Appendix IV: An Unconventional Chronology

This appendix is a companion to the complete work of The Noachian Legacy and its thirty-four chapters. The dates from 100,000 BCE to the birth of Abraham are as honest and logical presentation of a chronological sequence of ancient history as I can formulate at the present time with what knowledge is available. It is open for discussion, amendment and adjustment as new information or understanding is discovered or explored. In other words, it is not set in stone or 100% accurate. I also would like to study this – very long – historical period further as time spent on the identity of nations has precluded as in-depth a study as I would have liked.

Any dates beyond 2022 are speculation in the least or intelligent analysis of biblical prophecy at the best. I do not claim to be a prophet, or speak for the Eternal on the subject of prophecy. Though what I do claim, is a very high degree of accuracy – though not 100% –  for the events lasting just over two thousand years, beginning with the birth of Abraham in 1977 BCE and the death of the Messiah in April 30 CE.

John 1:1 The Beginning

101,690 – 99,530 BCE Age of Aquarius – Water and Electricity – Creation of Universe

75,770 – 73,610 First Age of Aquarius 

49,850 – 47,690 BCE Age of Aquarius – the Water Bearer, life giver – Creation of the Solar System. 

Tiamat v Marduk and creation of the Earth – Pangaea, one supercontinent, that split into seven separate landmasses when the Angels rebelled prior to re-creation of Genesis 1:1 or more likely during the time of Noah. 

47,690 – 45,530 Age of Capricorn – The Goat, 47,690 BCE to 4150 CE equals 24 ages or 51,840 years of the Procession of the Equinoxes – 25 ages equals 54,000 years 

47,690 BCE Arrival of the gods from the Pleiades – Orion, Taurus, Sirius, Draco.

Beginning of hominids and hominins – Homo erectus and genetic creation of proto-lulu worker ‘the black headed ones’ of Sumerian texts

45,530 – 43,370 Age of Sagittarius – The Centaur

43,370 – 41,210 Age of Scorpio – The Serpent

41,210 – 39,050 Age of Libra – The Scales

39,050 – 36,890 Age of Virgo – The Virgin

36,890 – 34,730 Age of Leo – The Lion 

35,397 BCE Rebellion of the gods – destruction of the Dinosaurs or later in antediluvian age 

Genesis 1:1 Re-creation after Samael’s Rebellion 

34,730 – 32,570 Age of Cancer – The Crab

34,397 1st Day Dark and Light, Night and Day

33,397 2nd Day Atmosphere of the Earth

32,570 – 30,410 Age of Gemini – The Twins

32,397 3rd Day Separation of Water and Earth, Oceans, Plant life

31,397 4th Day new Sun – old sun Saturn – and Moon, artificial, set in orbit

30,410 – 28,250 Age of Taurus – The Bull

30,397 5th Day Animals, Birds and Fish

29,397 BCE 6th Day Man Homo neanderthalenis, Neanderthal man

28,397 BCE 7th Day Sabbath rest – physical Garden in the Holy land region 

28,250 – 26,090 Age of Aries – The Ram

27,397 BCE 8th Day Creation of Adam and Eve 

27,390 Adam and Eve expelled from Eden after 7 years – transformed to Homo sapiens, Cro-Magnon man, mortal reproducing mammals [mitochondrial Eve] 

27,390 BCE Cain and Abel born – Cain’s wife, sister Awan – Nod east of Eden in Babylon

26,400 Abel died

26,097 Seth born – his wife Azura, originally Abel’s wife and Azura the sister of Awan.

26,090 – 23,930 Age of Pisces – The Fish

26,000 Evil Enoch born

25,047 Enosh born – his wife Noam

25,000 Irad born

24,147 Kenan born – his wife Mualeleth

24,000 Mehujael born 

23,930 – 21,770 Age of Aquarius – The Water Bearer – Water and Electricity

23,447 Mahalalel born – his wife Dinah

23,000 Methushael born

22,797 Jared born – his wife Baraka

22,000 BCE Evil Lamech born [Genesis 4:23-24] avenged 70 x 7* – His wife Betenos

The Watchers – fallen/dark Angels – arrive on earth – 2nd Rebellion, during Age of Aquarius equals the middle point between the first Aquarius Age and the beginning of Earth and the third Age of Aquarius and the beginning of a New Earth

21,770 – 19,610 Age of Capricorn – The Goat

21,175 BCE Righteous Enoch born [Gen 5:21-13] walked with God 20,527 to 17,527 

BCE- his wife Edna

21,000 Jabal born from Adah and Lamech, Tubal-Cain born from Zillah and Lamech

20,527 Methuselah born – his wife Edna

20,000 Jubal born from Adah and Lamech, brother of Jabal – twin?

