confirming my own evolving conclusions. It is a great sadness to learn that Greg Doudna has rejected so clear a plain truth. I would like to understand how he now perceives the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament; for it is swept away almost in its entirety if one does not believe the past, present and future application of the historical and prophetic texts. We will return to his comments on the United States in a later chapter, though for now, his deduction regarding Germany clearly shows the pickle that identity adherents find themselves and why credibility with anyone outside of their small bubble-like community is next to zero.

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna, 1989 & 2006, pages 242-243 – emphasis his, bold mine:

‘… [supposedly] the Anglo-Saxons and most other major peoples in Europe are Israelites – with one gigantic exception. One people right in the heart of Europe which were not claimed to be Israel were the Germanic tribes of Germany which produced the Anglo-Saxon tribes. In this… universe Germany today is Assyria, not symbolically or metaphorically but through genetic descent, in the same way that the Germanic tribes who settled elsewhere than Germany are Israelites through genetic descent. (Is that clear?)… Anglo-Saxons and Germans are of the same origins. They are the same peoples. The Saxons came from Germany. In the Finnish and Estonian languages the very word for “Germany” is Saksa, “Saxon.” Therefore if Germans came from Assyrians, it follows that the predominant ethnic components of Britain and the United States also are Assyrian. By this reasoning the United States would be Assyrians, not Israel.’

First, the author hits upon the problem with thinking that northwestern Europeans are descended from Jacob, rather than being from Abraham. Regardless of which, observing Germany – so obviously related to these other countries – but saying they are from a different son of Shem is glaringly contradictory as he rightly points out. Second, ‘Anglo-Saxons’ and Germans are of similar, but not the same origins. Remember the early points in the introduction; peoples migrate and their name is appropriated but this does not mean the new peoples are the same bloodline as the ones that have departed. The Saxon tribes, comprising Angles, Jutes and Frisians left their names in Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, but these three nations are not ‘Anglo-Saxon’ peoples. They are related, all descending from Abraham. 

The author showing Anglo-Saxon equals Assyria, equals America is accidentally showing the inaccuracy of Germany actually being Asshur. Alternatively, we will learn that the peoples that migrated to America from Britain, though similar kindred stock, are not the exact same tribe or extended family. We will also discover, that the ‘Germans’ who migrated to the United states are not the same people as the Germans who remained behind and presently live in Germany. 

Germany in Prophecy, Herman Hoeh, 1963 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine: 

Now what does the word “Hatti” or “Chatti” mean in the Hebrew language? Its closest derivation is the root “chathath” (Strongs – 2865). It means “to terrorize, or break down, as in war, hence a warrior or MAN OF WAR.” The Chatti were therefore Men of War… the ancient Chatti were… migrants who early settled in Asia Minor. Did these Chatti or Hatti later also migrate into Western Europe… Indeed! The Chatti were the chief people who settled in… [ancient] Germany. Their descendants [left] the [HESSIAN name]… In fact, the Old High German spelling of Hesse was Hatti! THE ANCIENT KINGS OF [western Anatolia] called themselves Khatti-sars – meaning the “Kaisers of Hatti,” or “Kings of Hatti.” 

The Empire of Hatti and the Empire of Assyria were… not two empires existing five centuries apart as historians assume. Excavated records from Bible times PROVE that the great rulers of the land of Hatti were not only contemporary with the famous kings of Assyria, but were also federated with them.All ancient Greek writers agreed that Assyria and Anatolia (the land of Hatti) were allies. All historians recognize that there were at least two distinct peoples in Asia Minor who came to be known by the same name – Chatti or Hittite.

The… Hatti claimed to be “the Master Race.” So have the modern Germans! The Hatti lorded it over other peoples who lived in Asia Minor. They were the inventors of the DOUBLE-HEADED EAGLE which has always been A SYMBOL OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE!’

The double headed eagle is in fact an Assyrian symbol, perpetuated by the Byzantines, the Russians and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as the Austrians. The Hittites, Romans and Germans have all used a single headed eagle.

‘Ritual [standards of the Hatti have been] recovered through excavation in ancient Anatolia… [notice] swastikas… [a] Hattic ritual standard in disk form… the Iron Cross… The descendants of the ancient Hatti – the modern Hessians of Germany – perpetuate these same symbols.’

Three Hittite artefacts highlighting the iron cross and swastika emblems also used in Germany’s recent past.  The symbol below, is a third century Roman swastika. 

It is apparent from Hoeh’s article that he believes the Hatti and Assyrians are one and the same, or that the Hessian Assyrians as he calls them, are a branch of Asshur. We have studied the original Hatti or Chatti when discussing Nahor and his descendants who were later called Chaldees after the Chatti [refer Chapter XXV Nahor]. 

The descendants of Ishmael became known as both Hatti and Hittites. We have covered the slightly confusing scenario of the original Hittites being the son of Canaan, Heth. The addition of the Nephilim as Hittites too with the original Heth-ites and now Ishmael as a completely different, separate and second group of Hittites. So not only were there two Hittite peoples – from Canaan and Ishmael – as scholars have begrudgingly recognised; there were also two peoples of Hatti – Nahor and Ishmael – as well. Which has not been recognised, and so the Hatti and Hittites have been either viewed as the same or more recently as two peoples, when there are in fact three involved. Only Ishmael has been known by both names.

The close political ties of the later Hatti or Hittites, with Asshur is correct and was repeated again at the end of Rome’s supremacy, when it split in two and Asshur was the eastern arm and Ishmael the west. In recent times, when Germany was split into West Germany and East Germany, Russia based its control of the eastern block of nations and its head quarters operations in East Germany; within its’ ‘half of Berlin.’ We have touched upon the future alliance between Russia and Germany that will see them take the political and economic lead in the world, shaking up the world order; depriving the United States – in particular – as well as China of the leadership they currently take for granted.

Hoeh raises a fascinating point with the Hittite kings being known as Khatti-sars. As the Prussians did later have Kai-sers and the Russians had C-zars – Tzars – as titles of their kings and of course to tie up the compelling link, these two words have derived from the original title of Cae-sar, used by both capitols of Rome and Constantinople. Following are a selection of verses in the Bible that speak of the Ishmaelite Hittites and not the Canaanite or Nephilim Hittites.

1 Kings 11:1

English Standard Version

11 Now King Solomon loved many foreign women, along with the daughter of Pharaoh: Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Sidonian, and Hittite women, 2 from the nations concerning which the Lord had said to the people of Israel, “You shall not enter into marriage with them, neither shall they with you, for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods.” Solomon clung to these in love.

Judges 1:23-26 

English Standard Version

23 And the house of Joseph scouted out Bethel. (Now the name of the city was formerly Luz.) 24 And the spies saw a man coming out of the city, and they said to him, “Please show us the way into the city, and we will deal kindly with you.” 25 And he showed them the way into the city. And they struck the city with the edge of the sword, but they let the man and all his family go. 26 And the man went to the ‘land of the Hittites’ and built a city and called its name Luz. That is its name to this day. [Joshua 16:1-3]. 

Ishmael died in 1754 BCE and the period of the Judges was from circa 1350 BCE and the first Judge, Othniel to 1015 BCE and the death of Samuel, the fifteenth Judge. During this period, the Ishmaelites had migrated from Arabia to Western Anatolia. We have learned that the descendants of Lot and Jacob had travelled to the Aegean and Greece to establish city states [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. The descendants of Nahor had migrated from northern Mesopotamia to Western Anatolia. The reason for all this movement is usually always attributed to other peoples migrating. In northern Africa and Arabia, Cush and Phut were on the move as they eventually would live in southwest Asia, with Mizra filling the vacuum and expanding their territory from North Africa to dwelling in Arabia and the Middle East. 

2 Chronicles 1:17

English Standard Version

They imported a chariot from Egypt for 600 shekels of silver, and a horse for 150. Likewise through them these were exported to all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Syria. [1 Kings 10:29, 2 Kings 7:6]

1 Kings 15:5

English Standard Version

… because David did what was right in the eyes of the Lord and did not turn aside from anything that he commanded him all the days of his life, except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite.

The Hittite women that King Solomon loved were the same as the Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite and Sidonian women, that is, they were from Shem and not Ham’s line. Notice the man from the original Canaanite city of Luz, went to the land inhabited by the Hittites in Anatolia and built a new city called Luz. The Hittites dwelt further north than the Aramean-Syrians, who lived just to the south of eastern Asia Minor. In the conquest of Canaan, the Hittites were said to dwell ‘in the mountains’ and ‘towards the north’ of Canaan – a description that matches the general direction and geography of the Anatolian Hittite empire. Uriah the Hittite was the husband of Bathsheba, who King David conspired to kill so that he could take his wife Bathsheba. Uriah was a high ranking soldier in David’s army; a commanding officer, perhaps a General. 

It is of note, as the Ishmaelites were and are, proficient military leaders and soldiers as evidenced by the Hittite Kingdom, the Roman Empire, Imperial Prussia and in our time, Nazi Germany. Hittite kings, as royal princes were trained from childhood in the art of war and combat; they possessed a wealth of experience from being on the battlefield, where they were expected to lead from the front.

The New World Encyclopaedia addresses the pertinent points we have already discussed on the Hittities, with additional facts that are interesting in light of their being descendants of Ishmael, as well as the ancestors of Rome and modern Germany. Other supporting quotes follow and all emphasis and bold are mine.

‘”Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa… The Hittite kingdom, which at its height controlled central Anatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, and Mesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680 B.C.E. to about 1180 B.C.E. After 1180 B.C.E., the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived until as late as around 700 B.C.E.

The Hittite kingdom, or at least its core region, was apparently called Hatti in the reconstructed Hittite language. However, the Hittites should be distinguished from the “Hattians,” an earlier people who inhabited the same region until the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E., and spoke a non-Indo-European language conventionally called Hattic. Hittites or more recently, Hethites is also the common English name of a Biblical people… who are also called Children of Heth… These people are mentioned several times in the Old Testament, from the time of the Patriarchs up to Ezra’s return from Babylonian captivity of Judah. The archaeologists who discovered the Anatolian Hittites in the nineteenth century initially believed the two peoples to be the same, but this identification remains disputed.

The Hittites were famous for their skill in building and using chariots. Some consider the Hittites to be the first civilization to have discovered how to work iron, and thus the first to enter the Iron Age. The Hittite rulers enjoyed diplomatic relations with Ancient Egypt but also fought them. The Battle of Kadesh (1275 B.C.E.) is said to have been the greatest chariot battle of all time. Rameses II claimed victory but the result was really a draw and 16 years later the two empires signed a peace treaty. The tablet concluding the treaty hangs in the United Nations headquarters.’

The Hittite king, Muwatallis II had at his disposal 3,000 chariots and 40,000 foot soldiers. It was the biggest chariot battle known to history. The Hittites 1. ambushed their enemy, 2. had a greater force of men and 3. their chariots were made of iron, had lighter wheels and carried three men instead of the standard two – an extra man as a shield bearer and to weight the chariot during tight turn manoeuvres.

‘Hittite kings and queens shared power, and gender equality is clearly evident in records of marriage, property and probate transactions and also of criminal law. At one time, a matrilineal system may have been practiced… certain “queens involved themselves in the kingdom’s political and judicial activities, as well as in external political affairs”… The mother goddess was venerated. After their husband’s death, several Queens ruled in their own rights. Correspondence survives between Rameses II of Egypt and Queen Puduhepa of the Hittites as early as the thirteenth century B.C.E. He addressed her as the “great queen,” as his sister and as “beloved of the God Amon.” She co-signed treaties with her husband, King Hattusilis III, including the famous treaty with Egypt. Some correspondence was signed with her own seal, indicating that she had “full authority” to make decisions on her husband’s behalf… This ancient civilization appears to have evolved over the centuries from a harsher into a more humane, life-affirming culture, evidenced by tablets of two hundred laws from different periods that have survived. Earlier punishments required mutilation; later ones demanded fines or some form of compensation except for serious crimes, such as rape and murder – which were punishable by death.

The Hittite civilization was one of the cradles of human culture… [their culture was among the first to have codified laws, literature and libraries]. Their development of trade links did much to generate awareness of living in the same world as other peoples, and of inter-dependence between peoples and had “a profound influence on the course of Anatolian history for the next two millennia”… They often used treaties to secure safe trade and to establish its terms. These terms ensured fairness and profit on both sides. The Hittites were aware that they belonged to a common humanity, something that sometimes seems forgotten in the modern world [for example the European Union]. They also made efforts to integrate conquered people by adapting some of their religious customs.

During sporadic excavations at Bogazkoy (Hattusa) that began in 1905, the archaeologist Hugo Winckler found a royal archive with ten thousand tablets, inscribed in cuneiform Akkadian… He also proved that the ruins at Bogazkoy were the remains of the capital of a mighty empire that at one point controlled northern Syria. [The Hittite capital city Hattusha was the most advanced and powerful city of the ancient world]. The language of the Hattusa tablets was eventually deciphered by a Czech linguist, Bedrich Hrozny (1879–1952), who on November 24, 1915, announced his results in a lecture at the Near Eastern Society of Berlin. His book about his discovery was printed in Leipzig in 1917 with the title ‘The Language of the Hittites: Its Structure and Its Membership in the Indo-European Linguistic Family.’ The preface of the book begins with: The present work undertakes to establish the nature and structure of the hitherto mysterious language of the Hittites, and to decipher this language […] It will be shown that Hittite is in the main an Indo-European language. 

For this reason, the language came to be known as the Hittite language, even though that was not what its speakers had called it… Under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, excavations at Hattusa have been underway since 1932, with wartime interruptions. Bryce (2006) describes the capital as one of the most impressive of its time, comprising “165 hectares”…

The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their empire, and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East. Around 2000 B.C.E., the region centered in Hattusa that would later become the core of the Hittite kingdom was inhabited by people with a distinct culture who spoke a non-Indo-European language. The name “Hattic” is used by Anatolianists to distinguish this language from the Indo-European Hittite language, that appeared on the scene at the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. and became the administrative language of the Hittite kingdom over the next six or seven centuries.As noted above, “Hittite” is a modern convention for referring to this language. The native term [for their language] was Nesili, i.e. “in the language of Nesa” [and for themselves, Neshites or Nessites]. The early Hittites, whose prior whereabouts are unknown, borrowed heavily from the pre-existing Hattian culture, and also from that of the Assyrian traders – in particular, the cuneiform writing and the use of cylindrical seals. Since Hattic continued to be used in the Hittite kingdom for religious purposes, and there is substantial continuity between the two cultures, it is not known whether the Hattic speakers – the Hattians – were displaced by the speakers of Hittite, were absorbed by them, or just adopted their language.

The kingdom developed into the greatest and richest power at the time in the region. Bryce (2006) argues that early use of tin to make bronze helped to stimulate a stable political system and also to develop trade-links with surrounding peoples. The earliest known Hittite king, Pithana, was based at Kussara. In the eighteenth century B.C.E., Anitta conquered Nesa, where the Hittite kings had their capital for about a century, until [Labarnas II] conquered Hattusa and took the throne name of [Hattusilis I c. 1650-1620 BCE] ”man of Hattusa.” The Old Kingdom, centered at Hattusa, peaked during the sixteenth century and even managed to sack Babylon at one point [ending the Amorite Dynasty], but made no attempt to govern there, choosing instead to turn it over to the domination of their Kassite allies who were to rule it for over four hundred years. Bryce describes the conquest of Babylon under King [Mursilis I Hattusilis’ grandson] (1620-1590) as the “peak of Hittite military achievement” that also marked the “end of the illustrious era of Babylonian history”…’    

The Hittite kingdom finally dissolved with defeats to the strengthening Assyrians and loss of territory to them. The Hittite legacy was influential on both the legendary city-state of Troy [Lot-French] and also to the Etruscan civilisation [Midian-Dutch] who in turn, ironically, was a foundation for the later Roman Republic… the very reincarnation of the Hittite peoples who had migrated from western Anatolia to central Italy. 

‘The success of the Hittite economy was based on fair trade. In return for tin, they sold gold, silver, and copper, as well as wool and woolen clothes. A banking system made credit available. This, however, was run humanely, so that if for example a farmer, due to a bad harvest, could not repay the loan, it was sometimes canceled by the king… Macqueen (1975) argues that what made Anatolia much more than a “land-bridge” between Europe and Asia was its abundant mineral resources. It was no more or no less fertile than other regions, but its resources “… made it a land of rich possibilities (that made it) a primary center rather than a backwater which served only to link more favored areas”…’ 

The Lion Gate at the entrance of the former city Hattusa

Amazing Bible Timeline – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Hittite Empire is mentioned… in the Bible as one of the most powerful empires in… ancient times. Scholars used to question the accuracy of the Bible saying that such [an impressive] Hittite Empire was only hearsay since it was nowhere to be found. They considered the Hittites a small group of people living in the hills of Canaan together with Abraham. This was until the discovery… [of] important proofs… [including] tablets, documents, and successful excavations… [revealing] the truth about the existence of this great empire. It is a matter of considerable scholarly debate whether the biblical “Hittites” signified any or all of: 1) the original Hattites of Hatti; 2) their Indo-European conquerors (Nesili), who retained the name “Hatti” for Central Anatolia, and are today referred to as the “Hittites”… or 3) a Canaanite group who may or may not have been related to either or both of the Anatolian groups, and who also may or may not be identical with the later Neo-Hittite, Luwian polities.’

Sarah wife of Abraham. Fairy tale or Real History? Gerard Gertoux:

‘The Hittites met by Abraham were not quite the same as those of Joshua 37 since they are identified as sons of Heth, not Hittites. In the biblical narrative (Genesis 23:2-10), Ephron (“of a calf”), son of Zohar (“tawny”), was not a Hittite in the usual manner because his birth name and that of his father are not Hittite but Canaanite, implying that they had been settled in this region for a long time. Consequently the history of Hittites is complex…’

We read most of the quote by writer D H Lawrence regarding the Etruscan civilisation [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham], the additional information is of note now we know the identity of the Roman people that were steadily rising in power next to their Etruscan neighbours: ‘… Etruscan things are put down as a feeble Greco-Roman imitation. And a great scientific historian like Mommsen hardly allows that the Etruscans existed at all. Their existence was antipathetic to him. The Prussian in him was enthralled by the Prussian in the all-conquering Romans.’

An interesting coincidence of comparison, for who were the original Romans but none other than the Ishmaelite Hittites who had migrated to the Italian Peninsula as had the Midianite Grecians or Etruscans. These ‘western’ Romans when Rome fell, then migrated through eastern Europe to the Balkan region and came to be known as Prussians. The Prussians eventually led the drive for unification of all the German States and principalities and are synonymous with militarism and authoritarianism. 

According to legend, Rome was founded as a city state by Romulus II and his brother Remus on April 21, 753 BCE. After completing the construction of his city, Romulus divided ‘his warriors into regiments numbering three thousand infantry and three hundred cavalry’ which he called legions. Romulus proceeded to form the city’s system of government in selecting a hundred of the most noble and richest elders – the patricians – and these men became the first senators; who ruled the complex republican government when the last king was expelled.

Romulus was the city’s first king, though after his death in 716 BCE, the city was in reality under Etruscan rule as the Kingdom of Rome. The Etruscans governed great swathes of Italy north of Rome; including Rome which was the southern tip of a chain of semi-independent city states. By 509 BCE the power of the Etruscans had weakened sufficiently for the Romans to eject them and establish the Roman Republic, ending a period of Monarchy comprising seven kings, including Romulus. 

The most famous ruler of the Republic was Julius Caesar who became the first dictator of Rome in 45 BCE after defeating Pompey in a civil war and therefore igniting the ending of the Republic. It was Julius Caesar who hired Sosigenes an Egyptian astronomer to calculate a new twelve month calendar. In 44 BCE he was assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. Hopes of a return to a Republic were dashed by civil war breaking out again. In 27 BCE, Octavius appointed himself Augustus, the first emperor. Rome steadily grew in greatness as the Roman Empire; becoming the greatest the world had ever seen. In 64 CE, Emperor Nero set fire to Rome, blaming the Christians. Yet, in 306 CE Rome became a ‘Christian’ empire, made official by Theodosius I in 380 CE, confirming Christianity the sole religion of the empire.

The Roman Empire contributed major achievements and left many legacies. The most notable being arches, grid based cities, sewers, sanitation, roads and highways [note Germany’s autobahns of the 1930s] – much of the major road systems in Britain, are based on those originally built by the Romans – aqueducts [considered engineering marvels],  central heating [hypocaust: circulation of hot air], surgery tools and techniques, medical corps on the battlefield, the Julian calendar, newspapers [Acta Diurna: ‘daily acts’], concrete, construction and architecture [The Colosseum (built in  80 CE), Pantheon and Hadrian’s Wall in 122 CE], Latin from which the Romance languages sprung and Roman numerals. Their numbering system is still used today, as well as Latin in scientific circles and academia. 

Arguably, the greatest achievement of the Roman Empire, is its system of government. Though tainted with intrigue and political violence that a modern democratic political system could not survive today, the Romans established a legal code that served as a future model for political systems, including the United States. The emperor Justinian 492 to 565 CE, was integral in the development of the Corpus Juris Civilis, undoubtedly the earliest modern expression of civil law in history and it provided the foundation for the legal systems that define democracy in our era. The relevance of the Roman Empire to the future of western civilisation, cannot be overstated. 

In 117 CE at the death of Trajan, the empire covered territory of up to five million square kilometres; comparable to the Greco-Macedonian empire of Alexander the Great of some 5.2 million square km and the Achaemenid Empire of Darius I comprising 5.5 to 5.8 million square km. The Roman Empire grew so large that it was an unwieldy task governing from the city of Rome. Emperor Diocletician divided the administrative rule into a western and eastern tetrarchy – ‘the rule of two’ – in 285 CE. In 330 CE, Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople, formally known as Byzantium. This decision plus his favouring the east by building new infrastructure only there, yet raising taxes in the west, led to the considerable weakening of the western empire; leaving it vulnerable to invaders. 

In 395 CE, the Roman empire split was reinforced upon the death of Theodosius I, emperor of Constantinople. The provinces were divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius. Fifteen years later the Visigoths sacked Rome; the first time in eight hundred years. Finally, in 476 CE the Western Roman Empire was ended and ancient Rome fell with the defeat of the final emperor, Romulus Augustus at the hands of the Goth ruler Odoacer; heralding the beginning of the Dark Ages in Europe. The eastern Empire of Byzantium lasted until 1453 CE when it fell to the Ottoman Turks.

This transference of power from west to east was a switch from Ishmael to Asshur. This relationship had occurred previously in Anatolia as the neighbouring Hittites and Assyrians. As Rome faded, Byzantium rose to prominence. We have studied Nebuchadnezzar’s statue in the Book of Daniel chapter Two, with the head of Gold and the Chaldeans, the chest and arms of silver and the Medo-Persians, the torso and thighs of bronze and Greco-Macedonia and the one lower leg of iron and Byzantium. 

The other lower leg… is Rome. The major European nations or powers have all been represented in Nebuchadnezzar’s statue: Italy, Turkey, France, Germany and Russia. Quite an amazing coincidence or by a predetermined purpose? 

The Roman Empire powerful like the Byzantine Empire, were both made of iron. We have previously discussed, the feet and toes of iron and clay and the possible physical-spiritual intent, at the time of the end. We also now know, that this sixth future empire – whether it includes a human-angel admixture or not – does arise from the ashes of the Roman and Byzantine empires. The uneasy mix of iron and clay might just as easily be a reference to the short and difficult amalgamation of the Russian and German political, economic and military apparatuses. This future relationship between Ishmael and Asshur, Germany and Russia will one final time – a third time – be instrumental in ushering in the time of the end, the time of Jacob’s Trouble, the Tribulation and the return of the Son of Man.

Daniel 2:33-35

English Standard Version

33 … its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. 34 As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold, all together were broken in pieces, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, so that not a trace of them could be found. But the stone [the returning Messiah] that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth [the Kingdom of God and its millennial rule].

This seventh kingdom is the Son of Man’s rule on earth; for a thousand years. Many Bible scholars, Christians and ad infinitum seem to have difficulty with a millennial period after Christ’s return, or rather a literal one thousand years. Yet the Roman and Byzantine empires were over a thousand years each. Rome from its foundation in 753 BCE to either its fall in 476 BCE, or the divisions of 285 and 395 CE are all over a thousand years. The fall of the Byzantine empire in 1453 is again over a thousand years, from the official division in 395 CE. It is a curious coincidence that both ‘lower leg’ empires founded by Ishmael and Asshur should have both lasted a thousand years. 

Added to the curiosity, is the fact that the Holy Roman Empire which began with Charlemagne’s crowning on Christmas day in 800 should have incorporated much of Central Europe or East Francia and particularly the lands that would ultimately encompass present day Germany. By 936, Otto I was crowned King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire was fully centred in Germany. By the end of the fifteenth century the Empire was still composed of three major regions – Italy, Germany and Burgundy – though really, only the Kingdom of Germany counted as the Burgundian territories were lost to France and the Italian territories splintered into independent territories. 

The dissolution of the Empire occurred a thousand years later at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. At this time most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation, with the exception of the Italian states.

A decree in 1512, changed the name to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, though this term was hardly ever applied. The political philosopher Voltaire remarked: “This body which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire.” The Empire was often called the German Empire – Deutsches Reich – or the Roman-German Empire – Romisch-Deutsches Reich.After its dissolution, it was called ‘the old Empire’ – das alte Reich

Beginning in 1923, Nazi propaganda would identify the Holy Roman Empire as the First Reich – Reich meaning realm or hegemony, loosely, ‘empire’ – with the German Empire as the Second Reich from 1871 to 1918 and either a future German nationalist state or Nazi Germany as the Third Reich.

 It is a further curiosity that Adolf Hitler should wish to impose a thousand year German rule. It cannot be coincidence and very possibly demonically inspired to remark on an ante-Christ and anti-Christ millennial rule. Adolf Hitler in 1931: “I intend to set up a thousand-year Reich and anyone who supports me in this battle is a fellow-fighter for a unique spiritual – I would say divine  -creation… Rudolf Hess, my assistant of many years standing, would tell you: If we have such a leader, God is with us.” Quoted by Richard Breiting in Secret Conversations with Hitler, 1970.

The similarities between the Roman Empire and Germany are numerous and were also replicated by the Nazi regime, whether from design or accident.

The Nazi salute and greeting – Sieg Heil [Hail to Victory] – Heil Hitler, resonates with the original Hail Caesar.

The Nuremberg rallies with their layout, flags and standards were also reminiscent of the Roman army legions.

The eastern third of the Frankish empire eventually evolved into modern Germany, after Louis the Pious, the only one remaining of Charlemagne’s three sons died in 840 CE, leaving East Francia to his son, Louis the German as discussed in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon. His territory included Alemannia, Bavaria, Khorushka, Saxony, Franconia and Thuringia.  

Interestingly, a province or Gau of East Francia, is first mentioned in the Treaty of Meerssen in 870. Known as the Hattuarian Gau, on the west bank of the Rhine. Some think this was a surviving relic of the Germanic tribe, the Chattuarii. Note the striking resemblance to Hattusa the capital of the Hittite Empire and the Chatti

Louis the German died in 876 and he in turn left East Francia to his three sons: Carloman, 876 to 880, king of Bavaria and lower Pannonia; Louis III – the younger – 876 to 882, Franconia, Hesse, Saxony and Thuringia and Charles II – the Fat – 876 to 887, Rhaetia and Alemannia or Swabia, with the addition of Italy in 879 and France in 884. In 882, East Francia was re-united – after its division in 876 – with the death of Charles’ brother Louis III.

Between 1648 and 1815 Prussia – or Preussen in German – rose in stature. The margraves, or marcher lords of Brandenburg became Electors of the Holy Roman Empire. Brandenburg and East Prussia fell under the control of the Hohenzollern family, who mastered the Brandenburg hereditary nobility the Junkers and began the centuries long march to power, which ended with the First World War and the abdication of the Kaiser in 1918. In 1640, Frederick William or Wilhelm of Brandenburg,also called the Great Elector, became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia; throwing off vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and re-organising his loosely knit and scattered territories. By the time he died in 1688, Frederick William had made Brandenburg-Prussia the strongest of the northern German states, created an efficient army and fortified Berlin.

The Kingdom of Prussia is Founded, Richard Cavendish, History Today, Volume 51, Issue January 1, 2001 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘His son, the Elector Frederick III (1657-1713), was not a chip off the old block. Known in Berlin as ‘crooked Fritz’, because a childhood accident had left him with a twisted spine and a humped back, he was besotted with all things French and looked for a crown as a reward for aiding the Emperor Leopold I. There could not be a king of Brandenburg, which was part of the Empire, and there could not be a king of Prussia, because part of it was in Poland. By an ingenious formula, however, Frederick was permitted to call himself king in Poland. He put the crown on his head with great ceremony at Königsberg as Frederick I and so created the Prussian kingdom, with its capital at Berlin. Brandenburg from then on, though still theoretically part of Germany owing allegiance to the Emperor, was treated in practice as part of the Prussian kingdom.’ 

Prussia became a European power from 1763 and in turn, Austria’s greatest rival for hegemony of Germany. Instrumental in this growth was Frederick II the Great, who reigned from 1740 to 1786. In 1857, the Prussian king was Frederick William IV.  He suffered a stroke and while incapacitated, his brother William served as regent until 1861 when he then officially became King William I. 

From an early age he received private tuition and as the second son of the King, was not expected to take the throne. According to Royal traditions, he was initially destined to a military life. He was an officer in the Prussian Army when he was only twelve and later on in his adolescence was commissioned as a Captain; joining the Allied monarchs’ fight against France and Napoleon I when he was sixteen years of age. Wilhelm I was devoted to military service and was determined to perfect the capabilities of the Prussian Army. Wilhelm helped quench several uprisings and hence consolidated the power of his brother, King Frederick William IV. He took part in setting up the Vereinigter Landtag – the Prussian Parliament with a seat for himself in the Herrenhaus – upper chamber. 

Wilhelm’s most significant accomplishment was naming Otto von Bismarck as Prussian Foreign Minister in 1862, who became known as the ‘blood and iron chancellor.’ Bismarck was born in 1815 in a noble family estate west of Berlin in Prussian Saxony. He was a Prince, Count and Duke all-in-one. He died at the age of eighty-three in 1898. With the formidable assistance of Bismarck, King Wilhelm impressively modernised Germany, accelerating its journey into one of the dominant military and economic powers of Europe. ‘Wilhelm centralised power, built a strong military, and improved Germany’s international status. It was also under his reign that Germany became one of the first modern welfare states.’ 

There had been growing disputes between Prussia and Denmark over the territory of Schleswig and these escalated in 1863. It was not part of the German Confederation, while Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate Schleswig into the Danish kingdom. By astutely placing Denmark in the aggressors role, Bismarck was able to spark the Second war of Schleswig in 1864. Prussia, cleverly getting Austria involved, easily defeated Denmark and occupied Jutland. The Danes were forced to cede both the Duchy of Schleswig and the Duchy of Holstein to Austria and Prussia. 

The subsequent governing of the two duchies, inevitably led to tensions between Austria and Prussia. Austria wanted the duchies to become independent within the German Confederation; Prussia intended to annex them. This disagreement served as the intended and perfect pretext for the Seven Weeks War between Austria-Hagar and Prussia-Ishmael, breaking out in June 1866. The two powerful armies clashed at Sadowa-Koniggratz in Bohemia, in an enormous battle in July, involving half a million soldiers. Superior Prussian troop manoeuvres, with the modern breech-loading needle guns over the slow muzzle loading rifles of the Austrians were decisive in giving Prussia victory. The battle importantly, had decided the question of hegemony in Germany. Bismarck was deliberately lenient with the spent force that was Austria; who after their defeat, played a subordinate role in German affairs.

Following the War with Austria, the German Confederation was dissolved and the North German Federation or Norddeutscher Bund, was established under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was excluded and its longstanding immense influence over Germany abruptly came to an end.

The world-renowned Neuschwanstein castle was built for King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and served as his private refuge. Construction began in 1869 and was finished in 1892, though it was not technically completed. The Castle became the dream world that the Bavarian king escaped, after he ceded his power to the Prussians in 1866.

The North German Federation was a temporary organisation, existing from 1867 to 1871. Due to revolution in Spain, the exile of Queen Isabella II to France began a fortuitous and remarkable chain of events – on the surface, yet cleverly contrived behind the scenes. Her abdication in June 1870 lead to the Franco-Prussian war when France refused the possibility of the Prussian Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen taking the vacant Spanish throne. 

French troops were humiliated by Prussia’s ‘ultra-modern’ army and being driven back to the gates of Paris, quickly swept away the exposed myth of France’s military prowess, bringing about its downfall. In the process, Prussia had not only displaced Austria as the preeminent German power it was now the dominant state of central Europe. In 1871 Wilhelm was proclaimed Emperor or Kaiser, of a united German State, with Bismarck its first Chancellor. 

The Prussian led German Empire’s massive military build up, coupled with phenomenal economic growth, meant war with Great Britain was inevitable, as it it sought to be the principal power of all Western Europe.

On 18 January 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles – Bismarck is in the centre, dressed in white with a gold sash.

The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World before the War, 1890-1914, Barbara Tuchman – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Germans knew themselves to be the strongest military power on earth, the most efficient merchants, the busiest bankers, penetrating every continent, financing the Turks, flinging out a railway from Berlin to Baghdad, gaining the trade of Latin America, challenging the sea power of Great Britain, and in the realm of the intellect systematically organising… every branch of human knowledge. They were deserving and capable of mastery of the world. Rule by the best must be fulfilled… What they lacked and hungered for was the world’s acknowledgement of their mastery. So long as it was denied, frustration grew and with it the desire to compel acknowledgement by the sword.’  

Flags of the North German Confederation 1866–71 and the German Empire 1871–1918

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, pages 175-177 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… in 1890… Germany and Prussia were the richest and most powerful nations in the world at that time, even greater than the United States and on a par with England… Tuchman says that in… [1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II] astounded everyone by “publicly  ascribing the genesis of his Navy to his childhood admiration of the British Fleet”… He was the oldest grandchild of Queen Victoria and the son of Princess Victoria, the oldest daughter of the queen and Prince Albert. His father was Prince Frederick William of Prussia, the heir to the Prussian crown who eventually became King Frederick III. [Wilhelm] was closely related to all the royalty of Europe and Russia. He was a first cousin to King George V of England; Queen Marie of Romania; Queen Maud of Norway; Victoria Eugenie, the queen consort of Spain; and Empress Alexandra of Russia, the wife of Czar [Nicholas II].’ 

Once Germany was unified, an effective system of alliances designed and managed by Chancellor Bismarck, had maintained peace and good relations across Europe. This was necessary because the recently unified Germany in its central location in Europe bordering a host of nations was brilliantly situated for trade, yet extremely vulnerable to attack on a variety of fronts in the case of war. In 1888, the ‘Year of Three German Emperors’ Wilhelm I died at the age of 90 in March, followed shortly by his son – Wilhelm II’s father – Frederick III, who died of cancer in June. The new Kaiser or King, Wilhelm II was eager to be seen as the one who could competently manage foreign relations, without the need of someone else and thus Bismarck was unceremoniously and unwisely, fired. Bismarck’s clever diplomatic ‘system of complex alliances, with their give-and-take features, encouraging moderation, were deliberately’ severed. Kaiser Wilhelm II ignored renewing a treaty of friendship with Russia, rather seeking ‘alliances with the traditional opponents of German expansionism, Great Britain and France, with momentous consequences.’ 

The following quote is not intended to single out Germany, Germans or the Japanese. Tragically, it is indicative of all aggressor waring nations, when under the influence of dark forces. Humankind all too readily falls under the spell of depravity at times like these; thus taking leave off their otherwise moral code of decency, to replace it with evil insanity.

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, pages 182-183 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Germany attacked Belgium on August 2, 1914, as part of their plan to quickly encircle the French forces. They needed to go through Belgium, using it as a corridor. In doing this, they were violating Belgian neutrality, which had been declared in the Treaty of 1839. The brutality with which the German Army treated the defenceless Belgian citizenry was not equaled again until 1937, by the Japanese in their infamous invasion… of Nanking. The German soldiers looted, pillaged, raped and murdered civilians with cold, drunken abandon…. crimes… were brutally cruel and sadistic… but were committed with a detached lack of restraint, sometimes while singing! All of the acts were meticulously catalogued in the impartial report of the British Bryce Committee… in May 1915… the German atrocities were in violation of the Hague Convention of 1907, which dealt with the conduct of war on land, to which Germany was a signatory. The offences enumerated… are divided into the following categories:

  1. The Killing of noncombatants
  2. The treatment of women and children
  3. The use of noncombatants as shields during military operations
  4. Looting, burning, and wanton destruction of property
  5. Killing the wounded and prisoners
  6. Firing on hospitals, Red Cross ambulances, and stretcher bearers
  7. Abuses of the Red Cross and the White [surrender] Flag

About one hundred thousand Belgians were killed, of which sixty thousand were civilians, six thousand by execution. About 1.5 million Belgians were displaced by the invasion… An estimated 120,000 Belgian civilians of both genders were used as forced labor, roughly half of which were deported to Germany. They toiled in prison factories and camps, some just behind the front lines, digging trenches while artillery shells burst all around them. In this can be seen the same [cold-blooded] indifference to human suffering that became even more pronounced in World War II. It is clear evidence of the massive mind control… and the violent dispositions that were programmed into the young German males.’ 

As if once wasn’t enough, the same dark, controlling influence polluted the leadership of Germany again a short twenty years later in World War II. Adolf Hitler’slast nameis a possible variation of Hiedler, a surname applied to those who reside near a Hiedl or ‘subterranean river.’ Other theories derive the surname from Huttler – also spelled Huettler – meaning ‘one who lives in a hut’ from Hutte, or from huten, meaning to guard, look after.’ Adolf derives from Adal, which means noble or majestic and Wulf, meaning wolf. A ‘majestic wolf guarding, looking after’ Germany. Hitler certainly lived up to his name, as the predatory ruler who hijacked control by dictatorship. Notice the similarity between the name Hit-ler and the word Hit-tite. The irony, is Hitler’s ancestors were not German – that is, descended from Ishmael – yet it was he who lead the German, Ishmaelite nation down its darkest path; for Hitler was half Austrian and purportedly half Jewish.

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, 2017, Page 196 – emphasis his, bold mine:

‘In his book, The Biggest Secret, David Icke has made a persuasive case for the theory that Adolf Hitler was the grandson of a Rothschild, and that the Rothschild family was responsible for his rise to power. Icke informs us that according to the book The Mind of Hitler, psychoanalyst/author Walter Langer says that Hitler’s grandmother, Maria Anna Schicklgruber became pregnant with the child of Salomon Mayer Rothschild while working as a domestic servant at his mansion in Vienna. Her illegitimate son Alois later became Hitler’s father. Icke says, “The Rothschilds and the Illuminati produce many offspring out of wedlock… and these children are brought up under other names with other parents.”’ 

After World War II, in 1949, Germany was divided into two countries; East Germany and West Germany. East Germany was a communist state under control of the Soviet Union. The Berlin Wall was built between the two states and ideologies to prevent people from escaping from East Germany to the West. It became a central point and focus of the Cold War. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism, the wall was torn down in 1989. Nearly a year later on October 3, 1990, East and West Germany were reunited into one country.

Prussian flag and German flag during World war I – notice the Prussian one headed eagle, the Hittite iron cross, the Nordic cross and the pan-German colours of red, white and especially black.

Notable dates in German history include, 1455 when Johannes Gutenberg first printed the Gutenberg Bible. His printing press incomparably influenced the future of the written word. In 1517, Martin Luther published his Thesis which marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation and the huge schism from the Universal Church. In 1756, famous composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in present day Austria. In 1806, the French Empire under Napoleon I conquered many of the German states. In 1808, Ludwig van Beethoven’s famous Fifth Symphony was first performed. In 1812, German writers the Brothers Grimm, published their first collection of tales.

The Nazi flag 1933-1945 and the flag of the Holy Roman Empire

After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world, with the majority of migrants living in the western regions of Germany. 

The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, used by Julius Caesar – ironically – to describe the peoples east of the Rhine River. The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land – the German lands – is derived from the word deutsch and similar to the word Dutch, descending from the Old High German diutisc, meaning ‘of the people’ from diot or diota – ‘people.’

Western Germany received considerable support from the United States – as did Japan – in rebuilding its economy after WWII. For decades, Germany was the third biggest economy in the world. With China’s ascent, Germany is now the fourth largest world economy behind Japan and ahead of India in fifth place, with a GDP of $3.86 trillion in 2019. Germany is Europe’s largest economy and is a top exporter of vehicles, machinery, chemicals and other manufactured goods, with a highly skilled workforce. Germany is well known for its pharmaceuticals and is the home of one of the world’s top drug makers, Bayer. Germany also has a low fertility rate, with an ageing population and workforce. Coupled with this is its high levels of net immigration, both of which are putting a strain on Germany’s social welfare system.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in German global shipments during 2020.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$236.3 billion 
  2. Vehicles: $211 billion 
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $151.7 billion 
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $97.7 billion 
  5. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $74.5 billion 
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $60.4 billion 
  7. Articles of iron or steel: $28.3 billion 
  8. Aircraft, spacecraft: $28.2 billion
  9. Other chemical goods: $27 billion 
  10. Mineral fuels including oil: $26 billion 

Pharmaceuticals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 8.2% from 2019 to 2020.’ 

The German flag during the Weimar Republic between WWI and Nazi Germany and since reunification in 1989 and the German Coat of Arms.

Germany is in the top ten nations in the world for technological innovation, at number five, one ahead of Russia at six. Germany has always found its name in this list and is regarded as consistently one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. German research scientists contributing to various fields of endeavour including space exploration and biotechnology. Furthermore, ever since the era of Hitler, the German automotive industry produces some of the most high-tech engines and automobiles, with pioneering brands like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche. 

Germany has the second largest gold reserves in the world, ahead of Italy, France and Russia at 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Germany has 3,362.4 tonnes of gold which represents 74.5% of its foreign reserves. In 2017 Germany completed a four year repatriation operation to move back a total of 674 tonnes of gold from the Banque de France and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to its own vaults.

Germany is included in the influential G7 group of nations, where – apart from Japan –  two of the remaining six nations are descended from Abraham’s two brothers, Nahor and Haran, who are Italy and France respectively. Abraham’s children within the G7 include Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States of America. 

Some global analysts predict a weakening of China’s economy over the next decade, regardless of this, a strong Germany aligning itself with a mending Russia – after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 – would have enormous repercussions on the future of global foreign policy, world trade, arms development, military expansion and political control.

Geopolitical strategist Peter Zeihan in an article on Russia, [Asshur, Assyria], comments on Germany’s – incorrectly interpreted as Asshur – pivotal role in central Europe – emphasis & bold mine:

‘European history is a chronicle of the rise and fall of its geographic center. As Germany rises, the powers on its periphery buckle under its strength and are forced to pool resources in order to beat back Berlin. As Germany falters, the power vacuum at the middle of the Continent allows the countries on Germany’s borders to rise in strength and become major powers themselves. Since the formation of the first “Germany” in 800, this cycle has set the tempo and tenor of European affairs. A strong Germany means consolidation followed by a catastrophic war; a weak Germany creates a multilateral concert of powers and [multi-state] competition (often involving war, but not on nearly as large a scale). For Europe this cycle of German rise and fall has run its course three times – the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Germany, Nazi Germany – and is only now entering its fourth iteration with the reunified Germany.’

The top eight main mtDNA Haplogroups for Austria and Germany.

Austria:     H [44.9%] – J [8.8%] – U5 [8.6%] – K [8.6%] – T2 [8%] – U4 [4.6%] – T1 [4%] – HVO+V [1.9%] 

Germany: H [44.8%] – J [9%] – U5 [8.8%] – T2 [7.8%] – K [6.6%] – HVO+V [4%] – U4 [2.9%] – T1 [2.8%] 

                             H       HVO+V      J          K        T2       U4       U5         T1

Austria            45            2            9          9          8          5          9            4    

Germany            45           4             9          7          8          3          9            3

It is instantly recognisable the almost exact similitude between the two German nations. The mtDNA or maternal Haplogroups leave little doubt as to their shared lineage and mutual ancestry from their mother Hagar.

                             H       HVO+V      J          K        T2       U4       U5         T1

Austria           45             2            9            9        8          5          9          4    

Germany          45             4             9            7        8          3          9          3

Netherlands     45             8           11          10       12         7          8          3     

Norway             46             4            11           5        8          3         11          2

Sweden             46             5             8           6        4          3         12          3

Denmark          47             4            13          9         6          2          6          2

Benelux            47             3              6         12        9          3          3          2

Adding Austria and Germany to the table from Chapter XXVII Abraham and comparing the key mtDNA Haplogroups of each, reveals the unquestionable family link between Abraham and Keturah’s children with the two sons born from Hagar: Ishmael with Abraham and the Hagarites from her second, unnamed husband.

                                 H     J    T2   U5     K     HVO+V    HV    U4     T1

Switzerland          48   12     9      7       5           5           0.5       3       2

France                   44     8     6     8       9           5              3        3       2

Italy                       40     8     8     5       8           3              3        2       3

Austria                  45      9    8     9       9           2          0.8        5       4

Germany              45      9    8      9       7           4          0.5        3        3

Comparing Ishmael and the Hagarites with Abraham’s brothers, Nahor and Haran highlights the re-occurring genetic relationship amongst cousins, which can sometimes be closer, than those between brothers. The Germans and Austrians are more closely aligned in mtDNA with the French from Moab and Ammon than they are with the Swiss from Haran or the Italians from Nahor and Aram.

                            H       J      T2      K      HV        U5    HVO+V

Switzerland      48     12      9        5       0.5          7            5

Denmark          47     13       6        9                      6            4

Norway             46     11       8        5      0.2         11            4

Netherlands     45     11      12      10                      8           8

Germany           45      9       8        7     0.5            9           4

Austria              45      9       8        9     0.8            9           2

Benelux            47       6        9      12     0.7           3            3

Sweden             46      8       4        6      0.5         12            5

Brazil                 44     11                            2                        11

Portugal            44      7       6        6      0.1           7            5

Spain                 44      7       6        6          1           8           8

France               44     8       6         9         3           8           5

Poland               44     8       7        4                     10           5

Russia               41      8        7        4          2        10           4

Ukraine            39      8        8        5                    10           4

Greece               41    10        7        5                      6           2

Italy                   40     8        8        8         3           5           3

Iceland              38   14       10      10        2           8           2

Romania          37     11        5        8                      7           4

Finland            36      6        2        5                    20           7

Turkey              31      9        4        6         5          3            1

Iran                   17     14        5         7         7          3            1

Previously: ‘A pattern has emerged showing the percentage levels of the main European mt-DNA Haplogroup H, increasing as one heads west across Europe…’ The addition of Abraham’s son Ishmael and Hagar’s other son or sons, upholds this correlation to be accurate, as they now bookend with Switzerland and Abraham’s other children, the western end of the mtDNA H Haplogroup scale. The exception being Iceland, due to its high Celtic admixture [refer Chapter XXVII Abrham].

Turning to Y-DNA Haplogroups and recapping from the last chapter: ‘“Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.” R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup, in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3% and is carried by over 110 million European men. Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. The time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE – according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106 (S21) is more frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; R-U198 is prevalent in England, while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula; R-U152 is more frequent in Switzerland, France and Italy, and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. 

R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from Central Europe westwards.’ 

‘Italy was the first nation with their main Y-DNA Haplogroup being R1b and shows a marked difference with eastern Europe. The north to south axis is as important as the east to west and this explains why for instance Poland has slightly higher percentages of both clades of R1b than Russia as it is further west. Comparably, the Czech Republic displays a higher level of R-U106 than Italy which is further south; yet less R1b [M269] overall as it is the descendants of Peleg, Aram and the mixed line of Caphtor that have the highest levels of R1b [refer Chapters XV Casluh & Caphtor and XXIII Aram].’

Turkey:           R-M269   14% — R-U106   0.4%

Russia:            R-M269   21% — R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269   17% — R-U106      4%

Poland             R-M269   23% — R-U106     8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25% — R-U106     9%

Czech               R-M269   28% — R-U106   14% 

France             R-M269   52% — R-U106     7%

Italy                  R-M269   53% — R-U106    6%

Swiss                R-M269   58% — R-U106   13%

Netherlands    R-M269   54% — R-U106  35%

Denmark         R-M269   34% — R-U106   17%

Austria             R-M269   27% — R-U106  23%

Germany         R-M269   43% — R-U106   19%

With the addition of Austria and Germany, we can see that Germany has similar percentages as their neighbouring cousins in Denmark; while Austria possesses levels similar to their neighbours the Czechs. Though the mtDNA Haplogroups for Austria and Germany were very similar, we find more variance with the Y-DNA Haplogroups and a marked difference in the percentage of the key R1b group R-M269. The lower R-M269 level immediately stands out for Austria. A realistic explanation is that though Hagar was the mother of Ishmael and the mother of the Austrian Germans, her husband that gave her a child or children, would likely have been from either Joktan or Arphaxad, rather than a descendant of Peleg. As Austria has a similar percentage of R-M269 as its eastern European neighbours, coupled with its close geographic, cultural, political  and historical ties with Hungary, this lends support for the proposition. 

As heading west shows an increase in R1b, travelling eastwards shows the decreasing percentages for both R1b groups. 

Pakistan             R-M269     3% — R-U106  0%

Palestine            R-M269     0% — R-U106  0%

Middle East       R-M269     0% — R-U106  0%

C & S America   R-M269    0% — R-U106  0%

The absence of both in the Arab peoples and their related kin in Latin America highlights that they are not European, western, ’white’ or descended from Shem. Pakistan also shows that like India, they are not the same as Europeans and are incorrectly classified as Aryan.

The Y-DNA Haplogroups for Germany and Austria. 

Austria: R1b [32%] – R1a [19%] – I1 [12%] – J2 [9%] – E1b1b [8%] –

G2a [7.5%] – I2a1 [7%] – I2a2 [2.5%] – J1 [1%] – T1a [1%] –

N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Germany: R1b [44.5%] – R1a [16%] – I1 [16%] – E1b1b [5.5%] – G2a [5%] – 

I2a2 [4.5%] – J2 [4.5%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – N1c1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – Q [0.5%]

                       R1b      R1a     I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2       J1      G2a     N1C1

Austria           32        19      12        7           3           8         9         1          8         0.5  

Germany       45        16      16        2           5           6         5                     5             1

The high level of Haplogroup I and especially I1 in Germany is similar to the Nordic nations on or near its borders.

Germany having a large and varied population, means it is helpful to break down their  Y-DNA Haplogroups into four quadrants – not far removed from the four divisions created after World War II, that were administered by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States and France.

N Germany: R1b [36%] – R1a [22%] – I1 [18.5%] – I2a2 [7.5%] – J2 [4%] – G2a [3.5%] – 

E1b1b [2.5%] – Q [2%] – N1c1 [1.5%] – T1a [1%] – I2a1 [0.5%] – J1 [0.5%] 

E Germany: R1b [ 36%] – R1a [24%] – I1 [16.5%] – E1b1b [7.5%] – I2a2 [5%] – G2a [4%] – 

J2 [2%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – N1c1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – Q [1%] 

W Germany: R1b [47%] – I1 [12.5%] – R1a [9%] – E1b1b [8%] – I2a2 [6.5%] – G2a [5%] – 

J2 [5%] – I2a1 [2.5%] – N1c1 [2%] – T1a [1.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

S Germany: R1b [48.5%] – I1 [10.5%] – R1a [9.5%] – E1b1b [8%] – G2a [8%] – J2 [5%] – 

I2a1 [4.5%] – I2a2 [3%] – T1a [1.5%] – J1 [1%] – N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

                      R1b      R1a      I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2       N1C1

East               36         24      17        2           5           8         2           1                

North            36         22      19    0.5           8           3         4           2

West              47           9      13        3           7           8         5           2

South             49        10      11         5           3           8         5       0.5

Germany       45        16      16        2           5           6          5           1

Notice the strong east to west divide between R1a and R1b; as we have encountered in previous chapters on our journey across Europe. East and North Germany are more similar as are West and Southern Germany. Haplogroup I1 is associated with northern Europe and the figures for Germany reflect this gradient.

                                 R1b      R1a     I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2      N1C1

Sweden                   22        16        37       2            4            3        3           7

Norway                   32        26       32       5            4            1     0.5           7

Denmark                33        15        34       2            6            3        3           1

Iceland                   42         23       29                     4                                    1

Netherlands          49          4        17        1            7            4         4                     

Flanders                 61          4        12        3            5           5          4                      

Wallonia                60          7         11       2            5            6          2                          

Luxembourg          61          3          3       3            6            5          8                   

Austria                    32        19        12       7            3            8          9     0.5

Germany                45         16        16      2            5            6           5        1

Comparing Germany and Austria with their Scandinavian and Benelux cousins shows that Germany’s R1b percentage is placed between Iceland and the Netherlands, whereas Austria is more similar with Norway and Denmark.           

                      R1b    E1b1b   J1 & J2   I1 & I2    G2a    R1a    T1a   N1C1

Spain             69          7           10             7            3         2        3

Luxembourg  61          5            11           12            6         3        

Flanders         61           5             5          20            4         4        1            

Wallonia        60           6             2          18            6          7       4            

France             59           8            8          16            6          3        1      

Portugal          56         14           13            7            7          2        3

Brazil               54         11           10            9            5          4      

Switzerland    50           8           4           24           8           4        1        1

N Italy             50         11           12           12           8          5        2

Netherlands   49          4             5          25            5          4        1   

Germany         45         6             5           22            5        16        1        1

Iceland            42                                      33                      23                  1           

Italy                 39         14           19           10           9          4        3

Austria            32          8           10          22            8       19         1         1

Denmark        33           3             3           42          3         15                   1              

Norway           32           1             1            41           1        26                   7                

S Italy              28         19          26             7          11          3        3

Sweden           22           3            3           43            1        16                   7       

Turkey             16         11           33             6          11          8        3          

Greece             16         21           26           15           6         12        5  

Romania         16         14           15           34           3         18        1        2

Poland             13          4             3            16           2         58       1        4

Iran                   10          7         32              1          10          16       3        1 

Ukraine             8           7           5            26           3          44       1        6

Russia                6           3           3           20           1           46              23

Finland              4           1                         30                          4              62

Adding Austria and Germany to the continuing table of main Y-DNA Haplogroups for European nations, places them both centrally as indicative of their respective R1b percentages. Spain remains the bookend for the western most nations of Europe with a high percentage of R1b and Finland at the other end of the nations of Europe with a low R1b level. 

From everyone to whom much has been given, much will be required; and to whom they entrusted much, of him they will ask all the more.

Luke 12:48 Amplified Bible

True scholarship involves the sincere wish to weed out the errors that we are all plagued with and to accept new understandings with humility of thankfulness. In this spirit I am submitting this research to those who are interested. My best critics will be those who show me, and the rest of the world, just where the truth lies.”

Ernest L Martin [1932 – 2002]

“The truth is incontrovertible. Malice may attack it, ignorance may deride it, but in the end, there it is.”

Winston Churchill

“The surest barrier to advancing truth is the conviction one already has it” 

Kerrie L French

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

The Incredible Identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod

Chapter XXI

Nimrod, is listed as a son of Cush in Genesis chapter ten, though we are not told whether he is the eldest, youngest or somewhere in between his supposed five half-brothers? [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. Nimrod was apparently Nephilim; part human, part fallen angel – though many would debate this point – and for that to be possible, Nimrod’s father must have had more than one wife or partner. The woman in question – though again, many would debate an angel or Nephil being or appearing as a female – who was Nimrod’s mother, would have been an Angel herself. Or the unsavoury alternative is that his grandfather Ham had a relationship with an angel, meaning Cush was a Nephil and Nimrod was second generation, or an Elioud [1 Enoch 7:11]; though this scenario may be unlikely. 

Sources speak of male Nephilim, not female. There do not appear to be references to either angels or Nephilim fathering daughters. Are hybrids always sterile, is there only one viable gender produced and is this the case with Nephilim? We find references to sons as in, the sons of Anak in the Book of Numbers. Yet in the least this shows the Nephilim could reproduce for at least one generation and were not sterile. So what is the truth of Nimrod’s ancestry.

Numbers 13:22, 33

English Standard Version

33 And there we saw the Nephilim (the sons [H1121 – ben] of Anak, who come from the Nephilim), and we seemed to ourselves like grasshoppers, and so we seemed to them.”

22 They went up into the Negeb and came to Hebron. Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the descendants [H3211 – yaliyd] of Anak, were there…

In verse thirty-three the Hebrew word ben is typically used for ‘son’ or ‘grandson’ and in the KJV it is used 2,978 times for the word son. Though this word also means ‘children’ and is used 1,568 times. Children is in the ‘plural’ and includes ‘male and female.’ It can even be used in reference to ‘sons of God (for angels)’. The Hebrew word used in verse twenty-two is translated as ‘born [6], children [4] and sons [2]. It could be phrased, ‘those born of Anak.’ Sons can be used to denote all offspring, thereby including male and female descendants. We learn that the children of Anak are not just first generation Elioud [also transliterated Eljo – Book of Jubilees 7:22], but rather a generational line of descent. The Book of Joshua adds important information regarding the Anakim.

Joshua 14:15; 15:13

English Standard Version

Now the name of Hebron formerly was Kiriath-arba. (Arba was the greatest man among the Anakim… Arba was the father of Anak).

We learn that Anak had a father Arba, who was in fact the progenitor of a line of Elioud and is therefore the original Nephil. Thus his son Anak was not a Nephil, but a first generation Elioud and literally the first of the Anakim giants.

We have investigated and understand in Chapter XI Ham, the family intrigue in Ham’s family with his involvement in the Noah and Canaan incident. So does it extend to Cush? It seems that a Cushite Nimrod may not have been the progenitor of a specific line of people or a nation state, as per the genealogical listing in the Table of nations in Genesis chapter ten. Though a few spare verses speak about Nimrod, a tremendous amount is contained within them; with permutations far reaching through the annals of time until our present day and beyond.

Nimrod in Hebrew means: ‘to Rebel’ from the verb marad, ‘to be rebellious or revolt.’ There is scant detail in the Bible, though enough to learn his Nephilim condition and that he was not the only one of his kind after the flood as we already have seen some survived, but rather, he was probably the first and possibly only true Nephil to be born after the Great flood – becoming the preeminent Nephil of the world, to stand fully in defiance to the Creator. 

Genesis 10:6-12

English Standard Version

6 The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 

Cush fathered [H3205 – yalad: bring forth] Nimrod [H5248 – Nimrowd: rebellion, valiant]; he was the first [H2490 – chalal: began] on earth to be [H1961 – hayah] a mighty man [H1368 – gibbowr: strong, brave]. 

The word ‘first’ or ‘Began’ derives from the Hebrew chalal which has many sinister connotations and bleak meanings: ‘to profane, pollute, defile, stain, sorrow, desecrate, prostitute, break’ and ‘slay.’ It includes to ‘defile oneself ritually, sexually’ or in eating ‘common things.’ ‘To violate’ or ‘dishonour a covenant’ and ‘to wound, dissolve’ or ‘pierce.’ ‘To break one’s word’, ‘to begin as if by an “opening wedge”. It also includes ‘to play the flute or pipe’ and a ‘player on instruments.’ 

The two meanings I would pick up on are the opening wedge and playing the flute or pipe. One recalls the tale of the pied [more than two patches of colour on clothing] piper. 

In 1284, a colourful Piper led one hundred and thirty children away from the town of Hamelin in Lower Saxony Germany, to a mountain, after also ridding the township of rats. Initially, it appeared the Piper was doing the town a great service before his real motive was threateningly and hypnotically carried out. This is alarmingly reflective of Nimrod as we shall discover. The ‘opening wedge’ relates to Nimrod beginning what had occurred in the antediluvian age and was shut down by the flood; the opening of the conduits between our physical dimensions and the spiritual realm. 

