Homo neanderthalensis I

There are a number of peoples within China’s borders including the Han, Manchu, Mongol and Tibetan. Tibetan populations are most genetically similar to other modern East Asian peoples. A 2016 study claimed that the Tibetan gene pool diverged from that of the Han Chinese around 15,000 years ago; attributed to a post-LGM [Last Glacial Maximum] dispersal. Analysis of around two hundred contemporary populations showed that Tibetans shared ancestry with 82% from East Asia, 11% from Central Asia and Siberia, 6% from South Asia, and 1% with western Eurasia and also Oceania. These results support the premise that Tibetans arose from a mixture of multiple ancestral gene pools and that their origins are more complicated and ancient than previously suspected. The date of divergence between Tibetans and the Sherpas of Nepal has been estimated to have taken place about 11,000 to 7,000 years ago [between the Flood 10,837 BCE and the time of Peleg circa 6755 BCE].

After modern Oceanic populations, Tibetan populations show the highest rate of allele sharing with primitive hominins [extinct humans not belonging to Homo sapiens] at over 6%. Remarkably, modern Tibetans show genetic affinities to three ancient peoples: Denisovans, Neanderthals and… an unidentified archaic population.* In comparison to modern Han populations, modern Tibetans show greater genetic affinity with Denisovans; however, both the Han and Tibetans have similar ratios of genetic affinity with general Neanderthal populations. 

Tibetans have been identified as the modern population that has the most alleles in common with Ust’-Ishim man. Ust’-Ishim man is the term given to the remains of an early modern [Cro-Magnon (Homo sapiens)] human inhabiting western Siberia. The fossil of a male left femur – discovered in 2008 – was a very important discovery, as it had intact DNA. This allowed the complete sequencing of its genome; the oldest modern human genome to be decoded. Dated as forty-five thousand years old, though about half this age is more likely to be accurate. 

Coupled with this discovery was the finding of a fossil jaw in the Himalayan highlands of Tibet, belonging to none other than the vanished human species, Denisovan. From the scientists perspective, this discovery deepened the mystery of human ‘evolution’ in Asia. A local Buddhist monk found the fossil, which shows these ancient human relatives lived on the roof of the world in the rarefied air of almost 11,000 feet. 

This is an altitude that would leave most people starved for oxygen today. This notable contribution of the Denisovan genome, is an allele of a gene involved in adaptation for low oxygen. This allows today’s Tibetans and the Sherpa people to live at high altitude more comfortably than other people. When this was discovered, it was perplexing to scientists because they have inaccurately placed modern humans reaching the region at ‘forty thousand years ago at the earliest’ and yet the same allele is found in modern populations living in much lower altitudes. For instance, Denisova Cave the discovery site, is seven hundred metres above sea level. 

Scientists now entertain that Neanderthals may have lived past forty thousand years ago and are relying on new fossil evidence to resolve the question. Kirk Lohmueller, a University of California geneticist, admitted: ‘That’s a paradox the field needs to address.’ One answer could be that Neanderthals did not die out that long ago, but rather when the great flood occurred. This would place their demise about thirteen thousand years ago and would assist in understanding the amount of Neanderthal DNA that Europeans and especially East Asians carry, if it was a far more recent development in our genetic material. In fact, some scientists after a detailed analysis of the DNA of people living in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, now think our species may have been interbreeding with Denisovans as recently as, fifteen thousand years ago.

Scientists shared interesting evidence in an article, Neanderthal Introgression at Chromosome 3p21.31 Was Under Positive Natural Selection in East Asians, multiple authors, 2014, of ‘accumulation of a Neanderthal DNA region found on chromosome 3 that contains 18 genes, with several [alleles] related to UV-light adaptation, [in] the Hyal2 gene.’ 

A map showing the global distribution of the introgressive Haplotypes from archaic hominins

‘Their results reveal this region was positively selected and enriched in East Asians, ranging from up to [49.4] percent in Japanese to [66.5] percent in Southern [Han] Chinese… [as well as quite high percentages in Native Americans – see map]… the Neanderthal genomic region suggests that UV-light mutations were shown to be lost during the [unproven] exodus of modern humans from Africa, and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals.’ 

We touched on the sun light conditions, the UV-light adaptation and the formation of Vitamin D, as well as the atmospheric conditions in the antediluvian epoch previously [refer Chapter I Noah Antecessor Nulla]. We have an extra link between the pre-flood world and the Neanderthal that existed prior to the flood, but not afterwards. Some researchers believe the Neanderthal and the Nephilim* are one and the same. This would indicate they are not. The requirement for the Neanderthal to have this genetic adaptation, means that the lines of Japheth and Shem, with their generally fairer skins, both received the adaptation. 