20,000 Naamah born from Zillah and Lamech, sister of Tubal Cain

19,610 – 17,450 Age of Sagittarius – The Centaur: human upper body, equine lower body

18,657 BCE Lamech Noah’s father born

18,097 Adam died 9,300 years old**

17,527 Enoch taken early by God when he was 3,650 years old

17,450 – 15,290 Age of Scorpio – The Serpent: other symbols include, spider, scorpion, lizard, wolf, eagle [or dove] & Phoenix

16,977 Seth died age 9,120 years old

16,837 BCE Birth of Noah – possibly Homo sapiens idaltu [Dale] – his wife Emzara. Noah Lived 6,000 years before the flood and 3,500 years after, total of 9,500 years.

15,290 – 13,130 Age of Libra – The Scales

13,130 – 10,970 Age of Virgo – The Virgin

11,837 BCE Noah’s three triplet sons born, Japheth, Ham & Shem – Homo sapiens sapiens – modern Human – [Genesis 5:32; 9:28; 11:10-11].

Japheth’s wife ‘Adataneses; Ham’s wife Na’eltama’uk; and Shem’s, Sedeqetelebab 

Shem lived 1,000 years before the flood and 5120 years after the flood, total of 6,120 years. Ages before the flood multiply by 10 to reach correct age. For example, Adam lived 930 years times 10, true age 9,300 years. After flood, convert age from sexagesimal count to decimal and derive true age. 

“The alleged orbit of Sitchin’s planet is 3,600 years. The number is a sar, the Sumerian unit of time equal to 3,600 earth years, generated by multiplying 6 by 10 (pur), arriving at 60 (soss); 60 times 10 gave 600 (ner), and 600 times 6 equals 3,600 (sar). [Or, 3600 divide by 30 day month is 120 months, which equals 10 years].”

10,970 – 8810 Age of Leo – The Lion. The three Pyramids of Giza and Sphinx built either just prior or just after the Flood

10,887 Lamech died prematurely age 7,770* years

10,837 BCE The Great Deluge, Flood 

Atlantis and Lemuria destroyed – Ark comes to rest in Himalayas and Noah dwells in the Kashmir [a secondary, type of the Garden of Eden]. Methuselah died in the flood, age 9,690 years, the oldest man in the Bible**

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“In 2008, a team of Danish geologists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen studied the ice core data from Greenland, and concluded that the ice age ended exactly in 9703 BC. Researcher Jorgen Peder Steffensen said that, “in the transition from the ice age to our current warm, interglacial period the climate shift is so sudden that it is as if a button was pressed”. More recently, in 2012, an international team of scientists concluded that the earth was bombarded by a meteorite storm nearly 12,000 years ago, which effectively ended the ice age, and led to the end of a prehistoric civilization and the extinction of many animal species.” 

10,750 Asshur born

10,717 Arphaxad born 

9700 Nimrod’s father Kish born

8700 Nimrod born

9647 Shelah born

8747 Eber born

8810 – 6650 Age of Cancer – The Crab[’s Claws]

7727 BCE Peleg born: Time of Peleg 7727 to 4737 is 2,990 years of his life

7337 Noah died age 9,500 years old

6827 Reu born and died in 4222. Lived 2605 years [divide by 10.9 or times by same]

6755 to 6232 BCE Tower of Babel, all peoples scattered

Date derived by 7275 minus 6232 equals 1043 then divide by 2 = ~ 520. Thus 7275 minus 520 is 6755; or 6232 BCE derived by 1/2 of 2990 equals 1495 then subtract from 7727.