The phrase ‘to be’ in the Hebrew is highly revealing for it means: ‘come to pass, exist, happen, fall out, come about.’ Nimrod was the first or began ‘to come into being, to arise’ and ‘be established.’ Nimrod came to ‘be in existence, remain’ and ‘be brought about’ as in a ‘place or time.’ The end of verse eight reveals what he was to be. 

The Hebrew for mighty is gibbowr or in the plural, gibborim. It can be translated as ‘strong, brave, valiant, champion, chief’ and interestingly as an ‘upright man’ and finally, as ‘giant.’ By implication it renders as a ‘powerful warrior’ or ‘tyrant.’ The word is derived from H1396 gabar, which means: ‘to prevail, be powerful’ and significantly in Nimrod’s case, ‘to act proudly (toward God).’ It does not prove or disprove that Nimrod was a Nephil by itself.

Genesis chapter six, uses the same phraseology to describe the Nephilim.

Genesis 6:4

English Standard Version

The Nephilim [H5303 – nphiyl: giant, tyrant, bully] were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God [H430 – ‘elohiym: angels] came in to the daughters [H1323 – bath: young women] of man and they bore children to them. These were the mighty [H1368 – gibbowr] men [ones] who were of old [H5769 – ‘owlam], the men [H582 – ‘enowsh] of renown [H8034 – shem].

The Hebrew word Nphiyl derives from the primitive root naphal H5307. Now this word reveals the the true nature of these ‘giant tyrants.’ This word is used to describe Cain, of which we shall return. It can be translated as the following: fail [318], fall down [25], cast down [18+9], fall away [5], divide [5], overthrow [5] and lost [2]. The further meaning include: ‘to fall (of violent death), to fall short, waste away, to throw or prostrate oneself, be cast down, fugitive, perish’ and ‘rot.’ The definitions are not positive and reveal the abominable condition of creatures that were part spiritual and part physical – fallen ones like their dark Angel fathers. 

The phrase ‘of old’ adds more pieces of the Nephilim puzzle. It is translated as: ever [272], everlasting [63], perpetual [22], evermore [15], ancient [5], always[3] and long [2]. It literally means a ‘long duration, antiquity, for ever, everlasting, long time, ancient time’ and tellingly, ‘continuous existence, indefinite or unending future, eternity.’ 

Even more revealingly, it derives from the word alam H5956. This word is translated as ‘hide, blind, dissemblers, hidden, secret’ and ‘secret thing’ and means ‘be hidden, to be concealed, be secret, to hide oneself, to veil from sight.’

The word ‘dissembler’ is intriguing for it means: ‘to give a false or misleading appearance to; conceal the truth or real nature of: feign, to let pass unnoticed; ignore… to conceal one’s true motives, thoughts… by some pretence; speak or act hypocritically.’ We will discover that this is the exact modus operandi of the Nephilim who reside in the shadowy world that bridges our own and that of the angelic realm.

The Hebrew word for man means literally a mortal man. What is interesting is that these were not normal men. The word ‘enowsh derives from ‘anash H605. This word defines these men of renown as ‘woeful’ and ‘incurable[y] desperately wicked, to be desperate, to be sick, to be frail, feeble’ and ‘melancholy.’ The Hebrew word for renown is the same word used for Noah’s youngest son, Shem. It means: ‘fame, glory, reputation’ and ‘authority.’ The word shem is regarded as the equivalent of H8064, Shamayim, which means: ‘to be lofty, the heavens or stars.’ This links the Nephilim to their infamous fathers, the sons of God who became corrupt angels, the fallen stars from heaven [Revelation 12:4].

The Voice translates the same verse as:

Now at that time and for some time to come, a great warrior race lived on the earth. Whenever the sons of God would have sex with the humans’ daughters, the women bore them children who became mighty warriors. In the days of old, they became famous heroes, the kind people tell stories about!

Other translations also use the word Hero. Websters Dictionary: ‘the offspring of the gods and a human.’ The online Dictionary: ‘a being of godlike prowess… who often came to be honoured as a divinity, an immortal being; demigod.’

All this paints a dim and dark picture. There can be no doubt that we are speaking of non-human beings that were physical yes, in that their bodies would ‘perish’ yet the Spirit unlike mankind’s, had an ‘existence [that] was everlasting.’ Certain Biblical scholars and commentators reason this does not prove that Nimrod was a Nephil, but rather he was a Gibbo’r – a mighty man, a powerful tyrant ruler, no more no less. As we progress, support for Nimrod’s Nephilim status escalates.

He was a mighty hunter [H6718 – tsayid] before [H6440 – paniym: in opposition to, against, in front of, facing] the Lord. Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 

The Hebrew word for hunter is translated as: ‘hunting’ [3+1] and ‘catch’ [1]. It lends itself more to ‘the chase.’ The word tsayid is a form of tsuwd H6679, meaning: ‘chased’ and ‘sore’. It also means ‘to hunt eagerly or keenly’ and ‘to catch an animal’ or ‘figuratively, men.’ 

Not only was Nimrod the first to set himself in opposition to the Eternal in the post-diluvian age; he took the starring role in re-establishing the rebellious system of universal government and control that had begun with Cain and led to the flood in the first place. His predatory harvesting of mankind’s bodies, minds and souls, into a unified singular force was another attempt at thwarting the Creator’s plan and the continuation of the ongoing war between the Serpent and humankind [Genesis 3:15]. 

10 The beginning [H7225 – re’shiyth] of his kingdom [dominion] was Babel [Babylon], Erech [Uruk – (Arach, Iraq)], Accad [Akkad], and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [Akkad and Sumer]. 

The Hebrew word for beginning is translated as: ‘firstfruits, first’ and ‘chief.’ It means the ‘best’ and ‘choice part.’ The ‘first, in place, time, order or rank.’ The matter that was  preeminent for Nimrod, was the building of Babel and what he intended to accomplish in this city-state complex. Either Nimrod departed, once Babel was completed and the wheels were set in motion for his diabolical Tower, or he left Shinar for Assyria after the aborted Tower of Babel incident. For whichever reason, Nimrod then went to the land of Ashur’s descendants building another four cities.

11 From that land [region] he went into Assyria [H804 – Ashshuwr or Asshur] and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah [today known as Nimrud], and 12 Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city [Nineveh]. 

Nimrod completed the ‘great city’ – in Assyria, a rival to Babel in Shinar – that would not always be Assyria’s capital but even so would always be its main city, Nineveh. It is not clear what Nineveh means, though most concordances provide ‘abode of Ninus.’ Ninus was the mythological founder of Nineveh. Many commentaries credit Nimrod with Ninus, though it is more likely that Ninus was Ninyas, Nimrod’s son. Ninus was supposedly the son of  Belos or Bel, deriving from the god Baal. Thus, Nimrod was the instrumental architect of the great civilisations that arose in the fertile crescent and the land of Shinar; when the descendants of Noah’s sons migrated from the Indus Valley westward to Mesopotamia. This after originally settling there from the route  they had taken southwards from the Himalayas after the flood. 

There are two anomalies in the verses in Genesis describing Nimrod. A well known online encyclopaedia discusses the ambiguity in the original Hebrew text that makes it unclear whether it is Nimrod or Asshur who additionally built the remaining four cities of Nineveh: ‘… (both interpretations are reflected in various English versions). Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (circa 1616) to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria.’

My opinion, judging from the two sentences of verse ten and eleven running together and Nimrod being the subject, is that he is the founder of all eight cities. The four cities [including Babel or Babylon, a future capital] of Shinar, in time came to represent Arphaxad’s children and the remaining four cities with Nineveh the future capital in Assyria, came to represent Asshur’s descendants, the first of Shem’s five sons to  expand its influence of power. During the time of Nimrod, one assumes all eight city-states would have been peopled by his family of brothers, right? This would mean principally Cush, and perhaps also Phut, Mizra and Canaan… that is, if Nimrod is in fact related to Cush?

If it was not for a cryptic verse in the Book of Micah, one would probably move on seamlessly with an expose on Nimrod. The red flag though, is that a descendant of Cush – the predominant peoples of the Indian sub-continent and south Asia today – should have such an invested interest and building program, in the two main future strongholds of power – Shem’s sons, Asshur and Arphaxad. It appears that a Cushite Nimrod took little interest in his own people from Ham and rather concentrated his efforts with his cousins from Shem. Something is out of kilter.

Micah 5:6

New English Translation

They will rule the land of Assyria with the sword, the land [country, people] of Nimrod with a drawn sword…

Micah’s future prophecy states ‘the people or country of Nimrod’ and equates it with the land of Assyria and not with the land of Cush? 

The Torah online – emphasis and bold mine:

The Nimrod passage interrupts the genealogy of Ham, which continues in verse 12. Moreover, the verses seem to diverge from the structure of the larger genealogical list: it focuses on one individual and the cities he founded, not on the sons he begat… the geographic picture it presents is problematicShinʿar is in southern Mesopotamia and Ashur in northern Mesopotamia, all in “Shemitic” territory. 

Cush, however, ostensibly Nimrod’s father, like other descendants of Ham, represents the well-known land of Kush, also known as Nubia, the Septuagint’s “Ethiopia,” roughly today’s Sudan. How are we to make sense of this? Critical scholarship is almost unanimous in the assessment that verses 8–12 were taken from a different source than the preceding and following verses. Most scholars would assign verses 1–7 and 13–32 to the Priestly school, and verses 8–12 to the J source. 

This suggests that we may explain the Nimrod narrative independently of the surrounding Table of Nations. This leaves us with two questions: What was its original meaning, and why was it linked to the genealogy of Cush? [The option]… embraced by most scholars and is likely correct… [is that] the Cush in verse 8, Nimrod’s father, [is] not [from] Nubia, but… a place in Mesopotamia. According to this, whoever inserted the J tradition into its present place mistakenly conflated the two.

The mid-third millennium B.C.E. was a time of great change in Mesopotamia. After several centuries of rivalry between various Sumerian city-states such as Ur, Uruk, Lagash and Umma, the rulers of the city of Kish managed to establish supremacy over much of southern Mesopotamia. This was the first time one Sumerian city succeeded in doing this. In successive generations, the title “King of Kish” (sar-kissati) would come to mean a divinely authorized ruler over all of Sumer and would be claimed at different times by the rulers of various cities. Use of the title “King of Kish” implied being victorious at war, a righteous judge and a builder of cities. Kish, I would argue, is the basis of the Cush of the Nimrod passage (v. 8).’ 

It is the view of this writer that the preceding summation is accurate when weighing the association of the Biblical Nimrod with all things Assyrian or Asshur and nothing Ethiopian or Cush. Further investigation on Nimrod, his actions and motives only further cement his physical line of descent as from Asshur and not from Cush. How and why his verses are inserted with Cush’s family tree and not Asshur’s is either a scribal error in thinking the father of Nimrod was Cush from Ham, or rather it was a deliberate attempt to conceal Nimrod’s true lineage from Kish of Asshur. The name Cush is intriguing for in the Hebrew it connotes black or a black countenance which the darker peoples of Cush are. Jone’s Dictionary offers an alternative meaning that could well describe Nimrod’s father of: full of darkness.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Nouns (mered) and (mardut) mean rebellion. The letter (nun), with which our name starts may be due to a grammatical construction that turns a verb passive (he was rebelled against), reflective (he turned himself against), or resultative (to be rebellious).

… Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Rebel. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Strong… BDB Theological Dictionary suggests a relation to the Babylonian god Marduk, or the star-god Namra-uddu. Some scholars propose that Nimrod is the same figure as the mighty Greek hunter Orion.

… [Nimrod’s] epithet “mighty hunter before YHWH (Genesis 10:9) seems to indicate that the Lord was quite taken with Nimrod’s hunting skills. And what was he hunting for? His name suggests that he embodied the object of rebellion, but back when there was no empire to rebel against, the rise of empire was the actual rebellion.

It stands to reason that Nimrod… strove to rebel against primitivity and embrace culture and sophistication. Today some speak of science as “the pursuit of knowledge,” which may be precisely what “mighty hunter before YHWH” means. The name Nimrod may literally mean Rebel but by implication it means Cultivation or even Enlightenment.’

Reminiscent of 2 Corinthians 11:14 NCV: “This does not surprise us. Even Satan changes himself to look like an angel of light.”

‘The word for hunter is (sayyad) and derives from the verb (sud), meaning to hunt or fish. This means that Nimrod was probably the first of the so-called “fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19).’ 

Nimrod was a forerunner of a one-world-government dictator, establishing himself as mankind’s teacher, provider, master and saviour. An ante-christ, preceding not just the true Christ, but also the predicted anti-christ or ‘in-opposition-to’ false Prophet in the Book of Revelation.

‘Noun (mesad) means fastness or stronghold (a typically defensive structure). Noun (masod) may mean siege works or hunting implement (like a net). The denominative verb (sid) means to supply oneself with food.’

The Book of Jasher 7:23-51 offers insight into Nimrod. It may even be a facet of the Noah, Ham and Canaan jig-saw we studied in Chapter XI Ham. Reference to the passage delayed, so as not to influence the earlier study. There is room for doubt with regard to authenticity and veracity of editing of the passage. It is included more for interests sake than historical accuracy; with liberty being taken by this writer in only including the salient points and omitting the obvious poetic licence. 

23 … At that time the sons of men again began to rebel and transgress against God… 24… the garments of skin which God made for Adam and his wife, when they went out of the garden… 25… after the death of Adam and his wife… were given to Enoch… and when Enoch was taken up to God, he gave them to Methuselah, his son. 26. And at the death of Methuselah, Noah took them and brought them to the ark, and they were with him until he went out of the ark. 

27 And… Ham stole those garments from Noah his father, and he took them and hid them from his brothers. 28And when Ham begat his first born Cush, he gave him the garments in secret, and they were with Cush many days. 29 And Cush also concealed them from his sons and brothers, and… Cush… gave him those garments… and Nimrod grew up, and when he was twenty years old he put on those garments

30… Nimrod became strong when he put on the garments… [similar to the Judge of Israel, Samson from the Tribe of Dan], and he was a mighty hunter in the earth, yea, he was a mighty hunter in the field, and he hunted the animals and he built altars… 31 And Nimrod strengthened himself, and he rose up from amongst his brethren, and he fought the battles of his brethren against all their enemies round about.” 

32… and he reigned upon earth… 34 And… at that time there was a war between his brethren and the children of Japheth, so that they were in the power of their enemies. 35 And Nimrod went forth at that time… and when he was on the road, Nimrod strengthened the hearts of the people that went with him. 36 And he said to them, Do not fear, neither be alarmed, for all our enemies will be delivered into our hands, and you may do with them as you please. 37 And all the men that went… they fought against their enemies, and they destroyed them, and subdued them, and Nimrod placed standing officers over them in their respective places. 38 And he took some of their children as security, and they were all servants to Nimrod and to his brethren… 

39 And when Nimrod had… returned from battle, after having conquered his enemies, all his brethren, together with those who knew him before, assembled to make him king over them, and they placed the regal crown upon his head. 40 And he set over his subjects and people, princes, judges, and rulers, as is the custom amongst kings. 41 And he placed Terah [Abraham’s father] the son of Nahor the prince of his host, and he dignified him and elevated him above all his princes.

42 And whilst he was reigning according to his heart’s desire, after having conquered all his enemies around, he advised with his counselors to build a city for his palace, and they did so. 43 And they found a large valley opposite to the east, and they built him a large and extensive city, and Nimrod called the name of the city that he built Shinar… 44 And Nimrod dwelt in Shinar, and he reigned securely, and he fought with his enemies and he subdued them, and he prospered in all his battles, and his kingdom became very great.

The war against Japheth’s children, would have occurred relatively early after the flood, of 10,837 BCE. Time would have elapsed for Noah’s family to migrate from Kashmir to the Indus Valley [circa 10,500 – 9500 BCE] and for Nimrod to be born [c. 10,000 BCE]. Peoples then migrated west to Mesopotamia [circa 9500 – 8500 BCE]. The heart of the reason for war with Japheth was probably land and territory disputes [circa 8000 BCE]. We learn in Genesis chapter Ten that Nimrod built his Shinar cities first, then the cities in Asshur [cica 7500 – 7000 BCE. The building of the Tower at Babel was approximately 7000 – 6800 BCE, culminating in its destruction circa 6755 BCE. 

Abraham’s father Terah was born 4077 BCE. It seems incredulous that Nimrod would still be alive… but he was not an offspring of a Nephilim that survived the flood and thus a second generation Nephilim, an Elioud who would have been quarter angelic or spirit. These beings were a watered-down version and did not live as long. Nimrod was not and so it is highly likely he was still alive, after 6,000 years and still ruling in 4077 BCE. If he had not died during the Tower of Babel confusion. Humans were still living long ages, for Terah did not die until 1842 BCE, living some 2,235 years. 

The decision by Abraham to follow the Eternal is impressive when the context of his choice is understood with the back drop of being raised in the very head aristocratic and political family of the day, serving  the most evil potentate imaginable.  

45 And all nations and tongues heard of his fame, and they gathered themselves to him, and they bowed down to the earth, and they brought him offerings, and he became their lord and king, and they all dwelt with him in the city at Shinar, and Nimrod reigned in the earth over all the sons of Noah, and they were all under his power and counsel. 46 And all the earth was of one tongue and words of union, but Nimrod did not go in the ways of the Lord, and he was more wicked than all the men that were before him, from the days of the flood until those days. 47 And he made gods of wood and stone, and he bowed down to them, and he rebelled against the Lord, and taught all his subjects and the people of the earth his wicked ways; and Mardon his son was more wicked than his father… 

49 And Terah the son of Nahor, prince of Nimrod’s host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated him very high [circa 3000 BCE]. 50 And Terah took a wife and her name was Amthelo the daughter of Cornebo; and the wife of Terah conceived and bare him a son in those days [1977 BCE]. 51 … and Terah called the name of his son that was born to him Abram, because the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his princes that were with him.

The garments of Nimrod made him invincible and are possibly linked to a different genetic composition. It would seem they are used here as a clue or symbol of Nimrod’s Nephilim hybrid status. Note the one tongue, or language of the earth. Noah and his family spoke the same language and all the grandsons and so forth did the same. 

This is how in large part Nimrod was able to have successful domination over all of Noah’s descendants and why when Nimrod is purported to have built the tower at Babel that the prime target for sabotage of it, was the language. In the Book of Jubilees 8:6-7 we read: ‘… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed, his father’s [Arphaxad] brother… And she bare him a son… and he called his name Eber: and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was Azurad, the daughter of Nebrod…’ 

As Nebrod is considered the Greek form of Nimrod, we have serious questions regarding the lineage of Arphaxad’s line. Is it coincidental that as Canaan was inserted as the father of Shelah which is improbable and a descendant of Nimrod is inserted as the mother of Peleg and Joktan. Nimrod a descendant of Asshur, has his daughter included in Arphaxad’s line making Nimrod an indirect ancestor of Abraham? There is a serious question mark, over the authenticity of such a situation and adds to the already dubiousness of Nimrod being a blood related son of Cush.

Regardless, Nimrod lived and ruled within Shem’s inheritance and not in Hamite territory. He fought the enemy of Shem – who had been predicted to enlarge and dwell with him – Japheth [Genesis 9:27]. Nimrod elevated Terah from Arphaxad’s and Shem’s line for loyalty – why not someone from Ham’s line? The reason being that it was people from Shem, Nimrod’s subjects and kin who had participated in the military offensive and war against Japheth. Recall the future conflict between the ships from Kittim – son of Javan, son of Japheth – and the Assyrian, King of the North.

The land of Shinar and southern Mesopotamia anciently included Sumer and its people, the Sumerians. This culture is viewed as the oldest and originators of civilisation in the region. Sumer etymologically, is linked to Shumer, to Shum and to Shem. The link between this region and Nimrod supports his being white and not black skinned and if so his bloodline in part descended from Asshur and not Cush.

We have discussed the Nephilim producing males, with no reference to female Nephilim and by extension Elioud. Yet if true, Nimrod had a daughter Azurad, a first generation Elioud and one quarter angelic. This would infer that Nimrod’s mother was an Angel as proposed earlier and not a Nephil. The status and exploits of Nimrod are considerably more impressive than any other Nephilim descended giants on the earth post-flood and are more reminiscent of the Nephilim prior to the flood. This supports the theory that a. Nimrod was a Nephil and b. that he was the only one of his kind to be born after the flood. Whereas all other Nephil, for instance Anak had crossed over and were survivors of the flood. 

A profound and vital key that has been missed by most and misinterpreted by those few who have understood, is that Nimrod mirrors the man of lawlessness. Some incorrectly teach that Nimrod is a type of the Antichrist, thus ascribing to him the identity of the first Beast. The truth is that Nimrod actually represents the entity who is is the second beast, the one who is called the false Prophet in scripture. The following verses in the book of Thessalonians eerily parallel Nimrod. 

2 Thessalonians 2:1-12

English Standard Version

Now concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered together to him, we ask you, brothers, 2 not to be quickly shaken in mind or alarmed, either by a spirit or a spoken word, or a letter seeming to be from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, 4 who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God. 

5 Do you not remember that when I was still with you I told you these things? 6 And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time.For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way. 8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming. 9 The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan with all power and false signs and wonders, 10 and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 Therefore God sends them a strong delusion, so that they may believe what is false, 12 in order that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

The apostle Paul warns not to be fooled about a ‘false end time’ for the false Prophet needs to appear first; yet it is the false Prophet that may well produce ‘apostolic evidence’ to show Christ has already returned [Revelation 13:11-18]. During Paul’s ministry he speaks about two mysteries. One of which is the hidden agenda of the Serpent, stemming from the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 and is ‘already at work.’ Paul very curiously says the man of lawlessness is being restrained until ‘his time.’ This certainly precludes a human being. How could they be restrained for two thousand years? The ‘coming of the lawless one’ is by direct orchestration of Satan the Serpent. The man of lawlessness can only be a spirit being and not a mortal human being.

It is the belief of some that Nimrod is the Antichrist and that he will re-appear in the future. We will study the identity of the first Beast, though as an idea it is not to be summarily dismissed. I would therefore amend the theory to Nimrod being rather the false Prophet, the second beast instead. In the next chapter we will investigate the Nephilim more fully, though it is enough to be said for now that as they eventually lose their physical, corporate bodies at physical death their non-corporal spirit lives on. Thus, Nimrod re-incarnating as a human is a possible prospect and not as far-fetched as it may first sound. Nimrod did not die, he eventually lost his physical body to the corruption and disintegration caused by old age – if he was not murdered, physically before hand. As a direct offspring of an Angel, his spirit would not end when his physical body did.

This future religious Potentate, either channels the same rebellious spirit and self-exalting opposition exhibited by Nimrod… or is actually Nimrod. We have learned that Assyria is a future and final King of the North. Could its leader be the Beast – the son of destruction? And could the false Prophet be someone with ties to ancient Assyria… say, someone like Nimrod? 

An article from New Dawn online – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Igor Nikolaevich Panarin (born 1958), dean of the Russian Foreign Ministry’s school for future diplomats, is a geopolitical analyst, political scientist and media commentator, with significant influence on Russian thinking. An examination of his views and public pronouncements is therefore important in discerning the outlook of Russia’s leading academic and political circles, as well as considering what influences are shaping Russian national consciousness. Panarin is a former officer of the KGB. In 1991 he reached the rank of colonel in the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information, then the Russian equivalent of the US National Security Agency. Dr. Panarin believes Russia’s destiny is Eurasia. He proposed his own version of the Eurasian Economic Union, ‘Eurasia-Rus’, an interstate formation modelled after the European Union. Panarin has called attention to the messianic legacy of Russia as the ‘Third Rome’, the centre of a new civilisation based on a sacred mission that is an inherent part of the Russian soul. This is an attitude one can discern in much of what Vladimir Putin says. The United States’ opposition to a revived Russia can thus be understood as part of a clash of world outlooks. This messianic outlook endures in Russia regardless of the outward mode of political expression.’ 

Regarding Russia’s future role, one of the world’s most accurate psychics, Edgar Cayce predicted that Russia would be a ‘force of light’ in preventing a World War from occurring, amidst the global turmoil we experience today. His predictions were made nearly ninety years ago in a series of World Affairs Readings about the future of world finance, world leadership, collective spirituality and the significant role Russia would play on the world’s stage.

Excerpt from Waking Times, 2015 – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘When asked in 1932 about political and economic trends in Europe Cayce zeroed in on Russia: 

Europe is as a house broken up. Some years ago there was the experience of a mighty peoples being overridden for the gratification and satisfaction of a few, irrespective of any other man’s right. That peoples are going through the experience of being born again, and is the thorn in the flesh to many a political and financial nation in Europe, in the world… 

Q: What is the name of that nation referred to? A: Russia!

70 years after the defeat of the Axis powers, Russia has been reborn, but the rest of the world is now largely under the thumb of the Western globalist banking cartel. This cartel is organized as the IMF, the World Bank, the Bank for International Settlements, and the global network of central banks, reserve banks, development banks, and investment banks that hold the world’s elected governments in perpetual receivership and the world’s people in bondage to mathematically impossible to pay debt. 

In 2013 the US was attempting to invade Syria under obviously false pretences. Vladimir Putin prevented US involvement by threatening to intervene militarily…

With the deliberate destruction of Ukraine by the George Soros funded color-revolution destabilization team then the advances of the IMF to debt-conquer Ukraine with tens of billions of dollars in forced development loans, Putin’s Russia emerged as the singular force capable of checking the banking cabal’s global advance, and is refusing to allow Ukraine and Crimea to fall into the hands of Western backed forces.

Cayce spoke of Russia’s role as being the ‘hope of the world’ in a coming time such as this: 

In Russia there comes the hope of the world, not as that sometimes termed of the communistic, or Bolshevik, no; but freedom, freedom! That each man will live for his fellow man! The principle has been born. It will take years for it to be crystallised, but out of Russia comes again the hope of the world.(Edgar Cayce, 1944)

Even before WWII, Cayce appears to have foreseen the need for Russia to evolve spiritually in some manner so that it would be able to rise in opposition to the decaying moral values of the capitalist West and play its part as the great hope of the world. 

Cayce was asked, “What should be the attitude of so called capitalist nations toward Russia?

On Russia’s religious development will come the greater hope of the world. Then that one, or group, that is the closer in its relationships, may fare the better in the gradual changes and final settlement of conditions as to the rule of the world. 

Six months later, additional information was presented which helped to clarify this earlier prediction. 

Out of Russia, you see, there may come that which may be the basis of a more world wide religious thought or trend… 

When Hugh Lynn asked Cayce about the Russian situation in June 1938, he was told: 

A new understanding has and will come to a troubled people. Here, because of the yoke of oppression, because of the self indulgences, has arisen another extreme. Only when there is freedom of speech, the right to worship according to the dictates of the conscience – until these come about, still turmoils will be within. 

Essentially Cayce appears to be referring to Russia after the trials under Soviet rule and the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the need for the world to return to humanistic values in order to free itself from the oppression of the Zionist cartels which have been organizing against the human race for centuries. Cayce is saying that some sort of much needed spiritual leadership will come from Russia in this time, some kind of attitude that will make it possible for a transition of this calibre to occur without having to experience the guaranteed destruction of any World War III. 

And what would spiritual leadership look like in a world gone mad, anyhow? At first it would appear as common sense. Of course. 

Aristotle even goes as far as to say that common sense is where consciousness originates. So if a society is lacking in common sense, and there’s little to no conscience, morality, empathy, consciousness, creativity, taste, discernment or love, how does one propose to govern such a population?

Did Edgar Cayce somehow know that Russia would take the common sense gap between spiritual leadership and the guaranteed destruction of World War III… Speaking on the current state of US and Russia relations at a recent summit, Putin said, regarding America: 

“You must rise above the endless desire to dominate. You must stop acting out of imperialistic ambitions. Do not poison the minds of millions of people; like there can be no other way but imperialistic politics.” – Vladimir Putin. 

Cayce also made comments about America’s future moral decay: In the final World affairs reading given on June 22, 1944, less than six months before Edgar’s death, he addresses the spirit and “the sin of America.” 

What is the spirit of America? Most individuals proudly boast “freedom.” Freedom of what? When ye bind men’s hearts and minds through various ways and manners, does it give them freedom of speech? Freedom of worship? Freedom from want?… In the application of these principles… America may boast, but rather is that principle being forgotten… and that is the sin of America.

Did Edgar Cayce foresee Putin’s interfering role in the Western cabals plan to overtake the world through financial domination, political destabilization, and all out world war, order out of chaos? Cayce also predicted the possibility of a THIRD World War. He spoke of strifes arising… in Libya, and in Egypt, in Ankara, and in Syria; through the straits around those areas above the Persian Gulf.

Whether or not you believe in the power of the human mind to connect with Source and withdraw information about the future, things are lining up in such a way that Cayce’s prophecies regarding Russia are proving quite prescient now, giving us a clue that at least we shouldn’t hold on too tightly to any preconceived notions about what will happen in coming years… [while] in a vacuum of any common sense or humanistic leadership from the present powers that be…’

Perception would dictate that these prophecies are being directed to a future leader of Russia and not to the current President, Vladimir Putin. If seen in this light, then the support for a powerful, charismatic, profoundly influencing leader to emerge from Russia is heightened. Mikhail Gorbachev was a charismatic leader of Russia, that was able to court the western leaders, gaining the respect and trust of Ronald Reagan of the United States and Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom. How much more could a leader achieve that has guidance, strength and composition of a wily spiritual nature. 

Book of Enoch 7:1-6

“1. And all the [other sons of God] together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments [black magic], and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants [witch craft]. 2. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants [Nephilim]… 3. Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, 4. the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 5. And they began to… devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 6. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.”

The first generation of Nephilim were completely out of control and did not manage their hybrid genetic composition well at all. The myths and legends of giants, cannibalism and vampirism are born from reality, in an epoch over twenty thousand years ago. As it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be the same at the end of our age. Notice the chilling phrase ‘lawless ones’ specifically relating to the Nephilim. The future ‘man of lawlessness’ is highly likely to be of Nephilim descent. To understand Nimrod and the false Prophet better, it would be beneficial to study the adversary to the true Christ, the Beast; as well as the origins of the Nephilim.  

Daniel 7:25-26

English Standard Version

[The Beast] shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the [sacred] times [the calendar] and the [special] law [the Sabbath]; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time [42 months of 30 days – Revelation 13:5; Daniel 11:11-12]. But the court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end.

Book of Enoch 8:1-2

Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony [‘a brittle, lustrous, white metallic element… used chiefly in alloys and in compounds in medicine’], and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings,Armaros the resolving [banishment] of enchantments, Baraqijal, (taught) astrology, Kokabel [“a great angelic prince who rules over the stars”] the constellations [astronomy], Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds [weather], and Sariel [associated with fertility of the earth, the spring equinox in March, the martial zodiac sign of Aries the Ram and was invoked for protection against the malefic power of the Evil, Eye] the course of the moon [the lunar calendar for horticulture and agriculture]. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven…”

The Book of Enoch describes two hundred fallen, dark Angels, in groups of twenty with a leader for each group descending to our realm. A third rebellion against the Creator. The first when the Dragon was originally cast out of Heaven. The second when the Serpent seduced Eve in the Garden of Eden. The third, when Satan the Devil – or his personal, real name as we shall learn, Samael – sought to finish what had been started in Eden, in corrupting mankind even further as another attempt to sabotage the Creator’s plans for humankind and a continuation of the Genesis 3:15 war. 

Semjaza or Samyaza, is the head of the rebellious Angels and of the other nine leaders, though confusingly, it is Azazel, second of the ten leaders that is the main instigator in teaching and corrupting humanity. Samyaza means: ‘the (or my) name has seen’ or ‘he sees the name.’ The name is associated with an infamous rebellion.

It was while researching Azazel that I thought he was one and the same as Azrael. Though I soon realised that they are two different beings. In the process, I found that outside the Book of Enoch, it is Azrael – and not Azazel – that is described in likeness of Samael, as an angel of death – one who is responsible for the death and therefore the prescribed time allotted to humans. Azrael is depicted as a grim reaper and thus the angel in the scriptures referred to by the term, angel of death, may well be Azrael either working on Samael’s behalf, or ultimately fulfilling the Creator’s plan.

Azrael also known as Azriel or Asriel means: ‘Angel of God’, ‘Help from God’, ’God’s help’, ‘God is my help’ or ‘helper of the Divine.’ The idea of rather serving the Eternal is supported in his name’s definition and may extend to his even being the mysterious Angel of the Lord. Islam and certain Jewish sources contrastingly perceive Azrael as ‘an embodiment of evil’ and therefore a fallen angel, even an Archangel of death. It is not conclusive that Azrael is evil. One of the leading sinful angels listed in the Book of Enoch is Sariel and some translations link the name with Azrael. There is no evidence they are one and the same entity.

It was this similarity of relationship in as far as a role, that opened the possibility that a certain being might actually be the son of Samael. And that being is Azazel as the most likely candidate. There is reason to consider, they are related as father and son. As we progress, a case will form to support this hypothesis. At the least, it appears strongly that Azazel is, or has become, Samael’s second in command. Samael means: ‘God has heard’ or ‘heard by God’ and then as if a transformation occurs, through rebellion perhaps in that his name also means, ‘venom of God’, ‘poison of God’ and ‘blindness of God.’ 

Samael is the deceitful ‘light bringer’ as well as the chief ‘adversary’ – Ha-Satan of many rebellious angels – the Satan. Samael has a powerfully corrupt agenda that concentres his time and effort as an accuser of the brethren [the true body of believers], a seducer of mankind [the whole world is held unwittingly captive] and a destroyer of the cosmos [perverts the innocent and good of the Eternal’s creation].

The meanings of Samyaza and Samael are similar in an indirect way. It is suspicious how Samyaza, though leader of the two hundred Watchers, takes a place in the shadows and allows Azazel [his son?] to be the focus of attention. Why wouldn’t the Creator’s adversary descend to earth and be involved in the plan to thoroughly corrupt mankind. The earth is the centre of the battle between both forces and the tactics used by Samuel are outright guerrilla warfare. This would include under cover infiltration with Samael’s most trusted minions. Samael, the Serpent, takes a role in the shadows, when he gives ‘all power and authority’ to the first Beast.

Job 1:6-7

English Standard Version

6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them. 7 The Lord said to Satan, “From where have you come?” Satan answered the Lord and said, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking up and down on it.”

Notice, Satan slips in with the other sons of God… and Satan…Satan also… camein among them. And, also, among, three words all alluding to Samael’s – possible reluctance at having to report in, though also – contentment to be in the shadows, waiting for the Lord to speak first.

Revelation 13:1-9

English Standard Version

13 And I saw a beast rising out of the sea… And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast. 4 And they worshiped the dragon [Samael], for he had given his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who can fight against it?” 5 And the beast was given a mouth uttering haughty and blasphemous words, and it was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. 6 It opened its mouth to utter blasphemies against God, blaspheming his name and his dwelling, that is, those who dwell in heaven. 7 Also it was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. And authority was given it over every tribe and people and language and nation, 8 and all who dwell on earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written before the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who was slain. 9 If anyone has an ear, let him hear…

If the mysterious Beast, that is given power by the Dragon was his son, then many pieces of the biblical end time prophecy puzzle, would become clear. Notice the similarity of complete control over humanity in the vein of Azazel who originally corrupted the whole pre-flood world. Also mirrored are Nimrod’s early attempts at one-world-government. 

In the Apocalypse of Abraham, in Chapter 23:7, Azazel is described as having seven heads, fourteen faces and ‘hands and feet like a man’s [and] on his back six wings on the right and six on the left.’ The Bible describes a being with six wings as a Seraph, literally a ‘flying fiery serpent’ or simply, a dragon

A key aspect of the the delusion sent from the Lawless One, is receiving his mark.

Revelation 13:16-18

English Standard Version

16 Also it [the second beast] causes all, both small and great, both rich and poor, both free and slave, to be marked on the right hand or the forehead, 17 so that no one can buy or sell unless he has the mark, that is, the name of the beast [G2342 – therion: a wild, savage, ferocious and venomous beast] or the number of its name. 18 This calls for wisdom: let the one who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man [G444 – anthropos: man-faced, male sex, body and soul], and his number is 666.

There is much speculation and conjecture on what the mark is and what the number means. The two main clues are that one, the mark is restrictive in that without it functioning in society will either be difficult or impossible. A ‘cashless’ society, replaced with a digital, micro-chipped currency would make orthodox purchasing impossible, for those without the mark. The second is that the mark is also the name of the beast. The name in turn has a number. The beast is described like a serpent, yet also as a man. The Beast is suspiciously like a fallen Seraph that has incarnated as a human. The mark then, may be a transformation of a similar kind, though in reverse.

The mark is presumably not visible or unsightly, but under the skin or even not just inside the body, but within and part of a human being. The beginning of bar-codes on products was popular in conspiracy circles; being encoded in some way is probably accurate. The hand and forehead are symbolic of our humanity and what separates us from other mammals and animals. That is, our possession of a thumb and ability to hold, control and build and the reasoning powers of intellect situated in our frontal lobe. 

A controlling manipulation of  human DNA to alter Homo sapiens sapiens to something new, Homo novus, or engineered, Homo machinus is not so far fetched. The agenda  in the antediluvian era was to thwart the Creator’s original plan for man. It has remained the unseen program of His adversaries and will accelerate again ‘as in the days of Noah’ in the latter days. 

Interestingly, the Carbon-12 atom in humans – one of five elements in our DNA – is composed of six protons, six electrons and six neutrons. The book of Revelation says 666 is a number of a man; yet the Word is called the Son of Man as the false Prophet is called the Man of Lawlessness. Yet both are spiritual creatures and not fully human. The number belongs to the Beast and its mark could be a form of corruption of what makes us human albeit with a spiritual origin and design.

An unknown internet source states – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Carbon-12 is the most abundant of the two stable isotopes of the element carbon, accounting for 98.89% of carbon. Its abundance is due to the Triple-alpha process… by which it is created in stars, and as Carl Sagan had once said, “we’re made of star stuff.” The English name carbon, comes from the Latin carbo for coal and charcoal, whence also comes the French charbon, meaning charcoal… in the bible… Isaiah 6:6 – “Then one of the seraphim flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar.” The name Seraphim meaning “the burning ones”, are the first hierarchy of angels… that were Cherubim…

The Latin word corresponding to Greek Phosphorus is “Lucifer.” Phosphorus (Greek Phosphoros), a name meaning “Light-Bringer…” When combined with oxygen and hydrogen, carbon can form many groups of important biological compounds, including sugars, lignans, chitins, alcohols, fats, aromatic esters, carotenoids and terpenes. With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulfur it also forms antibiotics, amino acids, and rubber products. With the addition of phosphorus to these other elements, it forms DNA and RNA, the chemical-code carriers of life, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important energy-transfer molecule in all living cells.

Nucleotides are biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Each nucleotide has three components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. The phosphate groups and the sugars form the backbone of each strand of DNA or RNA. The phosphate is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Phosphorus (Lucifer) is just the ‘spark’ in our DNA that makes us fire. When the 666 of Carbon is combined with the elements above and mixed with Lucifer… Phosp-Horus, we get a combination or reaction of chemical elements that forms DNA and RNA. 

This magical god given chemical-code carrier is the very code for all life, and of course, it is the number of a man; his number is 6 neutrons, 6 protons, and 6 electrons, Six hundred threescore and six (666). Various chemical elements when combined with Carbon, forms our very material reality, or what some may call, the Matrix. The number 666 may be the sequence of DNA genetic signals or DNA fragments necessary for successful cloning. Man was created on the sixth day. The number 6 represents man and is not a perfect number. Therefor 666 is “man’s” number, and stops short of the perfect number seven.’

The number six has historically been assigned to man and it was Homo neanderthalensis that was created on the Sixth day or epoch, as re-counted in Genesis chapter one. Genesis chapter two, runs a parallel account of creation that reveals Adam and Eve, Homo sapiens or Cro-Magnon man, were created on the Eighth day

Manly P Hall said: ’We are the gods of the atoms that make up ourselves, but we are also the atoms of the gods that make up the universe.’ 

Computer chips are being implanted in humans. They are for recording and filing data more than anything else, as well as the novel switching on and off of electronic items. Any kind of genetic manipulation would probably come in the form of an injection, or a pill. The covid 19 event is suspiciously the type of scenario, whereby additives in a ‘vaccine’ could be administered unsuspectingly to a very wide audience.

A means to reduce the world’s population by sterilisation, is an example of a covert  inoculation agenda. Ultimately, a compound that alters our DNA, may be highly attractive in the short term, if it were to extend our lives or open up psychic abilities. Though not in the long term, if it changes our genetic make-up, making us less than human, while transforming into a hybrid that affects our spiritual future and eternal salvation. For further information on the mark, please refer to Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega.

Man is more than a body which acts as a vehicle for the soul, that animates it. There is a spirit in man that the Creator has imparted to humanity. We read earlier, of the Holy Spirit that emanates from the Ancient of Days; His divine essence and creative force [refer Chapter One Noah]. From His spirit has come the spirt in man. The above quote said Lucifer – the Devil – is the [spiritual] spark in our DNA. Regardless of the source, the physical manifestation of the spirit that gives life and acts as an ignition, is the flow of electrical current though the body’s nervous system circuitry, which drives the engine of our metabolism and with the lungs breathing in oxygen and our beating hearts that pump oxygenated blood through our network of arteries and keeps us all alive.

1 Thessalonians 5:23

English Standard Version

Now may the God of peace himself sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit  [G4151 – pneuma: of the wind, breath, human spirit, ‘the vital principal by which the body is animated’ and ‘the power by which [a] human being feels, thinks, decides’] and soul  [G5590 – psuche: ‘the soul as an essence differs from the body’, a living being, that in which there is life] and body [G4983 – soma: a living body or dead corpse of a man or animal] be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The three components of a human being and until science acknowledges this fundamental understanding of our composition; the laws governing our combined physical and spiritual attributes, their endeavours to fully understand the human mind will forever be limited.

Job 32:8

English Standard Version

But it is the spirit in man, the breath of the Almighty, that makes him understand.

The spirit in man empowers our mind to be more advanced than animal life; to think, to reason, to question, to plan and to formulate answers.

Ecclesiastes 12:7

English Standard Version

… and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.

As the spirit in man is given by the Creator, it returns to Him upon death. Our body decomposes and our soul – what makes us, us – is kept by the Creator in a state of sleep, until the appointed time.

Job 14:14

New Century Version

Will the dead live again? All my days are a struggle; I [Job] will wait until my change [relief] comes.

1 Corinthians 15:35-49

English Standard Version

35 But someone will ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?” 36 You foolish person! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. 37 And what you sow is not the body that is to be, but a bare kernel, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain. 38 But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body. 39 For not all flesh is the same, but there is one kind for humans, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. 40 There are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is of one kind, and the glory of the earthly is of another. 41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars [angels]; for star differs from star in glory.

42 So is it with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable; what is raised is imperishable. 43 It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. 44 It is sown a natural [physical like an animal] body; it is raised a spiritual [divine] body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam [Christ] became a life-giving spirit. 46 But it is not the spiritual that is first but the natural, and then the spiritual. 47 The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so also are those who are of the dust, and as is the man of heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. 49 Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image [likeness] of the man of heaven.

The apostle Paul speaks in verses 38-39, of the difference between fish, birds, animals and humans. Each genetic make up for each kind [or class] is unique. One did not evolve from the other as in macro-evolution. Again, until scientists admit the existence of a spiritual realm and dimensions, having also created the physical world, they will repeatedly fall short in comprehending the true nature of the universe, our galaxy, our solar system, our earth and ourselves. Verse 41 is speaking of heavenly hosts and the stars are types of angels. The angels differ in their roles, responsibilities, gifts and abilities. Verse 44 highlights the change that Job was seeking. To be fully spirit and leave the physical behind forever. Verse 47 shows the Son of Man is a man from heaven. Hence the number of the Beast is in reference to itself and not mankind specifically, though undoubtedly it will impinge on humanity and thus the dire warning not to believe in the lie of the Man of Sin [his mystery of iniquity], no matter what is promised.

Ecclesiastes 3:18-21

English Standard Version

18 I said in my heart with regard to the children of man that God is testing them that they may see that they themselves are but beasts. 19 For what happens to the children of man and what happens to the beasts is the same; as one dies, so dies the other. They all have the same breath, and man has no advantage over the beasts, for all is vanity. 20 All go to one place. All are from the dust, and to dust all return. 21 Who knows whether the spirit of man goes upward and the spirit of the beast goes down into the earth?

Humans are similar to animals, in that we are both physical flesh and die. The difference being – apart from being different kinds or kingdoms – is the fact that animals live once and the plan for them ends there. Their spirit returns to the Creator, though it is described as going down to the earth to show its end. The spirit in man goes upward, to reveal that people will live again.

1 Corinthians 2:14

English Standard Version

The natural person [unbeliever] does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly [foolish, simple] to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. 

There is a an animal spirit, a spirit in man, an angelic spirit and the prime spirit these three have been born from, the Holy Spirit of the Ancient of Days. Following on from I Corinthians 15, it is difficult for a person to comprehend the matrix of our pseudo-reality beyond a certain point if they do not acknowledge that it is an image, a simulation, an advanced computer program that has been deliberately designed. Engineered by spirit beings – dark, fallen Angels, including the Watchers – who do not have our welfare at heart and use the physical world to keep humanity captive and imprisoned. 

Revelation 13:11-15

English Standard Version

11 Then I saw another beast rising out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb and it spoke like a dragon [seraphim]. 12 It exercises all the authority of the first beast in its presence, and makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose mortal wound was healed. 13 It performs great signs, even making fire come down from heaven to earth in front of people, 14 and by the signs that it is allowed to work in the presence of the beast it deceives those who dwell on earth, telling them to make an image for the beast that was wounded by the sword and yet lived. 15 And it was allowed to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast might even speak and might cause those who would not worship the image of the beast to be slain.

The second beast is linked with the first, in that they receive their power from the Dragon. Their status as human is seriously in doubt and only the Son of Man is referred to as the Lamb, thus this beast has a religious role – as a false prophet – in deceiving the world that it is the saviour with the first Beast. 

Matthew 7:15

English Standard Version

“Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves.

2 Corinthians 11:13-15

English Standard Version

13 For such men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. 14 And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. 15 So it is no surprise if his servants, also, disguise themselves as servants of righteousness. Their end will correspond to their deeds.

Matthew 24:9-14

English Standard Version

9 “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations for my name’s sake. 10 And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. 12 And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. 13 But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.

2 Timothy 3:1-8

English Standard Version

But understand this, that in the last days there will come times of difficulty. 2 For people will be lovers of self, lovers of money, proud, arrogant, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3 heartless, unappeasable, slanderous, without self-control, brutal, not loving good, 4 treacherous, reckless, swollen with conceit, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5 having the appearance of godliness, but denying its power. Avoid such people… always learning and never able to arrive at a knowledge of the truth. 8 Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so these men also oppose the truth, men corrupted in mind and disqualified regarding the faith.

2 Timothy 3:12-15

English Standard Version

12 Indeed, all who desire to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted, 13 while evil people and impostors will go on from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived. 14 But as for you, continue in what you have learned and have firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it 15 and how from childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.

Some scholars propose the two horns symbolise two religions being unified and in the Beast’s control – Catholic and Protestant? Christianity and Islam? The false Prophet would hold more credibility if it was not associated with either religion. The false prophet is more likely to form a syncretism of beliefs or to not uphold any religion including Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism and teach an entirely new way. Whatever the outcome, the feet of Nebuchadnezzar’s statute are partly of iron and partly of clay; only melding together a short time. A short time being the final seven year period, cut in two parts by the Abomination of Desolation, with the final three and one half years fulfilling the great Tribulation and the time of Jacob’s Trouble. 

Remember too, it is the second beast – not the first – that instigates the mark of the first beast and with it, the ability to subsist or not. The second beast also mysteriously creates an image of the first Beast, somehow giving it life or reality in this realm. The image is an icon or idol of some kind; a physical representation of the angelic Spirit Azazel? 

End Time Headlines, Ricky Scaparo says: 

‘After this “Image” has been created, this False Prophet will somehow through supernatural demonic power actually be able to cause this image to have breath. What’s very interesting here is the word “breath” used is a word that means breath or life. It has the same connotation found in the Book of Genesis when God created Adam from the dust of the ground and “breathed” life into his nostrils and he became a living being. 

Satan will perform a counterfeit miracle as God did with the first man Adam by breathing life into him. The Bible tells us that this image will be able to speak and actually cause civilization to worship the Antichrist. If they refuse they will be killed according to the scripture.’

Revelation 17:3-8

English Standard Version

3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names…The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and jewels and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her sexual immorality. 5 And on her forehead was written a name of mystery: “Babylon the great, mother of prostitutes and of earth’s abominations.” 

We are introduced to a Woman in addition to the two beasts of Revelation chapter thirteen. We will investigate the identity of this Woman in the next chapter. Verse seven reveals that the woman is actually sitting astride the first Beast – with seven heads and ten horns – Revelation 13:1. Like the sealing of the 144,000 saints with the Holy Spirit on their foreheads and the mark of the beast, on the rest of the world’s foreheads – Revelation 7:3; 9:4 & 13:16 – the woman also has on her forehead, a mystery name written. Her name is Babylon the Great which is central to the mystery of lawlessness and the Man of Lawlessness discussed in Second Thessalonians 2:3, 7; who is described as the son of destruction or perdition. Perdition means: ’a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul, damnation, utter destruction or ruin.’ 

We have surmised that the man of lawlessness is the false Prophet, though the use of the term, son of destruction or perdition is remarkably similar to the same term used in verse eight of Revelation chapter seventeen, in reference to the Beast.

6 And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I marveled greatly. 7 But the angel said to me, “Why do you marvel? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 8 The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to rise from the bottomless pit and go to destruction… 18 And the woman that you saw is the great city that has dominion over the kings of the earth.”

Notice Babylon is in reference to a system not a city, an ancient system going all the way back to Nimrod and beyond. The great city in verse eighteen, is not the city of Babylon or its fulfilment today in the Vatican in Rome as some assume. It equates to the city of Jerusalem in the state of Israel today. A woman in scripture can signify true believers as in the Body of Christ and also here in this context, the false church as in the Queen of Heaven and the Mother of god, that has arisen to deceive humanity. 

The female entity described in these verses is part of the deception of 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12. She will be presented and consequently, humanity indoctrinated by the false prophet, who works in tandem with the Beast. 

The Beast is cryptically referred to as being in the past but not the present, yet will again in the future. There is a being who was – in the antediluvian age – then through rebellion and being placed in restraint [2 Peter 2:4, Jude 1:6], is not… though is about to rise from its place of restraint, the spiritual abyss or pit. 

It is worth noting that the the original disciple Judas Iscariot who forfeited a position as an apostle by betraying the Son of Man is the only other person to be called a son of perdition [John17:12]. As with the Beast, Satan took a personal interest in Judas, to ensure the job was done [Luke 22:3; John 6:70; Revelation 16:13]. Curiously, when the apostles were choosing between two men for a replacement for Judas, they said: “… to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place.” Acts 1:25, ESV. His own place being utter destruction, the same fate that will befall the Dragon, the Beast and the false Prophet – Revelation 20:10.

The constant reader will also recognise the consistent and frequent image of the Bull and its significance as Baal. In the next chapter we will study the shocking identity of Baal’s consort – her origin, her identity and her role.

Revelation 9:11

English Standard Version

They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit [G12 – abussos: unbounded]. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon [G3 – abaddon: destruction, ruin, destroying angel],and in Greek he is called Apollyon.

The name Apollyon is interesting, for like Abaddon meaning destruction, it means destroyer and it is this that researchers concentrate on, though we will focus on the first part of the name. The online Etymology Dictionary states: 

‘destroying angel of the bottomless pit… from present participle of Greek apollyein “to destroy utterly” (from apo “from, away from” + olluein “to destroy”); a translation of Hebrew Abaddon before vowels ap-, word-forming element meaning “of, from, away from; separate, apart from, free from,” from Greek apo “from, away from; after; in descent from,” in compounds, “asunder, off; finishing, completing; back again,” of time, “after,” of origin, “sprung from, descended from; because of,” from… root apo-off, away”…’

The significance of being separated and away from, is revealed in the name of a certain being that fits the criteria of being a. actually named in the Bible, b. part of the rebellious angels that came to Earth before the flood, c. those angels chained and placed in restraint in the pit and d. being released from the pit and arising from the abyss, is synonymous with both the appearing of Apollyon and the Beast [Revelation 9:1-2; 13:1]. An abyss by definition is a very ‘deep hole.’ Invariably, an abyss is associated with the sea for it is the earth’s oceans that yield the deepest depths. The Beast rises from the sea…

The Greek word for pit is translated in the Bible variously as ‘bottomless, deep’ an ‘abyss’ and one version has ‘eternal darkness.’ It also means, ‘the immeasurable depth’ and ‘of Orcus, a very deep gulf or chasm in the lowest parts of the earth as the common receptacle of the dead and especially as the abode of the demons.’ Orcus is both the god of Hades, the underworld and also a ‘plutino, a trans-Neptunian object that is locked in a 2:3 resonance with the ice giant Neptune, making two revolutions around the Sun to every three of Neptune’s.’ The bottomless pit is tantamount to a prison and not a place that spirit entities desire to dwell.

Luke 8:27-31

Amplified Bible

27 Now when Jesus stepped out on land, He was met by a man from the city (of Gerasa) who was possessed with demons. For a long time he had worn no clothes, and was not living in a house, but among the tombs. 28 Seeing Jesus, he cried out (with a terrible voice from the depths of his throat) and fell down before Him (in dread and terror), and shouted loudly, “What business do we have (in common) with each other, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me (before the appointed time of judgment)!” 

29 Now He was (already) commanding the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For it had seized him (violently) many times; and he was kept under guard and bound with chains and shackles, but he would break the bonds and be driven by the demon into the desert. 30 Then Jesus asked him, “What is your name?” And he answered, “Legion”; because many demons had entered him. 31 They continually begged Him not to command them to go into the abyss.

A Roman legion in the days of the republic consisted of 3,000 soldiers, or infantrymen. By the time of Christ and the Roman Empire, a legion of men comprised anywhere between 4,000 to 6,000 men.

There is compelling reason to believe, that Apollyon and Azazel are the same being. For the terms Abaddon and Apollyon are really descriptive names, whereas Azazel is his personal name. As the Serpent and Dragon describe what Samael is; with the Devil and Heylel [or light bringer] being descriptive names, of Samael. The Son of Man, the Lamb, Christ, Messiah and the Word are but descriptive names of the Son of God, whose real name is Immanuel – with Jesus, Joshua or more correctly, Yeshua being his temporary earthly name. 

Azazel – ‘the peacock angel’and his comrade fallen angels departed Heaven with the intent of destruction and destroying mankind; while also desiring to dwell on earth and partake of  forbidden earthly pleasures. They were bound here to earth, as punishment. Abaddon is mentioned six times in the Bible, linked to sheol or hell, though it means hell as in this earth, beneath Heaven – not a fiery hell, or hades. Abaddon’s true identity is Azazel, as discussed in the Book of Leviticus.

Leviticus 16:8-10

English Standard Version

8 And Aaron shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. 9 And Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the Lord and use it as a sin offering, 10 but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel [H5799 – aza’zel: goat of departure, entire removal, scapegoat].

Azazel means: ‘Strong [strength, rugged] of God’, ‘the strong god’, ‘god of victory’, ‘the goat god’ and ’she-goat to go away [of going away]’, ’remove completely.’ Notice the uncanny exact similarity with the word Apollyon, in going away [departure]and separated [removal]. The term scapegoat is unfortunately the one teachers focus on and use, particularly with regard to the Day of Atonement. It is the least accurate and gives the connotation that Azazel is an innocent victim, whereas he is a guilty perpetrator. Michael Howard adds:

‘Azazel was popularly believed to have a retinue of hairy he-goat demons known as the se’irim who, like the Watchers, lusted after human women. 

It cannot be a total coincidence that the Church imagined the Devil or Satan in the form of a hairy half-human he-goat with a massive erect phallus who had sexual intercourse with his female worshippers at the Witches Sabbath.’

Book of Enoch 10:4-8

4. And again the Lord said to Raphael [an Archangel]: “Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert… and cover his face that he may not see light. 6. And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire [as the Beast]. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. 8. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.”

A heavy accusation is levelled against Azazel in being responsible for the corrupting of mankind’s path and ascribing to him all sin. It makes sense why Azazel represents one of the goats on Atonement. The other goat pictures Christ taking on all the sin caused by Azazel and dying as the sin offering. Azazel meanwhile, though bound and in the spiritual wilderness of the abyss, lives to await his reprisal role as the Beast, to then later be put to death with the Dragon and the false prophet. 

Revelation 20:10

English Standard Version

… and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

Book of Enoch 13:1-2

1. And Enoch went and said: “Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth against thee to put thee in bonds: 2. And thou shalt not have toleration nor request granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.’

The fallen dark Angels left their first or spiritual estate and have been bound in restraint. All three beings, the Dragon, the Beast and the false Prophet are cast into an electrical firestorm. If the dragon is the Devil, Samael and the Beast is a devil, Azazel – a fallen Seraphim angel – then the false prophet, the most human of the three, must be partly angelic or Nephilim at the very least. 

Some scholars have conjectured that the antichrist, or first beast derives from either Esau and the Edomites, or the Tribe of Dan, a son of Jacob. A third option not considered is any link with Assyria and the King of the North. 

The fourth option of a supernatural entity seems to be completely overlooked and would negate all the three options; unless of course for those who believe a resurrected Nimrod is the antichrist. For in a bizarre accidental twist this would then make the third option presented plausible. If Azazel is the Beast, all are ruled out of contention, though Nimrod remains in contention as one of the three entities that comprise an unholy Trinity of Evil in the very latter days.

Digging Deep into the Revelation of Jesus Christ, page 114 – quoted by Michael Copple, emphasis & bold mine:

‘[Revelation] Chapter 13 introduces us to how Satan (the dragon) blasphemously sets up his own false trinity. Satan acts as the Father, the Antichrist as the Son, and the False Prophet as the Spirit who attempts to bring glory to the Antichrist. Satan appoints two great beasts… the first beast rising up out of the sea – the Antichrist and his empire – and the second beast out of the earth or land – the False Prophet…’

Scholars debate whether the beast and false prophet are governmental systems or two individual men. The answer: they are a fallen Angel and a Nephilim – as in the days of Noah, so shall it be when the Son of Man returns. This is why the deception is so grand and the evil so wicked.

Revelation 19:20

English Standard Version

And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur.

Revelation 16:13-14

English Standard Version

And I saw, coming out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs. For they are demonic spirits, performing signs, who go abroad to the kings of the whole world, to assemble them for battle on the great day of God the Almighty.

Exodus 8:1-3

English Standard Version

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 2 But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your country with frogs. 3 The Nile shall swarm with frogs that shall come up into your house and into your bedroom and on your bed and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls.

Revelation 16:13-14 reveals the spiritual composition of the Dragon, Beast and false Prophet. To call them human men is off the mark. Most readers will be familiar with the images of Grey Aliens. What stands out is their remarkable insect like resemblance to ants and bees with a hive mentality, their amphibious appearance, like tadpoles with their bulging eyes and under-developed foetus-like bodies, as well as their clinical, indifferent reptilian nature. Biblical researcher Gary Wayne summarises some of the points we have contemplated. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 549-551 – emphasis & bold mine:

Abaddon… is the leader of the angels of the Abyss… This will undoubtedly be the destroyer Azazel, who introduced war and violence to the descendants of Cain, and the fallen one who will possess [be] the Antichrist… [who] will be glorified as… Orion… who the Great [Pyramid] and the Sphinx point to and honor. The beast… Osiris the sun god** … will permit each person the opportunity to decide what is right and what is wrong in what will be a solemn game of global situational ethics. The inhabitants of the world will be compelled to choose to worship and follow the Antichrist, [the Dragon], and their New Age religion or follow the alleged evil God of the Christians, [Jews] and Muslims. This duty bound choice will be punctuated by the forthcoming galactic war of rebellion to free the inhabitants of earth… The decision to follow the Antichrist and fight for [‘freedom’] will be sealed by the mark of the Beast, a sign of their new covenant and choice. Secret, spurious knowledge… will abound… The world will be vibrating with expectancy as it celebrates these fantastic discoveries… people sharing common consciousness through transcendental meditation [will] create a figurative conduit that is not restricted by the laws of physics; the web/matrix of the life force heals everything, creating world peace…humanity will anticipate ascension into godhood.’