The darker skinned peoples descending from Seth and later Ham are now linked more strongly, as the line of Seth that Noah descended did not all inter-marry with the people of Day Six or descendants of Cain. Thus, Noah was pure in his genetic composition as discussed in chapter one. Cain’s line did mix and may explain some of the Japheth-like names of his family. Plus, we now have the strong likelihood that at least one, maybe two people in Noah’s family had Neanderthal DNA, to then pass on to Shem and Japheth’s children. We also have further support confirming the scientific data from Haplogroups [Y-DNA Haplogroup A & mtDNA Haplogroup L], that darker skinned people originated first and lighter skinned people have subsequently descended [mutated] from them [refer Chapter XVI Shem Occidentalis].

Though I lean away from the ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis and lean towards the off the Ark scenario, they align in two important points, with science actually affirming the Biblical, Sumerian and many other ancient written accounts. First, both show that there was an original environment and then a secondary one afterwards. Secondly, there were a reduced number of ethnicities in this first environment and an increased number in the second. An African continent, then a post-Africa diversifying movement of new European and Asian peoples; or an antediluvian world preceding a post-diluvian world, with the development of more variety in the ethnic races going from either two or three, to sixteen. 

The Neanderthal were a separate line of human – prior to Homo sapiens – who existed before the flood. Their larger head and increased brain capacity reveals they were  highly intelligent and certainly not ape-like as has been falsely promulgated. It is believed that the Denisovans and Neanderthals split, with the former migrating to Asia and the latter to Europe. In realty, the split is primarily genetic and secondarily geographic. The Denisovans component is primarily present in Melanesians, East Indonesians and the Negritos from the Philippines, compared to other southeastern Asians. Thus, only populations situated to the east of the biological boundary traced by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869, consistently share genetic material from Denisovans; pointing to a close relationship among them. 

The detailed aspects of one, the Neanderthal question; two, parallel humans; and three, the Nephilim* prior to the flood are addressed in a separate chapter, though for now, it is relevant to briefly discuss the relevance of Japheth possessing Neanderthal and Denisovans DNA [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

Both Neanderthal and Denisovans DNA is genetically closer than either is to Homo sapiens sapiens, or modern man. About two per cent of the genome [ranging from 0 to 5%] of a typical European contains genetic material almost identical to Neanderthal DNA; though people in China, Japan and other East Asian countries carry 20 per cent [generally ranging from 15 to 30%] more Neanderthal DNA. This remains an inexplicable puzzle to scientists. 

Kirk Lohmueller and graduate student Bernard Kim constructed a computer model of Europeans and Asians, simulating reproduction over time, adding Neanderthal DNA and observing the emerging genetic differences. The modelling highlighted that the only scenario that could explain why modern Asians have more Neanderthal DNA, was that they had a second encounter with Neanderthals at a later date – another ‘pulse’ of their genes into the Asian pool. Of course, this two pulse hypothesis explanation runs into the same ‘forty thousand years ago’ difficulty, as the Neanderthal would have disappeared well before the European and Asian populations genetically diverged. ‘How could there have been Neanderthals left to interbreed with Asians a second time?’ Mainstream science remains adamant that Neanderthal man became extinct forty thousand years ago, contrary to growing evidence. 

So scientists are still left scratching their heads how Asians received their additional Neanderthal DNA. Weak explanations offered to this quandary include: ‘European ancestors bred with another yet-to-be discovered species of ancient human that watered down their Neanderthal DNA’… or… Asians also mixed with another group of humans – now extinct – that had interbred with Neanderthals and carried much of their DNA.’ 

Regardless of time frames, the idea of additional inter-breeding between Neanderthal and East Asians, does not account for the fact that they did and Europeans did not. In a separate section, the Genesis account is dissected for any answers to this question. What we find, is that there were people that came into existence before Cro-Magnon or Homo sapiens man. These people were the Neanderthal, or the people of Day Six. The high level of their DNA and the Denisovans within Oriental Asian people can be answered if it was already included in Japheth’s line. How and when this happened could be answered a number of ways. Input on the technicalities of this process would be welcomed, as white Europeans possess considerably less Neanderthal DNA and no Denisovans, while sub-Saharan Black people possess neither of the DNA genetic material of this early human. 

Edited excerpt from Chapter X – China: Magog, Tubal & Meshech

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