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) from 6976 BC – 6676 BC also coincides with a significant environmental event – the Black Sea Catastrophe which has recently been dated to 6700 BC. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline (by around 30%). This event fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia. Geologists Bill Ryan and Walter Pitman of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York, who had first proposed the Black Sea Catastrophe hypothesis, have gone to the extent of comparing it to Noah’s Flood. Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding areas. In the book Underworld, Graham Hancock has described some of the terrible events that ravaged the planet during that time. Sometime between 6900 BC – 6200 BC the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz/Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was possibly the “single largest flood of the Quarternary Period”, which may have single-handedly raised global sea-level by half a metre. The period between 7000 BC – 6000 BC was also characterized by the occurrences of gigantic earthquakes in Europe. In northern Sweden, some of these earthquakes caused “waves on the ground”, 10 metres high, referred to as “rock tsunamis”. 

It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.

“In 2002, the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIO), India, discovered two cities submerged in the Gulf of Cambay [India], at a depth of 120 feet. These mysterious submerged cities were laid out in a grid, had towering walls, massive geometrical buildings and huge engineering works such as dams, and they stood entirely above water around 7,000 years ago. Nearly 2,000 man-made artifacts were recovered from the sites, some of which have been carbon dated to 6500 BC – 7500 BC, indicating their existence in the Dwapara Yuga.”

6650 – 4490 Age of Gemini – The Twins

6000 BCE [2nd] Sumerian Civilisation suddenly begins fully formed with extensive records

5867 Serug born

5717 Shem died age 6,120 years – slayer of Nimrod at age 2,468 years of age

5617 Arphaxad died Age 5,100 years

4967 Nahor born

4737 Peleg died 

4490 – 2330 Age of Taurus – The Bull

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012: 

“The transitional period between the Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga, from 3976 BC – 3676 BC was again marked by a series of environmental cataclysms, whose exact nature remains a mystery. It is referred to in geology as the 5.9 kiloyear event, and it is considered as one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene period. It occurred around 3900 BC, ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. At the same time, between 4000 BC – 3500 BC, the coastal plains of Sumer experienced severe flooding, which “was the local effect of a worldwide episode of rapid, relatively short-term flooding known as the Flandrian transgression – which had a significant impact not only along the shores of the Gulf but in many other parts of Asia as well.” This catastrophic flooding event led to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia, and triggered a worldwide migration to river valleys. This transitional period between the Yugas is recorded in many ancient calendars, as we find a clustering of important dates around this epoch. For a very long time, there was a prevalent belief in the western world that the world was created in 4004 BC. This date comes to us from the genealogies of the Old Testament. This date is just 28 years prior to the end of the Dwapara and the beginning of the transitional period. A Saptarsi Calendar, still in use in India, counted time in the Kali Yuga starting from 3976 BC, which coincides with the beginning of the transitional period. The year of world creation in the Jewish religious calendar is 3761 BC, which is in the middle of the transitional period. The famous Mahabharata War of the Indian subcontinent, which took place during the transitional period between Yugas, 35 years prior to the beginning of the Kali Yuga, can now be dated to 3711 BC. The Mahabharata mentions that the Dwapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga started as soon as Krishna left this world; and then the seas swelled up and submerged the island-city of Dwarka, which was located off the coast of western India.”

4077 BCE Terah born – his wife Amathlai

2887 Nahor died, Abraham’s grandfather

2330 – 170 Age of Aries – The Ram

2224 Sargon [1] of Akkad reigned to 2169 [or 40 years], descendant of Peleg.

2169 Rimush [2] of Akkad, son of Sargon reigned 9 years

2163 King Abalgamash [2167-2163 BCE] of Marhashi a Kingdom to the east of Elam revolted unsuccessfully against Rimush, with Luh-ishan of Awan [2174-2149 BCE] who had been defeated by Sargon. 

2160 Manishtushu [3], older brother of Rimush and son of Sargon reigned 14 years

2145 Naram-Sin [4] of Akkad, son of Manishtushu reigned 36 years

2109 Naram-Sin died 

2109 Shar-kali-sharri [5], great grandson of Sargon and son of Naram-Sin reigned 25 years

“Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire and the son of Narem-Sin. His name translated means “king of kings and he reigned for about 25 years and was succeeded by Dudu possibly following a period of social unrest. He was successful in launching military campaigns against Gutium, Amurru, Elam. He is also known for helping build up the cities of Nippur and Babylon and constructed temples, monuments and other structures.”