The equation of Azazel being Apollyon, who in turn is the Beast is something I surmised prior to reading this passage. As Wayne has an abundance of salient arguments in his comprehensive research, it is encouraging to learn that what my research has proposed is plausible and not merely fantastical. Returning to Nimrod and the Tower of Babel.

Genesis 11:1-9 

English Standard Version

Now the whole earth had one language [speech] and the same words. 2 And as people migrated from the east, [Indus Valley] they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 

4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower [H4026 – migdal: pyramidal elevated stage] with its top [H7218 – ro’sh: summit, height of stars, (same word used for Gog the rosh of Meshech and Tubal] in the heavens [H8064 – shamayim: sky, abode of the stars], and let us make a name [‘memorial, monument’ that is ‘famous’ of ‘glory’ and ‘renown’, like as the ‘ancient heroes’ or Nephilim before the flood] for ourselves, lest we be dispersed [scattered] over the face of the whole earth.” 

5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built. 6 And the Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them

[Genesis 3:22 ESV – Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil. Now, lest he reach out his hand and take also of the tree of life and eat, and live forever – ”]

7 Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech.” 8 So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. 9 Therefore its name was called Babel [confusion – Aramaic Bab-el: ‘the gate of God’], because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth…

The peoples of the world spoke one language after the flood. This seems reasonable considering everyone on the earth had sprung from six people and a family of eight. Though the families would have multiplied quickly, we are dealing with possibly hundreds of thousand of people rather than millions. The tower if pyramidal is symbolic rather than literal in its ascent towards heaven. The mention of stars, a euphemism for angels, inclines towards including a spiritual motivation, task and threat with a physical one. It is worth noting that the Hebrew word for ‘height’ or ‘top’, is the same word used for the highly probable Nephilim descended demagogue [de-magog-ue] Gog, ruler of Magog [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech]. 

What I had never noticed before in reading this passage, is that the people were building the tower so that they could remain as one and not be divided or scattered. If the Lord deemed it to take the necessary steps ‘on the stairway’ to come down and visit the earth, then the threat to His plan, was of an extreme nature. It does not explicitly say that Nimrod heads this unified project in Genesis chapter eleven; though by putting it in context with the preceding chapter of the Bible, with extra-Biblical sources it is difficult to argue Nimrod was not involved.

Josephus wrote on the incident – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was… a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. 

He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to reach

And that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was.

It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before…’

An Islamic tradition holds that the original single language was Hebrew and that Eber was allowed to retain it for his descendants as he refused to take part in the building of the Tower – the same Eber who purportedly married Nimrod’s daughter. The ‘confusing’ of the language created seventy-two languages according to legend. This is remarkably close to the seventy nations in the Genesis Ten table of nations. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Book of Jubilees contains one of the most detailed accounts found anywhere of the Tower. And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. And they built it: forty and three years were they building it; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the height [of a brick] was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and [the extent of one wall was] thirteen stades [and of the other thirty stades]. (Jubilees 10:20–21, Charles’ 1913 translation). In Pseudo-Philo the direction for the building is ascribed not only to Nimrod, who is made prince of the Hamites but also to Joktan as prince of the Semites, and to Phenech son of Dodanim as prince of the Japhetites.

The phrase “Tower of Babel” does not appear in the Bible; it is always “the city and the tower” or just “the city”. According to the Bible, the city received the name “Babel” from the Hebrew verb (balal), meaning to jumble or to confuse. The Book of Genesis does not mention how tall the tower was. 

The phrase used to describe the tower, “its top in the sky” (verse 4), was an idiom for impressive height; rather than implying arrogance, this was simply a cliché for height. The Book of Jubilees mentions the tower’s height as being 5,433 cubits and 2 palms, or 2,484 m (8,150 ft)… or roughly 1.6 miles* high. The Third Apocalypse of Baruch mentions that the ‘tower of strife’ reached a height of 463 cubits, or 211.8 m (695 ft), taller than any structure built in human history until the construction of the Eiffel Tower in 1889, which is 324 m (1,063 ft) in height.

In his book, Structures: Or Why Things Don’t Fall Down (Pelican 1978-1984), Professor J. E. Gordon considers the height of the Tower of Babel. He wrote, “brick and stone weigh about 120 lb per cubic foot (2,000 kg per cubic metre) and the crushing strength of these materials is generally rather better than 6,000 lbs per square inch or 40 mega-pascals. Elementary arithmetic shows that a tower with parallel walls could have been built to a height of 2.1 km (1.3 miles)* before the bricks at the bottom were crushed. However, by making the walls taper towards the top they… could well have been built to a height where the men of Shinnar would run short of oxygen and had difficulty in breathing before the brick walls crushed beneath their own dead weight.”’

Alan Alford comments further – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Whilst the term “Gods” is full of awkward connotations for us, the Sumerians did not suffer from such problems, and referred to them as the AN.UNNA.KI, literally meaning, “Those Who from Heaven to Earth Came”. They also described them pictographically as DIN.GIR. What does the term DIN.GIR mean? The pictographic sign for GIR is commonly understood to mean a sharp-edged object, but an insight into its true significance can be gleaned from the sign for KA.GIR which appears to show the aerodynamically-shaped GIR inside a shaft-like underground chamber. The sign for the first syllable DTN makes little sense until it is combined with GIR to form DIN.GIR.

The two syllables when written together, make a perfect fit, representing, in Sitchin’s words: “…a picture of a rocket-propelled spaceship, with a landing craft docked into it perfectly – just as the lunar module was docked with Apollo 11.” 

As with the Apollo [link with Apollyon and the Sun god**] rockets, three sections can be seen in the pictographic sign DIN.GIR – the lowest stage propulsion unit with the main thrust engines, the middle stage containing supplies and equipment and the upper stage command module. The full meaning of DIN.GIR, usually translated “Gods”, is conveyed more fully by Sitchin’s translation as “The Righteous Ones of the Blazing Rockets”. (The name Sumer was literally written as KI.EN.GTR, meaning “the Land of the Lords of the Rockets”, but it also had the connotation “Land of the Watchers”, the latter term virtually identical to the term neter by which the Egyptians referred to their Gods). 

Zecharia Sitchin’s study also identified a second, different type of aerial vehicle. Whilst the GIR appeared to describe the rocket-like craft required for journeys beyond Earth’s atmosphere, another vehicle known as a MU was used to fly within the Earth’s skies. Sitchin pointed out that the original term shu-mu, meaning “that which is a MU”, later became known in the Semitic language as shem (and its variant sham).Drawing on the earlier work of G. Redslob, he pointed out that the terms shem and shamaim (the latter meaning “heaven”) both stemmed from the root word shamah, meaning “that which is highward”. Because the term shem also had the connotation “that by which one is remembered”, it came to be translated as “name”. 

Thus an unchallenged translation of an inscription on Gudea’s temple reads “its name shall fill the lands”,” whereas it ought to read more literally as “its MU shall hug the lands from horizon to horizon”. Sensing that shem or MU might represent an object, some scholars have left the word untranslated. The Bible, too, has translated the term shem as “name” and thus disguised the original meaning of the text. A particularly important example of this, as highlighted by Zecharia Sitchin, is the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel.

If we substitute the literal meaning of shem as “sky vehicle”, the unintelligible tale in Genesis (the significance of which has always puzzled scholars) begins to take on a new meaning: Then they said, “Come let us build ourselves a city with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a sky vehicle and not be scattered over the face of the whole Earth.”’

Recall we looked at the Sun god briefly whilst  studying the Philistines and the Minoans [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor].

‘A classic example [mistranslation] is the confusion which has arisen concerning the worship of a Sun God, both in ancient Egypt and the Near East. According to Greek legend, Hellos was a Sun God** who traversed the skies in a chariot [or rocket]. The Greeks renamed the sacred Egyptian city of Leopolis in his honour, as Heliopolis – the “City of Hellos”. In the Near East, the same name Heliopolis was given by the Greeks to the city of Baalbek. Historians dismiss the ancient belief in these two sacred sites as a primitive form of Hellos/Sun worship. However, let us take a closer look at where the legend of Hellos the Sun God came from. Both Heliopolises were important sites for the Gods… and both were associated with a God known to the Akkadians as Shamash. Sumerian texts called him UTU, a God who controlled the sites of the shems and the “eagles”. The name Shamash, when spelled Shem-esh, literally means “shem-fire” and is thus often translated as “He Who is Bright as the Sun”. The Sumerian name UTU indeed meant “the Shining One”, whilst Mesopotamian texts described Utu/Shamash as rising and traversing the skies. It is not difficult to see how the accounts of these journeys could subsequently be misconstrued as the daily movement of the Sun!’

Further to the veneration of the Sun, is the importance of the first day of the month of May. “It was May 1st when the ancient druids honored their great Sun God and Goddess with an uninhibited festival complete with initiations, sex orgies, drunken revelry, and human sacrifice. Aleister Crowley… taught that the Great Work (is) the ‘transformation of humanity’… we are told that the Great Work ‘may only be begun in the spring, under the signs of Aries, Taurus [May 1st], and Gemini…” (Marrs, page 230).’

We do not know exactly what the tower constituted, though it was serious enough for the Creator to stop the endeavour in its tracks. As the Creator said nothing would be withheld from humanity, it must be presumed that the structure was linked to mankind gaining access to what had been denied to them in Eden. Was it a star-gate entrance and portal route to heaven and immortality, as well as a safe guard against another flood? Are the pyramids a replica in some way of the original tower. The great Pyramid of Gizeh, has an internal mechanism no one has been able to explain definitively. Some scholars have concluded the tower was more than just an extremely tall building; rather, a portal and doorway between dimensions, a gateway in accessing spiritual realms. Observe how the Great Pyramid once looked – gleaming white, with a diamond or gold apex – and how it looks today after its pristine white limestone casing has been stolen over the centuries.

The tower of Babel incident occurred circa 6755 BCE, some 4,000 years after the flood and well before the birth of Abraham in 1977 BCE. 

Genesis 10:25

English Standard Version

To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan.

The time of Peleg – born in 7727 and he died in 4737 BCE – included the tower of Babel and the subsequent changing of one language to many and then the dispersal of the many nations and races of Japheth, Ham and some of Shem. This then had an impact on humanities gene pool in assisting the diversity produced through Noah’s sixteen grandsons to continue diversification and not blend as it would, if all nations had remained in the Near and Middle East.

Unknown source – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This actually happened at Babel [the] imposition of separate languages created instant barriers. Not only would people tend not to marry someone they couldn’t understand, but groups that spoke the same language would have difficulty relating [too] and trusting those that did not. Thus, they would move away from each other, into different environments. 

The dispersion at Babel broke up a large interbreeding group into small inbreeding groups. The resultant groups would have different mixes of genes for various physical features. By itself, this dispersion would ensure, in a short time, that there would be certain fixed differences in some of these groups, commonly called ‘races’. In addition, the selection pressure off the environment would modify the existing combinations of genes so that the physical characteristics of each group would tend to suit their environment. 

There has been no simple-to-complex evolution of any genes, for the genes were present already.The dominant features of the various people groups result from different combinations of previously existing created genes, plus some minor degenerative changes, resulting from mutation (accidental changes which can be inherited). The originally created (genetic) information has been either reshuffled or has degenerated.’ 

Scientists present dates for the major expansions of key Haplogroups that amazingly  correspond to the birth of Noah in 16,837 BCE, the birth of his three sons in 11,837 BCE and would you credit it, the time of the diffusion of humanities races during the time of Peleg and the tower of Babel, circa 6755 BCE.

Different traditions state Shem, Abraham or Esau may have murdered Nimrod. An unconventional chronology would dictate that Abraham and Esau both lived too late, though Shem died some time after the Tower of babel incident and would fit a chronology of two ‘men’ who were still living great lengths of time. 

Shem, because he was from the antediluvian age and Nimrod because of his Nephilim birth. Nimrod was born anywhere between 9,000 to 8,000 BCE, presuming his father Kish was Asshur’s son. If he died during the tower of Babel incident circa 6755 BCE, he would have been between 1,000 to 2,000 years old. Shem who had been born a thousand years prior to the flood, did not live the phenomenal amount of time his father Noah had, thought it was still a staggering 6,120 years, with his death circa 5717 BCE.

Nimrod is linked to the following names and identities: Gilgamesh and Baal as already discussed, Bacchus, Mithras, Ra, Adonis, Dionysis, the Nephilim related Osiris and Orion and the intriguing association with the Greek god, Apollo. For the Angel of the Abyss, Apollyon is one and the same as the Greek destroyer Apollo.

Apollyon, the Greek Destroyer, Venus Satanas, 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Apollyon was the same name of the god of the Sun known to the Greeks, known as Apollo or Apollon. The god Apollo acted as the destroyer of evil, but he was also a bringer of doom. He was also known as a god of purification, who was associated with the sun for his ability to be omnipotent.

Apollo was also known as a god of prophecy, as many would bring their sacrifices to him at his temple at Delphi to have their oracle read. The Greeks received oracles from Apollo at Delphi for matters of daily life, and also for military purposes as well. For example, within the poetry of the Iliad, the god Apollo sends a plague of destruction on the Achaians which could only be stopped through prayers and sacrifices to Apollo. The practice of offering sacrifices to Apollo lasted well into the third century, and in some places the cult of Apollo lasted until the 6th century CE.

It was also known that Apollo had a holy day each seventh day of the month. The seventh day of each month is holy to Apollon, and, of course, the same tradition is used in the Christian calendar where the 7th day is named after the sun (Sunday) and is considered holy, and as a day of rest

In Greek myth, Apollo was the son of Zeus, a sky-god and the Twin of Artemis, goddess of the hunt and of the moon. Just like Artemis, he carried a bow and arrow which he used to cause destruction. As the goddess Athena watched over Apollon at the battle of Troy, she titled Apollon as the Striker From Afar. This is similar to the Biblical John’s writing that tells how Apollyon is from a bottomless pit of destruction. Apollo was known as the twin of Artemis and he had also been referred to as the Striker from Afar (as found in the Hymn to Apollon).

A god is demonized by a new religion as a way to make the public turn from their old ways. When the worship of Apollo was Romanized, adopted by the roman people, he took on an additional title of Apollon Luciferos… to denote [his power] of being a light-bringer. The public worship of Apollo in the Mediterranean was in direct competition with the development of Christianity… during the time that John wrote [the Book of Revelation] . The use of the name Apollyon within the bible, as the ‘Angel of the Pit’ was a direct association with this Greek god Apollo as a Satan, an adversary to Christianity.’

Notice the consistent association of the Sun, the Sun god and sun [day] worship, with Azazel, the Beast, Apollyon or Apollo. The Beast changes ‘times and laws’ associated with the calendar. We will study the Gregorian-Julian calendar, the Jewish calendar and the Sacred calendar for they are all different. The fact that Apollo is linked to the seventh day, which is in fact the Sabbath, or Saturday – not Sunday – is profound, for his motive for changing the calendar is to hide the truth of the Sabbath, which has root meaning of hidden

Azazel has a father as discussed and we will investigate his family including his twin sister, and his Mother… in the next chapter. Apollo or Apollon being titled ‘striker from afar’ is fascinatingly similar to Apollyon’s name of far away and Azazel’s name of going away.

Much has been written about Nimrod’s wife; identified mainly with Ishtar, stemming from Easter or Semiramis and their son, Tammuz or Marduk. Nimrod purportedly married his own mother, as did his Elioud son. We will look into the subject of Nimrod’s mother and her being a dark Angel; accounting for both Nimrod’s Nephil ancestry and the evilness attributed to Nimrod. 

The key piece of information remains that Nimrod was not descended from Ham’s son Cush but rather from a grandson of Shem called Kish, descended from Asshur. The word Kish was a city and also used as a kingly title in ancient Sumer. This is significant with regard to Assyria, for as we have learned, Asshur has played, does play and will play, a significant role in human affairs and world history in fulfilment of the latter day King of the North.

So what do you think should be done to those who do not respect the Son of God, who look at the blood of the agreement that made them holy as no different from others’ blood, who insult the Spirit of God’s grace? Surely they should have a much worse punishment.

Hebrews 10:29

New Century Version

Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven people, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. And whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.

Matthew 12:31-32

English Standard Version

“But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven, but is guilty of an eternal sin”

Mark 3:29

New English Translation

“When great changes occur in history, when great principles are involved, as a rule the majority are wrong.” 

Eugene V Debs 

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings

Chapter XIX

The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam, is Enmebaragsei, the penultimate king of the first Dynasty of Kish who reigned over much of Sumer, possibly as late as circa 2615 to 2600 BCE. The Sumerian King List says he reigned nine hundred years [divide by 60 unconventional chronology derives 15 years]. Enmebaragesi is a key figure as he bridges the divide between myth and history. He is the earliest ruler to be evidenced directly from archaeology. Four inscriptions have been found with his name. En is an honorary title and not part of his original name. Me means ‘crown’, bara means ‘ruler’ and si ‘to fill’.

Enmebaragsei fought a successful campaign against Elam, capturing Uruk, confiscating their weapons and imposing his kingship – he “who made the land of Elam submit.” He preceded the Old Elamite period dated circa 2600 to 1500 BCE, which broadly incorporates three main dynasties from approximately the end of his reign. The Awan I & II era circa 2600 – 2300 BCE and 2300 – 1930 BCE consecutively, the Shimashki [Simaski] era circa 1955 – 1840 BCE and the Sukkalmah era circa 1840 – 1500 BCE. It is the end of the 1st dynasty and the beginning of the 2nd with which we are primarily interested.

The Awan or Avan II dynasty was contemporary with the Mesopotamian emperor Sargon I or the Great of Akkad, reigning from 2224 to 2169 BCE. He defeated the 12th Awan king Luh-Ishshan circa 2194 – 2169 BCE and subjugated Susa. Historical sources concerning Elam now become more frequent, as the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in their resources, such as wood, stone and metal from the Iranian plateau; thereby encouraging more frequent military excursions to the region. 

Though the foreign Guti Dynasty [refer Chapter XXIII Aram] had been ruling in Sumer since 2088 BCE, it was in 2039 BCE that Akkad fell to the Gutians and with it, the final and 11th king of the Dynasty of Akkad – Shu-Dural or Shu-Tural – was ended. The Gutium also spoke an agglutinative language isolate like Sumer and Elam. The Gutian’s ruled Sumer and Elam until 1991 BCE. The last king of nineteen, Tirigan, had only reigned for 40 days, when Utu-hengal [1995 – 1988 BCE] of the 5th Dynasty of Uruk defeated him, thus ending the Gutian Dynasty. 

Now, Utu-Hengal was the father of Ur-Namma the 1st King of the Ur III Dynasty [1988 – 1970 BCE] and he in turn is the father of King Shulgi [1970 – 1924 BCE]. 

These names are mentioned as there is a lot more to say about Ur-Namma as we progress, who was concurrent with King Kutik-Inshushinak of Elam the next to last king before Chedorlaomer; as well as Shulgi the 2nd King of Ur, who was a contemporary of the Elamite King Chedorlaomer, as well as the Patriarch Abraham.

Elam declared independence under the supposedly last and 17th Awan king, Kutik-Inshushinak or Puzur-Insusinak who reigned from 1980 to 1955 BCE, throwing off the Akkadian language and promoting the Linear Elamite script in the process. Kutik-Inshushinak conquered the future principal Elamite cities of Susa and Anshan. The Shimashki dynasty arose at the tail end of the Awan Dynasties as there is an unnamed king from 1955 to 1930 BCE, so that there was a crossover of some twenty-five years. Elam endured continual threat of attacks from the Sumerians and the Gutians. The Elamite empire state of Shimashki at this time extended into northern Iran and as far as the Caspian Sea. 

A century later in 1882 BCE, the Elamites allied with the city of Susa and led by their king Kindattu or Kindadu [1892 – 1872 BCE], the 10th king of the Shimashki Dynasty sacked Ur in Sumer with the first Akkadian King of Isin [Issn], Ishbi-Erra [1895 – 1862 BCE] and defeated the 5th and final king of the Ur III Dynasty, the great grandson of Shulgi, Ibbi-Suen who reigned twenty-four years beginning 1906 BCE.

The succeeding Sukkalmah dynasty [1840 – 1500 BCE], is so named after the ‘Great or Grand regents’, the title borne by Elamite rulers. It was also called the Epartid dynasty after the name of its founder Eparti II – Ebarti or Ebarat who reigned circa 1840 – 1820 BCE – and was concurrent with the Old Assyrian Empire and the Old Babylon period in Mesopotamia. Eparti II was a contemporary of Iddin-Dagan, 1842 to 1822 BCE – the grandson of Ishbi-Erra and 3rd King of the Isin Dynasty in Akkad – marrying his daughter. 

A ruler named Silhaha – or Shilkhakha, 1820 to 1800 BCE – who described himself as ‘the chosen son of Ebarti’ is also credited as the founder of the dynasty. Ebarti II appears as the founder of the dynasty according to building inscriptions, but later kings, refer to the second ruler Silhaha, Eparti’s son, in their filiation claims. Possibly, Silhaha won out over a brother; as there was an Eparti III before Shilhaha. Both their names as the founding members of the Sukkalmah Dynasty, have been found on the Gunagi silver vessels, inscribed in the Linear Elamite script. The Gunagi vessels were discovered only recently in 2004.

Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include the 12th king Siruk-tuh 0r Shirukduh circa 1660 to 1640 BCE, who entered various military coalitions to contain the power of the southern Mesopotamian states; 14th ruler and a son of Siruk-tuh, Siwe-Palar-hupak [circa 1615 – 1595 BCE], who for some time was the most powerful ruler in the region, respectfully addressed as ‘Father’ by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimri-Lim of Mari.

The 16th king Kutir-Nahhunte I – Kedor-nakhunta, circa 1560 to 1530 BCE, exacted revenge and plundered the temples of southern Mesopotamia, as the north was under the control of the Old Assyrian Empire. In fact, Kutir-Nahhunte dealt so serious a defeat to the Babylonians that the event was remembered nearly one thousand years later in an inscription of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, when he conquered Susa in 660 BCE. 

Trade between the Indus Valley Civilisation and the cities of Mesopotamia and Elam have been deduced from numerous Indus artifacts; particularly in excavations in Susa, showing the origination of the post-diluvian society in the east and the subsequent migration west to the plains of Mesopotamia. Objects made with shell species that are characteristic of the Indus coast, such as Trubinella Pyrum and Fasciolaria Trapezium, have been found in the archaeological sites of Mesopotamia and Susa dated circa 2500 – 2000 BCE. Carnelian beads from the Indus were found in Susa in the tell of the citadel excavation.Exchanges seem to have waned after 1900 BCE, with the eventual demise of the Indus valley civilisation. 

It is to this backdrop that we read of an extraordinary account in Genesis chapter fourteen. For a Biblical account, it is remarkably detailed and it comprises two parts. A war between a confederacy of Southern Mesopotamian kings against vassal Canaanite kings to the southwest, which we will look at now and an amazing rescue operation of Lot by the patriarch Abraham which we will study later in Chapter XXVII Moab & Ammon.

Genesis 14:1-11

English Standard Version

In the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim [or Nations], 2 these kings made war with 

Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). 

3 And all these joined forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea) [the north of the present day Dead Sea]. 

Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled [1907-1895 BCE]. 

5 In the fourteenth year [1894 BCE] Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, 

6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir as far as El-paran on the border of the wilderness. 7 Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh) and defeated all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who were dwelling in Hazazon-tamar.

8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out, and they joined battle in the Valley of Siddim 9 with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of Goiim, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar, four kings against five. 10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of bitumen pits, and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, some fell into them, and the rest fled to the hill country [Seir]. 

11 So the enemy took all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their provisions, and went their way.

The five kings of the Plain, happen to represent the exact same five cities that the Angels of the Lord came to destroy sixteen years later and in the process, dramatically rescue Abraham’s nephew Lot, for the second time in his life. The references to the Repha-im, Zuz-im and Em-im are all clans of Nephilim offspring. In fact, the Horites and Amalekites are also included with these mysterious tribes. We will discuss these peoples in depth in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and Chapter XXXIX Esau.

Though Chedorlaomer I of Elam is listed third – he is placed first in verse nine – Chedorlaomer is the leader of the northern confederacy. The only king not stated is that of Bela [Zoar]. This city and its people were the only one of the five that were not destroyed in the Creator’s wrath during the time of Lot. 

The timeframe is particularly critical, as this battle would need to have taken place between Abraham’s birth in 1977 BCE and his death in 1802 BCE. This would align with the end of the Awan II Dynasty and beginning of the Shimashki.

Head of Chedorlaomer [Height 34.3 cm] in Arsenical Copper from Iran [circa 2000 BCE]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1947

Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary defines Chedorlaomer as: a roundness of a sheaf. Smith’s Bible Dictionary as: a handful of sheaves. The full name Chedorlaomer, is not known outside the Bible, although the name is genuinely Elamite. It is composed of two elements, which do appear separately in Elamite sources. ‘Laomer’ is apparently a divine name whose Elamite form is Lagamar. ‘Chedor’ is derived from the Elamite Katir or Kutir, meaning ‘servant.’ We have seen its use in the name of the 16th Sukkalmah Dynasty King Kutir-Nahhunte. The name could also mean ‘servant of the god Lagamar.’

Easton’s Bible Dictionary – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignty over Syria and Palestine. The most famous king of the dynasty was Khammu-rabi [Hammurabi],who united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne [1894 BCE UC], the country was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). 

The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku (“the servant of the moon-god”), the son of an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabug [or Durmah-ilani] who is entitled “the father of the land of the Amorites.” 

A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar (“the servant of the goddess Lagamar”) or Chedorlaomer,Eri-Aku or Arioch, and Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia.’

After the Valley of Siddim campaign, Hammurabi – Amraphel, King of Shinar and – King of Babylon chose to go against his three former allies and circa 1893 BCE he also rebelled. We have the four Northern kings confirmed as well as a credible time frame for events. I propose Hammurabi was born in 1912 BCE UC [unconventional chronology] and ascended the Babylonian throne in 1894 BCE, at the age of 18, after the abdication of the 5th king of the Amorite Dynasty, his father Sin-Muballit, who ruled for nineteen years from 1913 BCE. 

There is fevered debate over when Hammurabi of Babylon lived. This is convenient for scholars, in that it neatly throws a spanner in the works for conclusively supporting the Biblical account as accurate. Hammurabi is a colourful and prominent king in ancient history and thus for detractors it is problematic to have such a clear sign of the authenticity of the Biblical account; which in turn underpins the veracity of the existence of Abraham and his nephew Lot, who both fathered peoples who are key modern nations today.

An excellent paper: Abraham and Chedorlaomer Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence by Gérard Gertoux, provides comprehensive research in presenting the evidence for Chedorlaomer’s identity and his place as a legitimate historical figure. Where we firstly and slightly disagree, is in the chronology by sixty years; for he has I presume, dated the Exodus in the early sixteenth century, circa 1507 BCE as opposed to the middle of the fifteenth century in 1446 BCE [UC]. Secondly, he has adopted the most recent academic opinion regarding the time frame for Hammurabi’s rule, some 200-150 years later than I suggest under the unconventional chronology. He says, bold mine:

‘The only way to assess the veracity (historical truth) of this event is by determining its exact chronology (“the backbone of history”). Foremost one should know that until now Babylonian chronology, which is the best known, has not been yet fixed since Oppert (1863) made the start of the reign of Hammurabi in 2394 BCE, Thureau-Dangin (1927) lowered this date to 2003 BCE and Gasche proposed (1998) lowering it again to 1696 BCE. Hammurabi has rejuvenated about 700 years during the 20th century!

When T.G. Pinches (1856-1934), lecturer in Assyriology at University College, London and at the University of Liverpool, published the Spartoli tablets he made a link between the biblical names: Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal (Genesis 14:1) and Hammurabi, Eri-e-Aku, Kudur-lahgamal and Tudḫula.Unfortunately this deduction has three major errors: 1) Hammurabi (1697-1654) reigned three centuries after the events, 2) his name is very different from that of Amraphel and 3) the reading “laḫ” of the sign KU [for Chedorlaomer] is not documented.’ 

These three reasons are flimsy at best and are really no more than excuses. The dating conflict regarding Hammurabi’s timeline, means it has to be reconciled with other documents to understand when he truly lived. As we will find that Hammurabi was indeed a contemporary of Chedorlaoamer, Arioch and Tidal, it is fitting to parallel his timeline with them. This then resolves the dates for Hammurabi’s life.

Some scholars have made the connecting link between the names Hammurabi and Amraphel. That aside, it is not unusual for people and places to have more than one name. Amraphel may have been his given name. As he was only eighteen when he ascended the Babylonian throne after Sin-Muballit and then ruled for a lengthy forty-two years. A new name may have been chosen as monarchs have done up until our recent history. The Bible possibly records his name as Amraphel as he had just ascended the throne and was in his very first year of his reign. An accurate record, no less than his being subsequently known after his exploits as Hammurabi and recorded as such in future histories.

Etymology shows the lah is actually part of Chedorlaomor’s name, though regardless, the Kudur-…gamal is still strong evidence for the correlation with his identity. Gertoux mixes Akkadian and Elamite together, to show the kudur is Akkadian and la(h)gamal is Elamite. The Akkadian actually says: kudur-lagamar and the Elamite says: kutir-lagamol. The Greek Septuagint refers to him as Chodol-logomor and it is synonymous with the aforementioned as well as the Hebrew name: Kdorla’omer.

Gérard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

Ku-du7-[ur-La-ga-mar] (line 13) reigned 36 years (line 14) over Akkad as king of Awan I (Elam). King List WB 444 (Weld-Blundell Prism) dated c. 1800 B.C. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (number: AN1923.44). Kudur-Lagamar’s name is located in a part of the prism which is unfortunately very damaged but three important data have been preserved: a mighty king of Elam at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE, whose name was Kudu[-], died without a successor. 

A chronological reconstruction based on synchronisms shows that among the dynasties from Sumerian lists the third and last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar.’ 

‘The three Elamite kings of the dynasty of Awan I (Puzur-Insusinak [Kutik-Insusinak 1980 – 1955 BC], [-]-lu [1955 – 1930 BC], Kudur-Lagamar [1929 – 1893 BC]) were regarded as genuine kings of Akkad in parallel with the Sumerian kings of the dynasty of Ur III (Ur-Nammu, Sulgi). Besides they used Akkadian in their writings, in place of Elamite, and they quoted Mesopotamian gods rather than their Elamite divinities.’

The Northern kings listing in Genesis fourteen verse one could be geographical in orientation, as Larsa is south of Babylon and Elam is south of Ellasar. Some researchers believe Tidal, King of Nations refers to a very northwesterly position and the peoples of Hatti, or later the Hittites in Anatolia. This would not fit with the cluster of powers in lower Mesopotamia. Nor would assigning all four kings as Assyrian kings as at least one researcher has proposed. I believe the Gutians, to the direct north of Elam and northeast of Shinar are the fourth power in the alliance. We will look at the Gutium in more detail when we study Shem’s fifth son Aram in Chapter XXIII. 

The three main regions of Shem’s children in Mesopotamia were the states of Assyria, then the Land of Shinar and thirdly, Elam. As we have learned, the land of Shinar was split into north and south. The north was known as Akkad – Akkadia or Accadia – and in time as Babylonia after its main city and the south was known as Sumer. These two regions within Shinar, were the combined offspring of Shem’s son Arphaxad. 

Arphaxad had two great grandsons, Peleg and Joktan. These two sons of Eber were the forefathers of a major split in the family line which we will study – and are confirmed in the super sub-Haplogroup split of R1 into R1a and R1b. I believe there is good reason to consider Peleg’s descendents comprised the northern territory of Akkad and Joktan’s children were located in Sumer. This would explain why two separate, yet closely related cultures arose though still under the banner of the Land of Shinar. Today, the same scenario has occurred with two distinct, yet adjacent regions of eastern and western nations within Europe.

In the British Museum there are artefacts mentioning three of the four northern kings at the Battle of the Valley of Siddim. The first two accounts record Chedorlaomer leading a rebellion with Tidal and Arioch’s son Dursrilani, a co-regent perhaps, against the king of Shinar at Babel circa 1929 to 1909 BCE, prior to the Valley of Siddim battle in 1894 BCE. The unnamed king of Shinar then strikes back. This king would have been from the Amorite Dynasty, the same as Hammurabi, the 6th king. The two possible kings are the 4th king, Apil-Sin [1930-1913 BCE] or the 5th king, Sin-Muballit* [1913 – 1894 BCE]. Each are viable as Apil-Sin is Hammurabi’s grandfather and Sin-Muballit, his father. A clear and reasonable motive for Hammurabi’s later actions against Chedorlaomer, suddenly becomes apparent – revenge.

The first artifact is British Museum #BM 35404 – sp II.987 and it says: 

“The property and the possessions of Babylon, small and great, in their faithful counsel to Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], king of the land of Elam”… I am a King, the son of a king… the son of a daughter of the king who on the throne of dominion have sat… 

Dur-sir-ilani the son of Arioch [Eri-ekua] who with the spoil of the throne of dominion sat, and with the sword was killed.”

The second artifact is British Museum #BM 34062 – sp.158 & SPII.962 and states that  Chedorlaomer the king of the Elamites, turned against the king of Shinar and attacked his cities at Babil and Borsippa:

“The enemy, the Elamite, multiplied evils against Bel and Babil [Babel] which he planned evil against… there he set his mind on destroying the temple… the enemy, the Elamite, took its goods… He decreed it’s destruction… he showed his dislike for and barred the people of Bel of Ezida… the road to Sumer. Who is this Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], the maker of this evil? He has also gathered the Unman-Manda, and the people of Bel he has ruined… the Elamite caused his yoke to be directed down to Borsippa. He set his face against and he traversed also the road of darkness, the road to Mesku. This wicked man the Elamite, destroyed its palace, the princes he subdued with the sword, and from all the temples he carried off their goods as spoils of war, and he took them back to Elam.”

Notice Babylon is referred to as its original name of Babel – prior to the Tower of Babel incident. Chedorlaomer was a formidable opponent and had subdued a future threat in Babylon and the king – either Hammurabi’s father or grandfather – before amalgamating the states into a powerful coalition. 

Abraham and Chedorlaomer Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gérard Gertoux adds:

‘The Spartoli tablets (c. 650 BCE) describe [the] famous attack of Babylonia by a coalition of evil kings named Kudur-KUKUmal, [ku.ku means: carrying no mercy]king of Elam, Tudhula, king of Gutium,and Eri-Aku [king of Larsa]. This coalition of kings (Sumer, Larsa, Gutium) united under Kutur-Lagamar is quite likely, because all these kings were vassals or allies of the king of Elam (and Akkad) at that time, moreover, they came from neighbouring regions. Chedorlaomer’s route and the description of his actions show that this king came to this region near Egypt in order to maintain control over this new land trade route. 

This ambitious project had to have worried Amenemhat I (1975-1946) because southern Canaan was a big source of supply. In order to protect Egypt, Amenemhat I built the “Walls of the Ruler”. One can notice that the area of Sodom is called Sutu(m) in execration texts (then Moab after 1800 BCE) [Moab as a son of Lot, lived where Lot had previously dwelt]. 

Thus the kings of Sumer [Ur] were oppressed on two occasions: once by Kudu[Lagamar] [1909 BCE]* king of Awan, and once by Kindadu [1882 BCE], king of Simaski. These two kings of Elam left a bad unforgettable memory in Sumerian annals. After the destruction of Ur the kings of Elam were blackened because they were charged with all misfortunes that occurred in the land of Sumer.’

The Pharaoh mentioned by Gertoux, Amenemhat I [1677-1647 BCE], was actually a Pharaoh while Joseph and the other sons of Jacob were living in Goshen, the Nile delta region in Lower Egypt – some three hundred years after Gertoux’s orthodox, though inaccurate dating. The wall he built was to the east of the delta region, to protect the eastern Egyptian frontier from the inhabitants of the Sinai Peninsula. As relations with the Israelites were still favourable at this time, it would seem a benevolent act and not an insidious one to contain the prospering sons of Jacob within Egypt’s boundary; though this cannot be ruled out as a partial motive. There is only one possible Pharaoh who ruled between 1929 – the ascension of Chedorlaomer to the Elamite throne – and 1907 BCE, the first year of enforced tribute of the Transjordan City-States, that would have been concerned with the growing strength of Chedorlaomer. 

The 3rd Pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty Djer, was the the son of Hor-Aha. Prominent during Djer’s reign was his grandmother, Queen Neithhotep. Cemetery evidence confirms that she lived during the reign of Hor-Aha and succeeded him into Djer’s rule. Neithoptep had been the wife of the 1st Pharaoh, Narmer also known as Menes. The First Dynasty of Egypt is incorrectly dated as beginning circa 3100 BCE. We will return to the dating and accurate sequencing of the Egyptian dynasties in the unconventional chronology. Djer ruled Lower and Upper Egypt from 1922 BCE for fifty-four years until 1868 BCE. What is interesting about this Pharaoh is that it was Djer, that met Abraham and Sarah in 1902 BCE, during the 20th year of his reign while there was a famine in Canaan. We will return to this story in Genesis chapter twelve, when we study Abraham in Chapter XXVII

The third artifact is British Museum #BM 35496 – sp III.2. A new king of Shinar [Akkad] , namely Hammurabi [Amraphel] attacks Dursirilani, Tidal and Chedorlaomer:

“Samas [Babylonian sun god] the illuminator of… Merodach [chief Babylonian god]… the rulers who were not nourishing… he caused to be slain. Dur-sir-ilani, the son of Arioch [Eri-ekua]…his goods he carried off to the waters of Babylon and back to the temple of Esaggil… his son, with the weapon of his hands, like a lamb he was slaughtered… the child he cut off… Tidal [Tu-ud-hul-amar] son of Gazza… his goods he carried off to the waters of Babylon and to the temple of Esaggil… 

His son, with the weapon of his hands, fell upon him… of his dominion, before the temple of Annunit… Elam, the city of Ahhe to the land of Rabbatu, he spoiled in ruins, he set the fortress of Akkad, the whole of Borsippa…ended Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], his son, and with the steel sword he pierced his heart… his enemy. He took the will of these kings, the lords of sin… their rebellions… who the chief of the gods, Merodach, brought his anger against.”

This was a series of bloodbath battles over a number of years imposed by the king of Shinar, violently slaughtering the other three kings and their families and in the process… ending three separate dynasties. The artefacts confirm the names of Dursirilani, Tidal, and Chedorlaomer. Possibly, Arioch was the one kingly casualty in Abraham’s raid and this is why his son, Dursirilani is listed as king of Ellasar [Larsa] at the time of Hammurabi’s betrayal and revenge. Alternatively, Dursirilani is a co-regnt with his father Arioch.

It was after the Battle of the Valley of Siddim that Hammurabi rebelled and slaughtered his once allies, now enemies, beginning in 1893 BCE. It may now explain why Amraphel is listed first in the Genesis account. Ultimately, he killed his three rivals, powerful rulers of southern Mesopotamia and as the King of Babylon and Akkad, added the kingship of Sumer while subjugating both the lands of Elam and the Gutium.

Regarding Chedorlaomer, the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, on British Museum Sp. II 987 and Sp. III, 2: 

‘… refers to the bond of heaven extended to the four regions, and the fame which Merodach set for the Elamites in Babylon, the city of his glory. So the gods, in their faithful or everlasting counsel, decreed to Kudur-lahgumal, king of Elam their favor. He came down, and performed what was good to them, and exercised dominion in Babylon, the city of Kar-Dunias (Babylonia). When in power, however, he acted in a way which did not please the Babylonians… [between 1929 – 1894 BCE].

The less perfect fragment (Sp. III, 2) contains, near the beginning, the word hammu, and if this be, as Professor F. Hommel has suggested, part of the name Hammurabi (Amraphel), it would in all probability place the identification of Kudur-lahgumal with Chedorlaomer beyond a doubt.’

This would cement an already compelling argument for the veracity of the king of Shinar’s identity being Hammurabi, who as Amraphel was a contemporary of and briefly allied – when he came to the throne in 1894 BCE – with Chedorlaomer and then in turn, rebelled against Chedorlaomer, killing him in 1893 BCE for the humiliation perpetrated against probably his father, Sin-Muballit or possibly his grandfather, Apil-Sin.

Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire, Dr Joshua J Mark, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Hammurabi (also known as Khammurabi and Ammurapi… assumed the throne… and expanded the kingdom to conquer all of ancient Mesopotamia. The kingdom of Babylon comprised only the cities of Babylon, Kish, Sippar, and Borsippa when Hammurabi came to the throne but, through a succession of military campaigns, careful alliances made and broken when necessary, and political manoeuvres, he held the entire region under Babylonian control by [his death].

According to his own inscriptions, letters and administrative documents from his reign, he sought to improve the lives of those who lived under his rule. He is best known in the modern day for his law code which, although not the earliest code of laws, came to serve as a model for other cultures and is thought to have influenced the laws set down by Hebrew scribes, including those from the biblical Book of Exodus.

The fifth king of the dynasty, Sin-Muballit… successfully completed many public works projects but was unable to expand the kingdom or compete with the rival city of Larsa to the south. Larsa [Ellasar] was the most lucrative trade center on the Persian Gulf and the profits from this trade enriched the city and encouraged expansion so that most of the cities of the south were under Larsa’s control. Sin-Muballit [1913-1894 BCE] led a force against Larsa but was defeated by their king Rim Sin I [1924-1865 BCE]. At this point it is uncertain what exactly happened, but it seems that Sin-Muballit was compelled to abdicate in favor of his son Hammurabi. Whether Rim Sin I thought Hammurabi would be less of a threat to Larsa is also unknown but, if so, he would be proven wrong. 

The historian Durant writes: ‘At the outset of [Babylonian history] stands the powerful figure of Hammurabi, conqueror and lawgiver through a reign of forty-three years. Primeval seals and inscriptions transmit him to us partially – a youth full of fire and genius, a very whirlwind in battle [akin to Alexander the Great], who crushes all rebels, cuts his enemies into pieces, marches over inaccessible mountains, and never loses an engagement. Under him the petty warring states of the lower valley were forced into unity and peace, and disciplined into order and security by an historic code of laws.’

The alliances [Hammurabi] made with other states would repeatedly be broken when the king found it necessary to do so but, as rulers continued to enter into pacts with Hammurabi, it does not seem to have occurred to any of them that he would do the same to them as he had previously to others. 

A technique he seems to have used first in this engagement would become his preferred method in others when circumstances allowed: the damming up of water sources to the city to withhold them from the enemy until surrender or, possibly, withholding the waters through a dam and then releasing them to flood the city before then mounting an attack.’ 

In 1866 BCE, the undefeated Hammurabi had turned against Rim-Sin I because he had refused to support Hammurabi in his ongoing war against Elam despite pledging troops. Hammurabi with extra troops from Mari, attacked Mashkan-shapir located on the northern edge of Rim-Sin’s realm. Hammurabi’s forces reached Larsa with alacrity and after a six-month siege the city of Larsa fell. Rim-Sin I escaped the city but was soon found and taken prisoner and died thereafter in 1865 BCE. Rim-Sin I was the 14th and last king of the Larsa Dynasty that had begun in 2128 BCE.

In 1864 BCE Hammurabi defeated a coalition that stood against him comprising Elam, the Gutium and the Marhashi kingdom in Iran. The following year, he defeated Zimri-Lim the King of Mari, an Amorite kingdom northwest of Babylon and his former ally. Hammurabi not only broke his alliance with Zimri-Lim but also for the first and only time, completely destroyed Mari rather than conquering it. Hammurabi would subdue cities, absorb them into his kingdom, repair and improve them. Scholars have debated his reasons and believe Mari’s great wealth was too threatening and too close to Babylon’s designs on being the greatest city in Mesopotamia. After Mari’s destruction, Hammurabi marched on Asshur, took the region of Assyria and finally Eshunna, so that by 1857 BCE – five years before his death at age sixty – he ruled all of Mesopotamia.

‘A popular title applied to Hammurabi in his lifetime was bani matim, ‘builder of the land’, because of the many building projects and canals he ordered constructed throughout the region. Documents from the time attest to the efficacy of Hammurabi’s rule and his sincere desire to improve the lives of the people of Mesopotamia. These letters and administrative works (such as directives for the building of canals, food distribution, beautification and building projects, and legal issues)

His law code is not the first such code in history (though it is often called so) but is certainly the most famous from antiquity prior to the code set down in the biblical books. The Code of Ur-Nammu… which originated with either Ur-Nammu or his son Shulgi of Ur, is the oldest code of laws in the world. Unlike the earlier Code of Ur-Nammu, which imposed fines or penalties of land, Hammurabi’s code epitomized the principle known as Lex Talionis, the law of retributive justice, in which punishment corresponds directly to the crime, better known as the concept of ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’, made famous from the later law code of the Old Testament… 

By [1857 BCE]… Hammurabi was old and sick. In the last years of his life his son, Samsu-Iluna [1852-1815 BCE], had already taken over the responsibilities of the throne and assumed full reign in [1851 BCE]. 

The conquest of Eshnunna had removed a barrier to the east that had buffered the region against incursions by people such as the Hittites and Kassites. Once that barrier was gone, and news of the great king weakening spread, the eastern tribes prepared their armies to invade. 

The vast kingdom Hammurabi had built during his lifetime began to fall apart within a year of his death, and those cities that had been part of vassal states secured their borders and announced their autonomy. None of Hammurabi’s successors could put the kingdom back together again, and first the Hittites… then the Kassites invaded. The Hittites sacked Babylon and the Kassites inhabited and re-named it. The Elamites, who had been so completely defeated by Hammurabi decades before, invaded and carried off the stele of Hammurabi’s Law Code which was discovered at the Elamite city of Susa in 1902 CE.’

Gérard Gertoux summary:

‘Kedor-Lagomer corresponds to Kudur-Lagarma which is an Akkadian transcription of Kutir-Lagamal “bearer (servant) of Lagamal”. According to the biblical text (Genesis 10:10), Shinar was a region south of Mesopotamia composed of at least three major cities: Babylon (Babel), Uruk (Erech) and Aggad (Akkad). In time the name Babylon came to mean the whole of Babylonia (Daniel 1:2). A coalition of kings (Sumer, Larsa, Gutium) united under Kutur-Lagamar is quite likely to be, because all these kings were vassals or allies of the king of Elam, moreover, they came from neighbouring regions. During the period [1988-1894 BCE] the two main actors in the Mesopotamian world were the kings of Ur III and the kings of [late] Awan I [/II and early Shimashki]. 

The power of these two empires [Ur and Elam] depended on trade and therefore control of trade routes. They earned money through vassal kings who levied customs duties on traders passing through their territories and had to pay to their “emperors” for ensuring their security (by means of military force). Kudur-Lagamar probably wanted to create a new major trade route from Susa to Egypt. The route taken by Abraham and that one followed by Chedorlaomer are in agreement with the major communication routes of the time.

In this context, the capture of the goddess Nanaya [in 1909 BCE] served to justify the westward expansionist projects of Kudur-Lagamar. Indeed, change in titulatures confirm his new role of “king of Akkad”. The complete titulature of the kings of Awan I, as the one of Puzur-Insusinak, was as follows: governor (ENSI) of Susa, viceroy (GIR.NITA) of Elam and king (LUGAL) of Awan. 

Abram…at that time… lived in Ur… he must have learned that Chedorlaomer had confiscated the statue of the goddess Nanaya [Inana or Ishtar, a Queen of Heaven]. [As the Assyrian king] Ashurbanipal refers exactly [c. 660 BC] to Ku-du[r-Lagamar], king of Awan I, in Sumerian royal lists and as the Spartoli tablets describe the attack of Babylonia by the king of Elam named Kudur-KUKUmal, this king of Elam must have been Chedorlaomer. 

Prior to [1909 BC] relationships with the kings of Elam remained cordial… From this date Kutur-Lagamar behaves as “King of Akkad” and, in the same way as Sargon of Akkad, he chose to open a new trade route to the west as far as Egypt. Titulary of Ur… kings changed… [from] King of Sumer and Akkad… [to] King of the 4 corners (of Universe) [an indicative title of the later Mede and Persian (Elam) empire], indicating that Akkad was no longer under full control of the king of Ur… 

[In summation]: King Kudur-Lagamar [1929 – 1893 BCE] alias Chedorlaomer, actually existed since he was the third and last king of Awan I, the only Elamite dynasty mentioned in Sumerian lists. His two main actions that have passed to posterity were the capture of Uruk’s goddess (Nanaya) and [the] looting of the city of Sodom.’

The timing of two years – as deduced from Gertoux’s chronology – prior to the beginning of the tribute being exacted on the Canaanite cities in 1907 BCE, means King Chedorlaomer of Elam with his allies, Tudhula, king of the Gutium, and Eri-Aku king of Larsa would have fought both the kings of Babylon [Akkad] and Sumer [Uruk] to gain control of the land of Shinar. This was twenty years after Chedorlaomer came to the throne of Elam and thus gave him ample time to consolidate his power, build his military capability and win or subjugate the necessary allies. 

This means, we now know which king he fought against in Babel; it would have been Hammurabi’s father, Sin-Muballit [1913-1894 BCE] – 5th king of the Amorite Babylonian Dynasty and in Ur, King Shu-Suen [1915-1906 BCE] the grandson of Shulgi, the son of Ur-Nammu – the founder of the Ur III Dynasty. This explains the abdication of Sin-Muballit in favour of his son, Hammurabi who was probably chosen by Chedorlaomer as a puppet king. A role that the young Amraphel spectacularly did not follow.

Hasting’s Dictionary of the Bible, C H W Johns & James Hastings, 1909:

Arioch king of Ellasar was allied with Chedorlaomer in the campaign against the kings of the plain (Genesis 14:1). He has been identified with Rim-sin, king of Larsa, and consequently Ellasar^ is thought to be for al-Larsa, the city of Larsa. Larsa, modern Senkereh in Lower Babylonia on the east bank of the Euphrates, was celebrated for its temple and worship of the sun-god Shamash.’

The meaning of Ellasar is very close to the meaning of Nimrod, who we will study in detail. Ellasar in Hebrew means ‘rebellious God’ or ‘onto rebellion’ from the word ‘el, God or denoting motion toward and the verb sarar, ‘to be rebellious’ or ‘stubborn’, though more in attitude rather than revolt. The city of Ellasar,^ is believed by most scholars to be the same city identified as Larsa. Some place it far north where the Hurrians dwelt, though this would not fit with the cluster of the other three in southern Mesopotamia. Larsa is located southeast of the very ancient city of Erech [Uruk], from which Iraq derives its name and northwest of Ur – where Abraham’s family originated. 

Tudhula of the Gutium [Tidal King of nations] is reputed to have ruled approximately from 1909 – 1864 BCE. Support for these dates, is that Tidal may have come to power due to Chedorlaomer’s politicking and thus as one of his allies, assisted in the defeat of Babylon and Ur in 1909 BCE. Plus, Tidal if still king would have died when Hammurabi defeated his coalition with Elam in 1864 BCE.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘ERI-AKU er-i-a-koo’, e-ri-a-ku’: This is the probable Sumerian reading of the well-known Babylonian name written with the characters for “servant” (Sem wardu or ardu) and the group standing for the Moon-god Sin* (written En-zu = Zu-en), otherwise Aku, the whole meaning “servant of the Moon-god.” This ruler, who was king of Larsa [Ellasar], is generally identified with the Arioch of Genesis 14:9. Eri-Aku belonged to an Elamite family which held the throne of Larsa, a state which, in common with Babylonia itself, acknowledged the suzerainty of Elam… it may be noted, that the expression adda, “father,” probably means simply “administrator.”’

Gérard Gertoux adds:

‘The Akkadian name Warad-Sin, king (LUGAL) of Larsa, is written Eri-Aku (e-ri-a-ku) which is a transcription of the Sumerian name IR-AGA “servant of the lunar disc” translated into Akkadian as (u)-ar-du-a-gu Warad-Agu, an equivalent of Warad-Sin “servant of the Moon* (god)”.’

What is interesting here is that Rim-Sin I was the final king of the Larsa Dynasty [1924-1865 BCE] and he is identified with Arioch of Ellasar or Eri-Aku of Larsa. Yet Gertoux says Warad-Sin is also Eri-Aku, or Arioch. In the king lists, Warad-Sin was the brother of Rim-Sin I and supposedly ruled for twelve years prior to his brother from 1936 to 1924 BCE and as a co-regency with his father, Kudur-Marbuk. Arioch, may then be a family name, a title or even a description.

For we learn more about Eri-Aku in the Targum of Palestine account of Genesis 14:9, in that Eri-Aku was a giant. He was called Arioch due to his great height. Arioch is derived from Arik which means ‘tall among the giants’. Even compared to other giants, Arioch was impressive and intimidating. This is an interesting piece of information, as the Northern confederacy fought against Nephilim descended giants before turning around literally, to go against the five Canaanite kings. 

Picking up the story from Genesis Six Giants website, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Of course, no ancient records exist that tell us how many giants served under Chedorlaomer. He may have had only Arioch, or that towering king plus a few others, or he may have had many such men in his service. In any event, the results of their opening battle with the Jordanian giants clearly show that he commanded a far superior force. Sweeping down the valley, his army quickly laid siege to Ashteroth Karnaim. This chief city of the Rephaim lay in the district of Bashan, about six miles northwest of Edrei. These giants worshipped Astarte, the goddess of the crested* moon. 

They were greatly decimated. Continuing along what the ancients called the King’s Highway, a trade route that ran the entire length of the Trans-jordanian plateau to the Gulf of Aqabah,Chedorlaomer and his confederate kings next fell upon the enormous Zamzummim people at Ham. Some archaeologists identify this city with modern Ham, which is located in eastern Gilead, about four miles south of Irbid. 

After this, the kings from Elam and Mesopotamia attacked and cut off the terrible Emim giants at nearby Shaveh Kiriathaim.These people, described as “great and many and tall,” occupied the land that the Moabites later took.Sodom and Gomorrah, at the [northern] tip of the Salt Sea, stood next in line. They quickly got ready to defend themselves, expecting the worst. But to their amazement the invaders passed them by. Pressing on southward into the rough mountain range of Seir, Chedorlaomer waged war instead against the giant Horites.’  

The land of Canaan was infested with Nephilim descended Elioud and was literally the land of the giants. In verse seven of Genesis chapter fourteen, just after the Horites are mentioned, we read about the defeated Amalekites. 

This shows that the Amalekites existed before Esau had a future grandson called Amalek, some one hundred and twenty years later. Esau was to marry into and live with the Nephilim related Horites. The Amalekites of the Bible are identifiable in secular sources under a different name, which we will study. The link in Genesis fourteen between the Horites and Amalek and then Esau marrying into the Horites and naming a grandson called Amalek is not only, not a coincidence, but rather significant. The Amalekites were also giants and related to the Horites.

‘He also conquered the Negev to eliminate any threat from that quarter. Having thus neutralized all the country round, he finally turned his attention upon the rebellious Sodom and Gomorrah and their neighbors. Giving up whatever security their fortified walls afforded them, “the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) came out,” notes Moses; “and they arrayed for battle against them in the valley of Siddim,against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar – four kings against five.”’

The Book of Jasher 10:25-27, adds regarding these ‘Canaanites’.

25 And four men from the family of Ham went to the land of the plain; these are the names of the four men, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim. 26 And these men built themselves four cities in the land of the plain, and they called the names of their cities after their own names. 27 And they and their children and all belonging to them dwelt in those cities, and they were fruitful and multiplied greatly and dwelt peaceably.

Recall, the original inhabitants of Canaan, were the peoples descended from Canaan – the son of Ham [refer Chapter XII Canaan]. The Nephilim arrived after the Canaanites and dwelt amongst them. The Book of Jasher claims Nimrod was the king of Shinar. We have learned that Hammurabi is undoubtedly the king in question. It is some 5,000 years since Nimrod and the Tower of Babel incident and though longevity was on his side, it would be unlikely he was still living at this time. Such a powerful figure such as he was, he would have been still ruling and making his presence known if alive. His inferred demise points to when the Tower was destroyed.

‘This bold strategy to meet the invaders in the open field was decided by the surrounding treacherous terrain. Many slime pits, dug to obtain pitch or mortar for building, transversed the area.While most English translations simply describe the Valley of Siddim as being “full of slime pits,” the force of the original Hebrew language, according to Speiser, conveys to the reader a picture of “one bitumen pit after another.” The locals were most familiar with the locations of these pits. The invaders were not. They were also accustomed to the foul-smelling, boiling waters on whose surface floated lumps of asphalt or bitumen the size of bulls. 

The enemy, they hoped, would be at least a little disconcerted by the unfamiliar terrain and terrible odor and afraid of falling into the boiling waters. But the pits failed to deter the invaders. Indeed, they soon turned them to their own advantage. In the resulting warfare, many in the defenders’ ranks saw death. Alarmed by the way the battle was progressing against them, the five local kings and their armies panicked and attempted to flee the field. The slime pits, however, made retreat difficult. In the confusion, two of the fleeing kings – and presumedly many men with them – fell into the tar pits. Those who escaped fled into the mountains.

For a time some scholars disbelieved this Genesis story, labeling it a fiction. But evidence dug up by archaeologists in recent years verifies that in Abraham’s time a great destruction came upon the very places mentioned in Chedorlaomer’s invasion. Dr. Nelson Glueck, whose work in this area extended from 1932 until 1947, when it was halted by the Israeli-Arab disturbances, reports that the highly developed civilization which flourished here during the Middle Bronze I period (c. 2100-1900 B.C.) came to an abrupt and savage end [1894 BCE]. 

This well-known archaeologist found that not only the cities mentioned in Genesis but also many villages – beginning with Ashtaroth-Karnaim and proceeding south through Transjordan and the Negev to Kadesh Barnea in the Sinai – were systematically gutted. “From southern Syria to central Sinai, their fury raged,” he writes. “A punitive expedition developed into an orgy of annihilation. I found that every village in their path had been plundered and left in ruins, and the countryside laid waste. The population had been wiped out or led away into captivity. For hundreds of years thereafter, the entire area was like an abandoned cemetery, hideously unkept, with all its monuments shattered and strewn in pieces on the ground.”’

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, Page 148:

‘The power of the invading kings, numbered as 800,000 according to the Haggadah, must have been overwhelming indeed, for they not only crushed these fortified cities but they never were rebuilt and the land remained unoccupied for a thousand years.’ 

Some will always take an opposing view and there will always be those who do not see what is in plain sight, but we have detailed verification of the Biblical account of a devastating war that is documented as historically authentic. The four northern kings are real personages and led the ancient coalition comprising Elam, Akkad, Sumer and Aram. Acadia represented by Peleg and Sumer by Joktan – both from Shem’s son Arphaxad and collectively the land of Shinar – and with Elam and Aram they exacted terrible revenge for disobedience by the southern kings of Ham and the Elioud giants. The modus operandi of devastating destruction rings true, as we have learned how both Chedorlaomer and Hammurabi were both uncompromising in their style of warfare. Possibly, a further reason why Amraphel is listed first; with his blitzkrieg style he likely took the lead in the actual obliteration of the opposition forces and the desolation of their land.

“Look,” says the Teacher, “I have discovered this by adding one thing to another to find out the explanation…”

Ecclesiastes 7:27 Christian Standard Bible

“I would rather be in minority and be right, than in the majority and wrong.” 