2084 Shar-kali-sharri died

2084-2080 Anarchy: four disputed kings Irgigi, Imi, Nanum and Ilulu “Then who was king? Who was not the King?”

2080 Dudu [1] of Akkad reigned 21 years

2059 Shu-Turul [2] son of Dudu

2044 BCE fall of Akkad to the Gutians and end of Shu-Durul reign. 

2067 Beginning of Guti Dynasty rule: first King Inkisis, with 19 kings over 76 years to 1991 BCE*

2044 BCE the Partholonians arrive in Ireland and rule for 300 years

2009 Haranborn – Abraham’s brother 

1996 to 1989 BCE Utu-hengal 

5th Dynasty of Uruk [reigned either 427/26/7 years divide 427 by 60 equals 7 years] defeated 19th and last Guti king* Tirigan who ruled for 40 days in 1991 BCE and appoints Ur-Nammu,his son, as Governor of Ur 

1994 BCE Sumu-abum [1] First King of Dynasty I Amorite ruled 13 years: liberated Babylon from the city-state Kazallu.

1993 Nahor born – Abraham’s brother

1988 BCE beginning of Ur-Nammu or Ur-Namma** as 1st king of the Ur III Dynasty. 

He defeated Nammahani of Lagash and became Pharaoh Menes or Narmer** of Egypt. Narmer means ‘painful, stinging, harsh’ or ‘fierce’ and ‘raging catfish’. Narmer is a Horus name and Menes a birth name. He is counted as the first human king after a series of divine and semi-divine rulers in Egypt.

1980 BCE Beginning of Sumu-la-El [2] reign – 2nd king of Dynasty I Babylon and father of Sabium

1980 to 1955 BCE Kutik-Inshushinak of Awan^

1977 BCE Birth of Abraham [Genesis 21:5]

1970 BCE  Lot born – his wife Idit

Ur Nammu/Narmer/Menes died

2nd king of 1st Dynasty Hor-Aha son of Narmer/Menes – [Greek: Athotis (Aha or Horus Aha)] Considerable historical evidence from the period points to Narmer as the pharaoh who first unified Egypt and to Hor-Aha as his son and heir. Hor-Aha’s chief wife was Benerib. He had another wife called Khenthap with whom he had Djer. It is widely agreed that Hor-Aha’s mother was Neithhotep [meaning: Neith is satisfied] and that she was the wife of Narmer/Menes. Hor-Aha reigned 48 years

Beginning of Shulgi or Sulgi reign, the son of Ur-Nammu and 2nd king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur. Shulgi ruled 46 years, to 1924 BCE. He would have been the king of Ur when Abraham’s family hastily departed for Haran in 1927 BCE.

1967 BCE Sarah born – ten years younger than Abraham [Genesis 23:1]

1955-1930 An unnamed Elamite king between Kutik-Inshushinak^ and Chedorlaomer

1952 Shulgi in his 18th year gave daughter Nialimmidashu to King Libanugshabash [1952-1941 BCE] of the Marhashi 

1947 Chedorlaomer born

1945 end of Sumu-la-El reign Dynasty I Babylon – 2nd King 

1940 Shulgi married one of his daughters to the governor of Ansan in year 30 of his reign

1931 End of Sabium [3], son of Sumu-la-El reign Dynasty I Babylon – 3rd king 

1929 BCE Chedorlaomer or Kudur-Lagamar becomes Elam’s king

1927 Haran died in house fire, or killed by King Shulgi. Abraham and his family depart Ur for Haran, when he is 50 years old 

1924 2nd king of Ur III, Shulgi died after 46 year reign 

Beginning of Amar-Sin [3], or Amar-Suena reign to 1915 BCE of 9 years – son of Shulgi – Ur III. Beginning of Rim-Sin I reign of Larsa or Ellasar of 59 years. Eventually murdered by Hammurabi in 1865 BCE

1922 Transfer from Hor-Aha to Pharaoh Djer – 3rd king of 1st Dynasty – and his grandmother Queen Neithhotep, controlling a regency for 13 years. Cemetery evidence proves that Neithhotep lived during the reign of Hor-Aha and succeeded him into Djer’s reign. Djer then reigned a further 34 years, until 1875 BCE. Djer [Greek: Uenephes] and also known as Zer or Sekhty. 