Jodi Picoult 

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Mizra: North Africa & Arabia

Chapter XIV

Ham’s second son is Mizra, translated correctly, though a little misleadingly as Egypt. There is always it seems, an exception to the rule and in this case regarding point number two in the Introduction, this is it. To a degree, that is. The descendants of Mizra have paradoxically, migrated further afield, though they also live in their original historic homeland. 

In Genesis 10:13-14 NET, we are introduced to Mizra’s seven sons. Taking our cue from Canaan and Cush, we would expect to find a handful of descended nations, rather than just one or seven. We are also met with a slight conundrum, though easily resolved. Mizra identifies as the people known as Arabs in North Africa and in the Middle East, as well as the peoples of Latino [Spanish] descent throughout Central and South America [with the exception of Brazil].

Mizraim [Mizra] was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, Pathrusites Casluhites (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorites.

Some versions list instead as: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim [Lubim], Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim and Caphtorim.

Footnotes: ‘The Casluhites lived in Crete and eventually settled east of the Egyptian Delta, between Egypt and Canaan [on the coast]. Several commentators prefer to reverse the order of the words to put this clause after the next word, since the Philistines came from Crete (where the Caphtorites lived). But the table may suggest migration rather than lineage…

Mizraim is translated as Egypt principally, in the Bible. Outside of the genealogy listings of Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, the word Mizraim is used once in Genesis 50:11 ESV, on the occasion of Jacob’s death, the father of Joseph. 

11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.” Therefore the place was named Abel-mizraim [mourning (or meadow) of Egypt]; it is beyond the Jordan.

An accurate map [excepting Spain] of Mizra’s five sons in North Africa and the Near, Middle East [green] and two sons in the New World [red].

Egypt is mentioned some seven hundred times in the Bible. The context usually implies all the sons of Mizra, or occasionally the principal son, Pathros. A couple of chapters address Mizra specifically, such as in Ezekiel 29:9-10 ESV:

 … and the land of Egypt shall be a desolation and a waste. Then they will know that I am the Lord. “Because you said, ‘The Nile is mine, and I made it,’ therefore, behold, I am against you and against your streams, and I will make the land of Egypt an utter waste and desolation, from Migdol to Syene, as far as the border of Cush [India].

We will see that their descendants do live ‘as far as the border of Cush, India. In Isaiah 19:22-25 ESV we read of a future time, when three great peoples are at peace:

22 And the Lord will strike Egypt, striking and healing, and they will return to the Lord, and he will listen to their pleas for mercy and heal them. 23 In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria will come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians [Arabs] will worship with the Assyrians [Russians]. 24 In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25 whom the Lord of hosts has blessed, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel my inheritance.”

The widespread assumption or belief – held by many people within and without Islam – is that the Arab people descend from Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham. This has been supported largely because the Prophet Mohammad in the Quran was seen as being a spiritual successor to Abraham… thus in time a physical descent was gradually assumed to be true. In the Bible, Ishmael [with the other sons of Abraham, from his second wife Keturah] are described as living in Arabia or the wilderness. This was in the Arabian Peninsula [mainly including Saudi Arabia today]. It is not calling Ishmael an Arab, but stating where he originally lived. The sons of Mizra though, have in turn become known as Arabs, due to their dwelling in Arabia, before fanning out, migrating both northeast and westwards into north Africa.

An article by Mark Durie, 2019, entitled, Ishamel is not the Father of the Arabs addresses the issue – emphasis & bold his:

‘The commonly held view that Ishmael was the father of the Arab nations is not supported by the Bible, nor by other historical evidence. For centuries, many Muslims, Christians and Jews have taken it for granted that the Arabs descended from Abraham through Ishmael. As Gerald Hawting put it:

“The idea that the Arabs are the physical descendants of Abraham through Ishmael is indeed taken by many, non-Muslims as well as Muslims, as a genealogical and historical fact.”

Authors and teachers often treat the word Ishmael as a kind of code for Islam or Muslims. According to Sir Fergus Millar, Professor Emeritus of Ancient History at Oxford University, it was Josephus, a Jewish historian writing in the first century CE, who first advanced the idea that Ishmael was the ancestor of the Arabs. In The Antiquities of the Jews Josephus stated that Ishmael was “the founder” of the Arabian nation, and Abraham was “their father”. From Josephus, this assumed connection between the Arabs and Abraham, through Ishmael, passed into the historical consciousness of Christians, and then made its way into early Islam.

The Qur’an does not speak of Ishmael or Abraham as ancestors of the Arabs – although it does have Abraham and Ishmael praying for Allah to make their descendants a Muslim people – but the link is established in the hadith literature, in traditions about Muhammad’s own genealogy. In this way Abraham and Ishmael came to be considered, in Islamic tradition, not only a spiritual antecedent of Muhammad as an Islamic prophet, but also the physical ancestor of (at least some of) the Arabs.

What does the Bible say? It speaks both of Ishmaelites, the descendants of Ishmael, and of Arabs, but does not join them together. I. Ephʿal has pointed out that the references to Ishmaelites are earlier in the Bible, and the references to Arabs later. Both refer to non-sedentary, nomadic peoples, but they are separated by centuries. 

Ephʿal concludes that references to “Ishmaelites” cease by the mid 10th century BCE, and the references to “Arabs” only commence in the mid-8th century BCE, so “there is no historical basis to the tradition of associating Ishmaelites with the Arabs”. The Bible does link the Ishmaelites with the Midianites, using these names as synonyms in two places. Genesis describes Joseph as being sold to a caravan of camel-riding Ishmaelites who are also called Midianites (Genesis 37:25–28, 36; 39:1; see also Judges 8:22-24).

The evidence indicates that Ishmael was not the father of the Arabs, and neither was Abraham. The Ishmaelites were probably Canaanites, speaking, not an early form of Arabic, but a dialect similar to Hebrew. In time they disappeared or were absorbed into other groups, like so many other ancient peoples. Much later Josephus invoked Ishmael’s name to conjure up a genealogy for the Arabs. He has a lot to answer for. The rest, as they say, is history.’

We will look into this further when we study Ishmael. The author states they were probably Canaanites. Not sons of Ham Canaanites; but they were part of the later ‘Canaanites.’ Far from being assimilated into other peoples or disappearing, the Ishmaelites due to their numbers, have always been an influential people to the degree of Empire status more than once on the world stage.

Dr Hoeh says the following regarding Mizra – bold mine:

‘Mizraim is commonly applied to Egypt. In fact, “Mizr” is the name which the natives still apply to Egypt today. The Greeks called the land Aegyptus [Aiguptos] – hence our Egypt.

First, notice that… Mizraim first settled on the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. From there they spread through the Eastern Mediterranean isles and into Africa. The Philistines, who came from Mizraim, inhabited Southern Palestine even in the days of Abraham (Genesis 21:34). They are still there today – in the Gaza strip in Palestine – causing no end of trouble (Zechariah 9:6-7). 

The Philistines (a branch of the family of Casluhim) settled originally on the Island of Crete in the Mediterranean. Crete is called, in the Bible, Caphtor (Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7). The Island of Caphtor was originally settled by the Caphtorim, a tribe of Mizraim (Genesis 10:14). Both the Philistines and the Caphtorim destroyed the Canaanites in South Palestine and lived in their place (Deuteronomy 2:23). No wonder there are so few Canaanites left! The main body of non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine today are not Canaanites, but Philistines!

The Pathrusim of Genesis 10:14 migrated from Asia Minor to central Egypt. Every prophecy shows Pathros to be a part of Egypt along the Nile (Jeremiah 44:1,5 and Ezekiel 29:14). The Naphtuhim probably settled in the extreme south of Egypt, founding the capital city of Napata among the black people of Africa.’

The Lehabim – the word “Lehabim” means a people of reddish color – settled Libya originally. Libya is in North Africa. Today they are found scattered throughout the savanahs of the Western Sudan in Africa. In this region today we find a people “of reddish brown or light chestnut color … with smooth hair, never woolly, straight and even aquiline noses . . .differentiating them from the [Black] type”. The original word “Lehabim” was shortened in Bible times to “Lubim” (II Chronicles 12:3; 16:8). 

The [Africans] call these people “fulbe”, meaning, probably, Lubim dwelling in the ancient land of Phut. In the central reaches of the Sahara (the great desert in North Africa) live the Ludim (Gen.10:14) – the lightest of the Egyptians.

For example the Arabs acknowledge that they are descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham. In Bible prophecy they are often mentioned by the name “Ishmael.”‘

We will learn that the Philistines are not the non-Jewish peoples [Palestinians] of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, for they have travelled farther afield. The final sentence is a good example of how the first thing heard, is the one that lingers the longest whether correct or incorrect. How easy it is to be indoctrinated without even realising. Just because a people claim to be someone does not make it necessarily so…

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis theirs, bold mine: 

Mizraim is derived from a Hebrew term, and is a plural word with the meaning double straits (SHD 4714, mitsrayim – dual of matsor (4693). This duality may refer to the distinction between the original kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptians referred to their land as Kmt in the hieroglyphs. In Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions Egypt was known as Musur and Musri, probably from the word Misrmeaning simply, land. The Ugaritic inscriptions refer to Egypt as Msrm, while in the Amarna tablets it is called Misri. The term Misr is still seen in the modern Arabic name for the nation, Jumhuriyah Misr al-‘Arabiyah (the Arabic Republic of Egypt).’

A well known online Encylopaedia –  emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mizraim is the dual form of matzor, meaning a “mound” or “fortress”… Some Ancient Egyptian inscriptions at the time of Pharoah Amenhotep IV refer to Egypt as Masara and to Egyptians as Masrawi.

According to Eusebius’ Chronicon, Manetho had suggested that the great age of antiquity of which the later Egyptians boasted had actually preceded the Flood and that they were really descended from Mizraim, who settled there anew. A similar story is related by medieval Islamic historians… and the Persians… stating that the pyramids etc. had been built by the wicked races [the Nephilim & the line of Cain] before the Deluge, but that Noah’s descendant Mizraim (Masar or Mesr) was entrusted with reoccupying the region afterwards. The Islamic accounts also make Masar the son of a Bansar or Beisar and grandson of Ham, rather than a direct son of Ham… Some scholars think it likely that Mizraim is a dual form of the word Misr meaning “land”, and was translated literally into Ancient Egyptian as Ta-Wy (the Two Lands) by early pharaohs at Thebes who later founded the Middle Kingdom.

… according to George Syncellus the Book of Sothis, attributed to Manetho, identified Mizraim with the legendary first Pharaoh Menes, said to have unified the Old Kingdom and built Memphis. Mizraim also seems to correspond to Misor, said in Phoenician mythology to have been the father of Taautus who was given Egypt, and later scholars noticed that this also recalls Menes, whose son or successor was said to be Athothis.

… the author David Rohl has suggested a different interpretation: Amongst the followers of Meshkiagkasher (Sumerian ruler) was his younger ‘brother’ – in his own right a strong and charismatic leader of men. He is the head of the falcon tribe – the descendants of Horus the ‘Far Distant’. The Bible calls this new Horus-king ‘Mizraim’ but this name is, in reality, no more than an epithet. It means ‘follower of Asr’ or ‘Asar’ (Egyptian Arabic m-asr with the Egyptian preposition m ‘from’). Mizraim is merely m-Izra with the majestic plural ending ‘im’. Likewise, that other great Semitic-speaking people – the Assyrians – called the country of the pharaohs ‘Musri’ (m-Usri).’

Mizra denotes duality. In Hebrew it means: ‘double siege’ or ‘double distress’ from masor, ‘siege’ or ‘entrenchment’ and the verb sur, ‘to bind, besige’. Also mesar, ‘distress’ and the verb sarar, ‘to bind.’

Abarim Publications – bold theirs:  

‘Egypt was known by the names Musuru, Musru, Misir or Masri in other languages, and Mizraim is probably simply a phonetic transliteration into Hebrew of any of them.

The verb from which the noun derives, is part of a group of five different roots: 

Sur I: to lean or incline

Sur II: to confine, secure or besiege

Sur III: to be an adversary 

Sur IV: to form or fashion

Sur V: to be sharp

The word (mesar), meaning straights or distress, written in a dual form would yield the name Mizraim. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names assumes that this is what Mizraim would have meant to a Hebrew audience and reads Double Distress. But it should be noted that the name Mizraim means also Double Stronghold…

An identifying clue to who and where the sons of Mizra are is the fact that the Arabic nations are invariably in a condition of war – either against the state of Israel, Black Africans, minorities in their countries, or most noticeably, their own people.

Isaiah 19:2-3

Young’s Literal Translation

And I armed Egyptians against Egyptians, And they fought, each against his brother, And each against his neighbour, City against city, kingdom against kingdom.And emptied out hath been in its midst the spirit of Egypt. And its counsel I swallow up, And they have sought unto the idols, And unto the charmers, And unto those having familiar spirits, And unto the wizards.

The NET translates verse two as:

“I will provoke civil strife in Egypt: brothers will fight with one another, as will neighbors, cities, and kingdoms.

In Hebrew, Pathros means: ‘South Land’ from the Egyptian pe-te-res or ‘place of interpretation’ from the verb patar, ‘to interpret dreams.’ 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold theirs:

‘Pathros is the name [for] Mizraim’s South Region. Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt, and southern Egypt was known as Upper Egypt. 

The name Pathros occurs half a dozen times in the Bible, always in clear association with Mizraim (Ezekiel 29:14, Isaiah 11:11). The writers of the Septuagint transliterated the name Pathros with Pa-athyris, meaning Belonging to Athor, but who Athor is remains a mystery.

Some words of interest: (pata), meaning to entice, deceive, persuade. Derivation (peti) means simple, foolish. (pat) means fragment, bit. The verb (rasas) means moisten. Derivation (rasis) means drop of dew. The identical but unused and not translatable root (rss) yields identical derivation (rasis), meaning fragment. Hence to the Hebrews the name Pathros may have sounded like Bits And Pieces, or even Wet Lands [the Nile], and Entreaty For A Drop, or any combination of the above.’

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim continues on Mizra’s fifth son Pathros – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The Pathrusim (SHD 6625, meaning southerners) were a tribe located at Pathros near Thebes in Upper Egypt. The name Pathros means region of the south (6624), possibly from the Egyptian Pa-To-Ris. The LXX refers to the people as the Patrosoniim.

In the apocryphal Book of Jasher, both the Pathrusim and Casluhim were recorded as the progenitors of the Pelishtim, Azathim, Gerarim, Githim and Ekronim, who were associated with several prominent Philistine cities, such as Gerar, Gath and Ekron. The conclusions must be that if they did conjoin it was by branches. The main branch went south to Thebes while the cadet branch joined the Cashluhim and formed the five Philistine cities and hence also the five names in Jasher.

The Hebrew Pathrosand the gentilic Pathrusimare derived from the Egyptian p’-t’-rsy, which is a term used to designate the whole of Egypt above Memphis. In the Assyrian material Esarhaddon refers to himself as the king of Musur, Paturisi, and Kusi,meaning, from Isaiah 11:11, that Musur and the Hebrew Misrayim was restricted to Middle and LowerEgypt, thus leaving Pathros for the Thebaid. Jeremiah 44:1,15, Ezekiel 29:14 and 30:14 refer to Pathros as the original home of the Egyptians. The gentilic Pathrusim occurs only in Genesis 10:14 and 1 Chronicles 1:12. 

The prominence of Pathros in the Bible and its central position in Egypt and the Nile  points to its identity actually being, the modern nation of Egypt.

Isaiah 11:11

English Standard Version

In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, from Assyria [Russia], from Egypt [Middle East and North Africa], from Pathros [Egypt], from Cush [India], from Elam [Turkey], from Shinar [Europe], from Hamath [Nigeria], and from the coastlands of the sea [SE Asia].

Jeremiah 44:1, 15

English Standard Version

The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Judeans who lived in the land of Egypt, at Migdol, at Tahpanhes, at Memphis, and in the land of Pathros… Then all the men who knew that their wives had made offerings to other gods, and all the women who stood by, a great assembly, all the people who livedin Pathros in the land of Egypt,answered Jeremiah:

Ezekiel 29:14

English Standard Version

and I will restore the fortunes of Egypt and bring them back to the land of Pathros, the land of their origin, and there they shall be a lowly kingdom.

Ezekiel 30:14

English Standard Version

I will make Pathros a desolation and will set fire to Zoan and will execute judgments on Thebes.

These verses reveal Pathros is very much part of Mizra, though a separate, prominent people or nation, who dwell in their original homeland.  

The flag of Egypt – with the Arab colours of Red, white and Black. Flags of the Arab nations either use these core colours and or incorporate green, representing Islam.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country and is an early cradle of civilisation. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire. Egypt declared itself a republic after a revolution deposing the monarchy in 1952. Egypt has endured decades of social and religious strife, with political instability. It has fought armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973; occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising the state of Israel.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic the  official language.With a population of over 104,840,393 people, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East and the Arab world [and second in Africa after Nigeria]. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert which constitute most of Egypt’s territory, are sparsely populated. 

The Arab world inherited vast lands of mainly desert. The people live primarily, as shown, near water. This area of the world has been actively inhabited since the flood by many migrations and peoples so that the soil has become barren.

Egypt is a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim World – a middle power worldwide. 

With a large and diversified economy, Egypt is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. Egypt has the third largest economy in Africa after Nigeria and South Africa. Egypt has the strongest military in Africa. South Africa is 4th and Nigeria 5th. The other Arab nations in the top ten, after Egypt are Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya.

The ancient Egyptian name of the country km.t, means black land, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, as distinct from the deshret or red land of the desert. A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis theirs: 

‘The English name “Egypt” is derived from the Ancient Greek “Aigyptos“, via Middle French “Egypte” and Latin “Aegyptus“. “Misr”… is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while “Masr”… is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew (“Mitzrayim”). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian “mi-is-ru” (“misru”)related to misru/misirru/misaru, meaning “border” or “frontier”.The Neo-Assyrian Empire used the derived term, Mu-sur.’

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Egyptian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$4.7 billion 
  2. Gems, precious metals: $3 billion 
  3. Plastics, plastic articles: $1.7 billion 
  4. Electrical machinery, equipment: $1.6 billion 
  5. Fruits, nuts: $1.5 billion 
  6. Fertilizers: $1.2 billion 
  7. Vegetables: $1 billion 
  8. Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $891.8 million 
  9. Iron, steel: $696.2 million 
  10. Perfumes, cosmetics: $571.7 million 

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 44.3% from 2019 to 2020. That gain was propelled by higher Egyptian sales of gold on international markets.

The leading decliner among Egypt’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil thanks to a -41.8% annual drop, weighed down by lower revenues for both refined and crude petroleum oils and petroleum gas.’

Of interest from 2018 to 2019, knitted and crocheted clothing and accessories represented the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, increasing by 78%. 

In Ezekiel 27:7 NKJV it says: 

Fine embroidered linen from Egypt was what you spread for your sail… 

King of Cotton, describes Egyptian cotton:

‘Egyptian cotton has not gained such a reputation without reason. Egyptian cotton “is” the world’s finest cotton and the following characteristics are what sets Egyptian cotton apart from other natural fibres: 

The length of the fibre makes it possible to make the finest of yarns without sacrificing the strength of the yarn… [The thread count is the number of threads in each square inch and generally speaking, the higher the thread count, the more luxurious, dense and soft the material will feel]. The strength of the fibre makes fabrics more solid and more resistant to stress. Its ability to absorb liquids gives fabrics made of Egyptian cotton deeper, brighter and more resistant colours. Its softness feels like nothing else in the world. Egyptian cotton is hand picked which guarantees the highest levels of purity. In addition, hand picking puts no stress on the fibres – as opposed to mechanical picking – leaving the fibres straight and intact.

All these factors have resulted in Egyptian cotton being by far the best cotton in the world. Fabrics made of Egyptian Cotton are softer, finer and last longer than any other cotton in the world.’

The first born son of Mizra is Lud, translated [in the plural] as Ludim in the Bible. There is another Lud in the Bible, the fourth son of Shem. Sometimes translated as Lydia or Lydians, after the people who dwelt in Western Asia Minor. They have intermingled and become synonymous. We will give more attention to both Luds later; though to highlight the confusion researchers have experienced in trying to keep them separate we will refer to Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis & bold mine :

‘Although there is a Semite of the same name, we find that Lud, grandson of Ham, was father of the Ludim. He was also the first-born of Mizraim. 

The entry in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE) is as follows:

In Genesis 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish… 

Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present. Mellink (ibid.) considers the Lydians of Asia Minor to be neither Hamitic nor Semitic. We dealt with the probable movement of the Semite Ludim to the Hindu Kush at the border of India and beyond into the Punjabin the papers Sons of Shem…’

Trying to split these two identities causes difficulty; once their mergence is understood it becomes clear. We have an identical situation with Mizra’s third son Lehab. The Lubim have merged with Phut [Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and both can be identified as ‘Libya’ in the Bible and the modern nation of Pakistan

Recall the verses we recently read in the preceding chapter: 2 Chronicles 12:3, 16:8, Nahum 3.9 and Ezekiel 30.5. All four verses translate Lubim or Lehab as Libya, the same as Phut. Libya refers to Phut, as does Lehab or Lubim; two identities, yet together they form a single nation. In Daniel 11.43 YLT, we see a fifth and final example of this:

and he hath ruled over treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt [Mizra – the Arabs], and Lubim [Pakistan] and Cushim [India] [are] at his steps.

In Ezekiel 29:10 we read that Mizra’s people or ‘border’ would reach to Cush and so it does as Pakistan’s eastern border adjoins India.

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The term Lehabim (SHD 3853; sing. 3851) means flames or blades.It has been suggested that these people ought to be identified with the Lubim, arising from the proposal that “the one word may be a corruption of the other” (ISBE). The name Lubim is possibly the same as that of the country, Libya, to the northwest of Egypt. 

It is probably that the term Lybios as a son of Mizraim refers to the Ludim and the Lehabim who were conjoined, as were two other sons of Mizraim in North Africa, thereby forming the Philistines and also the Thebans.’

An insightful point, particularly regarding the Philistines, which we will address in the next chapter; though I would suggest that the correct conjoining has been between Mizra’s son Lud-im and Shem’s son Lud and between Mizra’s son Lehab [Lubim] and Ham’s son Phut [Libya].

Mizra’s second and fourth sons respectively are Anam and Naphtuh. I am placing them together as they account for the Arab peoples either side of Pathros. That is, the Arabic nations lying to the east and west of Egypt. They are mentioned only in Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One and are therefore included in the general scriptures and prophecies pertaining to Mizra-im

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The second son of Mizraim has a name meaning affliction of the waters (anamiym,SHD 6047), and apparently derives from an Egyptian word. The Septuagint uses the term Enemetiim. An Assyrian text from the time of Sargon II refers to certain people as Anami, although they were apparently located in Cyrene, Libya as Albright suggests and… equates them with the cuneiform A-na-mi found in a geographical text from the time of Sargon II and parallel to Kapara, who were the Caphtorim. Little else is known of this tribe.

As the fourth of the tribes descended from Mizraim, the Naphtuhim have a name which means openings (SHD 5320, naphtuchiym), and is considered a word of foreign origin. The Septuagint gives their name as Nephthalim. The ISBE entry for this group reads:

“A son of Mizraim… but, according to most modern authorities, a district or a dependency of Egypt. Brown-Driver-Briggs… suggests that the Naphtuhim were located in Lower Egypt, and a connection has been made with Na-Ptah, the Egyptian word for Memphis.” 

Lambdin in his article… places the Naphtuhim between the Lehabim [Pakistan] (which are identified with the Libyans) and the Pathrusim [Egypt]as inhabitants of Upper Egypt, and hence they are inhabitants of the Delta.’

The nations to the east of Egypt – in the Near East – lean towards an identification with Naphtuh and the nations to the west of Egypt – in North Africa – an identification with Anam.  Anam in Hebrew also means: ‘responding waters’ from the verb ana, ‘to answer’ and the noun mayim, ‘waters.’

Abarim Publications:

‘There are four verbs of the form (‘nh), or perhaps one verb with four distinct usages: Verb (‘ana I) means to answer, respond or correspond, and… means time… (‘ana III) means to afflict, oppress or humble, Noun (‘anaw) refers to the poor, afflicted or needy.

It’s not immediately obvious where the name Naphtuhim comes from, or that it is Hebrew to start with. But as it is, the name Naphtuhim may have reminded a Hebrew audience of the root-group (patah), conveying meaning of to open or to engrave… and since the opening of the lips precedes speaking , and the opening of ears precedes hearing, our verb may also mean to speak and to hear… to the opening of constricting things… to loosen or release. Noun (petiha) denotes a drawn sword (the edge of a sword was known as the “mouth” of it).’

The most prominent nation in the Arab world aside from Egypt is Saudi Arabia, with a population of 35,527,051 people. Of the top ten nations with the most natural resources it is a formidable number two, behind China. Saudi Arabia by Arabic standards is a small country in the Middle East, slightly larger than Mexico. Saudi Arabia has some $34.4 trillion worth of natural resources – notably oil. Saudi Arabia has been the world’s leading exporter of oil since its discovery in 1938. Possessing 22.4% of the world’s reserves, the country’s economy relies heavily on its oil exports. It has the fourth largest natural gas reserves and other major natural resources include ‘copper, feldspar, phosphate, silver, sulfur, tungsten, and zinc.’

Saudi Arabia had a GDP of $792.97 billion in 2019, being the 18th largest economy in the world.The Saudi government owns and operates much of the country’s major industry through its oil company Aramco. Global environmental concerns drive an increased interest in developing non-fossil fuel energy sources, thus the Saudis look to diversify their economy, including encouraging private investment in healthcare and other service industries. The script on the Saudi Arabian flag is the shahada, the Islamic creed: ‘There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ 

The combined populations of the twenty-four Arabic nations and territories is some four hundred and fifty million people. A united confederacy of Arabic nations would certainly be a formidable force and could well participate with the leadership and primary allies of the King of the South – Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Indonesia.

Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2008 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. However, when attending to the relative contribution of the different L haplogroups, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Yemen are highly similar for their L3 (34%), L2 (36%) and L0 (21%) frequencies whereas in Oman and UAE the bulk of L lineages belongs to L3 (72%).’ 

Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups are detected in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs have only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component [7%)], similar to the specific haplogroup contribution of North Africa [5%] and a small Indian influence [3%]. The majority of the Saudi Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages have a western Asia provenance – up to 85%.

The majority (12) of the 19 M lineages found in the Arabian Peninsula that do not belong to M1 have matches or are related to Indian clades, which confirm previous results. Five undefined M lineages were genome sequenced. It is confirmed that 5 of the 6 Saudi lineages analyzed have also Indian roots. All these Indian M sequences have been found in Arabia as isolated lineages that belong to clusters with deep roots and high diversity in India. Therefore, its presence in Arabia is better explained by recent backflow from India than by supposing that these lineages are footsteps of an M ancestral migration across Arabia.’

A third option is available that explains the link between the Indian peoples of Cush and the Arabs of Mizra and that is simply, that they are brothers. The theories on who migrated from where to where are based on an evolutionary view of history and therefore the issue remains perplexing for geneticists and ethnologists alike.

‘The high diversity of N1a in the Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia and Egypt raises the possibility that this area was a secondary center of expansion for this haplogroup. However, the highest diversity for N1b and N1c are in Turkey, and Kurds and Iranians, respectively. Macrohaplogroup R is the main branch of N and their major subclades (H, J-T, K-U) embraced the majority of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages. The Western Asia haplogroup H is the most abundant haplogroup in Europe and the Near East. However in the Arabian Peninsula its mean frequency is moderate…’

Haplogroups N, R and H are associated primarily with the descendants of Shem and Europe. There is some crossover into Ham’s descendants through intermarriage and mixing. The mtDNA N haplogroup that is stronger in the Turks and Persians, reflects their lineal descent from Shem and not from Ham.

‘Haplogroup T shows regional heterogeneity in Saudi Arabia and has significantly lower frequencies in Southern Yemen and Oman countries. Haplogroup U comprises numerous branches (U1 to U9 and K) that have different geographic distributions. In Saudi Arabia all of them have representatives albeit in minor frequencies, K (4%) and U3 (2.3%) being the most abundant clades. There is no geographical heterogeneity for the total U distribution in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, it is significantly different among the Arabian Peninsula countries, with Southern countries showing higher frequencies than the others.

As a whole, haplogroup J reaches its highest frequency in Saudi Arabia, where its regional distribution is also significantly heterogeneous but opposite to that found for (preHV)1. For the J, the West (37.5%) and Southeast (25.7%) regions have higher frequencies than the Central (17.6%) and North (16.3%) regions. Heterogeneity in the whole Peninsula is also significant being Saudi Arabia (21%) and Qatar (17.8%) the two countries with the highest J frequencies. However, the subclade distribution is different in each country. Subclade J1b is the main contributor (9.4%) in Saudi Arabia while other J subclades account for 14.5% in Qatar. With the Qatar exception, J1b is the most frequent subclade in the Arabian Peninsula. Nevertheless, whereas the J1b branch TMRCA (11,099 ± 8,381 years ago) was contemporary to that of the northern J1b1a1, the recalculated age of the (preHV)1b branch (by adding all the new HVSI sequences found in the present survey to the ones previously used, was of only 4,036 ± 2,211 years ago which situates this expansion in the Bronze Age. These results could be satisfactorily explained if we admit an older Paleolithic implantation in Saudi Arabia of the J1b clade that, perhaps, with some other N and L clades would form the primitive population.’ 

‘Graphical relationships among the studied populations. MDS plot based on FST haplogroup distances. Codes are:

Ce = Central Saudi Arab, Dz = Druze, Et = Ethiopian, Ke = Kenyan, No = Northern Saudi Arab, Nu = Nubian, SE = Southeastern Saudi Arab, Su = Sudan, We = Western Saudi Arab. Bd = Bedouin Arab, Eg = Egyptian, In = Iranian, Iq = Iraqi, Jo = Jordanian, Ku = Kurd, Om = Omani, Pa = Palestinian, Qa = Qatar, Sy = Syrian, Tu = Turk, UA = United Arab Emirates, Ye = Yemeni.’

Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route, multiple authors, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although the bulk of the Arabian sequences (70%) belong to different clades of macrohaplogroup R, 13% percent of Arabian samples belong to haplogroup L, with a clear sub-Saharan African origin. One of the two L Arabian completely sequenced samples was a typical L2a1 lineage with a reversion at the 16309 position. The second is a derived L3i1a sequence, with its closest counterpart observed in Ethiopia pointing to a recent importation from northeastern Africa. Seven per cent of the Arabian samples were assigned to macro-haplogroup M, of which 4% are members of the North African haplogroup M1, and the remaining 3% conform a miscellaneous group of sequences from South, Southeast and Eastern Asian origins and sole representatives of Melanesia (Q1), Madagascar (M32c) or Australia (M42). In particular, the rare Arabian M sample completely sequenced in this study belongs to the Indian M42b1 clade, sharing only transversion 95C with a Munda sequence (MUN22) at the same clade. A sister branch of the Indian M42b, with a coalescence time estimation around 55 kya, has spread in Australia.’ 

The genetic link between the Melanesians and Indians of Cush and the Black Africans of Canaan with the Arabs of Mizra.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Observed in Iraqi Population, multiple authors, 2015:

‘Mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of [the] control region were sequenced from 100 random healthy unrelated individuals of three sequential generations [belonging] to the Arab [ethnicity of the] Iraqi population. The aim of this study was to [detect] the mtDNA haplotypes and [classify them] into mtDNA haplogroups [thereby] useful in forensic genetics applications and determining the Iraqi population history. The sequence variation within [the] D-loop control region were analyzed [and] the composition of haplogroups… showed [a] high frequency of haplogroups U, H, J, M, D, T and N (18%, 14%, 10%, 9%, 7%, 7% and 7%, respectively), [a] moderate frequency of haplogroups L and I was (4%) and B, A, R and K (2%), and [a] low frequency of haplogroup pre-HV (1%). This study [also indicated a] lack of V, P, Y, X, O, Z, Q, G, E and C haplogroups.’

                     Pre-HV  HV   H      U     J   M    T     I     K    B     L1     L3    W      X    V   

Iraq                               6     17     15    8    8     3     2   12     3                4      9     

Syria                  4         4     25    16   10    1   10            4             3                 3             3 

Palestinian       2         2     31      8     9    2   13            7          0.9                3       3  

Arabia               4         4     13     11   21  NR   5  0.8    4  NR  NR      11       2      2  

Iran                   6         6      17    22   14  NR  8      2    8  NR  NR       2      2       3  

Turkey              4         4      25    19   11     4  12      2   6           NR   0.3      4       4  

Slav                 NR     NR     41    19   11  0.9  12      3   4                            0.9   0.6     3

Italy                   2         2      33   22    7           9       4   8                                2       3     5 

German          NR    NR      50   14    8           9      3    7                                 1    0.5    3 

American          7         7       31   23    9         12      2    8  0.5                        1        2  

A comparison of  MtDNA haplogroups in the aforementioned paper, consisting of Arab populations and others from West Asia, Europe and beyond. It throws a light on the simplicity, yet complexity of the haplogroup sequencing that dictates the similarities, yet differences between ethnicities and races. A different set of figures from a different study, though not identical still highlights the relative percentage shift from an eastern Arab population in Iraq, towards a western one in Libya. Though obviously related, the Arabs have sprung from different sons of Mizra and thus the variety within even core mtDNA haplogroups such as H and J is marked.

                              L      HV      H     HVO+V      J      T      T2       U       K 

Syria                     6       3        26           3           9       3        9       10       6

Iraq                      8       9         17        0.2          13      5        4         7        5

Palestine             11      2         27       0.5          10      3        5         4        7

Saudi Arabia      10      1          9           0          20      2        4         5        4

Egypt                   22     4         16       0.4            9      5        6         3        5

Libya                   28      1         17           8          10      2        5         6        5

A considerable number of genetic disorders that are specific to Arabs, are located on a HLA segment on their chromosome 6. These segment mutations are then also markers for Arabs in genealogical and forensic profiling tests and studies, indicating they are a separate ethnic or racial family; not a mixture of European and South Asian or African peoples and certainly not a hybrid people.

Four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components characterise the populations in the Arab world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi. The Arabian component is the prime autosomal element in the Gulf region, though it is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant and Northeast Africa. 

Its presence is also found in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians which shows historical admixture. The Levantine component is the principal autosomal element in the Near East and the Caucasus area. The Coptic component is the main autosomal element throughout Northeast Africa. It peaks amongst the Egyptian Copts in the Sudan and is found at high frequencies in the both the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa.The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Northwest of Africa and includes the Berber populations. 

These four divisions equate to Mizra’s sons Pathros [Coptic], Anam [Maghrebi], Naphtuh [Levantine] and possibly Ludim [Arabian], if Naphtuh does not include the twin Levantine and Arabian components. Clarification on this will be covered in a separate chapter discussing Shem’s son Lud.

A genetic study published in the European Journal of Human Genetics in 2019, stated that West Asians, that is Arabs, are closely related to Europeans, Northern Africans and to Southwest Asians. I would concur with the latter two; though the first group is a little misleading. Arabs share certain haplogroups at a higher frequency with Europeans from Southeastern Europe, though this does not hold to be true with the majority of Europeans. Northeastern and especially Northwestern Europeans, are genetically far removed from an Arab. Arab haplogroups link them more closely too Indian, Pakistani and Black African peoples and a lesser degree to peoples of the Caucasus and Southeast Europe. The same cannot be said for the remainder of Europe. This scenario is reminiscent of the Indian-Aryan misnomer in Chapter XIII, Cush and Phut.

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Somalis and Ethiopians are sequestered to the right extreme of the plot, whereas the other North African group from Egypt is adjacent to a closely intertwined Levant/Peninsular Arab grouping. The Yemenis are the only population from the Arabian Peninsula that deviates from this spatial pattern, likely due to their… geographical isolation from the rest of the Peninsular Arabs.

When all branches of haplogroup U are considered together, there are no well-defined frequency clines observed except for the obvious lack of the haplogroup within the African continent.Upon sub-dividing the branches of the aforementioned haplogroup (only the most highly represented branches within the Iranian domain were further explored), clear region-specific gradients are detected. 

For example, sub-haplogroups U2 and U7 are widely distributed throughout Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting their highest frequencies in the southwest Asian collections and displaying east-to-west frequency clines. It is noteworthy that both haplogroups are found in the Arabian Peninsula.

Y-chromosomal haplogroup J is present in high frequencies throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, dissipating considerably in all directions. Haplogroup R, on the other hand, presents very high frequencies in the central Asian/southwest Asian regions, with levels decreasing immediately beyond the Indus Valley area. A slight increase in frequencies is observed in the Balkan Peninsula.’

  1. MDS plot based on observed frequency of mtDNA haplogroup distributions (stress=0.28852). (b) MDS plot based on observed frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup distributions (stress=0.12492). 

Recapping: Analysing the haplogroup family trees of the world, it is evident, that mtDNA which is passed from mothers to all their children, includes the main East Asian haplogroups [alphabetically] of B*, D* and M plus the American Indian* additional haplogroups of A and C. The key haplogroups for Ham are L and M and we will learn the main haplogroups of Shem are H, T and U. Whereas, the Y-DNA haplogroups passed from fathers to their sons, includes the main Japheth haplogroups of C*, D, K and O, plus the additional American Indian* haplogroup of Q. The key Shem Y-DNA haplogroups we will find are I, R1a and R1b and the prime haplogroups of Ham are A, B, E, H and J. 

The key Black African Y-DNA haplogroups are in order of frequency, E, A and B. The E haplogroup splits into the clades of E1b1a, E1b1b and E2. The primary mtDNA haplogroups for the Canaanites include haplogroups L0 to L6. The main Indian and Pakistani Y-DNA haplogroups are for India: R1a H L R2 and for Pakistan: R1a J L R2. The principal mtDNA haplogroups for Cush and Phut are M, U and R. 

An intersting split occurs in the Arab world. Those nations to the west in North Africa, have a Y-DNA descending sequence of E1b1b, J1, J2, T/G, [R1b/R1a]. Those Arab nations eastwards in the Arabian Peninsula, Levantine and the Gulf, have nations who possess the same haplogroups, though the majority in a markedly different order of J1, J2, E1b1b, G/T, [R1a/R1b]. 

The overview table supports three suppositions. Firstly, there is a clear difference between Arab Y-DNA Haplogroups and those of Europe – as we shall discover – with very high levels of E and J and very low levels of R1a and R1b. Secondly, there is a marked visible difference between the Arabs of North Africa and the Middle East – because they are from two different sons of Mizra, Anam and Naphtuh – in their type and levels of Haplogroup E1 and E2. Thirdly and related to the previous point, is the fact that Egypt though superficially looking as if it could belong to either group, is actually unique, aside from the Sudan – because it descends from another son of Mizra, Pathros.

(a) mtDNA haplogroup distributions (b) Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions.’

The prime mtDNA haplogroups for Mizra are H, L and J. The Arab peoples possess Y-DNA [paternal] haplogroups common to the Black africans, particularly E1b1b and a lesser degree, E1b1a, A and B. They similarly share in small quantities with India, R1a, L and H; while with Pakistan, they share small quantities of R1a, L and H and proportionately,  considerable levels of haplogroup J and specifically J1 [M267] – see below.

To the south of Egypt, there are nations that include Arabs though they are not necessarily the majority. Black Africans are a substantial part of these populations. The  main Arab E1b1b haplotype is E-M215, for K it is KM9 and for it is F is F-M89.

Egypt:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – T1 – R1b – G – E1b1a – R1a

– A – F – L – I – Q – K

Egypt: E1b1b [44%] – J1 [21%] – J2 [7%] – T1 [6%] – R1b [6%] – G [6%]

– E1b1a [3%] – R1a [2%] – A [1.3%] – F [1%] – L [0.8%] – I [0.5%]

– Q – [0.3%] – K [0.3%] 

The approximate six percent of the western European sub-Haplogroup R1b in Egyptians is comprised of R1b-V88 at 2.97% and R1b-M269 also at 2.97%. R1b-V88 is a mutation of R1b found specifically in Arab peoples of Africa that has originally derived from intermixing. Whereas, R1b-M269 is the main R1b Haplogroup spread across Western Europe. It is found in lesser percentages across Eastern Europe and the Middle East as evidence of intermarriage and historical contact amongst migrating peoples.

Eritrea:    E1b1b – J – A – T – B

Djibouti:  E1b1b – J – T – A/B

Somalia:  E1b1b – J -[R1b] – B – A – G – [E2] – T

Chad:       E1b1b – [R1b] – A – J – B

Sudan:     J – E1b1b – [R1b] – A/B 

The nations of Anam laying to the west of Pathros [Egypt].

Libya:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – R1b – T1 – R1a – L – I – G

Libya: E1b1b [49%] – J1 [27%] – J2 [7%] – R1b [6%] – T [5%] –

R1a [1.7%] – L [1.5%] – I [1.5%] – G [1%] 

The breakdown of Libya’s R1b is R-V88 at 6.02%, with no R-M269. Thus recent admixture is virtually non-existent compared to historical contact.

Tunisia:     E1b1b – J1 – J2 – F – R1b – T1 – R1a – K – G – E1b1a – B – I 

Tunisia: E1b1b [72%] – J1 [17%] – J2 [3%] – F [2%] – R1b [2%] –

E1b1a [1.4%] – T1 [0.7%] – R1a [0.5%] – K [0.3%] – G [0.2%] –

B [0.1%] – I [0.1%]

The breakdown of Tunisia’s R1b is R-V88 at 1.83% and R-M269 at 0.33%.

Algeria:      E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – F – K – R1a – Q – G – I

Algeria: E1b1b [56%] – J1 [22%] – R1b [10%] – J2 [5%] – F [4%] –

K [0.6%] – R1a [o.6%] –  Q [0.6%] – G [0.5%] – I [0.1%] 

The breakdown of Algeria’s R1b is R-V88 at 2.56% and R-M269 at 7.04%. Algeria is the opposite to Libya in that it shows more recent admixture than historically. 

Morocco:    E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – G – B – K – F – A – I

Morocco: E1b1b [83%] – J1 [7%] – R1b [5%] – J2 [2%] – G [0.6%] –

B [0.6%] – K [0.5%] – F [0.3%] – A [0.3%] – I [0.1%] 

The breakdown of Morocco’s R1b is R-V88 at 0.92% and R-M269 at 3.55%, similar to Algeria. The Western Sahara [Mauritania] and Berbers are the furthest west.

Mauritania:    E1b1b – J – E1b1a – E1a

W Sahara:       E1b1b – J1 – R1b – B  

Berbers:           E1b1b – J – E1b1a – A/B – E1a

Berbers            E1b1b [79%] – J [6%]

West Sahara:  E1b1b [67%] – J1 [13%] – R1b [7%] – B [0.5%]

The breakdown of the West Saharan Arab population R1b is R-V88 at 6.88% and R-M269 0.53%.

Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco have a Y-DNA haplogroup sequence that differs from that of Egypt, tellingly in haplogroups J2, T1 and G. Libya appears to align with Egypt [apart from haplogroup G], though as their population is considerably smaller than the other four nations of North Africa, plus the fact that Libyans live primarily in the west of their nation, close to the Tunisian and Algerian populations, they are included as Anam. The Moroccan sequence is closer to Tunisia as Algeria is with Libya.

                      E1b1b     J1       J2        T       G

Egypt               44        21        7         6        6     

Libya               49        27        7         5         1

Tunisia            72        17        3      0.7     0.2

Algeria             56       22        5                0.5

Morocco          83         7        2                0.6

Comparing the nations to the northeast of Egypt:

Syria:        J1 – J2 – R1b – E1b1b – R1a – G – T – L – I 

Syria: J1 [30%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [14%] – E1b1b [ 12%] – R1a [10%] –

G [6%] – T [5%] – L [3%] – I [2%] 

Iraq:         J1 – J2 – E1b1b – R1b – R1a – I – T1a – G2a – E1b1a – L – N1c1 – Q 

Iraq: J1 [43%] – J2 [20%] – E1b1b [10%] – R1b [10%] – R1a [6%] –

I [3%] – T1a [3%] – G2a [2%] – E1b1a [0.9%] – L [0.5%] – N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Iraq’s R1b is R-M269 at 10.8%, with no R-V88, hence admixture with Europeans has been more recent and due to Iraq’s location this is logical.

Kuwait:     J1/J2 – R1a1a – E1b1b – G2a – R1b – T1a – I – H – G – K – L

Lebanon:  J2 – J1 – E1b1b – R1b – G – L – T1 – I – L – R1a – Q – N 

Lebanon:  J2 [26%] – J1 [20%] – E1b1b [17%] – R1b [8%] – G [7%] –

L [5%] – T [5%] – I [4%] – L [3%] – R1a [2%] – Q [2%] – L – N [0.1]

Jordan:    J1 – E1b1b – R1b – J2 – G – I – R1a – T

Jordan:  J1 [31%] – E1b1b [26%] – R1b [18%] – J2 [13%] – G [4%] –

I [4%] – R1a [2%] – T [1%]

Palestinian Arab: J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1b – G – I – R1a – T

Palestinian Arab: J1 [39%] – E1b1b [20%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [9%] – G [7%] –

I [5%] – R1a [1.5%] – T [1%] 

This grouping is clearly different from those nations lying to the west of Egypt. A number of the nations have a higher percentage of haplogroup G, similar to Egypt and unlike the rest of North Africa. Levels of E1b1b are far lower, with haplogroup J being  more prominent than in North Africa. Lebanon stands out as the only nation with more J2 than J1 – J2 being associated with European nations particularly southern Europe.

                            J1       J2     E1b1b      G       T   

Egypt                 21         7        44          6       6

Syria                  30       17        12          6        5

Iraq                   43       20        10          2        3

Lebanon           26       20        17          7        5 

Jordan              31        13        26          4        1 

Palestine          39        17        20          7        1 

Egypt is even more distinct from this northeast group of Arabic nations. It is similar to some only in the lesser G and T haplogroups. The other five peoples are linked with a discernible family alignment.

Comparing the nations to the east of Egypt in the Arabian Peninsula.

Saudi Arabia:  J1 -J2 – E1b1b – E1b1a – T – R1a – G – Q – R1b – L

Saudia Arabia:  J1 [40%] – J2 [16%] – E1b1b [8%] – E1b1a [8%] –

T [5%] – R1a [5%] – G [3%] – Q [3%] – R1b [2%] – L [2%] 

The United Arab Emirates

UAE:                 J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1a – E1b1a – T – G – R1b – L – Q 

UAE:  J1 [30%] – E1b1b [12%] – J2 [10%] – R1a [8%] – E1b1a [5%] –

T [5%] – G [4%] – R1b [4%] – L [3%] – Q [2%] 

Bahrain:           J – E1b1b – R1a – R2a – H – G – K – L – B

Qatar:               J – R1a – E1b1b – G – E1b1a [3%] – L – R1b – [R2a] – [B] – [I] – [T]

Qatar:   J [67%] – R1a [7%] – E1b1b [6%] – G [3%] – E1b1a [3%] –

L [3%] – R1b [1%]

Oman:              J – E1b1b – R1a – T – G – R1b – L – [H]

Oman:  J [48%] – E1b1b [16%] – R1a [ 9%] – T [8%] – G [2%] –

R1b [2%] – L [0.8%] 

Yemen:             J1 – E1b1b – J2 – E1b1a – G -[R1a] – [T]

Yemen:  J1 [73%] – E1b1b [13%] – J2 [9%] – E1b1a [3%] – G [2%] 

This grouping is more closely related to the nations northeast of Egypt, though with the subtle difference of the third haplogroup percentage shifting from R1b to R1a. Comparing Saudi Arabia with Syria and Iraq highlights their similarly and the support that both regions located in the Middle East comprise Naphtuh. The nations of North Africa are clearly more closely related as are the nations of the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula to each other; while Egypt straddles the two regions. The nations westwards are possibly Naptuh and those eastwards, Anam. Further research or input to indicate the Anam and Naphtuh divide definitively would progress the support for this supposition.

                              J1      J2      E1b1b        G        T    

Egypt                  21         7         44            6        6

Saudi Arabia     40       16          8             3        5

UAE                    30       10        12             4        5    

Oman                                          16             2        8

Yemen                73         9         13             2

Syria                   30       17         12             6        5

Iraq                     43       20        10            2         3

Comparing the major Arab lineage Egypt, Pathros, with the other major lines from Cush, India; Phut, Pakistan and Canaan, Nigeria. Egypt has the highest level of R1b-M269 [from admixture] at 2.97%, Pakistan has 2.8%, India has 0.5% and Nigeria 0%.

As an aside, the African American does have R-m269, at 14%. This figure certainly reflects admixture with the line of Shem.

Egypt:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – T1 – R1b – G – E1b1a – R1a – A – F – L – I – Q – K

Nigeria:     E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Pakistan:   R1a – J – L – R2 – C – G – H – Q – F – O

India:         R1a – H – O – L – R2 – J – T – F – P – C – R1b – G

Pakistan as Phut, exhibits haplogroups in common with India – R1a, R2, L and H. It also shares J and G with the Arab peoples, due to its Lehab [Lubim] component from Mizra – as highlighted in Cush & Phut, Chapter XIII. 

Y-DNA haplogroup J is a strong common denominator throughout the Middle east and Southwest Asia; while G is interesting, as it is found primarily in the Caucasus and the Middle East, yet it has found its way to Pakistan – due to its admixture with Lehab.

                              E1b1b   E1b1a     A        J        G        L       R1a

Egypt                      44           3        1.3     28        6      0.8        2

Nigeria                    4          68           3

Pakistan                                                     20        3        12       37

India                                                              9     0.1       18       28

Egypt has genetic material in common with Nigeria as much as it does with Pakistan and India. Nigeria and India are pole opposites and Pakistan and Egypt bridge the gap, with Egypt closer to Nigeria and Pakistan closer to India. This bears out the second point in the introduction regarding nations living adjacent to peoples that they are more closely related to, a concentric geography. All are brother nations as the sons of Ham: Mizra, Canaan, Phut and Cush.

Fools are rewarded with nothing but more foolishness, but the wise are rewarded with knowledge.

Proverbs 14:18 New Century Version

“I don’t imagine you will dispute the fact that at present the stupid people are in an absolutely overwhelming majority all the world over.” 

Henrik Ibsen

“In the end truth always wins.”

George F Jowett

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Canaan & Africa

Chapter XII

Canaan: the fourth and youngest son of Ham. Before we continue in earnest, there is a vital key to understanding not just Canaan but numerous identities to follow. This matter is being laboured as it has been the single biggest block in understanding where the peoples of the Bible were and where they are now. It requires a return to point number two in the introduction. 

Original peoples dwelt in a region after the flood; they then migrated. New peoples would move in; they then would be known by the names already associated with the area, the actual land, invariably from the previous dwellers. Tracking and identifying these former peoples, plus now the new ones becomes difficult, because historians and researchers assume they can rely on the names already established for the land area as still being applicable to the new migrations who are actually completely different people. 

Giving two peoples the same name because of where they are living and not based on who they are is non-sensical and mis-leading. We will discuss why the children of Canaan dwelt where they did and who the new people were that moved into their territory when Canaan migrated. All the information one can find on Canaan and Canaanites* in books, papers and the internet, unknown to the authors themselves, invariably relates to either a. other people of Ham’s line, b. Shem’s descendants, c. the line of Cain or d. the Nephilim and incredibly, not the true descendants of Canaan. 

Israel a History of – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From Ca’naan came eleven sons, the eldest being Sidon. Sidon founded the city Sidon, and was the progenitor of the Phoenicians. From Heth came the Hittites (Genesis 23:10), who ruled over an empire in Asia Minor for over 800 years. Hittites are very active throughout the entire Old Testament. They were present in Canaan at the time of Abraham, reaching their zenith sometime later in Asia Minor, yet were still a force during the reign of Solomon 1,000 years later (II Chronicles 1:17). Eventually their empire crumbled, and there is evidence that some of the Hittite people fled eastward. Cuneiform monuments record the name “Khittae”, and this may have been modified to Cathay. Archaeologists have noted many similarities between the Hittites and the Mongoloids.’

We will discover that the Phoenicians are descended from Shem and not Ham. True Canaanites had well dispersed by the time the Israelites arrived in Canaan in 1407 BCE. The Phoenicians were sea, shipping and trading people. The original Canaanites were not fond of the sea or boats. Similarly, Heth was a prominent son of Canaan. Later, prominent descendants of Shem were also called, Hittites. These Hittites were a war-like people, establishing a powerful empire that rivalled the Assyrians. Both Empires lived side-by-side in Asia Minor and established an alliance, rather than antagonising each other. These Hittites descend from Shem. We have seen earlier that the Khitt-ae are from Kitti, son of Javan and are the Malay peoples of Indonesia. An earlier people in Anatolia prior to the Hittites were the Hattians. The Hatti, derived from Khatti – a different word – and though easily confused with the Khittae, are an entirely different people, descending from Shem.

‘The Sinites are an interesting tribe. There is tenuous evidence that they may be the ancestors of the Chinese. Possibly the Sinites migrated east all the way to China. Of the descendants of Ham, Sin and Heth are the two most probable ancestors of the Oriental people. Ca’naan’s descendants, according to scripture, “spread abroad” (Genesis 10:18). Of the lines descending from the sons of Noah, these peoples migrated perhaps more than any other. The contributions made by the descendants of Ham, the youngest of the sons of Noah, are staggering. They were the first explorers. They became the first cultivators of the basic food groups. They discovered and invented medicines, and surgical practices. They were the first to develop fabrics, and the devices used to sew these fabrics. They were the inventors of mathematics, surveying, and navigation.’

The Chinese descend from Japheth and are East Asian – not Hamitic. The Phoenicians, Hittites and Chinese have not been slaves or subjugated to other nations. The peoples described above who travelled extensively and contributed to the advancement of society are the Phoenicians who built the city of Tyre and caused Sidon to flourish, making them world-renowned with their import-export trading interests. 

A H Sayce page 55-59 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Canaan bordered on Egypt, and the name is usually explained to mean the lowlands. It originally denoted, in fact, the narrow strip of land which lies between the sea and the mountains on the coast of Palestine. Here the great cities of the Phoenicians were built, and it was from hence that the Phoenician ships started on their voyages in search of wealth. As time went on, the name of Canaan came to be applied to the land beyond the mountains on the east. In the letters written from Palestine to the Egyptian court a century before the Exodus, and discovered among the ruins of Tel el- Amarna, Kinakhkhi or Canaan denotes the district which intervened between the cities of the Philistines and the country northward of Gebal. The latter was called the land of the Amorites. In the books of the Old Testament the word Canaan has acquired an even greater extent of meaning than it has in the tablets of Tel el-Amarna. The cities of the Philistines, as well as the barren region east of them, are alike included in Canaan. Even the Amorites have become Canaanites, like the inhabitants of Hamath far away to the north.’

Canaan is mentioned many, many times in the Bible, not in reference to their people but the land they first settled, that in time became busier than grand central station in terms of human traffic and the varying numbers of nations that dwelt in the region for millennia.

‘The original land [actually much later] of Canaan was called Phoenicia by the Greeks and Kaft by the Egyptians. It is possible that both names were derived from the palms which grew luxuriantly there. Kaph and Kipptih signify a palm-branch in Hebrew, and phoenix in Greek has the same meaning. But it is also possible that the latter word was derived from the name of the country in which the Greeks first became acquainted with the palm, not that the country took its name from the tree.

The language of Canaan, as it is called by Isaiah [19:18], differed but slightly from Hebrew. The Hebrew tribes, in fact, like their kindred in Moab and Ammon, must have exchanged their earlier Aramaic dialects for the language of the country in which they settled. In no other way can we explain how it came about that the Syrian emigrant [Deuteronomy 26:5] should have acquired the ancient language of Canaan. The adoption of the new language was doubtless facilitated by the relationship of the Aramaic dialects to Hebrew or Phoenician. They belonged to the same family of speech and bore the same relation to one another that French bears to Italian.

Interesting and coincidental observation regarding language, which we will re-visit when studying Aram and Moab. 

‘It will be seen that the tribes and cities of which Canaan is said to have been the father were related to one another only geographically. The blond Amorite and the yellow-skinned Hittite of the north had nothing in common from a racial point of view either with one another or with the Semitic tribes of Canaan. Geography and not ethnology has caused them to be grouped together.

Sayce hits upon the key point regarding Canaan. The blond Amorites are not the descendants of Amor, the son of Canaan. All the information we read regarding Canaan in extraneous material and in the Bible after Abraham and certainly by the time the  sons of Jacob [Israelites] arrived [between circa 1,900 – 1400 BCE], witnesses a change in who the Canaanites were. The original Canaanites had departed for Africa and other Canaanites* had moved into the vacated strip of land, or had forced the true Canaanites south. It was a lucrative piece of real estate with its rich soil and extensive ports. There were many peoples and those who were evil, the Nephilim descended giants and those who had intermarried with them, by default fell to the descendants of Jacob during the waging of a momentous war for seven years to clear the land after they entered in 1407 BCE. 

A well known online encyclopaedia, accurately states the multiculturalism and variety of ethnicities that fell under the ‘Canaanite’ banner at the time of this intermediate period and the incorrect ascribing of the term to the Phoenicians from an ethnic vantage, yet accurate from a geographic perspective – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name “Canaan” appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations. The word “Canaanites” serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations.It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible.The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians,and after the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage (founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (chanani) of North Africa during Late Antiquity.’

Herman Hoeh, Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Originally the sons of Canaan settled in Palestine. Canaan, remember, was the first born of Ham [Canaan was Ham’s youngest son – see Chapter XI]. Canaan’s descendants – and this includes the other sons of Ham – were to be “servant of servants” (Genesis 9:25). Their children are to serve both Shem and Japheth (verses 26,27). There is nothing wrong with serving – we all have to learn to serve. Shem and Japheth must become God’s servants, too. That is why Canaan is called a “servant of servants.” Many have quoted this in direct reference to the [Black African]. As brothers of Canaan, the [Africans] have shared the same position in life, but [Africans] are not Canaanites.

Dr Hoeh has confidently stated his position, firstly, based on the later ‘Canaanite’ peoples and the trading ‘trafficking’ of the Phoenicians – very understandable, yet incorrect. And secondly, to distance himself from the thorny issue of equating the Black peoples with Canaan – particularly at time of writing in 1957 America. 

‘The Canaanites were great traffickers of old. The word Canaanite in Zechariah 14:21 is, in fact, translated as “trafficker” in the Jewish translation. The Sidonians, descendants of Canaan, were famous seamen in the days of Solomon. The Greeks called them “Phoenicians”. But the Phoenicians called themselves “Kna” or “Knana”, meaning Canaanite.’

From a historical time-line perspective, the original Sidonians were linked to Canaan [who were not sea-traders], the intermediate Sidonians to Aram [the original Phoenicians], a son of Shem and the later Sidonians, who  were linked with Midian, another great trading people and a son of Abraham. The Phoenicians lived in Canaan as the collective area was known, hence their identification with this name – it was they who were the ‘famous seamen.’

‘When Israel entered the land of Palestine under Joshua, whole tribes of the Canaanites were destroyed or driven out of central Palestine (Judges 3:1-4) because some of the Canaanites were extremely degenerate in their morals. Now turn to Genesis 10:18, “Afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad”. Where did they journey?’

The ‘extremely degenerate’ Canaanites at this time, that the sons of Jacob encountered, were not the original sons of Canaan but the Nephilim descended giants who had infiltrated the land. We will cover this subject in-depth in a later chapter.

‘The Canaanites settled the island of Malta and parts of Sicily, Southern Italy, Sardinia, North Africa and even Southern Spain and Portugal, where the sons of Javan were already living. Most people are familiar with the Phoenicians from grade and high school days. In North Africa the Canaanites are called Moors – a name probably derived from Amors, the Hebrew form of “Amorites”. From these lands they have spread into North and South America since the days of Columbus. The Portuguese – of mixed Canaanite and Tarshish stock – have settled much of Brazil. And the Sicilians are [well known] in big cities in America. The underworld “Mafia” organization which springs from Canaanitish Sicily, is but a modern version of their ancient tendency to traffic among the nations of the world.

Canaanites have also intermarried into Esau – Turkey today (Genesis 26:34), and Judah (Genesis 38:2), and Israel (Judges 3:5-7). Only a few Canaanites remain in North Palestine and Lebanon. The Canaanites are seldom included in the prophecies which pertain to this twentieth century. They exert no great position or influence in the world.’

Esau’s ‘Canaanite’ wives were not true Canaanites but – as stated earlier of the four options for non-Canaanite* peoples a, b, c & d – they were from d. Nephilim families. Judah did take a wife from the original Canaanites. The Israelites as mentioned in the Book of Judges took wives from later Canaanites from b. Shem’s descendants. We will learn that the Latins of Europe – such as the Portuguese and Sicilians – are descended from Shem and are not from Japheth or Ham. The majority of Latinos in the Americas though, are descended from a. Ham, but not from Canaan; as is also true of the Moors and the Arab peoples of the Lebanon and Palestine. Another fascinating coincidence has occurred, with regard to the Portuguese and Brazil, which we will return to in a later chapter.

The original meaning of Canaan was different. The term ‘Trafficker’ and link to trade, was applied to Canaan the land and the later people living in Canaan and not to the original Canaanites. Herman Hoeh states the brother[s] of Ham have ‘shared the same position in life’. The Bible reveals that Canaan was to be a servant people, not Ham or any of the other three brothers of Canaan. Herman Hoeh ironically, while denying the simple truth of the Canaanites classification, in the process, reveals the true identity of Canaan. For they are the Black peoples of East, Central, West and South [Sub-Sahara] Africa

Matthew 18:1-5

New English Translation

At that time the disciples came to Jesus saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” 2 He called a child, had him stand among them, 3 and said, “I tell you the truth, unless you turn around and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven! 4 Whoever then humbles himself like this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5 And whoever welcomes a child like this in my name welcomes me.

A child who has a basic understanding of world history and has learned about the slave trade, would… if presented with the question: which people in the world have endured untold hardships, extremes of poverty and the severest of suffering at the hands of slave traders, over recorded history? One can’t help but think a child, in their natural, honest speak-as-they-see-it innocence, would quickly offer the Black descended people of Africa as their answer. It has been in the scriptures, right in front of us for a very long time. 

Luke 7:35

New English Translation

35 But wisdom is vindicated [or shown to be right ] by all her children [by all those who follow her].”

It is a highly sensitive issue and many are reticent to vocalise the palpable truth; so as to escape the vitriolic criticism that could inevitably ensue. Not speaking the undeniable, doesn’t alter it or make it disappear. It is a harshness beyond compare, that a whole line of people would be punished because of one man’s transgression; though we do not see all the pieces of the puzzle put together as the Creator does. 

The reality is that the Black people have suffered at the hands of the British, Americans, Dutch, Portuguese as well as the Arabs in recent history and as recorded in the Bible, at the hand of the Egyptians – the El Amarna tablets circa 1500 BCE. African tribes have continuously waged war against each other with horrific violence, making slaves of one another. There has been no rest for the descendants of Canaan and it continues to the present day where in the main, African governments and regimes brutally subjugate their own people. 

As tragic as the taking of people from their families and homes was and transplanting them in the New World of America, the Caribbean and Brazil, with dangerous, deadly ocean crossings and often savage masters; it has resulted for future generations of African Americans to have at least a chance of a life of opportunities, far greater than their fellow peoples – those living on the African Continent today. I empathise with all the descendants of African Americans though that have not benefited in being transplanted from their homeland and if history could be rewound, this reason alone would be enough cause to turn back time.

The severity of the punishment handed down to the Canaanites stopped short with them and did not include their possession of territory. Their land is vast, with huge natural resources. In the top ten countries with the most natural resources that China tops, one African nation is included at number nine; the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Mining is the primary industry of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2009, the country had over $24 million in mineral deposits including the largest coltan reserve and vast amounts of cobalt. The DRC also possesses large copper, diamond, gold, tantalum, and tin reserves, along with over three million tons of lithium. Lithium and cobalt both integral ingredients for batteries in electric vehicles.

Regarding Canaan’s name, there is somewhat of a conflict, between what the word actually means and what it became associated with. Strong’s Concordance #H3667 includes: Merchant, Traffick, Traffickers, Trader, Lowland and from root H3665, Humiliated. Canaan, as inferred by several commentators, was to be a ‘servant of servants’, ‘humbled, subdued’ and ‘subjugated’. The land of Canaan was low lying and it became synonymous with Merchants and trafficking of goods. Saying that, Canaan as a people were also trafficked and treated as merchandise. 

Abarim Publications – bold theirs: 

‘For a meaning of the name Canaan, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Low. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Merchant or Servant… We would interpret the name Canaan as International Trade or International Synchronicity… From the verb (kana), to be brought into synchronicity.’

Canaan can mean the ‘land of purple’ from the term kinahnu: purple dye. The colour purple became associated with the Phoenicians. It is an interesting coincidence that The Color Purple is the title of Alice Walker’s 1982 novel and subsequent Steven Spielberg film. The story is about African American gender, race and nationhood. The link with purple to Canaan’s descendants is insightful, as purple is associated with the following lofty traits, invariably denied to Canaan but no less desired:

Bourne Creative:

‘Purple combines the calm stability of blue and the fierce energy of red. The color purple is often associated with royalty, nobility, luxury, power, and ambition. Purple also represents meanings of wealth, extravagance, creativity, wisdom, dignity, grandeur, devotion, peace, pride, mystery, independence, and magic.

The color purple is a rare occurring color in nature and as a result is often seen as having sacred meaning. Lavender, orchid, lilac, and violet flowers are considered delicate and precious. Throughout history, purple robes were worn by royalty and people of authority or high rank… the rare occurrence of purple in nature made it one of the most expensive color dyes to create.

The amount of melanin a person has dictates not only the colour of their skin. 

Rastafari: The Truth About Melanin – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body [more] rapidly in Black people… Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than [white infants], and [demonstrate] more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts… Carol Barnes writes “… your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (athletics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!”

The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically… Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called [Soul] in Black people. Is God Black? The Original Man was [black], “made in the Image of God” his Parent. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.

When studying Noah, we established that the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man are described as white in the Bible. The same is written in the Book of Enoch chapter 46:1-3.

1 At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor… 2 And I asked the one… who had revealed to me all the secrets… “Who is this… 3 And he answered me and said to me, “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells. And He will open all [that is] hidden… for Yahweh of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts in eternal uprightness.” 

We will look further in to man being the image of God. There is a link to the colour black as this author states; just not quite the answer one would expect.

‘Most [white people] have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, thereby limiting their [spiritual]* capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal [and] pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradition regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian [royalty’s] crowns.’

A succinct definition online: ‘Uraeus is an important symbol associated with the Gods, Goddesses, and Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is represented by the image of an upright cobra in a threatening pose and is believed to have its origins in Iaret, an Egyptian word meaning the risen one. The icon symbolized divine authority, royalty, sovereignty, and supremacy and was worn as a crown or head ornament by the ancient Egyptian divinities and rulers. This sacred serpent symbol reiterated the connection between the Gods and the Pharaohs and wearing the Uraeus conveyed legitimacy to the royal personage. The rearing cobra indicated that the ruler enjoyed the protection and patronage of Goddess Wadjet, the Lower Egypt deity. After the unification of Egypt, the Uraeus was depicted together with the Vulture, which was the symbol of Nekhbet, the patroness of Upper Egypt. The merged symbol was called ‘The Two Ladies’, the joint protectors of the country.’

‘Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally and morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most [white people] are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians 15-25%; Europeans 60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural differences between [blacks] and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, rigid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and… feelings. Melanin [gives] humans the ability to [feel] because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy.’

A case in point, is the faith* that Black people exhibit towards their Saviour and their exuberance and passion at Church services. This has often produced thoughts of respect and a little jealousy, towards their genuine peace and joy.

‘After considering Melanin to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western… science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to make [the Black race inferior], “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview).

In humans, melanin is the primary determinant of skin and hair color. However, few people know that melanin is found in almost every organ of the body and is necessary for the brain and nerves to operate, the eyes to see, and the cells to reproduce. It is also found in the stria vascularis of the inner ear. In the brain, tissues with melanin include the medulla and pigment-bearing neurons within areas of the brainstem, such as the locus coeruleus and the substantia nigra. It also occurs in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland.

Exposure to the sun has the potential to cause premature aging of the skin, as well as various skin cancers. [The] ability to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation depends on the amount of melanin in your skin, which is determined by the number of melanocytes that are active beneath the surface… Melanin is an effective absorber of light; the pigment is able to dissipate more than 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation. In even the most light-skinned people, the body’s melanocytes respond to sun exposure by producing more melanin, which creates the effect known as tanning. However, there is a limit to the degree of protection that melanin can provide, and it’s significantly higher in people with naturally darker skin.

Melanin can absorb a great amount of energy and yet not produce a tremendous amount of heat when it absorbs this energy, because it can transform harmful energy into useful energy. According to dermatologist and dermapathologist Dr. Leon Edelstein, director of the National American West Skin Pathology Consultation Service, melanin can absorb tremendous quantities of energy of all kinds, including energy from sunlight, x-ray machines, and energy that is formed within cells during the metabolism of cells. His theory is that melanin has the ability to neutralize the potentially harmful effects of these energies.

Darkly pigmented people tend to exhibit less signs of aging. Dermatologist Susan C. Taylor, author of “Brown Skin,” points out that Blacks and other people of color generally look younger than their lighter-skinned peers because of the higher levels of melanin in their skin. The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against folate depletion. 

Folate is water soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. Folate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, folate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Folate breaks down in high intense UVR. Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects.’ 

‘Dr. Frank Barr, pioneering discoverer of melanin’s organizing ability and other properties, theorizes in his technical work, Melanin: The Organizing Molecule: “The hypothesis is advanced that (neuro)melanin (in conjunction with other pigment molecules such as the isopentenoids) functions as the major organizational molecule in living systems. Melanin is depicted as an organizational “trigger” capable of using established properties such as photon – (electron) – photon conversions, free radical-redox mechanism, ion exchange mechanisms, and semiconductive switching capabilities to direct energy to strategic molecular systems and sensitive hierarchies of protein enzyme cascades. Melanin is held capable of regulating a wide range of molecular interactions and metabolic processes…”

The map of former African colonies is a grim picture. To be clear, the African people have suffered because of their forefather Canaan and his actions; not, because the Black people are inferior to any other racial line, or because they have brought suffering on themselves. Black peoples are not inferior to any other race of people on Earth. Nor do they deserve any kind of racial discrimination for their ethnic characteristics and colour of their skin.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the Greek New Testament the name Canaan is spelled Χανααν [Acts 7:11 and 13:19]  and Canaanite (female) is spelled Χαναναια (Matthew 15.22]. The masculine form Χαναναιος does not occur in the New Testament but both Matthew and Mark make mention of a Simon the Kanaanite (Κανανιτης;  [Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18]).

The name Canaan may have been original — meaning “land of purple,” says HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, which relates it to Phoenicia, also meaning purple — and turned proverbial, but it may also have been taken from the Hebrew verb (kana) and projected back upon this person… The verb (kana) means to synchronize, or to give up individual leanings in order to unite more effectively as a group. Noun (kin’a) means bundle or pack.’

A further irony, as the sons of Canaan have not been a unified people and their leaders have not given up individual leanings.

‘The Old Testament’s passion for reaching the “land of Canaan” may have a very clear connotation of reaching the blissful situation of international synchronicity. Being located on the bridge between three continents, the [intermediate] historical people of Canaan maintained a flowering culture of trade. Thus the words, meaning Canaan, and, meaning Canaanite, acquired the additional meaning of trade or merchant (Zephaniah 1:11, Ezekiel 16:29).’

The original allotment of land running north-south on the furthest eastern coast of the mediterranean or the far west coast of the fertile crescent, had been designated for Shem’s descendants. Canaan’s descendants had dwelt there before migrating southwest to Africa. Ultimately, the sons of Jacob also migrated away from this strip of land.

In the Book of Jubilees chapter Ten, verses 28-33, we read about Canaan after the flood and when land was apportioned to Japheth Ham and Shem, in the wider Near and Middle Eastern region. Recall, Madai [Chapter IV] requested to live adjacent to Shem’s descendants. 

And Ham and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion in the land of the south. And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt [the Nile], that it was very good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west(that is to) the sea [North Africa], and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him: ‘Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition; for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem; for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the [Holy Judge], and in the presence of Noah our father.’ But he did not harken unto them, and dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of Egypt… 

Canaan’s three brothers all migrated to northern Africa. Canaan followed later as predicted, settling in North West Africa. Ultimately, two brothers left Africa and two remained. One being Canaan, who eventually spread southward throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

We read in Genesis 10:15-18 ESV, of the sons of Canaan:

Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

In other words: Sidon, Heth, Jebu, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath. 

The endeavour to identify all eleven of Canaan’s lines of descendants – as there are some forty plus African nations containing Canaan’s offspring – for now, remains a future project. We will concentrate on Sidon the firstborn and Heth the second born, who is also a prominent line. 

Insight into Canaan’s sons is provided by Professor Aaron Demsky, in Reading Biblical Genealogies – Including a close look at how the description of the Canaanite lineage was constructed (Genesis 10:15-18) – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Sons of Canaan… include twelve names. In order to come up with twelve Canaanite sons – another typological number implying a full people (see below) – it needed to include different kinds of names.

… Six of the names are ethnic names, known from the lists of the indigenous Canaanite peoples, that appear either in part or in full some twenty-five times in the Bible. Three of these terms are the externally documented: Canaanites, Amorites and Hittites. The rest are unknown in non-biblical texts: Jebusites, Girgashites and Hivites. The [Perizzites], who appear in a number of these lists, are not mentioned here.

… The list also includes five Phoenician-Syrian city-states as part of the Canaanite league:

1. Sidon along the coast,

2.`Arqa (Tel `Arqa, ca.20 kms north east of Tripoli) [Ark]

3. Sin (Shian in the Assyrian sources; in later Jewish documents it is identified with Tripoli in Lebanon)

4. Arwad (Ruad, an island port between Tripoli and Latakia) [Arvad]

5. Semer (Assyrian Ṣumur, south of Arwad) [Zemar]

6. Hamath (Hama one of the major cities in middle Syria), situated on the Orontes.

The names of these “sons” are not presented uniformly.

1. The first three—Canaan, Sidon and Heth—are proper names.

2. The “descendants” are written as gentilics (i.e., relational adjectives in the nisbe form) with the definite article (the Jebusite, the Amorite), etc. Canaan also appears in this form at the end of the list.

Chiastic Form

The “descendants” are listed in chiastic order. Sidon is the firstborn followed by Heth. Following Heth are the other five Canaanite peoples, related to Heth, and then the five city states, obviously related to Sidon, as they are all Phoenician city-states like Sidon…

The Significance of Twelve

As we see from the later genealogies of Nahor (Genesis 22:20-24), Ishmael (Genesis 25:13-15), and of course, Jacob, twelve is a significant number in biblical tradition for classifying large ethnic units, or tribal leagues, in the patriarchal period. In this case of Canaan, however, we find a certain creativity in order to produce the desired number. The list has two anomalies:

1. The patriarch here is one of the twelve.

2. Five city-states (or feudal kingdoms) have been recast as clan units. 

As noted above, the larger branches of the three sons of Noah are defined not only by ethnicity and language affinity, but also by geographic proximity (verses 5, 20, 31). Moreover, emphasizing the integral territorial aspect of tribal identity, sundry geographical notices were appended, e.g., verses 10-12; 30. Similarly, in verse 19, this genealogy of Canaan is enhanced by a fascinating geographic description of the borders of Canaan (verse 19): The Canaanite territory extended from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha. This description serves both to minimalize Canaanite territory and to introduce places that will appear in later narratives.

Northern Border – Phoenician Cities  

Following a three pointed pattern of delineating borders, which I have identified, i.e., “From X, coming to Y, near Z”, the list begins with Sidon, which probably now implies the entire Tyrean kingdom on the Phoenician coast from Acco in the south to Nahr Kalb in the north (Joshua 13:4-6; compare the territory of Asher 19:24-30).

South-Western Border – Philistine Cities

The second point, on the south-western border of Canaan, Gerar (Tel Harur, present day Netivot on Nahal Gerar, i.e. biblical Nahal HaBesor), was defined by the third point Gaza, some 20 kms away. This description of the southern border of Canaan serves another literary purpose by anticipating the stories of Abraham and Isaac going to Gerar and the story of Jacob’s funeral cortège from Egypt to Hebron at the end of the book (Genesis 50:10-11).

Eastern Border – The Dead Sea and the Five Cities  

From the south western corner of the Land, the border goes to the southern edge of the Dead Sea. The description introduces the five cities [technically only four as Lot escaped to Zoar and it was spared] which are eventually destroyed in the story of Lot and Sodom.’

A possible two groupings for the descendants of  Canaan, as proposed by Demsky – 

Cities: Sidon [proper name], Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath

Clans: Heth [proper name], Jebus, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, [Canaan] 

According to Demsky, the clans are the literal sons of Canaan and amongst other places, they lived in the aforementioned cities. This position seems to create further questions. How did these six cities acquire their names? It would seem plausible they are so named after their founders. They being the first and seventh to eleventh sons listed in Genesis chapter Ten. Is an extra Canaan applicable and if so, is he Canaan junior or possibly a grandson of Canaan senior? There are a fair number of scriptures for some of the cities and sons, so we will look at a sample. The majority refer to later ‘Canaanites’ where the original sons of Canaan were not living and so are discounted in this chapter.

The Book of Jasher 7:13 includes additional or duplicate names, totalling ten sons instead of eleven, with Jebus missing:

And the sons of Canaan were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi [Arvad?], Zimodi [Zemar?] and Chamothi [Hamath].

Sidon, or Zidon in Hebrew means: ‘fishery, hunting place.’ From the verb sud, to hunt or fish. The noun mesad means fastness or stronghold – a typically defensive structure. ‘Sud’ in French means south.* When studying Kitti [Chapter VIII] – an economic, key geographic maritime, port people – we looked at Isaiah chapter 23. There are additional major nations in a similar key geographic port location.

Isaiah 23:1-3

Complete Jewish Bible

A prophecy about Tzor [Tyre]: Howl, you “Tarshish”[Japanese] ships, because the harbor is destroyed! On returning from Kittim [Indonesia], they discover they cannot enter it. 2 Silence, you who live on the coast, you who have been enriched by the merchants of Tzidon [Sidon] crossing the sea. 3 By the great water the grain of Shichor, the harvest of the Nile, brought you profits. She was marketplace for the nations. 4 Shame, Tzidon, for the sea speaks; the fortress of the sea says,“I no longer have labor pains or bear children, yet I have raised neither boys nor girls.”

Verse 12 NCV:

He said, “Sidon, you will not rejoice any longer, because you are destroyed. Even if you cross the sea to Cyprus [Kitti], you will not find a place to rest.”

Zechariah 9:1-3

Revised Standard Version

The word of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus [Aram]. For to the Lord belong the cities of Aram [son of Shem], even as all the tribes of Israel; Hamath [city of Canaan] also, which borders thereon, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. Tyre has built herself a rampart, and heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the mud of the streets.

Tyre is associated with the intermediate ‘Canaanites’ or Phoenicians; whereas the later ‘Phoenicians’ are linked with Sidon. Though the Phoenicians are White peoples descended from Shem, both nations today also contain a Black population descended from Canaan. We will study scriptures regarding Sidon, when we look at the European peoples who dwell within this nation. Sidon is en route from Tarshish and Kitti and links them to Tyre. All are major trading nations and key ports. As Sidon is associated with Hamath and other Canaanites, we are looking for a prominent nation on the coast of Africa. Sidon is the Republic of South Africa* and its black citizens include the Canaanite clan of Hiv.

Sin and Zemar are not mentioned outside of Genesis and 1 Chronicles. Ark is mentioned in Joshua 16:1-3, NET within the future lands of the tribe of Jospeh:

The land allotted to Joseph’s descendants extended from the Jordan at Jericho to the waters of Jericho to the east, through the desert and on up from Jericho into the hill country of Bethel. The southern border extended from Bethel to Luz, and crossed to Arkite territory at Ataroth. It then descended westward to Japhletite territory, as far as the territory of lower Beth Horon and Gezer, and ended at the sea.

Arvad equates with the people of Angola. Arvad is connected in a military capacity with Sidon and particularly Tyre.

Ezekiel 27:8, 11 

New English Translation: 

The leaders of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers; your skilled men, O Tyre, were your captains… The Arvadites joined your army on your walls all around, and the Gammadites were in your towers. They hung their quivers on your walls all around; they perfected your beauty.

The link between Angola and Tyre will be become very clear when we study Tyre. Excluding Arab nations, Angola is the eighth most populous African nation – with 34,141,995 people – and possesses the fifth strongest military in sub-Saharan Africa, behind Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya at fourth. The meaning of Arvad is a ‘wandering fugitive’ from the verb ‘arad, ‘to flee’ or ‘be free’ and the verb rud, ‘to wander restlessly.’

Hamath is mentioned a number of times and linked with Arvad, who in turn is associated with Sidon. Hamath is the most prominent Canaanite region [city-state] after Sidon and is the nation of Nigeria, with its people coming from the clan of Heth. A coincidence is Ham-ath being similar to the name Ham, as Niger-ia has been named from the their racial strand.

2 Kings 19:13

English Standard Version

Where is the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad [Arvad], the king of the city of Sepharvaim, the king of Hena, or the king of Ivvah? [Isaiah 36:19]

2 Samuel 8:9-10

English Standard Version

When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer [of Zobah], Toi sent his son Joram to King David… [1 Chronicles 18:1-5, Ezekiel 47:17]

The link between Hamath and King David of Judah is significant and not a coincidence. These verses also highlight the strength of Hamath, thus a sizeable nation commensurate with the economic or military clout of Sidon is being discussed. Nigeria with South Africa is a leading nation in Africa. It has an immense population of 212,655,051 people – seventh highest in the world. Notice on the fertility rate chart that Nigeria has one of the highest rates in the world. Nigeria is in red, located south of Niger in Pink, with the highest rate in the world.

A well known online encyclopaedia, provides a helpful summary of Nigeria’s recent history – emphasis and bold mine:

‘… The Kano [Canaan] Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, [Hamath city-state of Canaan] with other major Hausa cities… all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known… as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks…)There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire [Kainam, Kenan] as the region’s major centre for Islamic civilization.

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the [regions] Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. 

The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors’ territory as forced labour; [in] time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors’ society. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports.’

We will return to the significance of the Portuguese being the first European peoples [in the modern era] to both trade and colonise areas outside of Europe.

‘In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering… and [advancing]… with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. 

The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic [civilisation], the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.

A changing legal imperative ([the] transatlantic slave trade [was] outlawed by Britain in 1807)… [caused] after that illegal smugglers [to purchase] slaves along the coast by native slavers. Britain’s West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain. 

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company… By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River. [The] British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company’s territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern… and the Northern… [Protectorates] into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. 

Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. By independence in 1960, regional differences… were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present [day, with imbalances] between North and South. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). The United States is the country’s largest foreign investor.

Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. As of 2014 it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Next to petrodollars, the second-biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030.

Nigeria is the 25th largest economy in the world and the biggest in the sub-Saharan African continent. Its 2019 nominal GDP was $448 billion dollars. Nigeria’s economy relies heavily on the oil industry and is the largest oil exporter on the continent; with Africa’s largest reserves of natural gas. Resource extraction industries, such as coal, tin, and other metal mining are integral to the Nigerian economy. Oil dominates in terms of contribution to GDP and exports. Between a fifth and a half of Nigerians work in agriculture, primarily small-scale subsistence agriculture. Nigeria’s economy has grown rapidly in the past few decades, but it also faces significant challenges such as desertification and lack of infrastructure

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Nigerian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$29.7 billion 
  2. Ships, boats: $2.1 billion
  3. Oil seeds: $346.4 million
  4. Cocoa: $338.1 million 
  5. Fertilizers: $183.5 million 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $169.1 million 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $130 million 
  8. Tobacco, manufactured substitutes: $64.5 million 
  9. Raw hides, skins not furskins, leather: $62.8 million 
  10. Machinery including computers: $46.8 million 

Machinery including computers represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 417.9% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aircraft and spacecraft via a 141.5% gain.

Year over year, the severest decliners among Nigeria’s top 10 export categories were tobacco including manufactured substitutes (down -37.8%), mineral fuels including oil (down -36.3%) and the highly capital-intensive ships and boats product category (down -33.9%).’

The Flag of Nigeria with Coat of Arms

Heth in Hebrew means: ‘terror, dread,’ From the verb hatat, ‘to deplete of courage.’ A formidable name and the latter White peoples known by that name, certainly lived up to it. The Hittites in the Bible, are in every case, in reference to the the later peoples. One passage which refers to the original people of Heth is in Genesis chapter twenty-three.

Genesis 23:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And he said to them, “If you are willing that I [Abraham] should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat for me Ephron the son of Zohar, 9 that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he owns; it is at the end of his field. For the full price let him give it to me in your presence as property for a burying place.” 

10 Now Ephron was sitting among the Hittites, and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the Hittites, of all who went in at the gate of his city, 11 “No, my lord, hear me: I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the sight of the sons of my people I give it to you. Bury your dead.”

Jebus in Hebrew means: ‘trodden underfoot, he will trample down.’ The numerous references to the Jebusites [including all the Canaanite clans] are in the main, to the Nephilim descended giants or people that intermarried with them that dwelt in Canaan. We will look at a selection of verses for these peoples in a different chapter. Amor in Hebrew means: ‘talkers.’

Genesis 15:18-21

English Standard Version

18 On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 the land of the… 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites… 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.”

Girgash in Hebrew means: ‘dwellers in a clayey soil,’ ‘take and stroke’, Hiv: ’villagers’ and Perizz: ‘wildling, rural.’ The Canaanites and Perizzites are always placed together. Their relationship is not clear, yet they appear to be close and as one.

Genesis 13:7

English Standard Version

… and there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock. At that time the Canaanites and the Perizzites were dwelling in the land.

A well known online encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters [six clans].The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world’s populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa.

Whether there are twelve, eleven, ten or six main Canaanite lines is difficult to ascertain. The identification of six ancestral clusters though, supports Aaron Demsky’s hypothesis and so we may well have found Canaan’s six clans. The major African ethnic groups could be divided as located in: West Africa, the Horn of Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, Southeast Africa and Southern Africa. 

In Chapter X, Magog, Tubal & Meshech, the article Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Descend from Three Neolithic Super-Grandfathers stated in its additional paper – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… clade E [is distributed] mainly in Africa, so there are two hypotheses, 1) haplogroups D and CF migrated out of Africa separately; 2) the single common ancestor of CF and DE migrated out of Africa followed by a back-migration of E to Africa. From this study, the short interval between CF/DE and C/F divergences weakens the possibility of multiple independent migrations (CF, D, and DE*) out of Africa, and thus supports the latter hypothesis… Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among the hunter-gatherer groups in Ethiopia and Sudan. A3b1 is a Khoisan exclusive haplogroup [Southern Africa].’

The alternative view of mankind beginning in the Middle East is more viable and this would support what we have learned with the descendants of Canaan migrating to Africa, not from it… and then a ‘back-migration.’ Scientists concur that Y-DNA haplogroup A is the oldest [original] haplogroup – associated with Black people – and then make the incorrect assumption, that all people have come out of Africa. The exact same assumption has been made with mtDNA L0 and L1. 

This supports the unproven evolutionary theory, but does not allow for a provable pre-flood world, with a singular – Black line – [or dual racial lines if we include the Neanderthal of Day Six – a Yellow/Red line] and the introduction of a White line [through Noah and his son Shem] just prior to the Flood. After the Flood, the new races [sixteen lines from Noah’s grandsons] repopulated the world from the Hindu Kush and Indus Valley regions, as opposed to the African continent.

African Human mtDNA phylogeography at a glance, Alexandra Rosa & António Brehm, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:


‘Macrohaplogroup L divides into haplogroups L0-L6… Haplogroup L0 further includes sub-haplogroups L0a, L0d, L0f and L0k… L0d, the first individual sub-clade to derive from the L0 node… its divergence from L0abfk… The distribution of this clade appears to be restricted to Khoisan people in South Africa, and to Tanzanian and Angolan populations… Similarly, sub-haplogroup L0k is found almost exclusively among South African Khoisan… existing also at low frequencies among click-speaking Tanzanian groups… 

Their L0d and L0k shared lineages, which represent more than half of their maternal pool suggest an ancestral link predating the appearance of present-day click-speakers, likely remnants of an East African proto-Khoisan population… The mtDNA pool of the Khoisan people shows over 60% of L0d and L0k lineages… 

The L0a1 sub-clade has an eastern and southeastern African distribution including Nubia, Sudan and Ethiopia… L0a2 lineages are thought to trace the dispersal of Bantu-speakers towards South Africa…’


‘MtDNA L1… One of its daughter clades, haplogroup L1b, is concentrated in western-central Africa, particularly along the coastal areas… peaking in the Senegal Mandenka and Wolof… and Fulani people in Burkina-Faso, Chad and South Cameroon… L1c occurs frequently in Central and West Africans… Curiously, more recent reports state frequencies ranging 18-25% in Angola Bantu ethnic groups… A substantial revision for the L1c phylogeny has been proposed by Quintana-Murci et al. (2008). It shed additional light… and helped corroborate past relationships between Central African Bantu-speaking farmers and their hunter-gathering neighbors, the Pygmies… Both groups likely shared an ancestral Central-African proto-population rich in L1c mtDNAs… and evolved into the diverse forms observed today among the modern agricultural populations (L1c1a, L1c1b, L1c1c, L1c2-6, etc.) while L1c1a is the only surviving clade in western Pygmies… Both L1b and L1c were proposed as Central Africa autochthonous lineages…


Haplogroup L5, previously known as L1e, occupies an intermediate position between L1 and L2’3’4’6… 

It has been observed at low frequencies in eastern Africa, namely Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, with minor gene flow introducing these lineages in the Mbuti Pygmies and North Cameroon Fali… The Central African Pygmies particular genetic pool including both L1c and L5 may assign them a “relict” status, similar to that proposed for the Khoisan… 


Together with L3, haplogroup L2 comprises ~70% of the sub-Saharan maternal variation. Haplogroup L2a is the most frequent and wide- spread mtDNA cluster in Africa, reaching over 40% in Tuareg from Niger/Nigeria and Mali… Recent star-like demographic bursts in L2a1a and L2a2 and their expansion to southeast people are most likely associated with the expansion(s) of the Bantu-speaking populations… L2b-L2d haplogroups are dominant and largely confined to West and West-Central Africa…   


The variation classified as haplogroup L6… is nowadays largely confined to Yemeni people and a few samples in Ethiopian Amhara and Gurages. It is noteworthy that L6 presents a very narrow phylogeography… Given its presence in Ethiopians, where its sister clades are also diverse and frequent… L6 has a most likely origin in East Africa, where it might have been preserved in isolation for tens of thousands of years. In any case the homeland of L6 may still be missing.


Haplogroup L4 is a sister clade of L3, typical of East and Northeast Africa, although present at low frequencies… The L4a motif has been found in Sudan and Ethiopia, though initially misclassified as L3e4… Similarly we also refer to L4b2, previously known as L3g… or L4g… This is frequent in Tanzania and Amhara and Gurages from Ethiopia…


… superhaplogroup L3… is widespread in Africa, its frequency and diversity providing evidence of a sub-Saharan expansion of its sub-clades towards West Africa… This superhaplogroup is subdivided into various clades and harbours also the two main M and L superhaplogroups found outside of Africa. Both L3b and L3d are prevalent in the West quadrant of sub-Saharan Africa… in average 10%…

L3b also shows considerable frequencies in the Hutu people in Rwanda… and South African Kung… L3d constitutes an important percentage of the South African maternal pool, being more expressive in Angola and Tanzania… a subset of L3b is common among Bantu speakers of south-western Africa and thus is a likely marker of the Bantu expansion… The L3e cluster has been subdivided into L3e1, L3e2, L3e3 and L3e4, since the time of HVS-I information per se… 

The oldest branches of L3e are thought to have arisen in Central Africa/nowadays Sudan… Within L3e2, the L3e2b lineages constitute the most frequent and widespread type of L3e, primarily found in West and Central Africa…

The network in Cerný et al. (2007) reflects a clear starlike phylogeny of L3e5 types found mostly in western Central Africa. Although an important diffusion has occurred into North Africa, the root type is relatively prevalent in the Chad Basin… The diffusion of haplogroup L3f ranges from Ethiopia in the east, to Angola and Mozambique in the south, the Chad Basin in Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau in the west and Tunisia in the north…

L3f1 founder lineages in Central and West Africa… L3f2 is a quite infrequent clade found almost exclusively among Chad speaking populations from the Chad Basin and virtually absent from Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan peoples… Therefore, it is contemporary with its sister clade L3f1, and probably arose around the Chad Basin area. Nevertheless, the haplogroup is present in northern Cushitic groups from Somalia and Ethiopia…’

African Americans

‘The current distribution range of African mtDNA lineages is far broader than the African continent. Long-distance gene flow mediated by the Atlantic slave trade since the 16th century is worth mentioning in this review. 

Brazilians harbor the most important reservoir of African maternal lineages outside of Africa. Early description of the genetic landscape of Brazilians with sub-Saharan ancestry confirms the historical evidence, with L1c and L3e lineages summing up to nearly half of the African share… Later studies on Afro-Americans residing in the American continent report 65% of mtDNA types in South America as having a Central African origin, 41% and 59% of Central Americans tracing progeny to West Central Africa and West Africa respectively, while North American ancestors are estimated as being 28% West-Central Africans and 72% West Africans… These results corroborate the historical record of these regions… The origin of Afro-Americans in U.S.A. is associated with West African (>55%) and West-Central/Southwest African (<45%) mothers, also in close proximity to historical data… 

Recent results on admixture analysis suggest that Africans brought to Brazil as slaves were originally from two geographical regions: i) 69% of the maternal pool of Black Brazilians in Rio de Janeiro is attributed to West-Central and Southeast Africa, close to two former Portuguese colonies (Angola and Mozambique) and ii) 82% of mtDNA lineages in Porto Alegre are found in West Africa, in the northern portion of the Gulf of Guinea… Such detailed analysis is possible given the clear mtDNA haplogroup structure which allows the discrimination of geographic/linguistic origins. Once again genetic records are in agreement with historical data…’ 

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced migration of an estimated 11 million Africans to the Americas. Only 9 million are thought to have survived the passage, and many more died in the early years of captivity. Historical accounts indicate that virtually all enslaved Africans brought to North America came from either West or West Central Africa. A recent comparison of mtDNA sequences from 1148 African Americans living in the US with a database of African mtDNA sequences showed that more than 55% of the US lineages have a West African ancestor, while fewer than 41% came from West Central or South West Africa.

Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mother to daughter with few, if any, changes occurring over many generations, it is possible to compare contemporary African-American mtDNA haplotypes with contemporary mtDNA haplotypes in a worldwide database to obtain information about the ancestral origins of these mtDNAs.’ 

‘In such a comparison, continent-specific haplotypes are readily observed, and the assignment of mtDNAs to continent of origin is relatively straightforward. The more difficult task is to tie particular mtDNA haplotypes to specific geographical regions and ethnic groups within a continent. This task is particularly difficult for Africa, as there is more genetic diversity among Africans than among people from any other continent…

The most extensive pan-African haplotype… is in the L2a1 haplogroup. 40% of African-American mtDNAs did not match any sequence in the database, it is clear that matches to a single African ethnic group will not be the outcome for most African Americans, and even when a match to a single ethnic group is obtained, multiple matches may occur in a larger database. Furthermore, for the typical African American, the maternal ancestor who was the source of the mtDNA was just one of hundreds of enslaved African ancestors. In fact, it likely that there has been more mixing of African ethnic groups in the Americas than has ever occurred elsewhere. Thus, the ancestors of virtually all contemporary African Americans came from a large number of ethnic groups located throughout the region from Senegal to Angola.

Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, multiple authors, 2007:

‘Several L haplogroup lineages occur most frequently in eastern Africa (e.g., L0a, L0f, L5, and L3g), but some are specific to certain ethnic groups, such as haplogroup lineages L0d and L0k that previously have been found nearly exclusively among southern African “click” speakers. The presence of very old mtDNA haplogroups (i.e., L0d, L0f, and L5) in Tanzanians that are rare or absent in other regions of Africa suggests populations in Tanzania may have had a large long-term effective population size and/or a large degree of long-term population structure, which has acted to preserve many divergent and rare mtDNA haplogroup lineages that appeared early in modern human history. The presence of these ancient lineages in Tanzania also suggests that eastern Africa might be the source of origin of many other African mtDNA haplogroup lineages. 

Our findings are consistent with other studies of mtDNA genetic diversity in African populations that have suggested populations in eastern Africa form a highly diverse gene pool…’

A sample of Y-DNA haplogroups from the six largest African nations; plus Ghana is included, as it has a very pure haplogroup sequence. Kenya and Tanzania are represented by Bantus and South Africa is represented by southern Bantus, the Zulu [also southern Bantu] and the Khoisan.

Ethiopia:           E1b1b – A – T – J – B – E2 

Khoisan:            A – E1b1a – E1b1b – B – E2

RSA Khoisan:   E1b1a – A – E1b1b – B – E2 

Tanzania:          E1b1a – E1b1b – E2 – B – A – T

Kenya:               E1b1a – E2 – A – E1b1b – B

RSA Bantu:       E1b1a – E2 – B – A – E1b1b

RSA Zulu:          E1b1a – E2 – B – A 

DR Congo:        E1b1a – E2 – E1b1b – A 

Nigeria:             E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Ghana:               E1b1a – E1a – E1b1b

The haplogroup J in Ethiopia is reflective of Arab peoples or admixture. The haplogroups E, A and B and their respective clades are the main Haplogroups for the Black African peoples. Ethiopia and Ghana are poles apart percentage wise, on an east – west axis and Nigeria and the Khoisan on a north – south axis.

                                 E1b1a    E1b1b       E2         B          A 

Ethiopia                                  63           1.5        1.5         10

RSA Khoisan            36         15              4         12         33

Khoisan                     23         16              2         12         44

Tanzania                   48         22            16           9          3

Kenya                         52         14            17           3         14

RSA Bantu                 55          4             21          11          5

RSA Zulu                    55                         21         20          3

DR Congo                  64         14            19                       3

Nigeria                       68           4              7          10         3

Ghana                         92           1         

Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and its population is 118,587,254 people, the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The largest ethnic group in Ethiopia is the Oromo; of which I have used their Y-DNA haplogroup spread rather than the combined population, as it affects the E1b1b, A and J percentages significantly.

Kenya in East Africa has the sixth highest population with 53,771,296 people. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is in Central Africa, with the third highest population of 92,609,143 people. The main ethnic group in the Congo are the Kongo and in Nigeria it is the Igbo. Tanzania is in East Africa, with the fourth highest population of 61,981,437 people. Ghana in West Africa, has a population of 31,898,831 people – the tenth highest.

In the south, the Republic of South Africa has the fifth highest population of 60,262,064 people, of which the vast majority are Black people. The Y-DNA haplogroups of the largest ethnic group, are from the Zulu.

People with understanding want more knowledge, but fools just want more foolishness.

Proverbs 15:14 New Century Version

“The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widely spread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible.” 

Bertrand Russell [1872-1970]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Ham Aequator

Chapter XI

Noah’s second and middle son is Ham. We will discover that his descendants have spanned across the globe, principally throughout the hottest regions of the earth relative to the equator. Ham’s children have dispersed widely and are the darker skinned peoples of the world, ranging from black to olive skin and all the shades of brown between. They are located in Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East, South West Asia, the Indian Sub-Continent, South East Asia and Oceania.

A H Sayce, page 50 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘It is true that although Semites, Aryans, and Alaro-dians represent different races of mankind, they nevertheless all alike belong to the white stock, and may thus be said to be but varieties of one and the same original race… even granting it to be probable that the various white races are all descended from a common ancestry… it is possible that they may have developed out of more than one dark race.

Abarim Publications, emphasis and bold theirs:

‘The name that occurs in the English Bible as Ham is really two completely different Hebrew names; one which is pronounced Cham, and the other Ham. They have two completely different meanings, but since English readers are so used to the name Ham… call them Ham I and Ham II:

The name Ham I – Meaning: Hot, or Protective Wall from the verb (ham), to be hot, or the verb (hmh), to protect or surround.

This name [C]Ham is identical to the adjective (ham), meaning warm, and also to the noun (ham), meaning father in law… The verb (hamam) means to be hot and is sometimes used to describe mental agitation. The noun (hamman) denotes [a] kind of mysterious small pillar (perhaps a device). The verb (yaham) also means hot, but mostly in a mental sense: to be excited or angered. The noun (hema) mostly refers to a severe mental “burning”: anger or rage.

For the meaning of this name [C]Ham, Alfred Jones (Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names) confidently derives it from the verb (hamam), meaning to be hot, and renders it Heat, Black. Then he… connects blackness with sin. What escapes the… scholar is that:

  • This version of the name Ham is also identical to (ham), father-in-law, from the unused root (hmh) of which the cognates mean to protect or surround.
  • In the Bible not blackness but whiteness is associated with sin. Miriam turned white [2 Kings 5:27] because of her aggression against Moses’ second [3rd] wife, who was a Cushite and thus quite likely very black. And the bride of the Song of Solomon, often regarded as a type of the Church, was black as well (Song of Solomon 1:5). 
  • NOBSE Study Bible Name List simply reads Hot for Ham, but in view of the above, a closer rendering would be Passion or Intensity.

The name Ham II – Meaning: Noisy from the verb (hama), to be noisy.

Ham II, which is spelled and pronounced as Ham, denotes a once-mentioned town where kings Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal defeated the Zuzim during the war of four against five kings (Genesis 14:5).

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names derives this Ham from the verb (hama), meaning cry aloud… The… verb (hama) means to be noisy… derived masculine noun (hamon) denotes a noisy multitude.’

The Zuzim or Zuzites [Zuz] in Ham, are one of six clans of the Nephilim descended  giants mentioned in the Old Testament that lived on the earth after the flood. They are also called Zamzummim or Zamzummites [Deuteronimy 2:21]. We will study Genesis chapter fourteen in more detail. Nephilim are associated with at least two of the four sons of Ham. The definition of the word Ham inferring his descendants would be intense, passionate and at times hot headed is accurately applicable.

Psalm 105:23, 26-27

New English Translation

Israel moved to [Hebrew: entered] Egypt; Jacob lived for a time [Hebrew: lived as a resident foreigner] in the land of Ham [Africa]… He sent his servant Moses, and Aaron, whom he had chosen. They executed his miraculous signs among them, and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

Egypt is translated from the Hebrew and Aramaic: Mizraim as Mizra is a son of Ham. He was located in Northern Africa with two of his three brothers.

Psalm 78:50-52 and 106:21-22

English Standard Version

… he did not spare them from death, but gave their lives over to the plague. He struck down every firstborn in Egypt, the firstfruits of their strength in the tents of Ham. Then he led out his people [the sons of Jacob] like sheep and guided them in the wilderness like a flock… They forgot God, their Saviour, who had done great things in Egypt, wondrous works in the land of Ham, and awesome deeds by the Red Sea.

The Book of Jubilees provides additional geographic information on the land inheritance of the sons of Ham. It is referenced against the location of the Garden of Eden. We will return to this passage when we study Eden. The lands of Ham were to the south and west as opposed to the north for Japheth. Ham was located principally, in the continent of Africa. 

Book of Jubilees 8:10-11, 22-24

10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father. 

22 And for Ham came forth the second portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west to the sea of ‘Atel and it extends towards the west till it reaches the sea of Ma’uk -that (sea) into which everything which is not destroyed descends. 23 And it goes forth towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden of Eden. 24 And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to occupy forever for himself and his sons unto their generations forever.

We now arrive at an enigmatic passage of scripture in Genesis chapter nine. A comprehensive or definitive answer to the account is elusive. It is as mysterious as Noah’s role as Ancestor Zero. The early chapters of Genesis are a very abbreviated, amalgamated version of events. The Bible stereotypically understates rather than overstates; though Genesis nine exhibits deliberate editing and censorship. Moses, who is credited with compiling the early books of the Bible may not have glossed over events as they stand and thus, subsequent scribes and translators are likely culpable. The subject matter is unsavoury, unsettling and altruistically, it is lightly trusted that the editing was intended for our sensibilities rather than a deliberate desire to cover the truth. 

Recall, we learned earlier that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine after the Flood, very likely in the Kashmir. Further details are added in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 7:1-7

1 … Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit [it typically takes newly planted vines up to three years to grow grapes] in the fourth year [10,833 BCE] and he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [Tishri: September/October]. 

2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, until the first day, on the new month [new Moon] of the first month [Abib/Nisan: March/April].3 And he celebrated with joy the day of this feast [New Moon], and he made a burnt sacrifice unto Yahweh, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, that he might make atonement thereby for himself and his sons [similar to a later Patriarch named Job]. 

4 And he prepared the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5 And he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the altar and caused a sweet savoir to ascend acceptable before Yahweh his Sovereign Ruler. 

The system of worshipping and obeying the Eternal One, through animal sacrifices was not inaugurated by Moses and Aaron during the time of the Israelites, but rather, re-activated. Abel and Noah in the antediluvian age and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob after the flood, all offered sacrifices to the Creator; for either the purpose of thanksgiving or atonement [forgiveness]. 

6 And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his children with joy. 7 And it was evening, and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept.

A number of scenarios are possible and it is remarkably similar to an ancient crime scene and a re-opening of an investigation into a very cold case. The protagonists appear to include Noah, his son Ham and, or his son Canaan. It is not ostensibly clear who the perpetrator is, nor entirely the victim.

Genesis 9:18-26 

New Century Version

18 The sons of Noah who came out of the boat with him were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 

We are first alerted to misadventure by the concluding disjunctive clause, the parenthetical, Ham was the father of Canaan

The interlinear states:

And sons Noah that went forth ark were Shem Ham Japheth Ham [H2526 Cham] father [H1 ‘ab]

Canaan is not mentioned here, yet he is in verse twenty-two; this absence is troublesome. We are told who the sons of Noah are; why delineate Canaan as Ham’s son in an indirect way, in a context about Noah’s sons. Was Canaan actually Noah’s son?

19 These three men were Noah’s sons, and all the people on earth came from these three sons.

20 Noah became a farmer [H376 ‘iyesh: husbandman] and planted a vineyard. 

NET: The epithet a man of the soil indicates that Noah was a farmer. “Noah, a man of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard”; Hebrew “and Noah, a man of the ground, began and he planted a vineyard.”

21 When he drank wine made from his grapes, he became drunk and lay naked in his tent. 

NET: The Hebrew verb (galah) in the Hitpael verbal stem (vayyitgal) means “to uncover oneself” or “to be uncovered.” Noah became overheated because of the wine and uncovered himself in the tent.

22 Ham, the father of Canaan, looked at his naked father and told his brothers outside. 

The interlinear states:

And Ham father Canaan saw* [H7200 Ra’ah] nakedness** [H6172 ‘ervah] his father told his two brethren

We are told that Ham is the father of Canaan. Why not just state Ham. The writer or editor desperately wants the reader to believe Canaan is Ham’s son. Is this because he is, though not legally. Or is it because Canaan isn’t Ham’s son at all. By including Canaan; the implication is that Ham is looking upon something that may have involved Canaan. Looked at his naked father implies that there had been a sexual act; but, by whom?

NET: ‘some would translate “had sexual relations with,” arguing that Ham committed a homosexual act with his drunken father for which he was cursed. However, the expression “see nakedness” usually refers to observation of another’s nakedness, not a sexual act (see Genesis 42:9, 12 where “nakedness” is used metaphorically to convey the idea of “weakness” or “vulnerability”; Deuteronomy 23:14 where “nakedness” refers to excrement; Isaiah 47:3; Ezekiel 16:37; Lamentations 1:8. The following verse (v.23) clearly indicates that visual observation, not a homosexual act, is in view here. In Leviticus 20:17 the expression “see nakedness” does appear to be a euphemism for sexual intercourse, but the context there, unlike that of Genesis 9:22, clearly indicates that in that passage sexual contact is in view. The expression “see nakedness” does not in itself suggest a sexual connotation. Some relate Genesis 9:22 to Leviticus 18:6-11, 15-19, where the expression “uncover [another’s] nakedness” (the Piel form of galah) refers euphemistically to sexual intercourse. 

However, Genesis 9:22 does not say Ham “uncovered” the nakedness of his father. According to the text, Noah uncovered himself; Ham merely saw his father naked. The point of the text is that Ham had no respect for his father. Rather than covering his father up, he told his brothers. Noah then gave an oracle that Ham’s [Canaan] descendants, who would be characterized by the same moral abandonment, would be cursed. 

It is hard for modern people to appreciate why seeing another’s nakedness was such an abomination, because nakedness is so prevalent today. In the ancient world, especially in a patriarchal society, seeing another’s nakedness was a major [offence]. (See the account in Herodotus, Histories 1.8-13, where a general saw the nakedness of his master’s wife, and one of the two had to be put to death.) Besides, Ham was not a little boy wandering into his father’s bedroom…’

The thrust of the verse is that Ham is complicit. If he is momentarily discounted, from an actual act against Noah directly he is not absolved from witnessing a possible aftermath of an episode involving Noah; with the addition of not responding accordingly. Rather, he flippantly chooses to alert his brothers instead.

In verse 22, the Hebrew word for saw* is translated by the KJV as see 879 times and look [104], but also as enjoy [4]. It can mean to ‘look intently at, behold, to gaze at.’ The circumstances hint that Ham did more than spot his naked father and then quickly leave to go and tell his brothers. There are two possibilities, in that Ham observed the situation before him far longer than was appropriate, or more tellingly, somehow re-arranged or manipulated the [crime] scene he discovered. Did he try to extricate himself or was it Canaan he sought to protect.

As plausible as it may be that Ham or perhaps Canaan just looked, this verse has to be put with verse 24, where it says: ‘when [Noah] woke up and learned what his youngest son had done to him.’ Support for this line of reasoning is in the meaning for the Hebrew word nakedness** in verse 22. The KJV translates it as nakedness 50 times, though also as shame [1], unclean [1] and uncleanness [1]. 

The nakedness in question is implying that the nudity on display was a shameful exposure of indecency or improper behaviour; as in ‘exposed, undefended, disgrace, blemish.’ The latin term pudenda would apply, in that in the very least, the genitalia of Noah were visible. Interestingly, pudendum though meaning human external genital organs it is especially applied to those of the female.

23 Then Shem and Japheth got a coat [H8071 simlah] and, carrying it on both their shoulders, they walked backwards into the tent and covered their father. They turned their faces away so that they did not see their father’s nakedness.

NET: The word translated “garment” has the Hebrew definite article on it. The article may simply indicate that the garment is definite and vivid in the mind of the narrator, but it could refer instead to Noah’s garment. Did Ham bring it out when he told his brothers?

Why would Ham go to the trouble of telling his brothers and not cover his father himself if it was simple exposure. Why would Shem and Japheth cover their father simply because he was naked, unless they were actually reacting to something more serious. The Hebrew word for coat [simlah] is translated in the KJV as raiment [11], clothes [6], garment [6] and apparel [2]. It signifies a wrapper or mantle [sleeveless cloak or cape] as a covering garment. 

It does contain the ‘permutation for the feminine (through the idea of a cover assuming the shape of the object beneath); [for instance] a dress, especially a mantle.’ There may be significance in this, or it may have simply been a unisex dressing gown suitable for someone who is sleeping lying down.

24 Noah was sleeping because of the wine [H3196 Yayin]. When he woke up and learned  [H3045 Yada’] what his youngest [H6996 Qatan] son [H1121 ben], Ham, had done [H6213 asah] to him, 

NET: ‘Hebrew “his wine,” used here by metonymy for the drunken stupor it produced. The Hebrew verb (ʿasah, “to do”) carries too general a sense to draw the conclusion that Ham had to have done more than look on his father’s nakedness and tell his brothers [though it does imply more than just looking was undertook by someone other than Ham].’

The Interlinear states:

And Noah awoke from his wine knew what his younger son had done

The Hebrew word for knew, yada’ is translated by the KJV as know [645], knowledge [19], perceive [18], understand [7]. It can mean to ‘know a person carnally’ and ‘to be revealed.’

Surprisingly, Ham is not specifically mentioned. We now find two clues in the Hebrew words for younger and son. The KJV translates younger [Qatan] as small [33], little [19], youngest [15], younger [14], least [10] and lesser [2]. It signifies one who is ‘insignificant or unimportant.’ This may be a reference to Ham, though this is hard to credit for him considering his position in the family hierarchy. Shem and Japheth vary in the order they are positioned in the Old Testament, between first and last [eldest or youngest], though Ham is always placed in the middle of his brothers. 

This one instance, where the Bible editors have decided to imply Ham is the youngest cannot be used in support of Ham actually being the youngest, as it contradicts other verses. Whereas, Canaan was Ham’s youngest son of four. [Alternatively, was Canaan Noah’s youngest son of four?] 

The Hebrew word for son ben, is translated by the KJV as son [2978], children [1568], old [135], first [51], man [20] and young [18]. A variety of meanings, though the one of much interest sandwiched between son and child [the member of a family group] is, grandson

The use of this word, would suddenly shift focus to someone other than Ham, who is not even stated in verse 24. Canaan on the other hand is mentioned in verse 22, when Ham looked on his father. Canaan in comparison to Ham, would be less significant in importance and ‘smaller’ than Ham literally in age and figuratively in stature. 

The Hebrew word for ‘had done’ is translated in the KJV as do [1333], make [653], wrought [52], commit [49], perform [18] and dress [13]. It signifies, ‘to fashion, to be used, to press, squeeze.’ Strongs adds: ‘bruise’ and ‘dress(ed).’ These last definitions may be of tell tale sexual significance, when we investigate two different theories next. 

Noah knew something had happened. Just being looked at doesn’t warrant cursing your’ innocent grandson. It only makes sense, if either Ham or Canaan were guilty of more than just prurient observation. How would Noah have known he was stared at, especially while inebriated? If an act of some kind had been committed against him, or affecting him, there must have been evidence for Noah to know.

25 he said, “May there be a curse [H779 ‘arar] on Canaan! May he be the lowest slave [H5650 ‘ebed] to his brothers.”

The Hebrew word for curse is translated 62 times and once as bitterly. It is a severe curse, that from the primitive root means to ‘bitterly curse, execrate.’ Execrate means ‘to detest utterly, abhor, abominate, imprecate evil upon, damn’ and ‘denounce.’ This is no simple curse but one with enormous repercussions. If it is a punishment to fit the crime, then the crime must be one of great magnitude.

The Hebrew word for servant is translated by the KJV as servant [744], manservant [23], bondman [21] and bondage [10]. It means to be a slave and the interlinear says a ‘servants of servants.’ Not a servant to other servants, but the lowest of all servants. This is a massive clue later, in identifying Canaan’s descendants.

The people of Canaan are accused of sins in the scriptures, the man Canaan is apparently guilty of nothing. Why does Noah curse Canaan and not Ham?

NET: ‘Cursed be Canaan. The curse is pronounced on Canaan, not Ham. Noah sees a problem in Ham’s character, and on the basis of that he delivers a prophecy about the future descendants who will live in slavery to such things and then be controlled by others. In a similar way Jacob pronounced oracles about his sons based on their revealed character… Wenham points out that “Ham’s indiscretion towards his father may easily be seen as a type of the later behavior of the Egyptians and Canaanites. Noah’s curse on Canaan thus represents God’s sentence on the sins of the Canaanites, which their forefather Ham had exemplified.” He points out that the Canaanites are seen as sexually aberrant and Leviticus 18:3 describes Egypt and Canaan, both descendants of Ham, as having abominable practices. Hebrew “a servant of servants” (’eved ’avadim), an example of the superlative genitive. It means Canaan will become the most abject of slaves.’

The New English Translation footnotes supports the mildest interpretation of Genesis nine and adopts the view that Ham saw his father in a compromising position of nakedness. Noah thus disrespected, then felt compelled to curse Ham’s youngest son’s descendants to perpetual slavery and impoverishment. An honest appraisal of this line of enquiry would have to admit there are gaping plot holes. Strikingly, nor does the punishment have equivalency for the crime.

Looking closely at the story, the scenario includes Ham and Canaan as perpetrators, with Noah or as strange as it may sound, a second unknown person as a further victim. Reader be aware, the next segment is unsettling.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh in his article Noah’s Four Sons, puts forward a case of a combination of two texts from two editors in the scriptural account – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A Supplementary-Hypothesis Solution

Viewed through the conceptual tool-kit of the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, one form of source criticism, it is likely that in an earlier version of the story (the J source), Noah had four sons, not three: Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan. The later Priestly source had a different tradition, however, that Noah had only three sons (5:31, 6:10, 7:13, 9:19, 10:1, all P texts).

P was by nature a conservative supplementer/editor – he finds a way to assert his view that does minimal violence to the biblical text. (According to the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, erasure or deletion was rarely if ever employed.) Accordingly, I would argue that P was not comfortable erasing Canaan entirely from the text in [favour] of his own view – and adds the clause “and Ham was the father of” to verse 18 to make it seem as though Canaan were Noah’s grandson rather than his son. P adds these same words again in verse 22, thereby making Ham the assailant instead of Canaan. Finally, he adds 9:19 to re-emphasize his view that Noah had only three sons. By doing so he brings J’s text in line with his own tradition of three sons, but at the expenseof the coherence of the story.

Here is the original text: [Note: // represents where the seams are.] The J Text 9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and //Canaan // 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 // Canaan saw the nakedness of his father, and told two of his brothers outside. 9:23 Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, walked backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were averted, and they didn’t see their father’s nakedness. 9:24 Noah awoke from his wine (-induced stupor), and knew what his youngest son had done to him. 9:25 He said, “Canaan is cursed. He will be a servant of servants (serving) his brothers.” 9:26 He said,“Blessed be YHWH, the God of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant. 9:27 May God make Japheth mighty. Let him dwell in the tents of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant.”

Here [an italicised]-coded version of the original J text with the P supplements: J + P (Canon)

9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was the father of Canaan. 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated. 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside…

An Unexpected Corroboration?

Some intriguing corroboration to this enumeration is found in the midrash (late first millennium C.E.) – Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, 23, which also saw Canaan as one of Noah’s sons and solves the text-critical problem similarly. It goes without saying that Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer had no knowledge of J’s base text, though his harmonistic reading may be suggestive of a similar thought pattern:

Noah found a vine… the vine still had grapes upon it…he planted a vineyard from this vine…and on that very day fruit grew…he drank wine from it (the vine) and he revealed himself in his tent. Canaan came in, saw his father’s nakedness, tied a string to his penis and castrated him, then he went out to tell his brothers… Ham came in, saw his father’s nakedness and neglecting the commandment to honor one’s father, reported it to his two brothers as though he were in the market and laughing at his father. His brothers rebuked him, they took a cover, and walking backwards covered their father’s nakedness… Noah arose from his stupor, discovered what his youngest son had done to him, and cursed him, as it says, “Cursed is Canaan”.

The author of Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer not only solves the problem of Canaan, but that of Ham as well. In J, it is unclear where Ham appears in the story; he plays no part and goes unmentioned. In Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, Canaan is the son who castrates his father, thereby receiving a curse, and Ham laughs at his father instead of helping him, thus he does not get the blessing his brothers, Shem and Japhet receive, nor the curses Canaan receives. It is unclear how the author of this midrash understood the biblical text that says that Canaan was Noah’s grandson and not his son.