1921 First king of Isin Dynasty of Akkad, Ishbi-Erra [1], 1921 to 1888, a former General of Ibbi-Suen. Then Shu-Ilishu [2], 1888 to 1878 ruled, then Iddin-Dagan [3], 1878 to 1857 and then Ishme-Dagan I [4], from 1857 to 1837.

“While Ishme-Dagan I was probably a competent ruler, his brother Yasmah-Adad appears to have been a man of weak character; something [that] disappointed [his] father Shamshi-Adad I. Shamshi-Adad I’s rise to glory earned him the envy of neighboring kings and tribes, and throughout his reign, he and his sons faced several threats to their control. After the death of Shamshi-Adad I [1910-1878], Eshnunna captured cities around Assur. When the news of Shamshi-Adad I’s death spread, his old rivals set out to topple his sons from the throne. Yasmah-Adad was soon expelled from Mari by Zimri-Lim [1877-1863 BCE]… and the rest of the empire was eventually lost during the reigns of Išme-Dagān I [1857-1837 BCE] and Mut-Ashkur to another Amorite ruler, Hammurabi of Babylon [1894-1852 BCE]… Assyria was ruled by Shamshi-Adad I, a contemporary of Hammurabi and a personality in no way inferior to him. Shamshi-Adad’s father – an Amorite, to judge by the name – had ruled near Mari. The son, not being of Assyrian origin, ascended the throne of Assyria as a foreigner.”

1915 to 1906 Shu-Suen [4] 4th king of Ur III, son of Amar-Sin and ruler of Sumer 

1913 End of reign of Apil-Sin [4], son of Sabium and 4th king of Babylon Amorite Dynasty I

1912 Sin-Muballit [5] begins reign*

1912 BCE Hammurabi born

1909 Chedorlaomer confiscates the statue of the goddess Nanaya from Babylon

1906 Chedorlaomer of Elam begins 1st year of rule over Transjordan, with heavy taxation tribute 

Beginning of Ibbi-Suen [5], reign of 24 years until 1882 BCE; son of Shu-Suen, great grandson of Shulgi and final king of Ur III Dynasty

1903 Rim-Sin I of Larsa sacks Uruk, sparing the inhabitants

1902 BCE Abraham at age 75, told by Creator to leave Haran and move to Canaan [Genesis 12:4]

Same year Abraham is given promises from the Eternal about his descendants. Sarah at 65 years of age meets Pharaoh Djer in the 20th year of his reign 

1899 Rim-Sin I invades the territory of Isin, capturing the capital in 1894 BCE

1895 5th King of the Amorite Babylonian Dynasty I, Sin-Muballit abdicated?*

13th year of Chedorlaomer and revolt of the Transjordan kings. 

1894 BCE Hammurabi [6] of Shinar, son of Sin-Muballit 1st year of rule of Babylon at 18 years of age

Battle of the Valley of Siddim and whereby Abraham rescues Lot

1893 Chedorlaomer killed by Amraphel/Hammurabi

1892 Hagar pregnant with Ishmael

1891 BCE Ishmael born

1889 Hammurabi attacks but does not conquer Isin and its King Ishbi-Erra [1921-1888]

1882 BCE Abraham at age 95 returns to Haran 

Fall of Ur III, sacked by Kindattu of Elam [1882-1862 BCE] 10th king of Shimashki Dynasty 

1878 BCE Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah – Moab and Ammon born

Promises confirmed to Abraham on Passover, same day as Exodus [Genesis 17:1, Exodus 12:40-41] Circumcision covenant – Abraham 99 and Ishmael 13. Abraham and Sarah meet Abimelech the Philistine in Gerar [or Pharaoh Djer?]