Similarly, and perhaps even stranger, the Quran notes that Noah had four sons (Sura 11, Hud v. 42–43). This unnamed fourth son refuses to come aboard the Ark, and instead climbs a mountain and is drowned. Some later Islamic commentators give his name as either Yam or Kan’an, the latter the Arabic version of Canaan. It is difficult to determine the relationship between Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran, though they may have shared the same source. In any case, it is striking that an ancient tradition that was erased by P hundreds of years before the first millennium C.E. found its way back into texts over a thousand years later in such disparate sources as Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran.’

The irony is not lost of a Rabbi quoting the Quran. Conjecture and assumptions of the author aside, the explanation of an older text stating Canaan as a son of Noah possibly answers the parenthetical conundrum of Genesis 9.18. It may add meaning to why Canaan as a son of Noah was cursed directly by his father and yet still allows for the involvement of Ham and his tantamount condoning of Canaan’s actions. In a similar incident in Genesis 21:8-10, Sarah the wife of Abraham, sees Ishmael mocking Isaac. She takes a dim view and Ishmael’s banishment [with his mother Hagar] stems in part, from this incident. Though Ishmael is punished by being banished, he still receives a future blessing and inheritance.

Castration as an explanation would definitely answer the reason for the severity of the curse inflicted; as opposed to death. This was not a great option, when considering Canaan was to be the ancestor of at least six sons. Though, we are left scratching our heads as to what would be the motive? Stop Noah siring more sons, who would receive blessings and allotments of land, thus decreasing Canaan’s share? Genesis 9:24 and Noah saying he knew what his youngest [grand]son had done to him, leaves no doubt that something tangible had been done to Noah by a ‘younger son.’ Canaan was the youngest, whether his father was Ham or Noah. This is convincingly ruling out Ham and casting Canaan in the spotlight as chief person of interest. 

Dr Rabbi David Frankel in his article, Noah, Ham and the Curse of Canaan: Who Did What to Whom in the Tent? A new solution to why Canaan (not Ham) was cursed, presents alternative solutions – bold his, italics mine:

‘What Did Noah’s Youngest Son Do?

As already anticipated by the Rabbis, and suggested by some modern scholars, an earlier version of our story probably related a much more severe crime – the homosexual rape of his father when he was inebriated. This indeed is the kind of [offence] that would most naturally provoke the severe reaction depicted in the text. This assumption also accounts for the formulation of verse 24,

Noah awoke from his drunken stupor and knew what his youngest son had done to him. If his son had only looked at him, how would Noah have “known” when he awoke that this had occurred? Further, the final words “had done to him” imply a much more concrete and physical act than mere gazing. The statement that Noah knew what was done to him after waking from his drunken stupor contrasts with Lot who was similarly abused sexually by his daughters whiledrunk, and concerning whom we read(Genesis 19:35), and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose.

Leviticus 20:17 shows that “seeing nakedness” is a euphemism for sex: Leviticus 20:17 If a man has sexual intercourse with his sister, whether the daughter of his father or his mother, so that he sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace. They must be cut off in the sight of the children of their people. He has exposed his sister’s nakedness; he will bear his punishment for iniquity.

Most likely, the phrase describing Noah’s nakedness, “and he became revealed inside his tent” was meant to evoke the theme of incest, as “revealing of nakedness” serves as the euphemism for incest in the prohibitions of Leviticus: Leviticus 18:6 None of you shall come near anyone of his own flesh to uncover nakedness… Thus, the sin, in the original narrative, is not homosexual sex itself, but forced incest of a son with his father in a situation in which the father has no ability to defend himself; this would explain the harshness of the father’s curse.

How then do we explain the part of the story in which Noah’s other sons enter the tent and cover their father without looking at him: Genesis 9:23 Shem and Japheth took the garment and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so they did not see their father’s nakedness.

This clearly implies that [the] sin was gazing and nothing more.Nevertheless, I believe that the evidence in [favour] of the sexual interpretation is too strong to simply dismiss. I suggest that the text was revised by an editor who took the euphemism “seeing nakedness” literally, as if the sin was really visual alone. Whether out of deference to Noah or in the name of modesty more generally, this editor sought to temper the severe [offence] of forced incest with an incapacitated father.This reinterpretation was accomplished by adding a report about the two brothers’ contrasting act of covering their father without looking.

The same editor also added the report of the perpetrator mockingly (?) relating to his brothers that he saw their father’s nakedness (verse 22b: “He told his two brothers who were outside”) so as to facilitate the subsequent presentation of the brothers’ contrasting act; the same editor then added the blessings of Shem and Japhet, the two “good” brothers/sons, at the end of the story.

In short, according to this reconstruction, the blessings of Shem and Japhet (beginning with “he also said”) and the subordination of Canaan to both of them are secondary (verses 26-27) additions. Thus, the original story told simply of the sin of the youngest son against his father, and the cursing of Canaan to be subservient to his unnamed brothers. Admittedly, this story is disappointingly brief in comparison with the one we are used to. On the other hand, it seems only fitting that a story as unseemly as this one would lack narrative embellishment and be as concise and to the point as possible.’ 

A similar scenario is of Jacob’s eldest son Reuben, who commits adultery [incest of sorts] with his fathers wife’s handmaiden Bilhah. Reuben disqualifies himself and his descendants from the birthright blessings – which are then given to Joseph and Judah. 

‘The original story about forced rape of a father would explain why Noah would curse his youngest son so harshly, but Canaan is not Noah’s youngest son; Japhet is! In fact, Canaan isn’t Noah’s son at all! For this reason, many scholars suggest that in an earlier form of the story, Canaan must have been Noah’s youngest son, not Japhet. 

Without the redaction supplement of “Ham the father of,” v. 22 would have originally read “[Ham, father of] Canaan saw his father’s nakedness.” It indeed makes perfect sense to accept this reconstruction of v. 22, and to assume that if the story concludes with the cursing of Canaan, Canaan must have been the original youngest-son-culprit of the story.

On the other hand, the idea that Canaan was Noah’s youngest son is difficult.Verses 18-19, which introduce the non-Priestly account here, state that Noah’s three sons are Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and that they are the progenitors of the world. Moreover, the nation lists in chapter 10 (Priestly and non-Priestly alike) treat Ham as the father of Canaan and the progenitor of nations;Canaan and his offspring are only a subgroup under Ham.

The most important thing to note about the edited story is the strange preservation of the curse as directed at Canaan (three times!), in spite of the identification of the sinner of the story as Ham and the brothers as Shem and Japhet. Wouldn’t it have been more consistent to change the curse of Canaan into the curse of Ham?

In this case scenario, Noah may have disowned [his son] Canaan. As Ishmael was banished, Canaan would have been relegated in status by Noah, not just by the curse. Ham was not blameless, even so, Canaan’s posterity could have been included with Ham [to save face], rather than shown as a separate fourth line of people from Noah as originally intended. There is no other reason why the subsequent Bible texts included an adjusted table of nations to accommodate the change in Canaan’s status.

Considering the data thus far, it is very problematic in subscribing to Ham the role of perpetrator – rather than an accomplice – and somewhat problematic in subscribing Canaan as Noah’s son, rather than he being Ham’s youngest son. Even so, some consideration should be given to this second hypothesis, as Canaan’s descendant’s lines listed in Genesis Ten are numerous; more divergent than for Japheth, for Shem or for Ham’s other sons. Eleven lines are listed for Canaan. Canaan stands out and his sons descendants, exhibit a spectrum of skin tones, racial characteristics and a more detailed genome than all the other peoples in the world put together.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh has presented the case for Genesis 9:19 ‘These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated’, as being part of the supplemented text P edit. I would offer that the whole sentence may not be additional but just the quick change from four to three sons, though the seam would indicate the whole sentence.

Dr Rabbi David Frankel concludes his article with a theory that the Genesis nine account is in fact about Ham and Canaan. Ham the actual victim. I have considered this theory and have concluded that considerable editing is required in proving it. Whereas, I can accept additions or deletions to Biblical text, the wholesale change of names and shifting verses into other chapters seems a stretch too far. 

The same author is eager to down grade Canaan’s curse to a limited curse – subservient only to Ham [Egypt] – rather than encompassing Shem and Japheth; thus throwing doubt on the Biblical account as it stands, saying it is an editorial agenda in text P to strengthen the future family status of Jacob’s sons.

It is curious that no matter how strenuously editing tries to transfer blame to Ham, it is Canaan that emerges as the accused. One commentator has suggested that Canaan was Ham’s son though not by Ham’s wife Na’eltama’uk, but by Noah’s wife Emzara. Whether there is incest in Genesis nine or not, it may have followed a previous undisclosed act of incest between Ham and a relation of Noah, but not his wife; as a peculiar anomaly links Canaan to the family of Arphaxad, one of the five sons of Shem.

The Creator has much to say on the matter of incest and it was considered a grievous transgression, punishable by death during Israelite times. We saw in the line of Seth that it was the fifth generation that began marrying their cousins. Prior to this, the second through to the fourth generation had little choice but to marry their sisters. If such an act was committed to a relation of Noah and or to Noah, it would seem that Ham or Canaan were fortunate to retain their lives; though death would have been an impossible stumbling block to Ham or Canaan’s lines continuing. Ultimately, the curse placed on Canaan’s descendants is unarguably, the most serious action Noah could have taken. Death would have been kinder, but would have eliminated a whole racial line of people before it had even begun. The most well known incident of incest in the Bible involved the daughters of Lot, which we will address when we study their sons, Moab and Ammon. 

The Book of Leviticus chapter 18, verse 6-18 is dedicated to every possible situation of incest – of which a few are quoted and statements associated with the incident in Genesis chapter nine are in bold: 

English Standard Version

6 “None of you shall approach any one of his close relatives to uncover nakedness. I am the Lord. 7 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, which is the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 9 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your sister, your father’s daughter or your mother’s daughter, whether brought up in the family or in another home. 

As might of happened with Ham and Canaan.

10 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your son’s daughter [granddaughter] or of your daughter’s daughter, for their nakedness is your own nakedness. 11 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife’s daughter, brought up in your father’s family, since she is your sister [step sister]… 14 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother, that is, you shall not approach his wife; she is your aunt. 

15 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 17 You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and of her daughter, and you shall not take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter to uncover her nakedness; they are relatives; it is depravity. 18 And you shall not take a woman as a rival wife to her sister, uncovering her nakedness while her sister is still alive.

The Patriarch Jacob married two sisters, though not by choice, but rather a shrewd play by his father-in-law Laban. We will also address this incident. Leviticus chapter 20:11-21 continues with punishment for incest:

English Standard Version

11 If a man lies with his father’s wife, he has uncovered his father’s nakedness; both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. 12 If a man lies with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have committed perversion; their blood is upon them. 13 If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. If a man takes a woman and her mother also, it is depravity; he and they shall be burned with fire, that there may be no depravity among you… 17 “If a man takes his sister, a daughter of his father or a daughter of his mother, and sees her nakedness, and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace, and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people… 21 If a man takes his brother’s wife, it is impurity. He has uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.

The last verse applies to the time of the Israelites but not necessarily to the epoch that preceded it after the flood.

In Genesis 5:6-10 ESV ‘… Seth… he fathered Enosh… Enosh… fathered Kenan…’ Canaan’s name isn’t just similar to Cain but also in Seth’s line [and thus Noah] there was a grandson of Seth named Kenan. One could say, this is a family name.

We read in the Book of Jubilees 8:1-6

… in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu’eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam [Arphaxad’s older brother], and she bare him a son… and he [Arphaxad] called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 

And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. 

And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai [Chapter IV], the son of Japheth, and… he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: ‘Truly I have been sent’… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed [another Chesed was a son of Nahor, Abraham’s brother], his father’s brother…

In Genesis 10:24-25 ESV we read: ‘Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. In the Masoretic text of the Bible Kainam [Cainan] is left out of the genealogy as we see here, yet in the Septuagint [LXX] Cainan is included, as in the Book of Jubilees. In the New Testament book of Luke, we read the genealogy of Christ through his adoptive father, Joesph.

Luke 3:35-38

New English Translation

35 the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36 the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37 the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan, 38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

Footnote: ‘It is possible that the name Καϊνάμ (Kainam) should be omitted, since two key mss, P75vid and D, lack it. But the omission may be a motivated reading: This name is not found in the editions of the Hebrew OT, though it is in the LXX, at Genesis 11.12 and 10:24. But the witnesses with this reading (or a variation of it) are substantial: א B L ƒ1 33 (Καϊνάμ), A Θ Ψ 0102 ƒ13 M (Καϊνάν, Kainan). The translation above has adopted the more common spelling “Cainan,” although it is based on the reading Καϊνάμ. The Greek text has Kainam here. Some modern English translations follow the Greek spelling more closely (NASB, NRSV Cainan) while others (NIV) use the OT form of the name (Kenan in Genesis 5:9, 12).’

The Septuagint reading supports Luke 3:36. The fact that Cainan [Kainam, Kenan, Canaan] has been inserted in enough manuscripts to draw attention and not be discounted, is a significant red flag. The insertion of Canaan’s name leads to one conclusion: that Canaan being the biological son of Ham, was the adoptive son of Arphaxad, who became his legal father. The Hebrew word ‘fathered’ includes more than just a biological [blood-line] parent. It can mean a father-in-law, a grandfather or distant relative and in this case, a male [non-blood-line] parent who raises the child.

Why would Arphaxad adopt Canaan or make him his ward? As Cainan is shown as being between Arphaxad and his blood-line son Shelah, Canaan must have been born before Shelah. Arphaxad would be Ham’s nephew and Canaan’s cousin. Though if he was considerably older, he may have taken Canaan under his wing. 

The relationship is  of note because in the Septuagint, Genesis 10:22 it says: ‘Sons of Sem, Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Cainan…’ Canaan was ethnically of Hamitic lineage, but is also listed in the lineage of Shem.

The Book of Jubilees reveals that Rasueja [Rasu’eja] gave birth to Cainan. The distancing between Ham and Canaan – even appearing as if Canaan was not Ham’s son – and his subsequent upbringing in Arphaxad’s household would be understandable, if Ham has had a sexual liaison with Rasueja. This would have been incest and all the ramifications that went with it, for she was Noah’s great, great granddaughter. Canaan was Ham’s fourth son and as such, one of the sixteen blood-lines that re-populated the earth. Did Arphaxad retain Canaan [Cainan] in his family to spite Ham or to have a closer grip and control over Canaan, who with his descendants were ordained to be slaves; or was it an act of compassion towards his wife Rasueja and her bastard son.

From everything we have discussed, the key points are: a. Are Ham and Canaan father and son or brothers? b. Was Noah violated and if so, was it by Ham or Canaan? c. Was there a previous event that culminated with the incident in Noah’s tent? It can be argued that there has been concerted effort in the scriptures to lessen Canaan’s role and heighten Ham’s. To take the spotlight off Canaan and portray him as a victim to Ham’s transgression. Ham did something unspeakable and Canaan’s children have paid a heavy price. At face value [and behind the scenes editing] the Bible appears to state this and previously, I have accepted this interpretation from teachers who expounded that Ham is the main subject of Genesis chapter nine and consequently the guilty party. A closer inspection of the Genesis nine passage as we have discovered, has convinced me that this is not correct.

The parenthetical addition of Canaan as the son of Ham is a clue. So is Noah waking up to know what [Ham’s] youngest had done to him. And, Canaan is cursed by Noah, Ham is not. The inclusion of Canaan in Arphaxad’s household and family line, with the naming of Canaan’s mother as Rasueja, yet his still remaining in Ham’s genealogical family tree in the table of nations as a Hamite not as one from Shem, underpins the strong likelihood that Ham is his real father by incest.

Ham transgressed twice then. Once with the incestuous act against Arphaxad with his wife and again when he disrespectfully handled his father’s predicament and sided with his son. He observed Noah and the aftermath of a sexual encounter. The phrase, looked upon his nakedness is categorically more than just seeing a naked body, though in Ham’s case does not mean he is culpable of more himself – as the Hebrew infers. Whereas later, Noah was very much aware of what had been done and by whom – his grandson. Hence the proclamation against Canaan. 

Habakkuk 2:15-16

New English Translation

15  “Woe to you who force your neighbour to drink wine—you who make others intoxicated by forcing them to drink from the bowl of your furious anger so you can look at their naked bodies. 16 But you will become drunk with shame, not majesty. Now it is your turn to drink and expose your uncircumcised foreskin! The cup of wine in the Lord’s right hand is coming to you, and disgrace will replace your majestic glory!

The sin was so severe that it resulted in Canaan becoming only the second person in the Bible record to be cursed, after Cain.

Genesis 4:10-11

English Standard Version

10 And the Lord said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. 11 And now you are cursed…

In verse one of Genesis nine, the Creator blesses Noah and his sons, which includes Ham. Later in chapter nine after the incident, Ham is left out of a specific blessing and does not receive one with Japheth and Shem. It does say, Canaan was to be a slave to all his brothers. We will discover that Canaan has been a slave to some of Ham’s descendants. Whether castration or incest by rape, both are heavy accusations. Castration is difficult to accept without further evidence and a motive. From the context and his response, a sexual act of some kind, was undeniably inflicted on Noah. 

Sadly, this is the only explanation that would warrant such a devastating curse as the one put upon Canaan. If Canaan was conceived in incest, it is a peculiar parallelism indeed to then have possibly committed a similar transgression himself.

The principal mtDNA [maternal] haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants include:

Haplogroup L0 – oldest and original haplogroup on the human mtDNA tree. L0 supposedly arose one hundred and fifty thousand years ago in eastern Africa where the alleged oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans have been found. These facts are open to debate. L0a arose later, associated with the southeastern part of the African continent.

Haplogroup L1 – one of the oldest branches of the maternal family tree is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve and sister to L0. Frequently found in western and central sub-Saharan Africa, though seldom appears in eastern or southern Africa. L1 gave rise to the branches L2 to L6.

L2 – a direct descendant of mitochondrial Eve. It is currently found in a third of sub-Saharan Africans and its subgroup L2a is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among African Americans.

Haplogroup L3 – not associated with Ham’s descendants but is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve, and the ancestor of all the non-African haplogroups in the world today.

Haplogroup M – Subgroup M1 ‘intrigues scientists with its presence in East Africa’ and another subgroup, M3, is native to India.

Haplogroup N – from L3, N is one of the two major lineages with M, from which non-African haplogroups descend. Today, members of this haplogroup are found in many continents around the world.

Haplogroup R – both ancient and complex. Its members can be found all over the world. Originating in the Near East, members of haplogroup R are located in Africa and the Middle East.

Haplogroup X – associated with Southwest Asia, is also found in Europe, North Africa, and the Near East. 

Conversely, the main Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants are summarised by Leonor Gusmão María BriónIva Gomes in a Handbook of Analytical Separations: Global distribution of Y haplogroups, 2008:

‘Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among… groups in Ethiopia and Sudan.

Haplogroup E is one of the most branched, with many subhaplogroups described. E1 and E2 were described in Northeast Africa, and E3 shows a wide geographic distribution, with two main clades: E3a, present all around Africa and among African-Americans; and E3b, present in Western Europe, North Africa, and the Near East.

Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup G appear in the Caucasus region; however it also shows significant frequencies in the Mediterranean areas and the Middle East.

Until now, haplogroup H has not been well studied, members of this haplogroup were mainly found in the Indian continent.

It is generally agreed that haplogroup J was dispersed by the westward movement of people from the Middle East to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.

Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.

Haplogroup L is found mainly in India and Pakistan, as well as in the Middle East and, very occasionally, in Europe, particularly in Mediterranean countries.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup M are shown in Melanesia, being restricted to the geographical distribution of Papuan languages.

The P clade is the parent of haplogroups Q and R, and is rarely found. It has been detected at low frequencies in the Caucasus and India.

Haplogroup R1a is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.’

Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved,  a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.

2 Timothy 2:15 English Standard Version

“A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true.” 

“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” 

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Tarshish & Japan

Chapter IX

Javan’s second son Tarshish, figures prominently in the Bible. He lived the furthest of all his brothers; somewhat similar to Togarmah separating from Gomer. Tarshish grew wealthy through trade and is synonymous with shipping. Of all the eastern peoples, Tarshish had a strong orientation to the West and still does today. There is only one candidate left in East Asia who could fulfil Tarshish’s identity as a maritime island nation descended from Javan. That country, are the people of Japan.

Dr Hoeh comments:

‘Tarshish first settled in Asia Minor. The city of Tarsus was named after him. Here the apostle Paul was born. From Tarsus the tribe spread into Spain and northern Portugal, founding the famous port of Tartessus – the Tarshish of the Old Testament history of Solomon’s time…’

During Solomon’s reign [970-930 BCE], the people of Tartessus were Phoenicians and not the descendants of Tarshish who founded the city. The following regions are attributed too Tarshish and are all plausible cities and ports established during trading expeditions and migrations in the ancient past, as we have noted with Kittim in the Mediterranean. 

The Targum of Jonathan renders Tarshish as Carthage in north Africa, though a biblical commentator Samuel Bochart, read it as Tartessos in ancient Hispania [Iberian Peninsula], near Huelva and Sevilla today. Jewish scholar, Isaac Abarbanel, described Tarshish as ‘the city known in earlier times as Carthage and today called Tunis.’ An earlier identification had been with the inland town of Tarsus in Cilicia, [south-central Turkey]. American scholars William Albright and Frank Cross suggested Tarshish was Sardinia because of the discovery of the Nora Stone, whose Phoenician inscription mentions Tarshish.

Nineteenth century commentators proposed Tarshish was Britain, including Alfred Dunkin. This idea stemmed from the fact that Tarshish is recorded to have been a trader in tin, silver, gold and lead which had all been mined in Cornwall. Britain is still reputed to be the ‘Merchants of Tarshish’ today by some Christian believers. 

Much could be written on the fascinating similarities between Japan and Great Britain – Island nations on the periphery of continents, part of yet separate, from their neighbours geographically and ideologically, strong self-identity, cultural icons, empires, military and economic powers, sea-faring and maritime states, ship builders, inventors, traders… world influencers.

Steven M Collins in his book, The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! 1992, proposes two explanations on the Biblical Tarshish – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The King James Version of the Bible records in I Kings 10:22 that King Solomon “had at sea a navy of Tharshish” (other versions simply say “Tarshish”). One possibility is that Solomon had a fleet of ships based in Spain because Tartessus (in ancient Spain) is often identified as “Tarshish”… “ships of Tarshish” were recorded as having made voyages to the New World… It is also significant to note that I Kings 10:22 is the Bible’s first mention of “ships of Tarshish.” I Kings 10:22 may be a reference to a Phoenician/Israelite colony in Spain which became the homeport of a major… fleet during Solomon’s reign. If so, Tartessus (or Tarshish) was a jumping-­off point for voyages throughout the Atlantic… [and] that a reference to “ships of Tarshish” identified the fleet that Israel (together with Tyre and Sidon) had based in ancient Spain. 

The second explanation considers the possibility that the extra “h” in the word Tharshish identifies this navy with one of the clans of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin, which was named “Tharshish” (I Chronicles 7:10). Since “Tharshish” is an Israelite name, the Bible’s reference to “ships of Tharshish” could mean that this navy was primarily crewed by members of this branch of the tribe of Benjamin. It is also possible that the term “ships of Tarshish” later came to describe a particular class of sea­going vessels used by the Phoenicians. This possibility is supported by the reference in I Kings 22:48 that over a century later Judah’s King Jehoshaphat tried to “make” a fleet composed of “ships of Tarshish” for basing in the Red Sea port of Ezion­geber.’ 

This is an insightful observation, as we will learn that modern day Benjamin does indeed have a very strong ship building legacy.

‘Some readers might wonder whether the “ships of Tarshish” belonged to the Japhethic tribe of Tarshish mentioned in Genesis 10:4. While that would seem to be a possibility at first, the fact that the Tartessian “Tarshish” was located in the direction that Jonah sailed to Tarshish, and the fact that the Iberian “Tarshish” spoke a dialect of Phoenician (a Semitic language) argues for a Semitic origin for Solomon’s “ships of Tharshish” and the Iberian “Tarshish.” Further­more, there is no biblical evidence of any close cooperation between King Solomon’s Israelites and the Japhethic nation of Tarshish. Since Barry Fell’s book, America B.C. gives evidence of “the ships of Tarshish” being involved in ancient explorations of North America, this also argues that the biblical “Tarshish” was located proximate to the Atlantic Ocean (such as in ancient Spain).’

Tarshish may well be the city port, located in Spain. 

Recall, we learned with Kitti, in the preceding chapter, that the verse in Daniel detailing a naval fleet setting sail from Kittim is not a reference to the west, or Rome in Italy, but as the verse states, it is a direct reference to Kitti the son of Javan. Albeit, it is a future prophecy. The difference here, is that the ‘ships of Tarshish’ are detailing a current event; though it is the ships of Tarshish stated, not Tarshish the port. With that in mind, there are verses that state a round trip to Tarshish is considerably further than Palestine to Spain. 

Bochart suggested eastern localities for the ports of Ophir and Tarshish during King Solomon’s reign, specifically the Tamilakkam continent [present day Southern India and Northern Ceylon (Sri Lanka)] where the Dravidians were famous for their gold, pearls, ivory and peacock trade.

1 Kings 10:22

English Standard Version

For the king [Solomon] had a fleet of ships of Tarshish at sea with the fleet of Hiram. Once every three years the fleet of ships of Tarshish used to come bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Contrary to Collins dismissing a relationship with Tarshish the nation, this verse may well be supporting an economic arrangement with the Tarshish of the East – rather than the city-port, of the western Mediterranean. If the visits were this infrequent, it supports Tarshish was all the way around the earth in Japan – some 5,656 miles from the Israelite Kingdom – and their ships were collecting exotic items throughout Southeast Asia and India en route. See 2 Chronicles 9:21, 1 Kings 22:48, and 2 Chronicles 20-36-37.

Psalm 72:10

New Century Version

Let the kings of Tarshish and the faraway lands bring him [King Solomon] gifts. Let the kings of Sheba and Seba [a grandson and a son of Cush] bring their presents to him.

Jeremiah 10:9

English Standard Version

Beaten silver is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz. They are the work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; their clothing is violet and purple; they are all the work of skilled men.

The Japanese are a highly skilled people with an Economy reflecting their talent, work ethic, technological prowess and subsequent wealth. The reference to violet and particularly purple, lends itself to either the Phoenicians [refer Chapter XII Canaan], or it is exemplifying the quality of the workmanship, the products and the fitness for royalty, such as King Solomon himself.

Ezekiel 27:12,25

English Standard Version

Tarshish did business with you because of your great wealth of every kind; silver, iron, tin, and lead they exchanged for your wares…The ships of Tarshish traveled for you [Tyre] with your merchandise. So you were filled and heavily laden in the heart of the seas.

Isaiah 23:1, 6, 10, 14

English Standard Version

The oracle concerning [the fall of] Tyre.

Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, without house or harbor! From the land of [Kitti (Indonesia)] it is revealed to them… Cross over to Tarshish; wail, O inhabitants of the coast! Cross over your land like the Nile, O daughter of Tarshish; there is no restraint anymore… Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for your stronghold is laid waste.

The fall of Tyre – a key trading partner – impacts both East and Southeast Asia. Notice Tarshish and Kitti, two brothers in the far East, are linked together. This is not referring to a Phoenician port in the Mediterranean. 

Isaiah 66:19

English Standard Version

and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud [son of Shem], who draw the bow, to Tubal [son of Japheth] and Javan, to the coastlands far away [Archipelago southeast Asia – Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines],that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations.

Ezekiel 38:13

New English Translation

Sheba and Dedan [grandsons of Cush] and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors [Hebrew: lions] will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’

Tarshish, an economic and military power [with Cush] stands against the great military alliance of Magog, Meshech, Tubal, Gomer [Continental Southeast Asia – Vietnam,  Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos] and Togarmah [North (and possibly South) Korea] and does not join with them.

Jonah 1:1-3

New English Translation

1 The Lord’s message came to Jonah son of Amittai, 2 “Go immediately to Nineveh, that large [Hebrew – gadol, meaning: great, populous, mighty, powerful, fierce] capital city, and announce judgment against its people because their wickedness has come to my attention.” 3 Instead, Jonah immediately headed off to Tarshish to escape from the commission of the Lord. He traveled to Joppa and found a merchant ship heading to Tarshish. So he paid the fare and went aboard it to go with them to Tarshish, far away from the Lord.

Jonah understandably, was not keen to go to Nineveh [in Mesopotamia], the very capital of the mighty Assyrian Empire. The equivalent assignment today would be travelling to Russia and preaching a message of sin and repentance to the Russian people in Moscow – daunting indeed. There is a humorous element to Jonah boarding a vessel that would not just take him away, but take him to the furthest reaches possible logistically. That furthest destination was Tarshish. Similarly, for most people today, travelling to Japan would be going to the ends of the earth. Japan is so far east, it is in the west so-to-speak. It can even be seen to be far west, depending on which direction one is looking; for example viewed from the United States. [Isaiah 2:16, 60:9].

Psalm 48:7

Common English Bible

… or like the east wind [from the Pacific] when it smashes the ships of Tarshish [Japan].

Exodus 28:20

King James Version

And the fourth row a beryl [H8658 – tarshiysh, meaning a precious stone or gem], and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their in closings.

The Hebrew term tarshish is a homonym, occurring seven times in the Bible and translated beryl in older English versions. It is also the name of a gem stone associated with the Tribe of Asher, that has been identified by the Septuagint and by Josephus as the ‘gold stone’ possibly linked to the chrysolite [gold, yellow colour] or yellow jasper.

Well known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. The meaning of Beryl in Sanskrit is light green semi-precious gemstone and in Italian, blue green from the sea. It is often colourless* [translucent], though impurities give it colours ranging from green to blue, yellow, red the rarest and even black. It is the first stone on the fourth row of the priestly breastplate [Exodus 28:20 – see also Ezekiel 1:16 and Daniel 10:6]. 

Tarshish in Hebrew means: ‘His Excellency’ and ‘breaking, subjection’. The connotation includes a ‘white dove’ or ‘dove-white’ and a ‘search for alabaster’. The verb rashash means to ‘beat down, shatter’, the noun shayish ‘white alabaster’, the noun tor, ‘dove’.

Tarshish has a similar definition as Riphath, Togarmah and Kitti in the element of either beating or breaking. This shows their familial ties and perhaps somewhat of a warning.

Abarim  Publications – emphasis and bold mine:

‘The name Tarshish (or Tharshish according to some translations) is assigned five times in the Bible: 

The first Tarshish is a son of Javan son of Japheth, son of Noah (Genesis 10:4). This name is spelled (Tarshishah) in 1 Chronicles 1:7, but the -ah ending may in fact stem from a locative suffix that means toward or unto, so that it could refer to the range of the sons of Javan: all the way to Tarshish. 

Most famous is Tarshish the city famed for its wealth and merchant fleet… but which location is unknown…

A Benjaminite (1 Chronicles 7:10).

One of seven Persian princes (Esther 1:14). Note that the name of one of two aspiring assassins of king Ahasuerus, namely or Teresh (Esther 2:21), seems like a truncated version of Tarshish. And both may have something to do with the Persian governmental title tirshatha, usually translated with “governor” (Ezra 2:63, Nehemiah 7:65).

The Hebrew name of a certain precious stone (perhaps yellow jasper, says BDB Theological Dictionary, but translated chrysolite by NIV and beryl by NAS) is also tarshish…

These names (and noun) Tarshish come from different languages and have different etymologies. The Persian prince was probably known as Tarshata, meaning His Excellency (says BDB Theological Dictionary). Another suggestion is a relation to the word tarsta, meaning the feared or revered (BDB Theological Dictionary). 

… Jones translates the name Tarshish with Breaking or Subjection, and the prefix taw would denote a thorough destruction or an ongoing one. But although Tarshish is mentioned here and there as subject of God’s wrath (Psalm 48:7, Isaiah 2:16, 23:1), it is mostly known for its great success in the economic arena. Isaiah even predicts that Tarshish is not going to be simply destroyed, as were Sodom and Gomorrah, but that its legacy will one day be employed to service God (Isaiah 60:9). It is unlikely that the name Tarshish is supposed to be linked to a verb that denotes defeat and destruction. Note that the shish-part of the name Tarshish looks a lot like the word (shayish), meaning alabaster a mostly translucent or white crystal:’

The beryl stone is transparent* in its purest form, though it can also amongst all the other colours stated, be white.

There’s an odd correlation between the color white and the number six. The nouns… shesh… and… shayish… mean alabaster, which is a whitish translucent material. The identical word… shesh… means six. The noun… shushan… describes the lily, which has six leaves and is… white. The adjective… yashesh… means old or white haired. The verb… tur… means to explore or survey and associates with a broad, circular or sweeping motion. Noun… tor… appears to describe a circular braid of hair.’ 

I am reminded of the Japanese symbol, the Cherry blossom. One of my vivid memories after being fortunate to visit the capital Tokyo in 1989, was all the beautiful white tree blossom. The braided hair is reminiscent of ancient Samurai warriors and modern Sumo wrestlers, with their long braided hair. The related Polynesians and also the Amerindians of Tiras, wore their hair similarly.

Japan comprises an archipelago of 6,852 islands covering 145,937 square miles. The country’s five main islands from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. Tokyo is the capital and largest city. Other major cities include Yokohama,  Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe and Kyoto. Japan is the 11th most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanised. About three quarters of the country’s terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 126,010,364 people on narrow coastal plains. The Greater Tokyo area has approximately thirty-six million residents – the most populous metropolitan area in the world.

The first mention of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the first century CE. Between the fourth and ninth centuries, the kingdoms of Japan were unified under an emperor and beginning in the twelfth century political power was held by a series of military dictators, the Shoguns and feudal lords, the Daimyo; enforced by a class of warrior nobility, the Samurai. A century long period of civil war ended in reunification in 1603 under the Tokugawa Shogunat. An isolationist foreign policy was then enacted until 1854, when a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade [the awakening of the great trading nation of Tarshish] to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. Japan adopted a Western styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialisation and modernisation. In 1937 Japan invaded China and by 1941 it had entered World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific theatre of war, Japan surrendered in 1945.

Japan is a great power and maintains Self-Defence Forces that are ranked as the world’s 4th most powerful military. After World War II, Japan experienced impressive economic growth [boosted by American investment and loans], becoming the second largest economy in the world by 1990, before being surpassed by China in 2010. A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made considerable contributions to science and technology.

During the 1980s, political pundits and economic analysts predicted Japan achieving superpower status; due to its population, GDP and economic growth. It was thought [as with China today] that Japan would eventually surpass the economy of the United States. Japan is considered a cultural superpower in terms of its large-scale influence in food, ‘electronics, automobiles, music, video games and anime.’ Japan has faced an ongoing period of stagnation since the 1990s, an ageing population since the early 2000s and serious population decline beginning in 2011, all of which has eroded its potential as a superpower.

‘The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and pronounced Nippon or Nihon. Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato.The characters 日本 mean “sun origin”, in reference to Japan’s relatively eastern location.It is the source of the popular Western epithet “Land of the Rising Sun.” The official name of the flag of Japan is (“nisshoki,” meaning “sun-mark flag”), but most people just call it (“hinomaru,” meaning “circle of the sun”)’ as the circle in the centre of the flag represents the sun. The flag of Japan isn’t white and red, [it is] white and crimson. The first documented use of the flag of Japan was in 701… mentioned in the “Shoku Nihongi,” a classical Japanese history text, which credited Emperor Mommu with the flag’s use.’

Japanese Flag

‘The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation… as Cipangu. The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century. A coincidental similarity between the words: Jap-an and Jap-heth. The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter.’

Japanese Naval Ensign

Japan leads the world in robotics production and use; supplying approximately 55% of the world’s total. The Japanese consumer electronics industry once the strongest in the world, is facing stiff competition from South Korea, the United States and China. Japan remains a major leader in the video gaming industry.

On the index of most technological nations in the world, Japan is number one. Japanese scientists have made enormous contributions in fields such as automobiles, electronics, machinery, earthquake engineering, optics, industrial robotics, metals and semi-conductors. Japanese researchers have won numerous Noble Prizes in recognition for their superior contribution in technological pursuits.

Japan is the third largest economy in the world; it’s GDP over $5 trillion in 2019. Effective co-operation between government and industry, coupled with advanced technological know-how have built Japan’s manufacturing and export-oriented economy. Japan is low in natural resources and dependent on energy imports, particularly after the 2011 Fukushima disaster and a general shutdown of its nuclear power industry.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Japanese global shipments during 2020.

  1. Vehicles: US$122.6 billion
  2. Machinery including computers: $121.8 billion 
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $102.6 billion 
  4. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $37.5 billion 
  5. Plastics, plastic articles: $25.6 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $22.8 billion 
  7. Organic chemicals: $14.9 billion 
  8. Gems, precious metals: $13.3 billion 
  9. Other chemical goods: $12.2 billion
  10. Ships, boats: $10.8 billion 

The gem and precious metals category was the fastest-grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 15.9% from 2019 to 2020.’ 

Japan is a member of the prestigious intergovernmental G7 Group of nations. These are the major industrialised nations, that drive the world economy, monetary issues and policy. Japan’s inclusion is significant as it is the only descendant of Japheth, the only nation from East Asia or outside the European and North American spheres. Major nations not included are Russia [11th] due to its expulsion from the G8 in 2014 because of its annexation of the Ukraine and the Crimea; as well as the less developed major economies of China [2nd], India [5th] and Brazil [9th]. The other nations of the G7 are the United States [1], Germany [4], the United Kingdom [6], France [7], Italy [8] and Canada [10].

Japan’s role in Biblical Prophecy, Steve M Collins, 2007 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Tarshish… A huge clue as to their modern identity is that Ezekiel 38:13 calls them “the merchants of Tarshish.” Their entire nation is so closely linked to merchandising goods to others that they are called a nation of “merchants”… Japan pioneered the export-driven model of mercantile sales to other nations as a national policy. This trait was so well-known that the nation was sometimes called “Japan, Inc.” in media articles… also prophesied [is] that there would be “young lions” that would be closely linked to the “merchants of Tarshish” in the latter days. There are a number of smaller Asian nations on the Pacific Rim which have copied the mercantile, export-driven success of the Japanese nation. These nations are even called the “young tiger” nations or “young tiger” economies of Asia. The “young tiger” nations include such nations as South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand…

Japan is an island nation and it lives at the doorstep of two powerful nations: Russia and China. Japan has fought wars with both nations, and China bears a vengeful grudge against Japan as a result of World War II. Russia seized Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands after World War II and its retention of these formerly Japanese islands is a bone of contention between Russia and Japan. Japan cannot hope to make allies of these nations. Therefore, Japan must side with the USA and the West by default. However, Japan and the USA have grown to be genuine allies in the period after World War II. The USA was not a harsh conqueror of Japan.

The USA (in Japan’s post-World War period of reconstruction) preserved Japan’s monarchy, treated the Japanese people and their culture with respect and laid the foundation for Japan’s mercantile success by blending Western, democratic institutions with Japan’s own unique culture Japan has become a trusted ally and friend and it becoming an ever-more important nation in the Western alliance.

An article… in… The Economist… stated that Japan [Tarshish]: “seeks closer ties with democratic India [Cush] and recently formalized a security alliance of sorts, only Japan’s second, with Australia… in addition to becoming an ally of Australia, Japan “sought a new partnership with India while building security ties with South east Asia,” and that “the main catalyst for the security pact (is) the rise of China.”’

A significant identification of Tarshish in the past was its interaction with the descendants of Shem through extensive trade and its western cultural leanings; considerably more so than any other descendant of Japheth. In modern times, Japan has repeated this assimilation of all things western to become technologically almost more western than the West. It is ironic that this began after centuries of self-imposed isolation beginning in 1624, when the Japanese government refused a Spanish trading delegation to step on Japanese land. Japan reluctantly came out of isolation due to American intervention and displays of its naval sea power from 1853 to 1864. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 374-376 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Japanese government then began copying everything they saw in white European nations, a pattern for which their country later became famous. French army officers were paid to enter Japan to remodel the Japanese army while British naval officers were paid to reorganise the Japanese Navy. Dutch engineers were paid to supervise the construction of the first major Western style public works and infrastructure… and Japanese officials were sent abroad to study the… workings of [European] governments and to select their best features for duplication in Japan.

The new Japanese parliament open[ed] in 1891, modelled directly on [European] parliaments… The Japanese constitution was drawn up by a specially-appointed commission under a samurai nobleman, Ito Hirobumi, who in 1882 sent missions to the US, Britain, France, Spain and Germany to observe their democratic systems. Eventually, the German model (and the Prussian variant in particular) was selected and implemented…

A new penal code was modelled on that of France, and a ministry of education, based on that of the United States, was established in 1871 to develop a system of universal education. Rapid industrialisation, under government direction, accompanied… political development and by 1890, Japan had completely revised its criminal, civil, and commercial law codes to match the European and American models.

By the end of the twentieth century, both Japan and China had developed into industrial giants, responsible for the production (but not the invention) of the majority of day-to-day appliances and convenience goods used all over the world. Both nations… practice immigration policies designed to preserve their racial homogeneity… unlike the … Western nations. Japan… famously refused to take Vietnamese boat people refugees of the 1970s and 1980s unless they were racially compatible with the existing Japanese population. This strict, racially-based immigration policy is Japan[s]… formula for long-term survival and progress. If maintained, this policy will ensure that they escape the fate of Western nations who have abandoned such policies.’

Japanese society is linguistically, ethnically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98.1%^^ ethnic Japanese. The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people – primary minority groups include: the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people and also  Brazilians, mostly of Japanese descent. We will return to the Brazilian connection. The Japanese population is rapidly ageing and predicted to drop to only ninety-five million people by 2050.

A study by Hideaki Kanzawa, showed that the Jomon people of Hokkaido and Honshu – the first of three peoples to have migrated into Japan – have a genome that is commonly found in Arctic populations but is rare in Yamato people – the 98%^^ majority of present day Japanese. According to Mitsuru Sakitani, the Jomon people are an admixture of two distinct ethnic groups: a more ancient group [carriers of Y chromosome D-M55] and a more recent group [carriers of Y chromosome C1a1] ‘that migrated to Japan about 13,000 years ago.’

Haplogroup D-M55 [D1a2a] originates in the Japanese archipelago and is distinct from other D-branches, with five unique mutations not found in the D haplogroups. Scientists also propose that haplogroup C1a1 originated about 12,000 years ago, which aligns with the start of the Jomon period. Haplogroup D1a2a is found in approximately 20% to 40% of the population and haplogroup C1a1 in about 6%of modern Japanese people. According to a 2011 study, all major East Asian mtDNA lineages expanded  prior to 8000 BCE, except for two Japanese lineages of D4b2b1 and M7a1a expanding circa 5000 BCE, again during the Jomon Period.

It is interesting that the timeline presented by scientists for the spreading and fanning out of the haplogroups and their subclades [haplotypes] in our racial genome, mirror the dates of key events in our ancient past. The ending of the last ice age with the Flood in 10,837 BCE and the birth of Tarshish circa 10,000 BCE – as well as the ‘time of Peleg’ circa 6755 BCE. We will look into Peleg and the Tower of Babel, when we study Nimrod and Shem’s son, Arphaxad.

Some readers will be aware that the main Haplogroups are often given as originating much further back than 13,000 years ago. The pre-flood world’s chronology and the vast difference in humans longevity is a missing key in understanding the time frames of the antediluvian world. It will be a shock for some and others will be incredulous, as I was too initially, in the knowledge that human ages lived before the flood were immense. A different method of counting was used [the sexagesimal system of the Sumerians (based on multiples of 60) as touched upon in the chapter on Noah], not the Metric decimal [based on multiples of 10] system we use today or the Imperial system based on multiples of 12 a descendant of the Sumerian counting system.

The Biblical ages of the pre-flood patriarchs appear to have been manipulated – making them easier to mentally digest – after the flood, resulting in our real pre-history being hidden. The king lists for ancient rulers length of reigns from Egypt, Babylon and Sumer are extraordinarily long. Many thousands of years for individual rulers. Historians have just dismissed them as fanciful and created a completely erroneous timeline of history more in accord with those who squeeze all creation and mankind’s history into a mere 6,000 years – based on a misguided interpretation of an edited biblical chronology.

The longevity of humans post-flood though considerable until the time of Abraham, were not nearly as lengthy as prior to the flood. A possible result of the flood and the changes in the earth’s atmosphere was to reduce human life-span [the alternative explanation, is genetic manipulation]. From Abraham’s birth [1977 BCE] we have had human longevity reduce dramatically again to a ‘maximum’ of what we are now familiar with, of approximately one hundred and twenty years. 

Genesis 6:3

New Century Version

The Lord said, My Spirit will not remain in human beings forever, because they are flesh. They will live only 120 years.”

It is one of the reasons – perhaps the principal argument – in which the Serpent in the Garden of Eden, was able to convince Eve in taking the ‘fruit’ from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil; deceiving her [and Adam] regarding the truth about life and death… subtly twisting what the Creator had taught. Adam and Eve didn’t die and in fact, lived for millennia’s. Thus the promise of dying was delayed considerably, to the point of them appearing to almost live forever; though death ultimately came, with the tragic lie of the Serpent being eventually exposed.

When scientists propose haplogroups divided and sub-divided between 20,000 – 60,000 thousand years ago for example, this may be accurate in part because Noah was born circa 16,837 BCE and possessed the entire genome for the races, which then diverged with his sons and then again with his grandsons and so on. Noah’s sons were born circa 11,837 BCE – Genesis 5.32, 9.28, 11.10-11. Adam and his wife [Mitochondrial] Eve, were created nearly thirty thousand years ago – circa 27,397 BCE – and the line from which Noah descended was from their son Seth, who was born circa 26,097 BCE. We will comprehensively study the antediluvian age in a separate chapter, as well as an unconventional chronology for the history of humankind. 

It is believed the Yayoi people – the second group of people to migrate into Japan – were migrants to the Japanese archipelago from Korea or China during the Yayoi period [1000–300 BCE]. They are seen as the direct ancestors of the modern Yamato people, the majority of Japanese, as well as the Ryukyuan people. It is estimated that modern Japanese share in average about 90% of their genome with the Yayoi. There was a third period of major migration, during the Kofun period [250–538 CE].

Ancient DNA rewrites early Japanese history – modern day populations have tripartite genetic origin, Trinity College Dublin, 2021: 

‘Ancient DNA extracted from human bones has rewritten early Japanese history by underlining that modern day populations in Japan have a tripartite genetic origin—a finding that refines previously accepted views of a dual genomic ancestry.

Twelve newly sequenced ancient Japanese genomes show that modern day populations do indeed show the genetic signatures of early indigenous Jomon hunter-gatherer-fishers and immigrant Yayoi farmers—but also add a third genetic component that is linked to the Kofun peoples, whose culture spread in Japan between the 3rd and 7th centuries.’

A 2007 study by Nonaka, reported that the frequencies of the D1b, [O1b2], and O2** lineages in Japan were 38.8%, 33.5%,* and 16.7% respectively, constituting approximately 90% of the Japanese population. It is thought that Yayoi people mainly belonged to Haplogroup O-M176 [O1b2] found in 32%* of present day Japanese males, Haplogroup O-M122 [O2, formerly O3], Haplogroup O-K18 [O1b1] and Haplogroup O-M119 [O1a] which are all typical for East and Southeast Asians. 

Mitsueu Sakitani, suggests that haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today’s Japanese, Koreans, and some Manchu, and O1a are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilisation. As the Yangtze civilisation declined, several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. One study labels haplogroup O1b1, a major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 of Koreans, the Japanese [and Vietnam] as a “para-Austroasiatic” paternal lineage.

A study in 2018, confirmed that the modern Japanese are predominantly descendants of the Yayoi and that they largely displaced the local Jomon. The mitochondrial chromosomes of modern Japanese are nearly identical with the Yayoi and differ significantly from the Jomon population. It is estimated that the majority of Japanese have about 12% Jomon ancestry or less^.  A more recent study by Gakihari [2019] estimates the gene-flow from the Jomon into modern Japanese people at only 3.3%.^

‘A 2011 SNP consortium study done by the Chinese Academy of Science and Max Planck Society consisting of 1719 DNA samples determined that Koreans and Japanese clustered near to each other, confirming the findings of an earlier study that Koreans and Japanese are related. However, the Japanese were found to be genetically closer to South Asian populations as evident by a genetic position that is significantly closer towards South Asian populations on the principal component analysis (PCA) chart. Some Japanese individuals are also genetically closer to Southeast Asian and Melanesian populations when compared to other East Asians such as Koreans and Han Chinese, indicating possible genetic interactions between Japanese and these populations. A 2008 study about genome-wide SNPs of East Asians by Chao Tian et al. reported that… the Japanese are relatively genetically distant from Han Chinese, compared to Koreans.Another study (2017) shows a relative strong relation between all East and Southeast Asians.’

We would expect to see the evidence of a link between Tarshish and his brothers located in archipelago Southeast Asia. Nor is it a surprise that the Japanese have DNA in common with Koreans and Chinese, for two reasons. 

First, they are blood brothers [first, then cousins] all stemming from Japheth and secondly, there would have been admixture if the Japanese migrated through China [and Taiwan] and then the Korean peninsula. Similar transference occurred when Koreans migrated through China and some travelled to the Japanese Islands; as well as Chinese traders who visited both Korea and Japan. 

Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This survey of Y chromosome SNPs in Asia reveals a set of 41 haplogroups, 19 of which are present in Japan. Three haplogroups are almost entirely restricted to the Japanese archipelago: haplogroup D-P37.1 and its descendants (D-P37.1*, D-M116.1*, D.M125*, and D-P42), O-47z, and C-M8. These lineages account for 34.7, 22.0, and 5.4% of Japanese Y chromosomes, respectively, and may have originated on the Japanese archipelago. The Japanese population also has high frequencies of other haplogroup O lineages that are shared mainly with Southeast Asian populations, and C lineages that are shared primarily with northern Asians. In this section, we make the case that these Y chromosome lineages descend from different ancestral populations that gave rise to the Jomon and Yayoi cultures.

We plotted the frequencies of haplogroups D, O-P31, and O-M122 in each of our six Japanese samples against the approximate geographic distances of each of these populations from Kyushu Island. Together, these haplogroups account for 86.9% of Japanese Y chromosomes. There is a U-shaped cline for haplogroup D, and inverted U-shaped patterns for haplogroups in clade O. Based on the frequencies of these two clades, we estimate the Jomon contribution to modern Japanese to be 40.3%,^ with the highest frequency in the Ainu (75%) and Ryukyuans (60%). On the other hand, Yayoi Y chromosomes account for 51.9% of Japanese paternal lineages, with the highest contribution in Kyushu (62.3%) and lower contributions in Okinawa (37.8%) and northern Honshu (46.2%). Interestingly, there is no evidence for Yayoi lineages in the Ainu [only Jomon].

The highest frequency of continental D lineages is found in central Asia (especially in Tibet (50.4%). Evidence for shared ancestry between Tibetans and Japanese is seen in the MDS plot. The survival of ancient lineages within haplogroup D in Tibetans and Japanese may well reflect long periods of isolation for both groups. Interestingly, a Y-SNP survey of Andaman Islanders found a very high frequency of haplogroup D-M174* chromosomes in this isolated population… The other postulated Japanese Paleolithic founding haplogroup, C-M8, is associated with Y-STR haplotypes that are related to Indian and central Asian C chromosomes. The presence of NO* chromosomes in Japan also may be an indication of a remnant Tibetan ancestry. A recent mtDNA study revealed direct connections of Japanese haplotypes with Tibet, parallel to those found for the Y chromosome. Haplogroup M12 is the mitochondrial counterpart of Y chromosome D lineage. This rare haplogroup was detected only in mainland Japanese, Koreans, and Tibetans, with the highest frequency and diversity in Tibet.

Our data also support the hypothesis that other Y haplogroups, such as lineages within haplogroup O-M122 (i.e., O-M134 and O-LINE), as well as the O-M95 lineage within O-P31, entered Japan with the Yayoi expansion. High frequencies of these lineages in southwestern Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian populations likely explain the affinity of these populations in the MDS plot. The entire O haplogroup has been proposed to have a Southeast Asian origin (Su et al. 1999; Kayser et al. 2000; Capelli et al. 2001; Karafet et al. 2001). In fact, nearly all lineages within the O-M175 clade… except O-SRY465 and O-47z, are present at their highest frequencies (e.g., O-M95, O-P31*, M122*, O-LINE, O-M119) in southeastern Asia/Oceania, and have been proposed to have southern Chinese origins…’

Phylogentic Tree by ISOGG (Version 14.151)

DE (YAP) Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Caribbean, Tibet 

D (CTS3946) 

D1 (M174) East Asia, Andaman Islands, Central Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia 

D1a (CTS11577) 

D1a1 (F6251/Z27276) 

 – D1a1a (M15) Mainland China, Tibet, Altai Republic 

 – D1a1b (P99) Mainland China, Tibet, Mongol, Central Asia 

D1a2 (Z3660) 

 – D1a2a (M55) Japan (Yamato, Ryukyuan and Ainu people) 

 – D1a2b (Y34637) Andaman Islands (Onge and Jarawa people) 

D1b (L1378) Philippines 

D2 (A5580.2) Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Syria, African Americans 

Wa-pedia — emphasis and bold mine:

‘The origins of the Japanese people is not entirely clear yet. It is common for Japanese people to think that Japan is not part of Asia since it is an island, cut off from the continent. This tells a lot about how they see themselves in relation to their neighbours. But in spite of what the Japanese may think of themselves, they do not have extraterrestrial origins, and are indeed related to several peoples in Asia.

Kenichi Shinoda (2003) found Chinese-looking maternal lineages (haplogroups A, B, F, M8a and M10) in the Kanto region dating from the late Jōmon period mixed with typical Jōmon lineages (M7a, N9b)… this could indicate that farmers from mainland China colonised Japan several millennia before the Yayoi invasion, which would explain why the Japanese also possess typically South Chinese Y-haplogroups not found in Korea, such as O1a, O2a, O3a1c and O3a2.

Haplogroup C is another extremely old lineage that… spread over most of Eurasia. Two subclades of C are found in Japan: C1a1 (aka C-M8, formerly C1) and C2a (aka C-M93, formerly C3). Both are likely to have been in the Japanese archipelago since the first human beings reached the region… Haplogroup C1a seems to have split… in the middle of Eurasia, one group going west to Europe, and the other east to Japan. C1a2 is now nearly extinct in Europe. C1a1 is particularly common in Okinawa (7%), Shikoku (10%) and Tohoku (10%), but is apparently absent from Hokkaido and Kyushu.’

An explanation for this occurrence, would be that Tarshish migrated through Asia as the other sons of Japheth, though like their sea-faring, maritime bothers descended from Javan [for example the Maori (Rodanim)], a portion travelled via the Mediterranean, heading south past the eastern coast of Africa, beneath South Asia, around Southeast Asia and north past China to Japan.

‘Haplogroup C2a, representing also 3% of the population, is typically found among the Mongols, Manchus, Koreans and Siberians, which suggest a propagation by the Yayoi farmers. The last surviving tribes of ‘pure’ Ainu people, living on the island of Sakhalin in Russia, just north of Hokkaido, possess 15% of C2a (the remaining 85% being D1b). There is therefore a good chance that C2a could also have come to Japan from Siberia through Sakhalin and Hokkaido. C2a is indeed found at both extremities of the country, peaking in Kyushu (8%), Hokkaido (5%), but is rare in central Japan, which supports the theory of two separate points of entry.

Over 40% of Japanese men belong to haplogroup D, a paternal lineage… 

Its first carriers would have migrated along the coasts of the Indian Ocean, from the Arabian peninsula all the way to Indonesia, then following the chain of islands up through the Philippines and using the land bridge from Taiwan through the present-day Ryukyu islands to Japan.’ 

When studying the Bible verses regarding Tarshish, we contemplated that the outposts of Tarshish from the mediterranean via India and Southeast Asia could lead to Japan. Therefore, not only were the various locations given for Tarshish ports accurate, they also provide a trail of Tarshish’s descendants all the way to Japan over a period of about 5,500 years – leading to the entry of Japan by the Yayoi by at least circa 1000 BCE.

‘Haplogroup D1b (aka D-M55 or D-M64.1, formerly known as D2)… is found almost exclusively in Japan, with a small minority in places who have had historical ties with Japan, such as Korea. D1b is most common in Hokkaido (60-65%)… If D1b colonised Japan from the north, it would explain why its frequency is highest in northern Japan and, conversely also why pre-LGM [last glacial maximum] lineages like C1a1 survived better in southern Japan…

The only other variety of D identified among the Japanese is D1a1 (D-M15), which only makes up 0.5% of the Japanese male population. This haplogroup is particularly common among some ethnic groups from Southwest China and Indochina, such as the Hmong and Ksingmul in Laos… and the Yao people in Guanxi and Vietnam. Tibetans carry about 54% of haplogroup D.

Andaman Islanders belong to the basal D*. It means that their most recent common ancestors goes back tens of thousands of years. In other words the genetic gap between these ethnic groups is immense, despite false appearances of belonging to a common haplogroup. Haplogroup D1b was formed 45,000 years ago [perhaps 30,000 years ago instead, in mitochondrial Eve], but the most recent common ancestor of Japanese D1b members lived 23,000 years ago, [between the births of Seth and Noah] which means that other D1b branches may have become extinct outside Japan. Haplogroup D1b is found among the Ryukyuans as well as the Ainus, and is thought to have been the dominant paternal lineage of the Jōmon people.

Almost exactly half of Japanese men belong to haplogroup O, a paternal lineage of Paleolithic Sino-Korean origin that is now found all over East and Southeast Asia.

Haplogroup [O1b] (aka O-SRY465) is found especially in Manchuria, Korea and Japan, and very probably came to Japan with the Yayoi people. It reaches its highest frequency in western Japan (35%) and is least common in Hokkaido (12.5%) and Okinawa (22%). In the rest of the country its frequency is around 30%. Approximately two thirds of the Japanese [O1b] belong to the [O1b2] subclade, which is much less common in Korea and Manchuria… Haplogroup [O1b2] (SRY465, M176): Found almost exclusively among the Korean, Japanese, Thai, Vietnamese and Indonesian. Haplogroup [O1b2]-47z: Found frequently among Japanese and Ryukyuans, with a moderate distribution among Indonesians, Koreans, Manchus, Thais, and Vietnamese.

Haplogroup [O2] (aka O-M122) is the main Han Chinese paternal lineage. It is an extremely diverse lineage, with numerous subclades, including many associated with the expansion of agriculture from northern China. Most of them are found in Korea and would have been part of the Yayoi migration to Japan. Within Japan, it reaches a maximum frequency in Okinawa (16%),** a region with low Yayoi ancestry. Its frequency among non-Okinawan Japanese is of 10-15%, about twice higher than in Korea, a fact that cannot be explained by the Yayoi invasion. A negligible percentage of the Japanese belong to haplogroup O1a (aka O-M119), a lineage especially common in southern China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia, and haplogroup O2a1 (aka O-M95), which is found in south-west China, Indochina, around Malaysia and in central-eastern India. Both of them might have also have come with South Chinese Neolithic farmers during the Jomon period.

Approximately 3% of Japanese men belong to haplogroup N, a lineage that is thought to have originated in China… but underwent a serious population bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum, and re-expanded after that. Japanese people belong to N1… Haplogroup N1 was found at high frequency (26 out of 70 samples, or 37%) in Neolithic and Bronze Age remains (4500-700 BCE) from the West Liao River valley in Northeast China (Manchuria) by Yinqui Cui et al. (2013). Among the Neolithic samples, haplogroup N1 represented two thirds of the samples from the Hongshan culture (4700-2900 BCE) and all the samples from the Xiaoheyan culture (3000-2200 BCE). Haplogroup N1c is found especially among Uralic and Turkic peoples…  including among the Finns, Estonians and Sami in Northeast Europe, and among the Turks in Central Asia and Turkey. It is found at low frequencies in Korea and could have arrived with the Yayoi people. 

A comparison of Malay (Bahasa Indonesia/Melayu) and Japanese languages reveals a few uncanny similarities. Apart from the very similar phonetics in both languages, the same hierarchical differences exist in personal pronouns. For example ‘you’ can be either anda or kamu in Malay, and anata and kimi in Japanese. Not only are the meaning and usage of each identical, but they also sound almost the same. Likewise, the Japanese verb suki (to like) translates suka in Malay. The chances that this is a pure coincidence is extremely low, and may reveal a common origin. Furthermore, in both languages the plural can be formed by simply doubling the word. For instance, in Japanese hito means ‘person’, while hitobito means ‘people’. Likewise ware means ‘I’ or ‘you’, whereas wareware means ‘we’. Doubling of words in Japanese is so common that there is a special character used only to mean the word is doubled (々) in written Japanese. In Malay, this way of forming the plural is almost systematic (person is orang, while people is orang-orang). Furthermore, expressions like ittekimasu, itteirashai, tadaima and okaeri, used to greet someone who leaves or enter a place, and which have no equivalent in Indo-European languages, have exact equivalents in Malay/Indonesian (selamat jalan, selamat tinggal…). One could wonder how Malay and Japanese ever came to share such basic vocabulary and grammatical features, considering that there is no known historical migration from one region to other.’

The preceding paragraph is truly incredible, if one did not suspect a common ancestor for Tarshish-Japan with Elisha-Malaysia. Though the constant reader will already know the obvious linguistic link between two such separate peoples geographically is easily, logically and reasonably explained, as they share the same father, Javan. As we have learned with Togarmah-Korea and Ashkenazi-Vietnam, both sons of Gomer, a genetic link proves beyond a shadow of a doubt the familial bond of brothers.

‘The Palaeolithic Jōmon people are thought to have arrived from Austronesia during the Ice Age. The original inhabitants of Indonesia and the Philippines might have been related to Dravidians of Southern India. Y-haplogroup C, which has been associated with the first migration of modern humans… towards Asia, is relatively frequent in Kerala (southern tip of India) and Borneo. These early Austronesians are thought to have been the ancestors of the Ice Age settlers of Japan (Y-haplogroups C1a1 and D1b). The common root of the two languages must be more recent, and indeed there is one migration that could explain the connection between the two groups: the Neolithic Austronesian expansion from southern China.’

Recall in the preceding chapter on Javan and the Polynesians descended from Rodan, we included the Melanesian [and Negritos] peoples. Yet my suspicion was that the physiognomy of these people, particularly the Australian Aborigine is similar to the Dravidian Indians. We will return to this question as the evidence indicates the Melanesians are not descended from Japheth, but rather from Ham.

‘From approximately 5,000 BCE, South Chinese farmers expanded southward to Taiwan and Southeast Asia, bringing Y-haplogroups O1, O2 and O3 to the region, which are still the dominant paternal lineages today. There is evidence of farming in Taiwan at least from 4000 BCE, but agriculturalists would probably have arrived earlier considering that the Neolithic reached the Philippines circa 5000 BCE, and Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia around 4,000 BCE… the same migration could have followed the Ryukyu archipelago until Kyushu, then colonised Honshu and Shikoku. In fact, there is no good reason why these seafaring farmers would travel as far as Indonesia and not to Japan, which is much closer.

Many more Japanese words could be of Austronesian origin. The linguist David B. Solnit estimates that among 111 common Japanese words he analysed, 28% had Austronesian cognates only, while 40% had Altaic cognates, 23% competing cognates, and 9% no cognate in either. Considering that the various branches of Proto-Austronesian split over 6,000 or 7,000 years ago, longer than Indo-European languages, it is not surprising that even languages that are undeniably classified as Austronesian today have evolved very diverging vocabularies today (except Polynesian languages, which only started to diversify with the Polynesian expansion 2,000 years ago).

It is generally more useful to look at the Proto-Autronesian root of words rather than to try to find direct matches between modern Japanese and modern Austronesian languages. For example, the Proto-Austronesian root for fish is *sikan, which gave sakana in Japanese (and maybe also ika, which means squid), ikan in Malay, ika in Fijian, and isda in Tagalog. 

Cases of high lexical-semantic retention over six millennia like kamu/kimi, anda/anata and suka/suki are extremely rare. The Austronesian connection with Japanese was first suggested in 1924 by the Dutch linguist Dirk van Hinloopen Labberton. Many linguists have since proposed the hypothesis that the Japonic language family evolved from an Austronesian substratum (Jōmon) onto which was added an Altaic superstratum (Yayoi).

However, if Austronesian speakers came to Japan with South Chinese Neolithic agriculturalists, the original Jomon people would have spoken another language, either one of Siberian origin, in light of the mtDNA ties between Jomon and Ainu people and eastern Siberians, or a language isolate, reflecting the uniqueness of the Jomon paternal D1b lineage. Therefore, Middle and Late Jomon people would already have spoken a hybrid language. Likewise, the Koguryoic Korean language of the Yayoi people would also be a hybrid incorporating Altaic elements of Mongolian origin into an older Korean substratum of Paleosiberian origin. Since the 6th century CE, the Japanese started incorporating words from Chinese after adopting Buddhism and Chinese characters, in the same way that English absorbed a huge amount of Norman French and Latin words in the late Middle Ages [another Japanese, Great Britain similarity]… approximately half of the Japanese vocabulary is of Chinese origin. This explains why Japanese does not neatly fit in one or even two linguistic families, but is a hybrid of at least five separate sources: aboriginal Jomon, Austronesian, Korean, Altaic and Chinese.

Cultural and religious similarities also exist between Japan and Austronesia… most ethnic Malays and Indonesians are Muslim, but traditional religion survives in some islands, including Bali, which practices a syncretic form of Hinduism and aninism. Basically, Balinese religion is a form of Hinduism that has incorporated the aboriginal animistic religion. The parallel with Japan is obvious for people familiar with this culture. Japanese Shintoism is also a form of animism, and is practised side-by-side with Buddhism, a religion derived from Hinduism, sometimes blending the two religions in a syncretism known as Shinbutso-shugo. The relation between Hinduism and Buddhism is irrelevant here, and both are relatively recent imports in historical times. Before that, however, Jomon people and Neolithic Austronesians would have practised a very similar form of animism.

Japanese matsuri (festivals) resemble so much Balinese ones that one could wonder if one was not copied from the other. During cremations in Bali, the dead body is carried on a portable shrine, very much in the way that the Japanese carry their mikoshi. Balinese funerals are joyful and people swinging the portable shrine in the streets and making loud noise to scare the evil spirits. There are lots of other cultural similarities between ancient cultures of Indonesia and Japan. For example, both Balinese temples and Japanese shrines, as well as traditional Japanese and Balinese houses have a wall surrounding them, originally meant to prevent evil spirits from penetrating the property. Despite the radical changes that Indonesian culture underwent after the introduction of Islam and Christianity, and the changes that Buddhism brought to Japan, it is still possible to observe clear similarities between the supposed original prehistoric cultures of the two archipelagoes.’

We would expect more similarities between Japan and Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines culturally, linguistically and ethnically, rather than with Korea or China. The Koreans and Chinese are cousins, whereas the language and cultural similarities with the Malay-Polynesian peoples supports the proposition that the Japanese as Tarshish, are the brother of Elishah [Malaysia], Kitti [Indonesia], Dodan [Philippines] and Rodan [Polynesia]. An earlier quote from the section on Togarmah:

‘The study…[of]… Jung et al. (2010) said…that Koreans are genetically homogenous. The study said that the affinity of Koreans is predominately Southeast Asian with an estimated admixture of 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian for Koreans… all of the Koreans which were analyzed uniformly displayed a dual pattern of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian origins. The study said that Koreans and Japanese displayed no observable difference between each other in their proportion of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian admixture.’

The main Japanese mtDNA haplogroups include: D4 [34%], M7 [12.5%], B4 [7.5%], G [7.5%],

A [7%], N9 [7%], F [5.5%] and B5 [4.5%]. 

A comparison of the mtDNA haplogroups common throughout Southeast Asia of M, B5 and F show that the percentages decrease in both estranged northern nations. Japan [Tarshish] and Korea [Togarmah] very similar, have the closest match with the Philippines [Dodan] that happens to be located between the northern two and the southern three nations [Ashkenaz, Minni, Elishah] sampled.

Vietnamese:  M7    [10]%    B5    [7%]      F1    [19%] 

Thais:              M     [9%]       B5a [9%]      F1a  [9%]

Malays:           M7a   [39%]    B5    [11%]     F1a  [17%]

Filipinos:        M7c  [11%]    B5b [8%]      F1a  [4%] 

Koreans:         M7   [11%]     B5    [5%]      F     [5%]

Japanese:       M7   [13%]     B5    [5%]     F      [6%]

The principal Y-DNA haplogroups for the minority peoples in Japan, the Ainus – descended from the Jomon – and the Ryukyuans, descended from the Yayoi.

Region / HaplogroupCD1bNO1aO1bO2QOthers
Ainus (n=20)15%85%0%0%0%0%0%0%
Ryukyuans (n=132)8.5%45.5%1.5%1.5%22%19%0%1%

The main Y-DNA haplogroups for the Yamato majority of Japan, the descendants of the Kofun period.

Japan:   D1b – O1b – O2 – C – K – N1a – O1a – D1a – Q – F

Japan:   D1b [ 39%] – O1b [33%] – O2 [19%] – C [11%] – K [1.5%] – N1a [1.3%]

– O1a [1.2%] – D1a [0.5%] – Q [0.4%] – F [0.2%]  

The Japanese possess the key Oriental haplogroups of O, C and K, also exhibiting the lesser haplogroups, N and Q. The high percentage of Y-DNA haplogroup D is unique amongst the descendants of Japheth with the only other peoples, being the Tibetans of Tibet and a lesser extent the Koreans.

Japan:           D1b – O1b – O2a1 – C –  K – N1a – O1a – D1a – Q – F

Malaysia:      O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F

Indonesia:    O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F 

Java:              O1b – O1a – O2a1 – C – K 

Korea:            O2a1 – O1b2 – C – K – N – O1a – D1b – Q 

Vietnam:       O2a1 – O1b2 – Q1a – O1a – C – D1 – N 

Sumatra:       O2a1 – O1a – O1b – F – C – K – D

Philippines:  O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b 

Thailand:      O2a1 – O1a – C – D1 – K 

Though Japan does have a similarity with Korea and by extension Vietnam, it is the Malay peoples of Malaysia and the Indonesian Island of Java, that are most closely aligned – with Sumatra and the Philippines being the least similar. 

Japan:           O1b  [33%]     O2a1  [19%]     O1a  [2%]      K  [2%]      C  [11%]

Malaysia:      O1b  [32%]     O2a1  [28%]    O1a  [8%]      K  [8%]      C  [6%] 

Java:              O1b  [42%]     O2a1  [23%]    O1a  [23%]    K  [2%]      C  [2%]   

Korea:           O1b  [33%]      O2a1  [42%]   O1a  [3%]      K  [4%]      C  [13%]

Vietnam:      O1b  [33%]      O2a1  [40%]    O1a  [6%]                        C  [4%] 

Sumatra:      O1b  [14%]      O2a1  [30%]   O1a   [18%]    K  [4%]      C  [5%]  

Philippines: O1b  [3%]        O2a1  [39%]  O1a   [28%]    K [20%]    C  [5%] 

As Vietnam is to Korea, so is Malaysia to Japan. Togarmah is estranged from his brothers in continental southeast Asia and of those brothers, Ararat, Minni, Riphath and Diphath, it is Ashkenaz that the closer genetic tie is shared. Similarly, Tarshish estranged from his brothers in archipelago southeast Asia and of those brothers, Kitti, Dodan and Rodan, it is Elishah that the closer genetic tie is exhibited. 

Someone might say, “Look, this is new,” but really it has always been here. It was here before we were.

Ecclesiastes 1:10 New Century Version

“The more obvious a discovery, the more obvious it seems afterwards.”

Arthur Koestler [1905-1983]

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Noah Antecessor Nulla

Chapter I

For the purpose of this work, we will begin with Noah and his family as our starting point and the family tree or Table of Nations, listed in Genesis 10:1-32 and 1 Chronicles 1:1-20.

Professor Aaron Demsky comments in Reading Biblical Genealogies, The Table of Nations, Humanity as an extended Family:

‘Genesis 10, known as the “Table of Nations,” describes mankind after the Flood; it is a veritable storehouse of ethnographic and geographical information regarding the biblical period. The chapter divides humanity into the descendants of the three sons of Noah: Japheth, Ham and Shem in that order according to their increasing numbers and according to their ethnic closeness to the unmentioned Israel, whose Patriarch Abraham was not yet born. This chapter expresses the ideal brotherhood of humanity, implying an innate equality and collective responsibility. This ideal is expressed in the use of segmented genealogies creating a world of one big family: the Sons of Noah.’

Continuing in Genesis, English Standard Version:

These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2 The sons of Japheth: 

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.

6 The sons of Ham: 

Cush, Egypt [Mizra], Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan… 13 Egypt [Mizra] fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim. 

15 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the  Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed… 20 These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber… children were born. 

22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. 25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan… 31 These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Dr Herman Hoeh’s Introduction in Origin of the Nations – capitalisation his:

‘Let us first turn to Genesis 10 and 1 Chronicles 1. Here is the place to start. Yet here is the place from which almost no one begins. To begin here is looked upon as “unscientific.” 

These two chapters hold THE KEY NAMES… The whole human family sprang from the three sons of Noah. But their descendants turn up today in the least expected places! Now read Genesis 10:32: “These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and OF THESE were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.” Did you notice the wording of this verse! “of these” were the nations divided – not after some other families, but OF THESE VERY FAMILIES MENTIONED IN GENESIS 10. The nations today are descendants of these family names.

All nations and races sprang from Japheth, Ham and Shem, the three sons of Noah. From the three sons sprang 16 grandsons of Noah. These 16 family names illustrate all the general types of people extant today. All these sons had children, but their names are not recorded in Scripture. We did not need to know their names in order to understand the Bible.

Let us now begin the most thrilling story of adventure ever written, yet a story with real meaning for today!’

Historian Arthur Kemp explains race versus ethnicity and the importance of understanding the second point raised in the introduction, discussing migration.

March of the Titans, 1999 & 2016, pages 1 & 8:

‘A race is defined as a group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes which determine that group’s physical appearance and, more controversially, their cognitive abilities. Ethnicity is defined as the creation of groups by individuals (most often within racial groups but also possible across racial divides) of certain common traditions, languages, art forms, attitudes, and other means of expression. A culture is the name given to the physical manifestations created by ethnic groups – the actual… religion, social order, and achievements of a particular group… ethnicity and culture – are directly dependent upon each other, and flow from each other in a symbiotic relationship.

… If all [of a specific nation of] people on earth had to disappear tomorrow, then fairly obviously, [their] civilization and culture would disappear with them. It is this startlingly obvious principle which determines the creation and dissolution of civilizations – once the people who create a certain society or civilization disappear, then that society or civilization will disappear with them. If the vanished population is replaced by different peoples, then a new society or culture is created which reflects the culture and civilization of the new inhabitants of that region… That this should happen is perfectly logical. It has nothing to do with which culture is more advanced, or any notions of superiority or inferiority. It is merely a reflection of the fact that a civilization is a product of the nature of the people making up the population in the territory.’ 

Regarding Haplogroups – the fourth point mentioned in the introduction – Eupedia explains:

‘Mitochondrial DNA is found outside the cell’s nucleus, inside the mitochondria – organelles that provide energy to the cell. It consists of only 16,569 base pairs, or 0.000005% of the human genome. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited only through one’s mother. As it does not recombine like chromosomes, it can be used in population genetics to trace back ancestry on the matrilineal side and to divide populations into haplogroups. The same can be done on the patrilineal side using the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), which is inherited exclusively from father to son and does not recombine with the X chromosome. Only a few mutations distinguish the Y chromosome of a man and his father. These mutations are cumulative from generation to generation, so it is easy to trace the family tree of humanity by analyzing these mutations (SNPs) [single nucleotide polymorphism] on the Y chromosome and mtDNA.’

Humanity have two lineages, the Y-DNA Haplogroups traceable via their fathers and mtDNA Haplogroups traceable from their mothers. Maternal Haplogroups are determined from mitochondrial DNA information passed down from mothers to all of her offspring; whereas paternal Haplogroups are determined from the Y chromosome passed down only from fathers to sons. Every single human being belongs to or has, a Haplogroup sequence. However, males have input from two sets of Haplogroups and females only have one. Thus males inherit a number of maternal Haplogroups from their mother and a selection of paternal Haplogroups from their father; while females only inherit a series of maternal Haplogroups.

A brief summary of Mitochondrial DNA analysis by John M Butler, Defining mtDNA Haplogroups in Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology, 2012:

‘Over the course of typing mtDNA samples from various populations, researchers have observed that individuals often cluster into haplogroups that can be defined by particular polymorphic nucleotides… These haplogroups were originally defined in the late 1980s and 1990s by grouping samples possessing the same or similar patterns when subjected to a series of restriction enzymes that were used to separate various mtDNA types from diverse populations around the world… 

Haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and M are typically associated with Asians while most Native Americans fall into haplogroups A, B, C, and D. Haplogroups L1, L2, and L3 are African, and haplogroups [N], H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, and X are typically associated with European populations…’

Scientific discovery in the decade beginning the late 1980s has corroborated the table of nations in Genesis Ten. We can be confident as we progress, that Noah’s three sons and their wives represent the three main racial strands on the earth today – Asian, African and European. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 3:

‘Research carried out by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza and two colleagues, P. Menozzi and A. Piazzia, in their work The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994), has revealed an astonishing 2,288 genetic point difference between whites and black Africans… the English differ from the Danes, Germans, and French by a mere 21-25 points of genetic difference, whereas they differ from North American Indians by 947 points…’

During the course of this research it became imperative that an improved chronology was devised. It is impossible to have a wholly complete or ‘accurate’ chronology for the very distant past. Conversely, it is possible to form a reasonably accurate time frame much further back than one would first anticipate.  It has involved considerable effort to create a reliable timeline from before Adam through to the present day. A whole different jig-saw puzzle and a significant challenge in its own right. A chronology based on a re-interpretation of the Old Testament Bible chronology prior to the Great Flood, combined with the Sumerian sexagesimal numerical counting system for the postdiluvian age to Abraham, has contributed to a pragmatic timeline of Earth’s ancient history. As there are already conventional and revised chronologies, it is an unconventional chronology

Everything You Know Is Still Wrong, Lloyd Pye, 2009 & 2017, pages 375-376: 

‘Sumerians… created an efficient system of mathematics based on the number 60 (called sexagesimal). It enabled them to easily divide into tiny fractions and to multiply with equal ease into the millions, to calculate roots and raise numbers by any power. The 60-second minute and the 60-minute hour are two vestiges that remain from their original system. 

So are the 360-degree circle, the 12-inch foot, and the dozen. 

They had accurate calendars fashioned around the mind-boggling timeframe of 25,920 years, the “Great Year” based on a sophisticated celestial phenomenon known as precession (the time Earth’s polar axis needs to circle the sky and point again at the same North star) [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].’

There is considerable support in dating the biblical flood to coincide with when the last ice age ended approximately 13,000 years ago – or precisely, 10,837 BCE. A growing number of scientists and historians – outside of the mainstream institutions that deliberately support an erroneous agenda of either no flood at all, a localised Middle Eastern flood or that it occurred about 2400 BCE – concur with the dating of circa 11,000 BCE.

For instance, though humans were eating cereal-based foods well before the flood, wheat was only domesticated since the last ice age; created from a still-living ancestor plant known as emmer. Wheat is a grain crop with some 25,000 different cultivars in the world today and most of these 25,000 different forms of modern wheat are varieties of two broad groups, called common wheat and durum wheat. Common or bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, accounts for some 95 percent of all the consumed wheat in the world today – the other 5 percent is made up of durum or hard wheat, Turgidum durum, used in pasta and semolina products.

Lloyd Pye, pages 517-519, 523 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In The Twelfth Planet Zecharia Sitchin calls Sumeria “The Sudden Civilisation”… it blossomed out of nowhere nearly 6,000 years ago… its roots extend back twice that farThe first official traces of domesticated plants and animals appear… around 12,000 ya, which scientists acknowledge was the time and point of origin for virtually all the domesticated agriculture and animal husbandry that has subsequently spread around the world.

… the first farmers… chose to begin cultivation in highlands… a terrible choice because they are subject to extreme variations in weather, they possess thin, less-than optimally-fertile soil, and they require construction of labour-intensive terraces to hold the poor soil in place… After the Flood, the plains were covered with soggy mud and silt that could not dry out or be washed away until new riverbeds provided drainage by carving their way down from the mountains above, which would have required many centuries.

In the Wars of Gods and Men, Zecharia Sitchin points out: 

“Scholars are agreed that agriculture began… with the harvesting of ‘wild ancestors’ of wheat and barley some 12,000 ya (10,000 BCE), but (they) are baffled by the genetic uniformity of those early grains grasses; and they are totally at a loss to explain the botano-genetic feat whereby within a mere 2,000 years(8,000 BCE)such wild emmers doubled, trebled, and quadrupled their chromosome pairs to become the cultivable wheat and barley of outstanding nutritional value (and) with the incredible ability to grow almost anywhere, and with the unusual twice-a-year crops.”

We first read of the patriarch Noah in Genesis 5:28-29, English Standard Version:

28 … Lamech… fathered a son 29 and called his name Noah [H5146 – Noach: ‘rest’], saying, “Out of the ground that the Lord has cursed, this one shall bring us relief [comfort] from our work and from the painful toil of our hands.” [Genesis 3:17-18]

Noah is referred to in Sumerian texts as ZI.UD.SUD.DRA and in separate Akkadian accounts as Atra-hais, meaning ‘exceedingly wise’ and in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as Ut-napishtim. The Greco-Roman account, records the name Duecalion for Noah. Noah means rest or quiet. Noah being saved from the impending doom of a worldwide flood meant mankind could continue and therefore we are alive today; a testament to the Creator’s promise to spare Noah.

Ezekiel 14:14

English Standard Version

… even if these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness, declares the Lord God.

Noah was one of the three most righteous men to live, listed with Daniel and Job. When this was written, Daniel was still alive. Even though Noah’s righteousness didn’t save humanity; it was in part because of his very righteousness, that ultimately mankind was spared. 

2 Peter 2:5

King James Version

And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;

Book of Enoch Chapter Ten:

“1. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel [Ariel an Archangel – refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega] to the son of Lamech, and said to him: 2. ‘and tell him in my name “Hide thyself!” and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. 3. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.’

The world in Noah’s day had grown evil beyond measure. Corrupted by fallen Angels who had interfered with the creation on Earth and humankind in particular. The Creator planned to cleanse the earth and start anew. 

The account is explained in Genesis 6:1-22, New Century Version:

The number of people on earth began to grow, and daughters were born to them. 2 When the sons of God saw that these girls were beautiful, they married any of them they chose. 3 The Lord said, “My Spirit will not remain in human beings forever, because they are flesh. They will live only 120 years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days and also later.* That was when the sons of God [Angels] had sexual relations with the daughters of human beings. These women gave birth to children, who became famous and were the mighty warriors [giants] of long ago. 5 The Lord saw that the human beings on the earth were very wicked and that everything they thought about was evil.He was sorry he had made human beings on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain. 7 So the Lord said, “I will destroy all human beings that I made on the earth. And I will destroy every animal and everything that crawls on the earth and the birds of the air, because I am sorry I have made them [note: marine life not included].” 

8 But Noah pleased the Lord. 9 This is the family history of Noah. Noah was a good [H6662 – tsaddiyq: ‘just, lawful, righteous’ – spiritual] man, the most innocent [H8549 – tamiym: ‘complete, healthful, without blemish, undefiled’ – physically] man of his time, and he walked with God. 10 He had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11 People on earth did what God said was evil, and violence was everywhere. 12 When God saw that everyone on the earth did only evil, 13 he said to Noah, “Because people have made the earth full of violence, I will destroy all of them from the earth. 14 Build a boat of cypress [H1613 – Gopher: meaning ‘to house in’] wood [H6086 – ets: meaning ‘tree’ from H6095 – atsah: meaning ‘firmness, shut’] for yourself. Make rooms in it and cover it inside and outside with tar [H3722 – kaphaph: meaning ‘to cover over’ (with bitumen [pitch]) or ‘to make an atonement, to cleanse’]…

17 I will bring a flood of water on the earth to destroy all living things that live under the sky, including everything that has the breath of life. Everything on the earth will die. 18 But I will make an agreement with you [Genesis 9:8-17] – you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives will all go into the boat. 19 Also, you must bring into the boat two of every living thing, male and female. Keep them alive with you. 20 Two of every kind of bird, animal, and crawling thing will come to you to be kept alive. 21 Also gather some of every kind of food and store it on the boat as food for you and the animals.”

22 Noah did everything that God commanded him.

We will repeatedly encounter the Nephilim during our journey and we will discuss them in more detail [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin and Destiny of Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Various sources that recount a global flood, mention other survivors apart from Noah’s family; consequently, Nephilim presence in the post-flood world is mentioned repeatedly in the Old Testament.*

Not only does Noah receive high praise for his character from his Maker, these verses also describe the physical purity of his genealogy. An unarguable reason why Noah was the ideal candidate to continue the human race. Noah’s ancestors going back to Adam and his son Seth, are listed in Genesis chapter five.

Author Alan Alford says the following regarding Noah in his first book, Gods of the New Millennium, 1996 – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘Noah’s birth was far from normal. According to the Book of Enoch, when Noah was born, his father Lamech was extremely perturbed to find that, “his body was white as snow and red as the blooming of a rose”. Lamech was so shocked that he asked his father Methuselah to make enquiries of Enoch who was staying among the sons of the Gods (the Nephilim), because: “I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the God of Heaven and his nature is quite different, and he is not like us… And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but from the angels.” Enoch’s response was to assure Lamech that Noah was indeed his son, but his unusual disposition was part of a plan to save Noah and his family in a coming deluge. It would seem that Noah’s father may have become known as Lamech, meaning “He who was Humbled”, as a result of this rather embarrassing accusation against his wife. Lamech’s hope for better times was not to come true, for mankind’s problems were only just beginning. According to the Atra-Hasis, some time before the Flood… God… decided to punish… man with infectious diseases and a series of droughts… and the Biblical reference to the ground which had been cursed by the Lord may well refer to the beginning of the last ice age…’

This description is not necessarily saying Noah was an albino, though this is a plausible scenario. It could be referring to Noah being fair, with very pale skin. We find a remarkably similar description, of the Son of Man in Revelation 1:14-15, New Century Version:

His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like flames [G5395 – phlox: ‘a flash or blaze’] of fire. His feet were like bronze [G5474 – chalkolibanon: superficially ‘fine brass’, though could be a ‘metal like gold if not more precious’] that glows in a hot furnace…

The description is not necessarily saying the Son of Man has red or orange eyes. He could have blue eyes which are radiant and piercing. The colour of a pure, high temperature flame is blue-white. People can be described as having flaming eyes or smouldering blue eyes. Similarly, it is not necessarily correct to assume bronze or brass means brown or coppery, as the Greek word chalkolibanon derives from a compound of 5475 and 3030, which mean ‘whiteness’ or ‘brilliancy.’ When fine brass is burnt in a furnace it becomes white hot. When it cools, it remains white with a golden hint to it.

In Daniel 7:9-10, New English Translation: 

“While I was watching, thrones were set up, andthe Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lamb’s wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. 10  A river of fire [the Holy Spirit] was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence.

The Ancient of Days and source of all life is similarly described. Some translations say the Ancient One. The CEV translates as, the Eternal God and the TEV as, One who had been living for ever. 

The Book of Enoch corroborates the biblical description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days.

Book of Enoch 46:1-4

1 At that place,I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor like that of one among the kodesh [holy] malakim [angels]. 2 And I asked… “Who is this, and from whence is he who is going as the prototype of the Before-Time?” 3 … “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells… for Yahweh [Lord] of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts… 4 “This Son of Man whom you have seen is the One who would remove the kings and the mighty ones [rulers of this world] from their comfortable seats and the strong ones [the unseen rulers of this world] from their thrones…”

The Bible states that Noah was ‘perfect’ in his ‘generations’. The word generations, is the Hebrew word Toledah, and means ‘descent.’ The Hebrew word Tamim means ‘without blemish’ in his generations and is the technical word for bodily and physical perfection; not a reference to Noah’s righteousness. It is the same word used for the purity of sacrificial animals. Noah was without blemish physically because – in his pedigree from Adam and Seth – his lineage had not mixed with any other human line or more crucially, been tainted by the Nephilim. 

The Genesis Apocryphon parallels the birth of Noah in the Book of Enoch: 

‘… behold I thought then without my heart that conception was due to the watchers and the holy ones and to the giants, and my heart was troubled within me because of this trial. Then I, Lamech approached Bathenosh my wife in haste and said to her, ‘… by the Most High, the Great Lord, the King of all the world and Ruler of the Sons of Heaven, until you tell me all things truthfully… Tell me… and not falsely… Then Bathenosh my wife spoke to me with much heat [and mastered her anger]… said ‘O my brother, oh my lord, remember my pleasure … the lying together and my soul within its body. [And I tell you] all things truthfully… I swear to you by the Holy Great One the King of the heavens, that this seed is yours and this conception is from you, whose spirit was planted by you and by no stranger or watcher or son of heaven.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 31 – emphasis authors, bold mine:

Lamech mistook the holy nature of Noah as possessing the startling physical characteristics of [a] baby Nephilim… the first book of Enoch: 

“… Methuselah, took a wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him and bore him a son. And his body was white as snow and as red as a rose; the hair of his head as white as wool and his demdema (long curly hair) beautiful; and as for his eyes, when he opened them the whole house glowed like the sun… And his father, Lamech, was afraid of him and fled and went to Methuselah his father; and he said to him, “I have begotten a strange son. He is not like a[n ordinary] human being, but [he] looks like the children of the angels of heaven to me, his form is different and [he is] not like us… It does not seem to me that he is of me, but of angels.”

‘So too, did Atlantean giants, according to Frank Joseph, author of the Destruction of Atlantis, possess ruddy, white skin, with blond and red hair and glowing eyes… other ancient giants… also possessed fair skin and were known as lucent, or “shining gods”…’

Something was strikingly evident immediately upon Noah’s birth, reflected in his unique physical appearance. The description again, could refer to albinism, with a white, pinkish skin and white hair; or pale skin with platinum blond hair. If the Nephilim, being angelic-human hybrids had white skin, with blond or red hair, and Noah stood out like one of them, this would imply that humans possessed darker shades of skin tone rather than lighter up to this point. Lamech’s reaction signifies that he saw something special in Noah’s miraculous birth. One chosen by the Creator before birth, as were Jeremiah, John the Baptist and Melchizedek.

Jeremiah 1:5

English Standard Version

“Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations.”

Lamech is afraid of Noah, and runs to his father Methusaleh with his concern. Methusaleh contacts his own father Enoch, who responds in calming their fears; revealing to them Noah’s role as the saviour of humanity in the upcoming Flood, as well as actually giving Noah his name. 

Book of Enoch 106:6-8, 10, 12, 16, 18-19

“… and [Lamech feared] that a wondrous phenomenon may take place upon the earth in  [Noah’s day]. So I am beseeching you now, begging you in order that you may go to his grandfather Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling place is among the [angels].” When Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to us at the ends of the earth; for he had heard that I [Enoch] was there… [Methuselah says:] 

“my father, hear me: For unto my son Lamech a son has been born, one whose image and form are not like unto the characteristics of human beings; and his color is whiter than snow and redder than a rose, the hair of his head is whiter than white wool, and his eyes are like the rays of the sun…” … Lamech, became afraid and fled, and he did not believe that he the child was of him but of the image of the [angels] of heaven… 

“There shall be a great… deluge and a great destruction for one year… Now, make known to your son Lamech that the son who has been born is indeed righteous; and call his name Noah, for he shall be the remnant for you, and he and his sons shall be saved from the corruption, which shall come upon the earth on account of all the sin and oppression that existed, and it will be fulfilled upon the earth in his days. After that there shall occur still greater oppression than that which was fulfilled upon the earth the first time [yet future]; for I do know the mysteries of the [holy] ones; for He, Yahweh, has revealed them to me and made me know; and I have read them in the heavenly tablets.”

By having Enoch name his great-grandson, it intensifies a connection that is already found in the Bible; in their typological location in the primeval genealogy, seventh [number symbolising perfection and applicable to Enoch] and tenth [number symbolising completion or judgement and very applicable to Noah] from Adam.

Enoch and Noah are kindred spirits, as the same phrase is applied to both of them and to them alone: they walked with God – contrast with Abraham in Genesis 17:1, Genesis 6:9 and 5:24 ESV.

When Abram was ninety-nine years old the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.

Noah was a righteous man; he was blameless in his age; Noah walked with God.

Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, for God took him.

It would appear that the Nephilim – and likely their fallen angelic fathers, based on the description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days – were not white as in a European, but rather they were white like an albino. For those who have seen the Matrix trilogy, the second film features dreadlocked characters who exhibit exactly the kind of white we are speaking of. Serious consideration must be given to Noah being the first truly light skinned human. His father’s description of him in the Book of Enoch, would explain Noah’s seemingly other-worldliness. It may well be more than coincidental that Albinism affects the production of the pigment melanin, that colours skin, hair and eyes. 

It is a lifelong condition from birth, though it does not worsen with age. People with albinism have a reduced amount of melanin, or no melanin at all. This affects albinos colouring and eyesight. Albinism is caused by for the want of a better word, ’faulty’ genes a child inherits from their parents. 

One in 17,000 babies in Europe and the USA are born with either Oculocutaneous albinism [OCA], which involves the eyes, hair and skin, or Ocular albinism [OA], which is much less common and affects only the eyes.

Dr Mary Lowth clarifies – capitalisation theirs:

‘People presume that all people with albinism have white hair and white skin; however, this is not usually the case. A common myth is that they have red eyes; however, this is also not true. Most people with albinism have blue eyes and some have hazel or brown eyes. However, in certain light conditions there is a reddish tint reflected through the iris and pupil from the retina and the eyes appear red (similar to the ‘red eye’ in flash photography). Albinism results from inheriting an albinism gene from both the mother and the father (who often have normal pigmentation themselves, as their OTHER gene is normal). When both parents carry the albinism gene (and neither parent has albinism) there is a one in four chance at each pregnancy that the baby will be born with albinism. If a parent has albinism then they will pass on one affected gene to their child. The child will still only develop albinism if they also inherit an albinism gene from the other parent.’

There are seven types of Oculocutaneous albinism. We will look at the main condition. 

‘OCA1 results from a genetic defect in an enzyme called tyrosinase. This enzyme helps the body to make melanin pigment. There are two subtypes of OCA1. In OCA1A, the enzyme is completely inactive and absolutely no melanin is produced, leading to white hair and very light skin. In OCA1B, the enzyme is minimally active and a small amount of melanin is produced. This leads to hair that may darken to blond, yellow/orange or even light brown, as well as slightly more pigment in the skin.’

Noah’s whiteness may or may not have been a ‘faulty’ gene or defect, but he does seem to be the melanin absent or reduced, Ancestor Zero and fulcrum of the equation on either the actual origination of the different races or the increased diversity of races after the flood, their characteristics and the varying amount of melanin skin pigmentation with the broad range of skin tones – that would ultimately differentiate his three sons and sixteen grandsons from one another [refer Chapter XVI Shem Occidentalis]. 

Alan Alford’s comments on this question, in Gods of the New Millennium – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘The Flood thus acted as a gateway or bottleneck through which the genes of man were transmitted to the post-Flood generations. According to the Bible, the three sons of Noah – Shem, Ham and Japheth – took separate territories and fathered everyone in the world alive today. Did these three sons represent three distinct races? Modern studies of human racial diversity are unfortunately few and far between. As Jared Diamond notes:

“The subject of human races is so explosive that Darwin excised all discussion of it from his famous 1859 book On the Origin of species. Even today, few scientists dare to study racial origins, lest they be branded racists simply for being interested in the problem.”

‘Genetic scientists, however, have projected backwards from all of the human racial diversity which exists today and found a common point, known as mtDNA Eve (Mitochondrial Eve)… These findings suggest that racial diversity must have been preserved on Noah’s Ark if the Flood occurred only 13,000 years ago. Biblical scholars would (agree) with this conclusion. 

A major clue lies in the names of Noah’s sons, particularly the name Ham which literally means “He who is Hot”, implying a dark coloured skin. Furthermore, the location of the Hamitic tribes in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10) has been clearly identified by Biblical scholars as the African lands. The Koran, too, is explicit in referring to separate nations on board Noah’s Ark, when it states “blessings upon thee and on the nations with thee”. The scenario of preserving mankind’s racial diversity on Noah’s Ark is entirely consistent with the Biblical record that all living creatures were saved. 

Unfortunately, most people have regarded the tale of the Ark as a myth, due to the logistical problems of confining so many types of animals and birds in such close proximity, added to the practical difficulties of gathering together so many different species. 

However, if we were to be forewarned of a Flood tomorrow, we would, with the benefit of modern scientific knowledge, not round up the animals themselves but their genes. And there are two clues which suggest that this is exactly what happened 13,000 years ago. The Utnapishtim legend of Noah states that Utnapishtim loaded aboard whatever he had of “the seed of all living creatures”. And in the Atra-Hasis (Fragment III)… God… (says) “game of the field and beasts of the field, as many as eat herbs, I will send unto thee”. An echo of this is found in Genesis 6:20 which states that “two of every kind… will come to you”. If the seed or genes of all living animals were kept alive in the Ark, why not also the genes representing human diversity? However, the problem of human races goes much further back in time, prior to Noah’s Ark, for no-one can explain how the races evolved. As Jared Diamond points out, all of the current theories on the origin of racial characteristics have fundamental weaknesses. In my view, the key to the mystery is genetic science. Here is my theory on how (it was done).

The unusual birth of Noah, discussed earlier, was the first step in (a) far-sighted strategy… (before) selecting… three women from three diverse races of mankind… the eggs of each of these women were fertilized by Noah’s sperm, and implanted into three surrogate mothers. Nine months later, Noah became the father of three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, as recorded in the Bible… the three ethnic mothers of Shem, Ham and Japheth were to marry their own sons. 

These, then, were the three women who accompanied Noah, his unnamed wife and his three sons onto the Ark. Using this strategy… caused a further significant dilution of Noah’s “pure” genes and a significant increase in the proportion of “ethnic” genes in the next generation. Whilst Shem, Ham and Japheth had retained 50 per cent of the pure seed. Their sons and daughters became 25 per cent pure seed and 75 per cent ethnic… three separate races emerged…

There are several further factors which tend to corroborate the above theory… the independent account in the Book of Enoch of Noah’s unusual white/red pigmentation describes a deliberate step… for obtaining a greater range of colour variation in the three new lines of mankind. Without Noah’s whiteness… could only have blended three shades of black. Is it possible that Lamech’s fathering of Noah was really subject to genetic intervention?

A fragment from the Book of Noah, discovered at Qumran, records an ambiguous response from Lamech’s wife, when questioned about the conception of Noah. She implored her husband to “remember my delicate feelings” – perhaps a sign that she was keeping a secret of the Gods. (Another) corroborating factor is the apparent birth of all Noah’s three sons in the same year. The King James Version of the Bible (KJV) translates the original Hebrew literally: And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham and Japheth.

The New International Version of the Bible (NIV), on the other hand, has attempted to conceal the impression of three sons in the same year by altering the translation: After Noah was 500 years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth. The deliberate vagueness of the word “after” suggests a fudge. However, in order to make the illusion succeed, it is also necessary to disguise the fact that all three sons were 100 years old when the Flood occurred 100 years later. Therefore the NIV states: Two years after the Flood, when Shem was 100 years old, he became the father of Arphaxad. However, the KJV retains the original and literal meaning of the Hebrew: Shem was a hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the Flood. 

Whilst the NIV fudge conveniently allows 24 months for the birth of three separate children, the reality is that all of Noah’s sons were born in the same year. Why did the NIV Biblical revisionists find this idea so offensive that they tried to hide it? Could it have implied to them that Noah’s three sons came from three different wives within the same year?’

A thought provoking hypothesis that certainly gives pause for consideration. The origin of the races is a complete mystery to researchers and theologians alike. Alan Alford’s theory offers an original and plausible solution. As the introduction of the variety of racial branches from sixteen grandsons strongly appears to have been new, how many races before the flood were there? Just the one from Adam and Eve’s sons Cain and Seth, or two or more?

It is has been entertained that the mark of Cain introduced in Genesis 4:15, relates to  Cain’s skin changing from white too black. An alternative explanation would be required, if Cain was already dark skinned. Regarding Adam, it states in Genesis 2:7, English Standard Version:

… then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.

There is an anomaly in that we will learn that Adam was not Cain’s biological father [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Nor did Adam start as ‘dust from the ground’ but became dust from the ground; this was not his beginning. The incident in the Garden of Eden led to his and Eve losing their spiritual status in exchange for a composition that was physical. This was the core of the Serpents’s trick played on Eve. 

The name Adam in Hebrew from the root, dmm means ‘to begin, to produce.’ Adam had a beginning, as one from the soil. The name Adam is the same as the noun, ‘adam, which means man[kind] in [the] sense of ‘a creature made from earth,’ or likeness-made-from-soil. The verb dama, describes making an ‘image’ and the noun dimyon means ‘likeness.’ Adama means ‘arable soil’ or ‘clay-red earth’. Adam does not mean red as in colour or complexion. Verbs adom and adem mean red, as do the adjectives adom and admoni, as well as the noun edom [used for Abraham’s Grandson, Esau]. The ubiquitous noun, dam means ‘blood, the seat of life.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Adam… means Acre Man, but since the word for acre is distilled from the action of producing agricultural crops, the name Adam really means Produce… But that root that covers the action of producing is also the same as the root that covers redness. That means that Adam is also Red Man. Since red is the color of blood (2 Kings 3:22) and also since the name Adam is the word (dom), meaning blood, with an aleph in front of it, and alephs sometimes appear in front of words without essentially altering the meaning, Adam also means Blood Man. And since blood is the seat of the breath (or life), Adam is also Life Man. All in all, the name Adam is probably best interpreted as Living Creature or rather the corporeal part of a living creature. The name Adam simply means Corporeal One or Dustling; prior to receiving breath, Adam was quite literally a corpse (Genesis 2:7).’

Some have incorrectly surmised that Adam’s redness – from red-clay earth – meant he was white with a ruddy complexion. One commentator says: “Adam means ruddy complexioned, to show blood (in the face), flush or turn rosy.” Later, we will learn that King David of Judah and Jacob’s brother Esau are described in this manner. Adam is not. For Adam, it is accentuating his coming alive and beginning as the first of his kind – with different genetic DNA, symbolised by his blood – for indeed, their were other humans created prior to Adam [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

The line of Cain in Genesis chapter four is fascinating, because we learn that another Lamech, different from the father of Noah is the progenitor of polygamy, having two wives. They are only the second and third women after Eve to be recorded in the old Testament, implying significance. Adah means ‘ornament’ and has the connotation of beauty. Zillah means ‘dark’ or ‘to be dark’. So some have conjectured that Adah was light skinned and Zillah dark skinned; or, it could be referring to Zillah possessing a proclivity towards the dark side.

Intriguing, are the two sons born of Adah and especially the son from Zillah and their very Japheth-like names. There is the progenitor of Cain’s line, Cain and on Seth’s family tree, a Cainan – a later Hamitic name. The Book of Jasher in chapter two says that Cainan, the Grandson of Seth was the father of three sons and two daughters, who are none other than Adah and Zillah. The book also says that Zillah was barren when she was old, until towards the end of her life.

In Genesis chapter four, we learn there were other humans – not descended from Adam and Eve – in the Land of Nod, where Cain went to dwell. 

Genesis 4:16-17

New Century Version

16 So Cain went away [not just physically but also spiritually] from the Lord and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden. 17 He had sexual relations with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. At that time Cain was building a city, which he named after his son Enoch.

Cain already had a wife – a sister according to some sources, a fallen Angel in others – before sojourning to Nod and building a city. 

Book of Jubilees 4:9

And Cain took Awan his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch… And… houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch.

Cain would not build a city, if it were not for an already large population of people living in Nod. Genesis 1:27 reveals man was created on the Sixth Day or era, whereas, Genesis 2:7 shows Adam was created on the ‘Eighth Day’, the day or era after the Seventh Day rest. If there were inhabitants prior to Cain’s arrival, they were not descended from Adam and Eve. We will return to this question in a later chapter. Cain didn’t waste any time, in becoming the first person in endeavouring to establish and consolidate centralised power – a precursor for a one world government. The Way of Cain has survived many millennia right through to our present day and age.

When Adam’s son Seth is born, we learn in Genesis 5:3 NCV:

When Adam was 130 years old, he became the father ofanother son in his likeness [H1823 – dmuwth: ‘similitude’]and image [H6754 – tselem: ‘resemblance’], and Adam named him Seth.

Seth was in other words, the spitting image of his biological father. The line of Seth, his sons and their wives is amplified in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 4:11-28

11 … Seth took Azura his sister to be his wife, and… she bare him Enos. 13 … Enos took Noam his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… [calling] his name Kenan. 14 And… Kenan took Mualeleth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Mahalalel. 15 … Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dinah, the daughter of Barakiel the daughter of his father’s brother, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Jared, for in his days the malakim of Yahweh descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 

16 And… Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Baraka, the daughter of Rasujal, a daughter of his father’s brother… and she bare him a son… and he called his name Enoch. 20 And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Edna, the daughter of Danel, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 27 And… Methuselah took unto himself a wife, Edna the daughter of Azrial, the daughter of his father’s brother… and he begat a son and called his name Lamech. 28 And… Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was Betenos the daughter of Baraki’il, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Noah, saying, ‘This one will comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for the ground which Yahweh has cursed.’ 

Let’s ask the question: was the consternation exhibited by Lamech toward his son Noah due to everyone – Cain, Seth and the inhabitants of Nod, the people of Day Six – in the antediluvian world, having darker shades of skin, black or brunette hair and brown eyes. The earth then – the antediluvian epoch – whether it be human beings, flora and fauna or the climate, was not exactly the same as today. This is partly why the conundrum of the origin of the races exists. If there were only one, two or three races and they ranged from possibly black to dark or medium brown skin, with dark hair and brown eyes, then Lamech’s shock of seeing Noah so completely and utterly white skinned and fair, with platinum blond hair and blue eyes would not be surprising at all. It would have been very disturbing.

The names of Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives are not stated in the bible, though they are mentioned in the Book of Jubilees [circa 160-150 BCE] as ‘Adataneses the wife of Japheth, Na’eltama’uk the wife of Ham and Sedeqetelebab, Shem’s wife. The Syriac Targum, a similar work, states the wives names as Arathka for Japheth’s wife, Zedkat Nabu for Ham’s wife and Nahalath Mahnuk as Shem’s wife.

Noah’s wife is mentioned five times in Genesis, without her name being revealed. Some believe she could be Naamah, the sister of Tubal-Cain in Genesis 4.22. As she is from the already imperfect line of Cain, it would seem to be a contradiction for Noah to marry Naamah, mixing the two genetic lines. With that said, if there is any merit in Alan Alford’s theory or a version of it, Noah may have had three wives from which three sons were born; taking only one wife on board the Ark.

The Book of Jubilees 4:46-47, supports the Bible and states Noah had one wife and that she bore all three sons:

Noah took to himself a wife,and her name was Emzara,the daughter of Rakeel, the daughter of his father’s brother [a brother of Lamech]… And in the third year thereof she bore him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she bore him Ham, and in the first year… she bore him Japheth.

Genesis 11:10 states Shem is two years younger than Japheth, yet Genesis 10:21 says Shem is the eldest. Comparing all the Bible verses where the three sons are mentioned, it would seem that their order of birth was Japheth, Ham and then Shem. Shem is then sometimes placed first in order because from him, the patriarch Abraham would later be born. If Noah had only one wife and Alford’s theory is not applied, then Japheth, Ham and Shem very likely had wives with different genetic characteristics. 

The Book of Tobit [ circa 225-175 BCE] does not name Noah’s wife, though does say she was one of his ‘own kindred’. An Arabic source and Islamic tradition links Noah’s wife from either his own family bloodline from Methuselah or less accurately, Mehujael from Cain’s line, giving her name as Haykel or Amzurah respectively – Amzurah being similar to Emzara.

Unknown source: 

‘[Noah’s] family were probably mid-brown, with genes for both dark and light skin, because a medium skin colour would seem to be the most generally suitable (dark enough to protect against skin damage and folate destruction, yet light enough to allow vitamin D production). Adam and Eve would most likely have been mid-brown as well, with brown eyes and brown (or black) hair. In fact, most of the world’s population today is mid-brown.’ 

There is genetic evidence supporting the world’s inhabitants before the flood being darker skinned and medium brown in tone. We will investigate this question in a later section, as Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support such a conclusion. Noah appears to be the carrier of those genes that were passed on to his three sons that with their wives produced sixteen grandsons now ranging from dark to light and black to white, that had not existed previously. For Noah too have this DNA mutation or variation that introduced variety and produced more races, he must have either inherited recessive genes, passed down from Adam, Eve and Seth, or his genetic code was manipulated prior to his birth.

Albinism seems to be a throwback to when humans were dark and the mutated gene* that causes reduced melanin or white skin appeared. Research supports the introduction of light skin in our more recent past – an acknowledgment that earlier humans did possess brown skin.

White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists, Liz Lea Floor, 2015 – emphasis and bold mine:

The myriad of skin tones and eye colors that humans express around the world are interesting and wonderful in their variety. Research continues on how humans acquired the traits they now have and when, in order to complete the puzzle that is our ancient human history. Now, a recent analysis by anthropologists suggests that the light skin color and the tallness associated with European genetics are relatively recent traits to the continent.

An international team of researchers as headed by Harvard University’s Dr. Iain Mathieson put forth a study at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists recently. Based on 83 human samples from Holocene Europe as analyzed under the 1000 Genomes Project, it is now found that for the majority of the time that humans have lived in Europe, the people had dark skin, andthe genes signifying light skin only appear within the past 8,000 years.This recent and relatively quick process of natural selection suggests to researchers that the traits which spread rapidly were advantageous within that environment, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 

This dramatic evidence suggests modern Europeans do not appear as their long ancient ancestors did.Previous research published in 2008 found that the earliest mutations in the eye-color genes that led to the evolution of blue eyes probably occurred about 10,000 years ago in individuals living in around the Black Sea. The surprising aspect of the findings is that while it is fundamental to natural selection that advantageous genetic attributes spread, it is not often a speedy process. The study shows that these genetic pale skin traits swept across Europe speedily, and that phenomenon is of particular interest to researchers.’

Humans are not from Earth – A Scientific Evaluation of the Evidence, Ellis Silver, 2017, pages 27, 42 and 278 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Until about 7,700 years ago, all humans had brown eyes… Since blue eyes offer more protection against cataracts, it’s surprising that they didn’t evolve much sooner. And it’s bizarre that they’re rarely found in climates where the sunlight is strongest… Everyone with blue eyes has a single, common ancestor who lived about 7,700 years agoand had a genetic mutation – a single switch that turns off or limits the eye’s ability to produce melanin. Researchers have found that if this gene is completely destroyed it leads to albinism.* Around the time that blue eyes first appeared, so did white skin…

… light skinned people appeared on Earth more recently than most of us realize… when the allele associated with light skin first originated in the SLC24A5 gene… lighter skin, like blue eyes, might simply have been a genetic anomaly rather than a necessity. The Caucasian did first appear around 7,700 years [ago], and we don’t know why. We’d been living in temperate regions including Scandinavia for tens of thousands of years before that time, yet we retained our dark skin, hair, and eyes. And it seems we hadn’t succumbed to vitamin D deficiency. So the sudden switch to white skin, blond hair, and blue eyes is both unexpected and unexplainable. Most mainstream biologists say it was a simple genetic mutation that people found attractive. But another explanation is that the Caucasians were hybrids…’

White skin, blond and red hair with blue and green eyes, suddenly came out of nowhere, springing out of the genetic gene pool, much like Noah. A recent study has offered more accurate dating for this genetic mutation, between 11,000 to 19,000 years ago. We will learn that this dating is especially accurate. 

The dating of 8,000 years ago is still highly relevant, as that takes us back to the time of Peleg and the Tower of Babel, at which time one of Shem’s sons had a pronounced divisional split in his descendants line. This was represented by the major Y-DNA paternal mutations of the European R1a and R1b Haplogroup strains. R1a being one of the principle Haplogroups of Eastern Europeans – aside from Central and South Asia – and R1b the main Haplogroup of Western Europeans – apart from the Latino-Hispano peoples of the Americas. 

The Genetic Origin of the Nations, 2006 & 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The scientific evidence indicates that there were seven so-called “Eves” to the genetic mtDNA pool in the Caucasian [line] but thatthere are 26 female lines overall. 

Noah was understood to be pure in his generations. The Bible also maintains that the people in the Ark were all the family of Noah. Thus, to properly account for the genetic diversity, Noah must have maintained the capacity to throw genetically distinct offspring, and this offspring had the characteristics of the line from which it came, but not the entire sequence that Noah had originally. For Noah to be the father of the human structure he is held to have had the capacity for the… YDNA substructure, as all humans are descended from him. Any male on the planet will have only the mutations that signify his branch and path. Noah held the base YDNA that was able to mutate into… other subgroups.

… when we examine the tree of mtDNA we find some interesting group derivatives. The so-called “supergroups” are really only in three basic groups. In other words, they came from three main female lines. That is what we would expect to find if we assume there were only three females that bred on from the Ark, namely the wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth. These Haplogroups are all descended from a single female supergroup, namely Haplogroup L. So in reality, all females are descended from one female line, Hg L. That is super L [L0]. This line then split into L1, and then L2 and L3. The line L3 diverged and from L3 came the other mtDNA mutations. Thus, all females came from one Eve whose mtDNA line was L.

The supergroups M and N were next to diverge or mutate. From a biblical point of view we can argue easily that L was formed with Eve and the other groups were pre-Flood divisions that came on to the Ark. Thus, we could correctly argue that L, M, and N came on to the Ark within the accepted biblical account. All mtDNA Haplogroups are subdivisions of L, then M and N and subsequently R, which itself is a mutation of Hg N. 

Thus, we can assume that Eve produced the line L and the three wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth are at least the three groups L, M and N. There may have been further divisions given the fact that Noah may have had daughters not mentioned and their mtDNA line may have been L, or M or N. It may have even been R, if we assume that the entire L line came in through the wife of Ham, as the L line is almost confined to the sub-Saharan tribes. We also have to address the fact that Eve was dark skinned and the fact that Adam means the one who was red. Thus the capacity for the development of skin colour was an original trait [even if recessive] of the human creation. 

M produced three subdivisions… including C [and Z, which split from each other], and D and G… [with subdivisions] E and Q… [all associated with East Asian peoples].

We might thus also deduce that the wives of the sons of Noah were taken from the one family lineage, maintaining purity in the generations in the female line also. The L2 and L3 split may have come from the family structure before the Flood. [Any] daughters of Noah and the wives of the sons could have carried all three of the L subdivisions and the basic core sub-groups of M, N and perhaps R. It is therefore possible that the women of the Ark… could easily have contained the basis for the modern mtDNA diversity. 

The supergroup N… split… [including] Haplogroups I and W… The R supergroup split into the following: B; F; HV, which split into H and V; P; The J and T subdivision; and U, from which came K… [all associated with European peoples].’

According to the author, the mtDNA super Haplogroup L originated with Eve and split into L1, L2 and L3. All mtDNA L haplogroups from L0 to L6 are primarily associated with Black African people and to a lesser extent, Arabs. The remainder of the mtDNA Haplogroups then derived or mutated from L3. L3 gave rise to the super subgroups M and N. Broadly speaking, L3 relating to African peoples, M with East Asian and N to European. The author states that Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives would have carried these new mutations. For the three wives of Noah’s sons to each represent these three core racial strands, the connecting dots not suggested by the author are that these wives could have also been daughters of Noah by his wife Emzara. 

Noah would have passed on to each son the paternal genetic sequencing [Y chromosome DNA] for Japheth and his subsequent seven sons, Ham and his four sons and Shem and his five sons. Noah’s wife would have received the maternal recessive genes [Mitochondria DNA] originating in the L3 line from Eve, which included Haplogroups M and N. 

Thus, L3, M and N were new mutations that had not existed during the antediluvian epoch. The new Haplogroups had lain dormant until being activated or awakened by congress with Noah. 

The new racial characteristics now exhibited in Noah’s daughters, ‘Adataneses, Na’eltama’uk and Sedeqetelbab who then married their brothers; Japheth, Ham and Shem – who also exhibited the new mutations – revealing two new racial strands – of bluntly, yellow [M] in Japheth and ‘Adataneses; white [N] in Shem and Sedeqetebab; to add to an original brown skin tone, that now carried a new mutation too, creating extra diversity [L4-L6] in Ham and Na’eltama’uk.

It is understandable why these eight people were saved and that not just Noah was genealogically pure, but so was his wife. They then had six children prior to the flood  who received the three new core racial strands, which then mutated into the sixteen new sub-racial strands through their children after the flood – Noah’s and Emzara’s grandchildren. This leaves the L1 and L2 pre-flood lines from Eve. The simple answer is that L1 was passed to Cain and his family line and L2 was passed to Seth and his family line that later included Noah and his wife. L3 [with M and N] being the mutation from Seth’s line L2. The L1 and L2 lines were thus darker skinned lines, with the lighter shades of skin and racial diversity – included in the L3 line – we presently have now, deriving from Noah and his family. The undeniable scientific support for this argument, is that a black couple can have white children, but a white couple cannot have a black child. 

Recent research has found incredible evidence to corroborate the Genesis account regarding humankind descending from three original fathers. 

Finding Ham, Shem, and Japheth via the Y-Chromosome, Genesis and Genetics, 2021 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… we have examined [paternal] Y-chromosome genomes searching for Noah and his three sons, Ham, Japheth, and Shem. They were easy to find.  According to our analysis, if you have the rs17306671 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Shem. If you have the rs9786139 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Ham. If you have the rs3900 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide G you are from Japheth. The following presents the easy-to-follow logic and analysis… [and] Our findings are consistent with the Bible and modern science raw data.

…Y-chromosome DNA is exclusively found in males; it is inherited from one’s father. The Y-chromosome has approximately 60 million base pairs, each of which is subject to mutations. Mutations develop in the Y-chromosome, typically at the rate of 2 mutations per generation. This is based on a mutation rate of 1.0*10^-9 mutations /nucleotide/year (Reference 1) and 30 years per generation. 

These mutations allow us to track ancestry. If one man populated all the earth, all males would have his Y-chromosome, and if this man had two sons, one would expect that roughly half of the world would have one son’s mutations and the other half would have the other son’s mutations. Furthermore, if our original ancestor had 10 grandsons, one would expect that each grandson would have mutations that would each exist in approximately 10 percent of the male population. Successive generations would continue to generate new mutations that would form a human family tree, known as a phylogenetic tree to geneticists.

In our research, we used the above principles in tracking our most ancient ancestors. We made no assumptions and shelved our preconceived ideas. We wanted to see where the data led us. Our strategy was simple; we gathered the Y-chromosome mutations, which are seen in more than 5 percent of human males, and entered them into a spreadsheet. We looked for patterns and color-coded the resulting groups. The data used in this research came from the 1000 genomes project and retrieved using the Ensembl browser. The data appeared to be correct with no errors. No data was eliminated due to suspect errors, and no data was “cherry-picked” to suit any preconceived ideas. Our thanks to the great effort of those who did the sequencing and publishing of the raw data. We also greatly appreciate that it was made available to the public.

We started by taking 57 Y-genomes of diverse people (Americas, East Asia, Europe, South Asia, and Africa). Next, we gathered mutations that were in at least 5 percent of the world’s male population. The technical term for this is those with a Mean Allele Frequency (MAF) greater than or equal to 0.05 (5 percent). These mutations are the most interesting; any smaller MAF mutation is a subset of those greater than 5%.

The spreadsheet… provides 57 rows (individual male humans) and 30 columns (mutations over 5 percent of the population). Each column element of the matrix was color-coded to show us whether the individual had the mutation or not. We noticed patterns beginning to form… Next, we switched columns and rows to form groups. The groups were obvious. We also took each group and moved the columns so that the columns for each group with the largest MAF were on the left. Now we can see a clear pattern in the figure below. We see that each individual fits into just one group and had no mutations in any other group. Also, we see that every individual in the group has the mutation with the greatest MAF; this is the mutation of the most ancient ancestor of that group. 

Looking at the matrix… we see that each group has one maximum MAF. The yellow is .38, the red is .52, and the green is .10. They add up to 100 percent. Now that we have shown that our most ancient ancestor had three sons, we can state that this finding is consistent with the Bible. The three groups are consistent with the three sons of Noah: Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Therefore, one could easily conclude that Ham is the yellow group, Shem is the green group, and Japheth is the red group.

Note: Noah’s Y-chromosome is also known since it would be that of the three sons with all mutations removed.’ 

‘Bible in Genesis 10, the Table of Nations, states that all humanity came from these three sons:

Genesis 10:1  Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

Genesis 10:32  These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

This means that roughly 1/3 of the earth’s male population came from each son, but, since Japheth had 7 sons, Ham had 4 sons, and Shem had 5 sons; therefore, the worldwide distribution should be closer to the following:

Patriarch    Number of sons     % Projected World Population        Observation

Japheth          7 sons                                        43.75                                      52

Ham                4 sons                                         25                                          38

Shem              5 sons                                         31.25                                     10

 The chart above shows that both the Ham and Japheth results were higher than expected, and Shem was lower than expected. However, this can be explained in at least two ways:

  1. The Ham and Japheth offspring are in the world’s heavily populated areas, namely South and East Asia.
  2. (2) The Thousand Genomes Project did not provide representatives of the Near East, the Mid-East, or Northern Africa, all of which would increase the Shem percentage, thereby decreasing Ham and Japheth’s percentages.

The above two issues are not meant as criticism but offered as an explanation.’

The percentage is lower for Shem, compared with Japheth and Ham because the descendants from Shem only include those people who are of European descent. Excluded from these people are the Latino-Hispano peoples of Central and South America who are either Hamitic or descend from Japheth, as well as – a surprise for many – the Arabic peoples of North Africa and the Middle East, who are also related to the equatorial people of Ham. Adding the White western populations of Europe with those in the New World equals approximately eight hundred million people, or a tenth of the approximate eight billion people on the planet.

‘Our findings are consistent with the Bible, secular ancient history, and genetic diversity:

  1. The Bible documents Noah and his family to be the only ones spared from the deluge which flooded the entire earth, and the earth was repopulated through Noah’s three sons.
  2. The historical period began when the Sumerians began writing cuneiform tablets. These early writings documented the kings before and after the flood. Also, the Sumerian legends are consistent with the world being populated by the three sons on the Ark.
  3. According to the Bible and Sumerian history, all humanity came from one family. As they migrated throughout the world, the genetic diversity would be lost from those who separated from the core population; therefore, the most genetic diversity should be where Noah’s family settled, the Near East. Those who migrated to the Americas, Australia, and southern Africa lost some genetic diversity. We can consider two levels of observing genetic diversity, first, what we see and, second, what DNA tells us. We can easily see eye color, skin color, and hair color. Looking at a globe, it is apparent that those with the most visual diversity meet in the Near East, the place of disembarkation from Noah’s Ark. From a DNA standpoint, one can look at the diversity of haplogroups, both Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial. The extremities are South Africa, Australia, and the Americas, which have only a few haplogroups. The location with the most haplogroups is, again, in the Near East.

To summarize our findings:

(1) From a Y-chromosome perspective, it appears that all humanity came from three male humans.

(2) Item (1) is not proof of the Biblical narrative concerning Noah’s three sons, but it is consistent with it. To prove it, one would have to sequence every human male ever born and analyze his genome. If anyone can trace an individual human Y Chromosome back to some basal mutation other than the three given, please let us know…

(3) We can now project Noah’s DNA; it is that of his three sons with no mutations.

(4) Our findings are consistent with the Bible, Sumerian history, and our current state of human diversity.

Future analysis: It is now possible to know the Y-chromosome DNA of each of Noah’s grandchildren. This is in our job jar.’

Noah’s epoch prior to the flood comprised major centres of civilisation and futuristic alien-like technology. Staggeringly further ahead than our current technology – though we ourselves are rapidly progressing to that point. We read in Matthew 24:37-38, English Standard Version:

37 For as were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 38 For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark…

These verses reveal that mankind will be living life as usual and acting as if the Son of Man is not coming. As the flood caught the world unawares in the past, so too will the return of the Son of Man, in the future. 

Alan Alford comments on the literal boarding of every animal species – presumably some plant species as well – on to the Ark, has left the credibility of the account vulnerable. The exception, would be the seven of each kind of clean [domesticated] animals taken on board and the birds stated; these would have been literal animals.

The world was an impressive, yet tragic dystopia, so for Noah to protect and continue each species primarily via DNA, may explain how an improbable event becomes a very plausible one. The word ark in Hebrew can mean a ‘box, basket or chest’. It has the connotation of a protective egg. A safe place; a nourishing environment. Given the superior technological capability, we can begin to appreciate the length of time it took to build the ark – in realty, either a submersible vessel [submarine], an aircraft [space ship] or combination of the two. For we learn in Genesis 6:14 that the Ark was hermetically sealed.

The cataclysm of the flood was so violent and severe a literal wooden [incorrectly translated gopher wood – as not a wood from timber, but an unknown substance] ship, would have been easily destroyed. Descending down very deep or possibly into earth’s orbit, would have been the only way to survive. 

If the ark had mainly DNA samples, seven pairs of clean animals, [see Leviticus 11:1-46 and Deuteronomy 14:3-21] birds and vegetation to eat, with just eight people, then it would have been a realistic, controllable size to manoeuvre. It corroborates the dimensions of the vessel in Genesis 6:15-16, New Century Version, that would have been too small for every animal species.

15 This is how big I want you to build the boat: four hundred fifty feet long, seventy-five feet wide, and forty-five feet high. 16 Make an opening around the top of the boat that is eighteen inches high from the edge of the roof down. Put a door in the side of the boat. Make an upper, middle, and lower deck in it.

Genesis and Genetics, delve deeper into the logistics of the Ark and its inhabitants and the actual housing of the earth’s primary species. 

The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls, and Doves, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The basic dilemma concerning the voyage of Noah’s Ark is: how did Noah keep so many kinds of animals alive on the Ark for a year? Since there are so many birds species presently living on earth (Sibley, Charles G., and Monroe, Burt L.), the tendency for creationists is to speculate that the Biblical kinds were only a portion of the present-day species, and that the Ark contained possibly only the “genus,” “family,” or “order.” The problem with this speculation is that it is in conflict with the Biblical, fossil, and DNA evidence. The Bible clearly states that every kind and sort of bird was taken on the Ark (Genesis 6:19, Genesis 7:14); and, the fossil record shows that before the flood there were multiple species of each genus, family, and order. Then, the most daunting task encountered by this speculation is explaining how the reduced number of kinds expanded into the numerous species living today. This dilemma has placed creationists in the position of having to decide between the Bible and evolution. Many have chosen a euphemistic version of evolution and used terms such as microevolution, natural selection, speciation, etc.. However, it is still evolution. This means that if evolution could produce these species in such a short time, there would be much available proof of evolution; however, this is not the case and evolution is not observable; the only reason evolutionary theory has survived is by expanding the time frame to millions of years and by adding the multiple, fictitious common ancestors. 

John Woodmorappe addressed these problems of lodging large numbers of animals in a book called “Noah’s Ark: a Feasibility Study” (Woodmorappe, John. 1996). He went into great detail in discussing the problems of space, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation, air quality and all the other problems associated with the Ark. 

His feasibility study resulted in the conclusion that if only a portion of the present-day species (fewer than 16,000) were onboard, it would be possible, although difficult, to keep them alive on the Ark for approximately one year. 

This book did a very good job of defining the problems involved with lodging so many animal[s] and keeping them alive; however, in all practicality, it would take a miracle to survive the work, the environment and the predator/prey instincts. 

Anyone who has kept one horse in a stall knows what a Herculean task it would be to keep thousands of animals on the Ark.’ 

Our conclusion would necessitate that on the order of 6000 amphibia, 10,000 bird, 6,000 mammals, and 8,000 reptile kinds/species were aboard the Ark. Accounting for pairs, sevens of clean animals, and those that have gone extinct since the flood, the total number aboard the Ark would be on the order of 100,000. This would be no problem for the very large Ark with all of the animals in Biblical “deep sleep”.

‘Genetic resets are documented in the Bible… 

The First Genetic Reset 

As a result of the original sin, God reset the creation genetics. The DNA was necessarily changed in humans in that they became mortal and women’s pain was multiplied in childbirth (Genesis 3:16). Other DNA changes included the serpent who lost his legs (Genesis 3:14); and, all of the livestock and beasts of the field were cursed (Genesis 3:14), “but not as much as the serpent.” This implies… DNA changed in all the livestock and beasts of the field. Concerning plants, the earth brought forth “thistles” and “thorns” (Genesis 3:18) implying new and different DNA and a new ecosystem to accommodate the new genetics. 

The Second Genetic Reset 

The second DNA reset occurred at the time of the flood. Man’s life span was greatly reduced from 900[0] plus years (Genesis chapter 11) implying a DNA change; the concept of clean and unclean animals appeared in the scriptures (Genesis 7:2) ; and, the authorization of eating meat was introduced (Genesis 9:3).The flood changed the entire ecosystem implying significant DNA changes to all life forms. The fossil record bears out that the ecosystem was very different before the flood, e.g. massive dinosaurs with small nostrils, dragonflies with 2 foot wingspans, and tropical vegetation near the poles.’

‘Twice, God gave the command to “be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth”. The first occasion was in the beginning on day six… (Genesis 1:28). The second occasion was after the departure from the Ark (Genesis 8:17,9:1). So, it is evident that His purpose did not change in the new ecosystem; He wanted the new world to be filled; this required man and animals to be equipped for survival and reproduction in the new world, including its new ecosystem. There was no time for natural processes (i.e., multiple accidents and accidental selection of accidents) to prepare the creation for the new world…

It is evident that God reduced lifespan immediately after the flood down to approximately 120 years at the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 34:7) and 70 years at the time of David (Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2: 10-12).

This is a transition that is probably coincident with the ice age which was initiated by the flood… And, the entire ecosystem was changing to what we have today. These facts render the question, “what mechanism did God use to accomplish this?” 

DNA is a language (Collins, 2006) and God possibly spoke the genetic reset… and it appears that mitochondrial heteroplasmy is a possible [tool] that he used for this task. 

In human reproduction, the mature oocyte contains 100,000 to 750,000 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies and is fertilized by the sperm which generates a blastocyst containing approximately 483,000 copies of the mtDNA in the Inner Cell Membrane (ICM); which in turn develops and harbors the Primodial Germ Cells (PGM) each of which contains approximately 200 copies of the mtDNA (St. John, Justin C., 2010); and each of the embryonic stem cells used in this construction contain approximately 20 copies of mtDNA (Rivolta MN, 2002). The processes involved with replication and inheritance of mtDNA are not well understood, but show what varied genetic information is available for transmission of mitochondrial DNA from generation to generation. 

This transmission of mtDNA is quite different than nuclear DNA in that with nuclear DNA, only one copy is transferred to the next generation. It is a shuffled mixture of ovum haploid and sperm haploid DNA, but once it is determined the resulting embryo is defined by only one nuclear DNA. This method of transmission of mtDNA is of great interest concerning the inheritance and possible prevention of mitochondrial diseases, but also of interest from a genealogy standpoint. It has been found that it is common to have mitochondria that are heteroplasmic, meaning that it contains more than one mitochondrial genome. From a creationist standpoint, this is very interesting in that this heteroplasmic mitchondria could explain why the genetic reset took several generations to establish as documented in Genesis chapter 11. If there are only a few copies of a certain variation of mtDNA in the oocyte, they can be latent for several, or even many generations. 

Mitochondrial heteroplasmy is somewhat common in humans. The American Journal of Human Genetics reported in 2010 that 37 heteroplasmies at 10% frequencies or higher at 34 sites were found in 32 individuals (Li, M., et. al. 2010). It would be tempting to use this heteroplasmic attribute coupled with a stocastic modeling to explain speciation after the flood; but, it wouldn’t fit the general theme of the Bible. There is a difference between natural variation which gives us our uniqueness and mutations which have developed due to the original sin. Mutations result in disease and shorter life span. Heteroplasmy, is most probably a result of sin. 

The subject species examined in this paper [Raven, Owl, Dove] are genetically distinct, meaning the species do not have a genetic overlap, but all demonstrated a genetic void between species. The data show that within species the natural variation, genetic distance, is approximately one percent of cytb [Great Owl to great Owl 1% or less] and between species the variation is much greater: between 4.1 percent and 25.3 percent. This means that if one species varies from another by 10 percent of cytb, there is a void of 9 percent (10-1/2-1/2). There is no known mechanism that can bridge this void to produce a new species, especially in the short, young earth, timeframe. This is true for all our subjects as shown by the data presented in section 3.0 of this paper [not shown]. 

Any variation of bird displaying this genetic void is assumed to be a unique kind and most probably was represented on the Ark. 

Tables 5a. and 5b. [not shown] show that even owls of the same genus have diversity commensurate with the human compared to chimpanzee variation [of] (11%) [Great Owl to Eagle Owl, 11% – Spotted Eagle Owl to Barn Owl, 25.3%]. So, considering that speciation was involved in generating these owls is tantamount to saying that the ark not need carry a chimpanzee since they could evolve from Noah, or worst yet that Noah was a chimpanzee and evolved to modern humanity. This is a severe logic problem.’

Other comparisons include Pig to Mouse, 20.3%; African Lion to Domestic Cat, 12.9%; Horse to Cow, 19.3% and Cow to Zebra Fish, 29%.

‘It appears from this owl analysis that it is not possible to decide which creatures were on the Ark without having DNA. 

Another tool God uses to control His creation is that of “deep sleep.” Here are three Biblically documented examples of God using “deep sleep”: 

To make physiological changes – When God created Eve, he put Adam into a “deep sleep” so Adam would not feel the pain of the surgery in which Adam’s rib was removed (Genesis 2:21).

To establish a new covenant – When God established the covenant with Abram (Abraham), he, Abraham, was put into a deep sleep. While Abraham was in this “deep sleep” the Lord dealt with him and prepared Abraham for a new covenant (Genesis 15:12).

To separate enemies – When Saul wanted to kill David and had the opportunity, God put Saul and his entire army of 3000 into a “deep sleep” (1 Samuel 26:2,12) so that David would be spared.

The tool of “deep sleep” may very well have been employed on the Ark providing the perfect solution to all the problems: it would provide the anesthetics for the physiological changes required to reset the DNA; it would give God an opportunity to establish His new covenant with all flesh; it would protect the prey from the predators; and, of course, it would solve all the problems of space, food, waste, and air quality. The design of the Ark is obviously not suited to keep the creatures alive in the full metabolic state, but well suited to the “deep sleep” state. The exact mechanism for “deep sleep” is not known, but it is logical to assume that it shares some similarities with the various mechanisms that we observe in nature: hibernation, comas, aestivation, brumation, and dormancy. Each of these mechanisms is different and serves the purpose for which it was designed. 

We know that God… masterfully designed the Ark to accommodate the safe and peaceful transportation of the creation from one eco-system to another. It is a point of interest that all mammals have the ability to hibernate and that mammalian metabolic rates can be reduced to as little as 1% of normal rates (Carey HV, et. al, 2003). 

The results of this investigation support the Biblical statement of Genesis 7:14 “… and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.” 

All of the birds in this investigation were distinct and differed from one another sufficiently to secure a birth on the Ark. Also, these results support the long held stance of creationists that the species are distinct with no intermediate forms (Morris, 1974). 

There is no known mechanism that could explain the genetic diversity of the post-flood birds; even evolution, if it did exist, could not function quickly enough to explain the genetic diversity in the Biblical time frame. Any attempt to explain this genetic diversification by natural processes, such as speciation, is indefensible faced with the DNA evidence. 

The following hypotheses are submitted which are in tune with the DNA evidence and the Bible, requiring no reliance on evolutionary principles. 

1. The DNA of the original creation was reset to accommodate the new ecosystem. 

This is in agreement with the fossil record, the cytochrome b genetics presented in this paper and the Bible. The fossil record is clear, many existing species lived before the flood, but they were somewhat different: usually in size or small differences in bone structure. The genetic reset hypothesis explains this and can be generalized as follows: the genetics of pre-flood creatures are different than the genetics of modern creatures; this was accomplished by God’s voice, speaking the required changes into the creation preparing it for the new covenant and the new eco-system. One of the best examples of this is in pre-flood [Homo neanderthalensis] man (Genesis and Genetics, 2011).

2. The occupants of the Ark were generally in a deep sleep. 

The Ark’s design is perfectly suited to the deep sleep scenario and in God’s own words the goal was to “keep them alive” ( Genesis 6:19). There are examples of God using deep sleep in the Bible… all of which apply to the state of affairs on the Ark. Contrary to common perception, life on the Ark may have been very peaceful with all of the animals asleep; this presents a comforting picture: all the reset animal DNA necessary to replenish the world with its new eco-system, in one peaceful… Ark. 

3. Divine wisdom and creativity 

God created all things in six days [epochs], it should not be difficult to accept that He had the perfect design for the Ark and made the perfect provisions for those on it; He is not only a divine creator, but He is also full of mercy (Psalm 100:5)… the Bible implies that not one animal was lost, during the voyage of Noah’s Ark (Genesis 8:19). Just looking at the Ark design should be enough to lead one to believe the animals, and [possibly] Noah, were in a deep, merciful sleep. 

4. Defining “Kinds” – Rule of Thumb 

From this very limited research, it appears that a kind will vary in cytochrome b from its own kind by generally one percent or less; if the variance is 4 percent of more, the subjects are different “kinds;” and any variance between 1 percent and 4 percent are in a gray area and would need more investigation using additional genes.’ 

Lloyd Pye discusses the incredible aspects and implications of the Great Flood, offering his theory on its cause, in Everything You Know Is Still Wrong 2009 & 2017, pages 495, 497-498, 501-503, 505-507 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘… a remarkable number of cultures past and present believe a worldwide inundation did occur within human history, though they tend to be hazy on its details. The Sumerians are not. They state emphatically that a Great Flood surged up from the south… a sudden, overwhelming event… They say it occurred around 11,000 BCE [10,837 BCE unconventional chronology], at the end of the last Ice Age. 

Ironically, their contention is strongly supported by conventional science, which has determined that the last interglacial warming trend began slowly, at around 13,000 BCE in the northern hemisphere, and gradually moved south until around 11,000 BCE, when something happened to accelerate full global warming to warp speed – in perhaps as little as twenty years.

Because so many sources around the world forcefully assert that a Great Flood did cause widespread death and destruction, we need to explore the kinds of actual events that might have created one. And guess what? There is a genuinely legitimate candidate in the Antarctic icecap. Today it covers 5.5 million square miles, it contains 7.0 million cubic miles of ice, and it has an average thickness of over a mile. A ridge of mountains under it divides it into two sections: the West Antarctic Ice Sheet [WAIS] (about 1/4 of the total), and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (3/4 of the total). 

The WAIS slants from the mountain range division toward the Pacific Ocean. The much larger East Sheet points opposite, toward the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. At the South Pole the ice is two miles thick and flows slowly toward Africa. All that was quite different… 11,000 BCE. Earth was coming out of the last ice age that had gripped Earth for the previous 90,000 years [probably closer to 7,000 years], and world sea levels were more than 300 feet lower than today. 

Today those 330-plus feet are covered by 3.5 million cubic miles of water, but during the ice age much of that water was trapped in ice swirled across the polar ice caps. Even today, the Antarctic continent at the South Pole holds over 60% of the fresh water on Earth, and if it were all to melt, sea levels would rise by over 190 foot (58 metres). 

… a strong earthquake could rattle the continent to its foundations… [caused by] a large celestial body passing in the vicinity… with enough gravitational force to create geophysical disturbances on any other planet it passes near. A planet like… Nibiru, for example? 

As it happens, Sumerian texts claim Nibiru did indeed pass through the solar system at around 11,000 BCE, which makes it a prime candidate to shake a badly cracked icecap off of its foundations on Antartica… [after] 90,000 [years of icecap build up and] 2,000 years of warming… [causing] huge cracks to develop along the shelf edges where the unstable water-supported ice adjoined the far more stable land-supported ice.

Now imagine the size of waves that would be kicked up by icebergs with volumes from hundreds of thousand to perhaps a million or more cubic miles! Walls of water as high as a mile (over 5,000 feet) or more might surge forward! Apart from disrupting worldwide weather patterns, the tsunamis would strike every ocean, sea, and coastal plain on earth. The planet would slosh for days (the text says six), until equilibrium was reached at some greatly elevated sea level… the new level… is where it would stay, because as any iceberg melts, it only changes its form, not its volume.

In 2010, researchers at the University of Sheffield in England announced that they had found evidence of a catastrophic flood at approximately 13,000 ya (exactly when the Sumerian tablets place the flood), which created such havoc that it temporarily shut down the Gulf Stream (the constantly circulating current of warm water that keeps global temperatures as steady as they are)… a sudden influx of cold water into the North Atlantic… temporarily impaired the current. 

An alternative theory was published… [by]… the National Academy of Sciences in May 2012, proposing that some sort of celestial body entered Earth’s atmosphere at roughly 12,900 ya [I propose 12,833 years ago – only 67 years difference], but broke up before it could make a large, easy-to-find impact crater (although thousands of smaller impact craters may have been produced by the debris). Nonetheless, the force of its passage through the atmosphere could have initiated tidal waves… new evidence collected from Greenland ice core samples in 2013, combined with evidence from soil samples in North America published in 2017, shows that right about 13,000 ya… there was suddenly an “abundance” of platinum at surface level in these areas. This precious metal is extremely rare on Earth, but it is common in asteroids. The new results fit perfectly with a large, platinum-laden asteroid crumbling on entry into Earth’s atmosphere and spraying fine debris over a huge area.’ 

Outside the Genesis account, the flood is mentioned in the following Bible verses: 

Psalm 29:10

English Standard Version 

The Lord sits enthroned over the flood…

Isaiah 54:9

English Standard Version

“This is like the days of Noah to me: as I swore that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth…

1 Peter 3:19-20

English Standard Version

… in which [the Son of Man] went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.

Added to the scenario presented by Lloyd Pye, there would have been the dramatic influence of the following.

Genesis 1:6-8

New English Translation

6 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters and let it separate water from water.” 7 So God made the expanse [H7549 – raqiya: ‘firmament, vault {arch} of heaven supporting waters above’] and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. It was so. 8 God called the expanse “sky.” There was evening, and there was morning, a second day [or epoch].


  • The Hebrew word refers to an expanse of air pressure between the surface of the sea and the clouds, separating water below from water above. It is called “sky.” An expanse. In the poetic texts the writers envision, among other things, something rather strong and shiny, no doubt influencing the traditional translation “firmament” (NRSV “dome”). Job 38:18 refers to the skies poured out like a molten mirror. Daniel 12:3 and Ezekiel 1:22 portray it as shiny. The sky or atmosphere may have seemed like a glass dome. Though the Hebrew word can mean “heaven,” it refers in this context to “the sky.”

The atmosphere was different on the antediluvian Earth. It may be an important component in the added longevity of humans before the flood, an explanation for the lengthy Ice age and an additional puzzle to the production of Vitamin D. 

The expanse or sky, divided the oceans, seas and land from a vault or canopy of water surrounding the earth above the sky, in the Earth’s atmosphere. A cloudier sky would have positively affected the climate, generating less distinction between seasons; levelling out both temperate and tropical regions so that the whole planet was highly habitable – until the Ice age hit. Another difference would have been the decreased rays of UV radiation from the Sun to safer levels than today.

Genesis and Genetics, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes, and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently. 

This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans… Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in a more protective ozone layer.’

Vitamin D is required for healthy bones, teeth and muscles. As it is contained in only a few seafoods, our bodies can produce it through certain cholesterols in other foods, which are converted into Vitamin D from exposure to the Sun’s radiation. The liver and kidneys then turn the vitamin into an active form we can use called D3. Dark skinned people can be prone from deficiency as the higher percentage of melanin in their skin, blocks the suns rays more effectively. This is a factor in our present climatic conditions. 

Reliance on the Sun may not have been the primary option; or human skin tone was dark enough to protect against skin cancer, yet light enough to receive the necessary UV rays. Did the inhabitants of the early Earth have an alternative way of procuring Vitamin D, or did they have different food? Genesis 3:18 reveals the world before the flood – specifically, the agrarian line of Seth – had a plant based diet and it was only later after the flood that enigmatically, meat – including Vitamin D rich seafood – was introduced into the diet [Genesis 9:3-4].

The passing of a celestial body, whether a rogue planet and or, an accompanying comet or asteroids would have undoubtedly impacted on this firmament dome of water. The plunging of this vast volume of water downwards to the earth would have been seismic and added with the huge tidal waves sweeping the earth, could have easily and literally covered the entire earth and left none alive, unless protected.

Genesis 7:4-24

New English Translation

For in seven days I will cause it to rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will wipe from the face of the ground every living thing that I have made.” 

Noah was 600 years old when the floodwaters engulfed the earth. Noah entered the ark along with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives because of the floodwaters. And after seven days the floodwaters engulfed the earth.

In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month [April/May, Hebrew calendar], on the seventeenth day of the month – on that day all the fountains [springs] of the great deep [underneath the ocean] burst open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And the rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights. The flood engulfed the earth for forty days. As the waters increased, they lifted the ark and raised it above the earth. 

The waters completely overwhelmed the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the waters. The waters completely inundated the earth so that even all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered. The waters rose more than 20 feet above the [tallest] mountains. And all living things that moved on the earth died, including the birds, domestic animals, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all humankind. The waters prevailed over the earth for 150 days.

The heavens were opened, in that the vast canopy of water dropped onto the earth – for forty days and nights – so that even the top of Mount Everest was covered. The verses are very specific even, of the level the waters reached; leaving no doubt that the Great Flood was a global catastrophic event, smothering the earth for five months.

Noah and the Deluge Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gérard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The sudden disappearance of many animal species as well as moving erratic blocks would fit better with the biblical explanation of the Flood. The flood story is presented as an authentic history in the Gospels (Matthew 24:37-39, Luke 17:26-27). 

According to the Bible there was at the origin some waters upon the earth (sea and ocean) and waters above the earth in the form of a vault of water (Genesis 1:7). At the time of the Flood… the vault of water fell to earth… 

The disappearance of the vault of water (2 Peter 3:5-6) resulted in a new climate (Genesis 8:22) and its collapsing on the earth’s crust led to the emergence of big mountains (Psalm 104:6-8),which is consistent with the model of Pangaea in the plate tectonics. 

In the past the oceans were smaller and the continents were larger than they are now, as is evidenced by river channels extending far out under the oceans. It should also be noted that scientists have stated that mountains were much lower than at present, and some mountains have even been pushed up from under the seas.’ 

Pangaea, a scientifically proved supercontinent which broke up and resulted in the seven continents we know today – North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica.

‘As to the present situation, it is said that: there is ten times as much water by volume in the ocean as there is land above sea level. Dump all this land evenly into the sea, and water would cover the entire earth, one and one-half miles [2,400 metres] deep (National Geographic, January 1945, page 105). With the sudden opening of the ‘springs of the watery deep’ and “the floodgates of the heavens,” untold billions of tons of water deluged the earth (Genesis 7:11). This may have caused tremendous changes in earth’s surface. 

The earth’s crust is relatively thin (estimated at between 30 km and 160 km thick), stretched over a rather plastic mass thousands of kilometres in diameter. Hence, under the added weight of the water, there was likely a great shifting in the crust. In time new mountains evidently were thrust upward, old mountains rose to new heights, shallow sea basins were deepened, and new shorelines were established, with the result that now about 70 per cent of the surface is covered with water. This shifting in the earth’s crust may account for many geologic phenomena, such as the raising of old coastlines to new heights. It has been estimated by some that water pressure alone was equal to “2 tons per square inch”, sufficient to fossilize fauna and flora quickly . 

The concentration of [Carbon-14] during the last glaciation was much lower than at present, this fact has been highlighted by dendrochronology (measure of age by the rings of a tree). Scientists suppose that the long-term variation correlates with fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field strength (the geomagnetic moment). The geomagnetic moment affects C-14 production because cosmic rays are charged particles and are therefore deflected by a magnetic field. If the magnetic moment is high, more cosmic rays are deflected away from the earth and production of Carbon will fall; if low, the production rises. According to the biblical account, the earth was surrounded by a vault of water before the Deluge (perhaps in the stratopause where the temperature is at present around 0°C). Now water has the remarkable property of stopping neutrons very effectively since a screen of 23 mm thick stops 90% of neutrons (and a screen of 46 mm thick stops 99%), as demonstrated by nuclear pools. If there was water, Carbon production could not take place, which would explain the decrease in C-14 before 1000 BCE…’ 

‘The Okotoks Erratic, [Alberta, Canada]. According to geologists, this enormous quartzite block, weighing about 16,500 tonnes and measuring about 41 x 18 x 9 metres, was carried here on the surface of a glacier. It came from the Rocky Mountains (Canada) in the Jasper area (a location 450 km away), probably between 18 and 10 thousand years ago. That means that Canada was completely under a sheet of ice 10,000 years ago (a deluge of ice).’

In Genesis chapter seven, all physical life ended that was not aboard the Ark. The Bible uses the word humankind, instead of humans or people. It does not include the Nephil-kind in being destroyed. We observed, that the Nephilim were on the earth after the flood. Any Nephilim post-flood, could be survivors. 

The flood was decreed to halt the corruption of humanity by rebellious dark angels and so these fallen Angels were put in restraint. Presumably, they did not produce further offspring this side of the deluge? As this matter has wider repercussions in explaining biblical identities, we will return to the topic in later sections. The Book of Jubilees also records the Flood narrative, with additional details.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Five:

22 And Noah made the ark in all respects as He commanded him, (on the new month [moon] of the first month) [1st of Abib/Nisan – March/April]… 23 And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof… in the second month [Iyar – April/May], on the new month [new moon] of the second month, till the sixteenth [first day of the week]; and he entered… and Yahweh closed it from without on the seventeenth evening [2nd day of the week]. 24 And Yahweh opened seven flood-gates of heaven, And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number. 25 And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven[s] forty days and forty nights, And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until the whole world was full of water. 26 And the waters increased upon the earth: Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the high mountains, And the ark was lift up above the earth, And it moved upon the face of the waters. 27 And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five months – one hundred and fifty days. 

28 And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar,* one of the mountains of Ararat. 29 And (on the new month [moon]) in the fourth month [Tammuz – June/July] the fountains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were restrained; and on the new month [1st day] of the seventh month [Tishri – September/October] all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. 30 And on the new month of the tenth month [Tevet – December/January] the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new month [new moon] of the first month [1st day of Abib/Nisan – March/April] the earth became visible [one year to the day]. 31 And the waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the seventh year… [seven years since Noah began to build the Ark] thereof, and on the seventeenth day [2nd day of the week] in the second month [Iyar – April/May] the earth was dry. 32 And on the twenty-seventh** [5th day of the week] thereof he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving thing.

As the worst of the flood effects dissipated, the ark would have risen to the oceans surface or descended down onto the surface as explained in Genesis 8:1-5, New Century Version:

But God remembered Noah and all the wild and tame animals with him in the boat. He made a wind blow over the earth, and the water went down. The underground springs stopped flowing, and the clouds in the sky stopped pouring down rain. The water that covered the earth began to go down. After one hundred fifty days it had gone down so much that the boat touched land again. It came to rest on one* of the mountains of Ararat on the seventeenth day of the seventh month. The water continued to go down so that by the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains could be seen.

A salient point is that when the early part of Genesis was compiled, many thousands of years had passed. It says ‘mountains’, not Mount Ararat so that the location is a mountain range not a specific peak [Book of Jubilees excepted]. There is reason to consider that the Ararat mountains in Asia Minor drew their name from a more ancient location and that is, the Himalayan mountain range to the east and north. Searchers of Noah’s Ark may well have been looking in entirely the wrong place, when heading to Mount Ararat in present day Turkey. Heading westward from Turkey leads to southern Europe, not Mesopotamia or Sumer [Genesis 11:2]. Please refer to point number two in the introduction. 

A persistent belief is that the Garden of Eden was located below the Hindu Kush in present day Kashmir. What is not considered, is that Kashmir may be the re-beginning of civilisation after the flood. 

When the Ark could safely navigate the surface of the oceans, it is credible that the first observed land to appear would be amongst the now highest mountains on the earth. If the Ark rested on one of these peaks in the original mountains of Ararat, it would explain how civilisation after the flood appeared first in the Indus Valley, present day Pakistan. There are numerous mountains – all plausible, including K2 – that are over 8,000 metres in height, like Mount Everest. 

It would be logical that after the passengers on the Ark eventually disembarked, they found a suitable region to live, right where they were. Kashmir is stunning with its majestic mountains and lakes and is located in one of the four Himalayan Mountain ranges, the Karakoram range in the north west. Below is the Western Himalayan range. To the east is the Great Himalayan range, where Everest is located and then the Eastern range – Brahmaputra. Its climate was likely quite different 13,000 years ago and would account for:

Genesis 9:20

New Century Version

Noah became a farmer and planted a vineyard.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Seven:

1 And in the seventh week** [late in the 4th month Tammuz – early July] in the first year [after the flood] thereof… Noah planted vines [today, ideal planting is from October to March] on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year [it takes a grapevine from rootstock, four to five years to mature]… and he guarded their fruit [prune in November; ensure roots are not damp through adequate drainage and that the soil is nutrient rich], and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [end of summer harvest, September/October – usually from August to October]. 2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it… 

Remember, the lower lands and plains were water soaked, soggy and boggy for many years. Legend holds that Noah was rather reclusive and dwelt near where the Ark came to rest; with the Book of Jubilees stating in 10:15: ‘And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat.’ Possibly, remaining in Kashmir was as far as Noah travelled after the flood. In the Epic of Gilgamesh – part of the plot summary repeated below from Spark Notes – The King of Urek, Gilgamesh [attributed to Nimrod – Noah’s great grandson] begins a quest and journeys very far to the solitary Utnapishtim or Noah. He seeks immortality and allegedly meets with Utnapishtim to learn his secret, as he has lived longer than any other man after the flood [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod].

‘… Gilgamesh, king of Uruk [south of Babylon]… was two-thirds god and one-third man. He built magnificent ziggurats, or temple towers [Tower of Babel], surrounded his city with high walls, and laid out its orchards and fields. He was physically beautiful, immensely strong, and very wise. Although Gilgamesh was godlike in body and mind, he began his kingship as a cruel despot. He lorded over his subjects, raping any woman who struck his fancy… He accomplished his building projects with forced labor, and his exhausted subjects groaned under his oppression… Gilgamesh… traveled to the edge of the world and learned about the days before the deluge and other secrets of the gods, and he recorded them on stone tablets.

… Gilgamesh hopes that Utnapishtim can tell him how he might avoid death… After a harrowing passage through total darkness, Gilgamesh emerges into a beautiful garden by the sea [Garden of Eden]… Gilgamesh journey[s] across the sea and through the Waters of Death to Utnapishtim. 

Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood – how the gods met in council and decided to destroy humankind. Ea, the god of wisdom, warned Utnapishtim about the gods’ plans and told him how to fashion a gigantic boat in which his family and the seed of every living creature might escape. When Gilgamesh insists that he be allowed to live forever, Utnapishtim gives him a test. If you think you can stay alive for eternity, he says, surely you can stay awake for a week. Gilgamesh tries and immediately fails. So Utnapishtim orders him to… return to Uruk where he belongs… When Gilgamesh returns to Uruk, he is empty-handed but reconciled at last to his mortality…’

Gilgamesh eventually found the reclusive Utnapishtim, though was left frustrated as access to the Tree of Life had been withdrawn and there was no way to cheat death. 

Noah’s family would have grown quickly and with sixteen grandsons all jockeying for position, they would later travel south along the Indus River, populating it as they travelled. Mankind continued migrating westward and civilisation eventually re-emerged in the fertile crescent of the Middle East. The family groups now substantially larger, stamped their names throughout the Middle East, North Africa, West Asia, Asia Minor [Turkey] and the Greek Archipelago, and it is from these records that Genesis Ten’s geography is derived. Well after the initial, early smaller groupings along the Indus River. 

A possible reason the bulk of Noah’s family travelled west and not east, is that either the grandchildren knew civilisation had once been important there pre-flood and were keen to re-visit so-to-speak, or – we do not know where Noah and his sons had dwelt previously, if not Atlantis, Lemuria, or an unfrozen Antartica even – the Middle East might have actually been their original homeland.

The Races of the Old Testament, A H Sayce, 1891, pages 39-42:

‘… the tenth chapter of Genesis is ethnographical rather than ethnological. It does not profess to give an account of the different races of the world and to separate them one from another according to their various characteristics. It is descriptive merely, and such races of men… are described from the point of view of the geographer and not of the ethnologist.’ 

Sayce’s stance is peculiar, for it would seem the converse would be more logical, since a genealogical family tree is being listed. I propose the account in Genesis Ten is both ethnological and ethnographical. That is, the family groups are listed in a certain order and described living next to each other in a particular fashion because they are family. Families stay together and the listing of Noah’s son’s grandchildren is to help us understand who is more related to who. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘… when it is said that Elam and Assur were the children of Shem, it is to geography, and not to ethnology, that we must look for an explanation. 

Assyria, Elam, and Babylonia, or Arphaxad as it seems to be called in the Ethnographical Table, all bordered, at one time, one upon the other. They constituted the three great monarchies of the eastern world, and their three capitals, Nineveh, Susa, and Babylon, were the three centres which regulated the politics of Western Asia. They were brethren not because the natives of them claimed descent from a common father, but because they occupied the same quarter of the world.’

Sayce is claiming geography is the key element in their positioning, yet the land they occupy is secondary and merely reflecting their relationship as brothers from the same father. Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad are three of the five sons of Shem. The remaining two sons, Aram and Lud, migrated further afield anciently. We will discover that Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad’s descendants today live in a similar pattern as in the past. They dwell closer to each other and their histories have been more entwined. Aram and Lud are located more on the periphery of Shem’s children today, again similar as in the past. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘Attempts have been made to explain the names of the three sons of Noah as referring to the colour of the skin. Japhet has been compared with the Assyrian ippatu white, Shem with the Assyrian samu olive-coloured/ while in Ham etymologists have seen the Hebrew kham to be hot. But all such attempts are of very doubtful value. It is, for instance, a long stride from the meaning of heat to that of blackness a meaning, indeed, which the Hebrew word never bears. Moreover, the sons of Ham were none of them black-skinned, with the possible exception of a part of the population of Cush. [Professor] Virchow has shown that the Egyptian, like the Canaanite, belongs to the white race, his red skin being merely the result of sunburn.’

I will endeavour to show that Japheth’s children can be light skinned, though others are not; that some of Shem’s children are olive-coloured and that Ham’s children do in fact live in the hot parts of the world, close to the equator. We will find, that all very dark skinned people have descended from Ham – though not all of Ham’s children are dark – and that the original children of Canaan were dark skinned, not red or sunburned – and that in time, white people became known as Canaanites because they lived in the same land after the original Canaanites had migrated south-west. Please refer to point number two in the introduction.

Races of People, William C. Boyd PhD [Geneticist], 1955, pages 43-45:

‘The color of normal human skin is due to the presence of three kinds of colored chemicals, or pigments. The most important of these pigments is melanin, a dark-brown substance… The second of the three pigments is carotene. This is a yellow substance which is present in carrots (from which it gets its name) and egg yokes as well as human skin… The third pigment is haemoglobin, which is the red coloring matter of blood… the haemoglobin occurs in the blood vessels beneath the skin, so that very little can show through. The presence of fair amounts of either melanin or carotene in the skin covers it up completely. Haemoglobin does show up however in the skin of white men, particularly in those of light complexion. It is the haemoglobin that accounts for pink cheeks and the ability [too] blush.’

A H Sayce says regarding our origin, page 38:

‘Great as may be the diversity between race and race under the microscope of the ethnologist, the unity which underlies it is greater still. God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth. Black or white, red or yellow, we are all bound together by a common nature ; we can all alike claim a common ancestry, and recognise that we have each been made in the image of the Creator.’

Sayce is quoting from the Apostle Paul in the book of Acts.

Acts 17:26

King James Version

26 And hath made of one blood [Adam] all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation…

In the English Standard Version it says in verses 24-25:

24 The God who made the world and everything in it… 25 nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything. 

New Century Version, verse 26:

26 God began by making one person, and from him came all the different people who live everywhere in the world. God decided exactly when and where they must live.

Daniel 7:13-14 

New English Transaltion

13 “I was watching in the night visions, And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him. 14 To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty. All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving him. His authority is eternal and will not pass away. His kingdom will not be destroyed.

We really are one, not as in ‘one human race’ [we are a variety of races], but rather one humankind; containing family groups grown large, now called peoples or nations. Most scientists now agree that all humans are genetically extremely similar – unexpectedly so, for evolutionists to adequately explain. 

The biological differences between races are small. The DNA differences are minute. The DNA of any two people in the world typically differs by just 0.2%. Of this, only 6% [a minuscule 0.012%] can be linked to racial categories – the rest is within race variation. Most evolutionists would concur that the various races did not have separate origins and evolve from different groups of animal primates. They would reluctantly agree with the biblical creationist, that all peoples have come from the same original ancestor.

There is a false perception that different racial characteristics like skin colour are due to  remarkably different genetic configurations. An understandable but incorrect premise. For example, it is easy to think that since different groups of people have yellow skin, red skin, black skin, white skin, and brown skin, there must be many different skin pigments and therefore different chemicals for colouring, involving numerous codes in the DNA for each race. 

Rather, we all have the same colouring pigment in our skin, melanin. It is a dark-brown pigment that is produced in varying amounts in unique cells in our skin. If we had none as previously discussed, then we would have a very white or pinkish skin colouring of an albino. If we produce small amounts of melanin, we are white. If our skin produces a lot of melanin, we are black and in between, all the shades of brown.

From an untitled article: 

‘Other substances can in minor ways affect skin shading, such as the coloured fibres of the protein elastin and the pigment carotene… we all share these same compounds… Factors other than pigment in the skin may influence the shade perceived by the observer in subtle ways, such as the thickness of the overlying (clear) skin layers, and the density and positioning of the blood capillary networks. 

In fact, ‘melanin’, which is produced by cells in the body called melanocytes, consists of two pigments, which also account for hair colour. Eumelanin is very dark brown, phaeomelanin is more reddish. People tan when sunlight stimulates eumelanin production. Redheads, who are often unable to… tan, have a high proportion of phaeomelanin.’  

We will encounter individuals on our journey who are red. An article on Eupedia elaborates – emphasis & bold mine:

Red hair is a recessive genetic trait caused by a series of mutations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a gene located on chromosome 16. As a recessive trait it must be inherited from both parents to cause the hair to become red. Consequently there are far more people carrying the mutation for red hair than people actually having red hair. In Scotland, approximately 13% of the population are redheads, although 40% carry at least one mutation. There are many kinds of red hair, some fairer, or mixed with blond (‘strawberry blond’), some darker, like auburn hair, which is brown hair with a reddish tint.

This is because some people only carry one or a few of the several possible MC1R mutations. The lightness of the hair ultimately depends on other mutations regulating the general pigmentation of both the skin and hair. Skin and hair pigmentation is caused by two different kinds of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. 

The most common is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer responsible for dark hair and skin, and the tanning of light skin. Pheomelanin has a pink to red hue and is present in lips, nipples, and genitals. 

The mutations in the MC1R gene imparts the hair and skin more pheomelanin than eumelanin, causing both red hair and freckles. Redheads have very fair skin, almost always lighter than non-redheads. 

This is an advantage in northern latitudes and very rainy countries, where sunlight is sparse, as lighter skin improves the absorption of sunlight, which is vital for the production of vitamin D by the body. The drawback is that it confers redheads a higher risk for both sunburns and skin cancer.

Studies have demonstrated that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain and also require greater amounts of anesthetic than people with other hair colours. The reason is that redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two different hormones: the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (for pigmentation) and endorphins (the pain relieving hormone).’

‘Folk wisdom has long described redheads as hot-tempered and short-tempered. Red hair has long been associated with Celtic people. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans described the Celts as redheads… red hair is an almost exclusively northern and central European phenomenon… these people share a common ancestry that can be traced back to a single Y-chromosomal haplogroup: R1b.

… the frequency of red hair is highest in Ireland (10 to 30%) and Scotland (10 to 25%), followed by Wales (10 to 15%), Cornwall and western England, Brittany, the Franco-Belgian border, then western Switzerland, Jutland [Denmark] and southwest Norway. The southern and eastern boundaries, beyond which red hair only occurs in less than 1% of the population, are northern Spain, central Italy, Austria, western Bohemia, western Poland, Baltic countries and Finland.

The question that inevitably comes to many people’s minds is: did red hair originate with the Celtic or the Germanic people? Southwest Norway may well be the clue to the origin of red hair. It has been discovered recently, thanks to genetic genealogy, that the higher incidence of both dark hair and red hair (as opposed to blond) in southwest Norway coincided with a higher percentage of the paternal lineage known as haplogroup R1b-L21, including its subclade R1b-M222, typical of northwestern Ireland and Scotland… It is now almost certain that native Irish and Scottish [Women] Celts were taken (probably as slaves) to southwest Norway by the Vikings, and that they increased the frequency of red hair there.

What is immediately apparent to genetic genealogists is that the map of red hair correlates with the frequency of haplogroup R1b in northern and western Europe. It doesn’t really correlate with the percentage of R1b in southern Europe, for the simple reason that red hair is more visible among people carrying various other genes involved in light skin and hair pigmentation.’

‘Mediterranean people have considerably darker pigmentations (higher eumelanin), especially as far as hair is considered, giving the red hair alleles little opportunity to express themselves. The reddish tinge is always concealed by black hair, and rarely visible in dark brown hair. Rufosity being recessive, it can easily stay hidden if the alleles are too dispersed in the gene pool, and that the chances of both parents carrying an allele becomes too low. Furthermore, natural selection also progressively pruned red hair from the Mediterranean populations, because the higher amount of sunlight and strong UV rays in the region was more likely to cause potentially fatal melanoma in fair-skinned redheads.

At equal latitude, the frequency of red hair correlates amazingly well with the percentage of R1b lineages. The 45th parallel north, running through central France, northern Italy and Croatia, appears to be a major natural boundary for red hair frequencies. Under the 45th parallel, the UV rays become so strong that it is no longer an advantage to have red hair and very fair skin. Under the 41th parallel, redheads become extremely rare, even in high R1b areas. 

The 45th parallel is also the traditional boundary between northern European cultures, where cuisine is butter-based, and southern European cultures, preferring olive oil for cooking. The natural boundary probably has a lot to do with the sun and climate in general, since the 45th parallel is exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole.’

We will investigate further the Celts, the British Isles, the significance of red hair and its correlation with the Y-DNA, R1b Haplogroup.

It is unimaginable how anyone, could hate, torture, or kill their fellow human being because of the colour of their skin. Skin is only skin deep – just seven layers of tissue, coloured by a pigment we all possess in varying degree. An African and a European could have two children. 

One has dark skin and straight hair, thin lips, a smaller nose and narrower, blue eyes. The skin may be dark, the features European. Whereas, the other child has light skin, curly hair, fuller lips, a broader nose and larger brown eyes. The skin may be light, the features African. The features are more racially characteristic than the skin tone. 

1 Samuel 16:7

New Century Version

God does not see the same way people see. People look at the outside of a person, but the Lord looks at the heart.”

The Bible laid bare, is a story about and to a family. That family has grown exceptionally large, comprising multiple billions. At the heart of that extended family, there is one particular family that was given certain responsibilities and had certain expectations of them. They were to be blessed regardless if they measured up or not, as a promise had been made by the Creator, bound by his word to an ancestor that had proved himself beyond faithful. The Bible is written in essence from this family’s perspective and the messages, warnings, events and circumstances in the bible, pertain to them. Other family members – people and nations – are mentioned either directly or indirectly in proportion to their interaction with this one central family. 

Acts 10:34-35

New Century Version

34 Peter began to speak: “I really understand now that to God every person is the same. 35 In every country God accepts anyone who worships him and does what is right.

There are a number of subjects we have touched upon in this chapter that deserve further consideration and so we will return to these topics in later sections. We shall now turn our attention to Genesis chapter ten and begin with the first son of Noah mentioned, Japheth and his seven sons.

“There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know”

Harry S Truman [1884 – 1972]

God gave the people a dull mind so they could not understand. He closed their eyes so they could not see and their ears so they could not hear. This continues until today.

Romans 11:8 New Century Version

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

The Noachian Legacy

A sensational Investigation into Ancient Peoples and Empires – revealing the hidden Identities of their Descendants – as our Modern Nations and Powers 

Primus Verba

My life long enthusiasm for the diversity of peoples and their cultures on our shared home, the singularly solitary and beautiful, watery blue orb we call Earth, was sparked around the age of ten when my father gave me a number of overflowing envelopes filled with postage stamps. He had kept every stamp from every letter from about the time I had been born. This included countless that he had received from his work. We had lived in Morocco for the first five years of my life and there were many from there as well as other exotic sounding nations – for me – including Persia [Iran] – Arabic writing I couldn’t understand, though fascinated with its artistry [Egypt] – and Hellas [Greece]. I spent hours over many weeks soaking them in the bath tub to remove their paper-backing and then diligently sorting them into countries and finally into albums.

This patient process led me to studying atlases and procuring a world map to see where exactly, all these new exciting countries were located. Little did I know, there were in fact some two hundred nations in the world. My eventual passion for [ancient] history, geography, and vexillology has combined over the years to include valuable research into heraldry, geo-politics, anthropology, ethnology, philology, etymology, legends and myth. All this through stamp collecting and my father unwittingly sending me on a journey I could not have imagined; following a trail that was more intriguing and dramatic the further along I ventured.

As a child, I had begun to question who really were the previous great nations and their empires of old and… thrillingly, who and where might they be now! Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, the Phoenicians, the Chaldeans, the Medes and Persians, the Greeks, Romans, Byzantium, the Goth and Frankish kingdoms, the Ottoman Empire. 

A crucial development was a certain teaching of the church that we had begun attending at about the same age of ten. I cannot recall when I became fully aware – though it was while I was young – of the belief that the family tree of nations listed in the Bible, as well as other other non-canonical books is in fact an account of the ancestors of the descended nations in existence today.

Though our church’s material was a valuable springboard, it fell short in answering my now all-consuming questions on the aforementioned great empires and peoples. I had been accepting of the identities as expounded and that they were accurate. It was years later, in my twenties when I challenged the teachings of our church one by one, that I came to look at the identity of nations much more closely to check their authenticity.

This began – in about 1991 – an in-depth study into the doctrine and thus a formerly casual acceptance and interest now began to evolve into a serious passion and probably more honestly an obsession. For when I looked at each identity one by one, I was struck aghast that only a small handful made sense and the vast majority did not. Either I was heading off in a tangent, or the foundational premise I had thought to be sound needed to be questioned and it-would-seem, rebuilt. A thirty year quest has ensued to fully understand the subject and endeavour to fit the pieces together more accurately.

A couple of serious points. Firstly, the subject of nations identities from the Bible divides like no other doctrinal teaching. Either one is enthusiastically receptive to the subject or vehemently opposed and sitting squarely in team scepticism. Those in opposition are themselves, likely in one of two camps. There are sincere believers in the Bible, yet see no sense, or place for this knowledge in their paradigm of beliefs. That is, it is not essential for salvation, nor does it have any relevance in their lives. Then there are others who do not believe the Bible is inspired and that it is rather just a collection of fables, platitudes, proverbs and the such that may be interesting, though not something to place serious value upon.

My purpose is not to try to win over either or to change their views. I would be surprised if they should even wish to read this work or sacrifice the time and energy on it. As Dale Carnegie said: “A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still”. 

There are readers whom hopefully are more receptive as they may have either a surface knowledge, or possibly considerable research after years of interest. The issue they may have with this work, is that it will fly contrary to the majority of teachings they are familiar with – from the preceding past one hundred and fifty years while it has gained popularity – and it might be asking too much to shift preconceived and pre-heard ideas that have become comfortable and well-intrenched. I am fascinated to find that people will often clutch onto the first explanation of a nation’s identity that they read or hear and it is then held close to their heart in a vice-like grip and woe to the person who try’s to loosen that clasp. 

To the constant and faithful readers who with me, share a reciprocal interest and desire to grow in knowledge and understanding… I trust that you will enjoy the journey we are about to embark on as much as I have. I would be very glad to hear from anyone that has a similar passion and desire to share, so that we can all further our understanding. I am continually learning and revising and open to teaching from others of like mind, welcoming helpful input.

I will aim to be non-dogmatic in my approach – be patient if I forget myself and am over zealous – I am not trying to prove emphatically necessarily, but rather, present my thoughts and submit my findings. A theory one could say and a springboard for further study and understanding. I have read numerous articles and books – especially on the Lost Tribes of Israel – and I believe there is a lot of confusion on the subject.

It is a colossal irony of enormous magnitude that those who dismiss the Bible outright, or those who place little value on the Old Testament verses that describe peoples and nations [past and future] – are using this teaching – as proof to satisfy in their own minds that either the Bible is not true or that vast sections of the Old Testament are of no value. Whereas the actual converse is applicable! The more one can identify peoples in the Bible that equate to modern nations today, the more compelling and incontrovertible the veracity of the Old Testament verses become, offering the most profound proof there is, that the Bible is actually inspired to reveal what is true.

The Bible has endured a sizeable proportion of editing and suffered censoring at the hands of those who compiled each Testament. Whether the scriptural verses that discuss peoples and nations have been or not, I am presently unaware. I do not believe there is any impediment to understanding them, as they are presented. There is helpful supplementary material in two books that did not make the biblical canon: the Book of Jasher and The Book of Jubilees. Many subjects that are Bible based or incorporate the Bible as part of their research can be supported by a variety of extra-biblical sources and secular material. The identity of nations is no different, though I trust as we progress, that the credibility of the written word of the Old Testament becomes overwhelmingly evident as the bedrock foundation in unlocking identities.

The second serious point is that it is next to impossible to cover this topic without a detractor crying racist or anti-Semite. One can speak of anthropology or ethnicity and little issue. Mention race and you are potentially in a hot seat. Anyone who knows me, can attest I am the least racist person. My interest in people and their origins and identity would make no sense otherwise. I sincerely mean no offence to anyone and apologise unreservedly if anything is inadvertently said that could be construed to be anything other than entirely respectful to all peoples included and discussed.

Some may be thinking: what are my credentials? Well, you may be disappointed if you value intellectual scholarship. I do not have a masters or a doctorate. I took Geography at High School and passed as well as History, achieving second place in my High School. I completed two semesters of History at University, gaining an Associate of Arts in Theology and the Fine Arts. I have been fortunate to have experienced a myriad of cultures and peoples, while visiting some forty countries and have been blessed to have lived in six different nations.

I believe what has held me in better stead, has been my willingness to accept what I have come to understand, yet be willing to be flexible enough to modify my view if I see the pieces are not smoothly interlacing. Also, through a thorough examination of every scripture in the Bible on the families and their subsequent descendants, many times over; while cross-referencing the verses, studying them word by word and checking definitions of key words and relevant people’s names. 

This process has been quite literally a gigantic jig-saw puzzle of thousands of pieces. With so many pieces it wasn’t easy, as I didn’t know which pieces were missing. I know I still don’t have them all. If others have missing pieces, I would be fascinated to continue learning. We are by our very nature prone and limited at times to perceiving ideas and even facts from our own individual perspective. I have endeavoured throughout to approach – what has been tantamount to – an investigation, with integrity and impartiality as much as possible.

Before we begin in earnest, I have noticed researchers have relied quite heavily on etymology, heraldry symbols and sometimes superficial connections. I think they are important and lend interesting support. It can be easy to place possibly, over credence on them that can then be mis-leading and less constructive rather than helpful.

I have taken a different approach in four main areas that I believe may have been invaluable in unlocking the enigma of the nations identities.

a. As the original nations of the world began as families grown large, they understandably lived in close proximity to other families that were closely related. A geographic proximity and closeness that I believe has been replicated today. In other words, nations generally migrated in similar lines or paths, whether parallel or in tandem from the Middle East region and have ended up in Europe, Asia and so forth living next to those exact same people who are more closely related to themselves.

b. An area that has tangled up many researchers is that of names used for peoples in one area and then those people migrate and move under a different name – because languages kept evolving and also friends or foes would use different names or labels for people. We will strike this phenomena repeatedly, but to use one quick example. The people of Ham’s son Cush moved into an area of land in East Africa – below and to the south of present day Egypt and the Sudan – and it became known as Ethiopia, a translation of Cush. Cush’s descendants have long gone from the area, now lived in by the modern nation of Africans with that name. The people that live there now are not Cush. We will find that Cush migrated to the Arabian peninsula and continued eastward. Therefore, in the Bible when it mentions Cush – past or future – or is translated as Ethiopia, being inter-changeable, it means the people of Cush and where they reside now. Not, the people currently living in the modern nation called Ethiopia. This is very important to understand and completely alters the meaning of certain verses that have been interpreted in error.

c. Relating to point two: language changes and evolves continually. Compare an English or American English dictionary from fifty years ago with one from the present day. The amount of new and changing words is vast. Hence how nations can have very different identifying names over the course of two hundred years, let alone two thousand years. Similar to point one: Languages spoken today are a major clue to who is related to whom and it is similarly linked to geographic location. Similar language does not stand alone but added with other evidence adds weighted support.

d. I happened on Haplogroups and my research was impacted from that day forward. To receive confirmation of humanities present locations worldwide was monumental; pivotal evidence in supporting the proposition that humankind is one family grown large and that distinct family groups are identifiable through our DNA. Certain peoples are clearly more related to some than others and therefore match the family groups listed in the Old Testament.

I am indebted to the following two men and their research. The Origin of the Nations, 1957, by Dr Herman Hoeh and Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, 1902, by J H Allen.

Most importantly, I wish to give grateful appreciation to my wife. Tirelessly she has listened to me go on and on, with my findings and theories. I ran everything on this subject past her for thirty years and still counting. On walks, sharing a drink in the garden, sitting on the sofa or last thing at night in bed as she struggles to stay awake and then can resist no more. Me still talking until I realise she is asleep. To have a sounding board, who countless times helped me refine a point or a new line of enquiry is of incalculable value. She is a sizeable part of this work – thank you.

“What we know is a drop, what we don’t know is an ocean.”

Isaac Newton [1643 – 1727]

“In a time of universal deceit – telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”

George Orwell [1903 – 1950]

“All iconoclasts have to swim upstream against a relentless tide of opposition… the fate of all rebels…”

Lloyd Pye [1946 – 2013]

“I challenge anyone to assert that they have done more than simply parrot the words of the official anonymous or generally accepted superficial sources. And I ask does that satisfy one who is truly looking for an answer?”

Nara [2009] 

“To whom will he teach knowledge, and to whom will he explain the message…

Isaiah 28:9 English Standard Version

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