1877 BCE Isaac born – 430 years before Exodus [Genesis 17:17; 21:1-5, Galatians 3:15-17] and when Abraham was 100 and Sarah 90 years of age 

1875 to 1868 BCE 4th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty Djet [Greek: Usaphais] Djet, also known as Wadj, Zet, and Uadji [in Greek possibly the pharaoh known as Atothis, after his grandfather Hor-Aha, 2nd king]. Djet’s Horus name means ‘Horus Cobra or Serpent of Horus.’ Father of Den with his sister Merneith. 

1868 to 1826 BCE 5th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty Den or Khasty [Greek: Kénkenes] – ruled 42 years, after him Adjib 7 years, Semerkhet 7 years and last ruler of 1st Dynasty, Qaa for 23 years.

“Den, also known as Hor-Den… and Udimu, is the Horus name of a pharaoh… who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt. He is the best archaeologically-attested ruler of this period. Den is said to have brought prosperity to his realm and numerous innovations are attributed to his reign. He was the first to use the title “King of Upper and Lower Egypt”, and the first depicted as wearing the double crown (red and white). The floor of his tomb at  Umm El Qa’ab near Abydos is made of red and black granite, the first time in Egypt this hard stone was used as a building material. 

During his long reign he established many of the customs of court ritual and royalty used by later rulers and he was held in high regard by his immediate successors. Den’s serekh name is well attested on earthen seal impressions, on ivory labels and in inscriptions on vessels made of schist, diorite and marble. The artifacts were found at Abydos, Saqqara and Abu Rawash. Den’s name is also attested in later documents. For example, the Medical Papyrus of Berlin [the Ramesside era] discusses several methods of treatment and therapies for a number of different diseases. Some of these methods are said to originate from the reign of Den… Den’s serekh name was… ”Dewen”, most likely meaning “he who brings the water”. This is consistent with his birth name, which was “Khasty”, meaning “he of the two deserts”. His mother was queen Merneith; this conclusion is supported by contemporary seal impressions and by the inscription on the Palermo Stone. Den’s wives were the queens Semat, Seshemet-ka , Serethor, and, possibly, Qaineit. He also had numerous sons and daughters; his possible successors could have been king Anedjib and king Semerkhet. An important innovation during Den’s reign was the introduction of numbering using hieroglyphs. Prior to this, important year events were merely depicted in signs and miniatures, sometimes guided by the hieroglyphic sign rnpt ‘bald palm panicle’ meaning ‘year.’ From Den’s reign onwards, the Egyptians used numbering hieroglyphs for a range of purposes including calculating tax collections and for annotating their year events. Den is the first Egyptian king attested with rock reliefs in the Sinai Peninsula. Two or perhaps even three reliefs are showing the standing king and some of his officials. For example, one of these tags reports on an epidemic then affecting Egypt. Another tag, known as the ‘MacGregor Label’ shows the first complete depiction of an Egyptian king with the so-called nemes headdress. The picture shows Den in a gesture known as “smiting the enemy”. In one hand Den holds a mace, in the other hand he grabs a foe by his hair. The hieroglyphs at the right side say “first smiting of the east”. It seems that Den sent troops to the Sinai Peninsula and the eastern desert a number of times.”

1866 Hammurabi defeated Larsa

1864 Hammurabi in his 30th year defeated a coalition led by Elam, including the Gutium [Arameans/Syrians] and Marhashi

1863 Hammurabi defeats Zimri-Lim [1877-1863 BCE] king of Mari.

1857 BCE Rebekah born

1852 Hammurabi died after 42 year reign

1847 BCE Abraham offers Isaac who is 30 years old as an offering on Passover [14th day of 1st month – March/April] – 400 years prior to the Exodus, on Passover [Genesis 15:13–14, Acts 7:6–7]

1842 Terah Died – Abraham’s father

1840 Sarah died age 127, 38 years before Abraham [Genesis 23:1]

1837 Isaac marries Rebekah at age 40 and Rebecca is age 20

1835 Abraham marries Keturah

1833 Zimran born

1831 Jokshan born

1829 Medan born

1827 Midian born 

1826 Pharaoh Hor-Den, 5th Pharaoh of 1st Dynasty died

1825 Ishbak born

1823 Shuah born

1817 BCE Twins Esau and Jacob born, when Isaac is 60 years old and Rebekah, 40 years old

1815 to 1810 Jokshan’ sons Sheba and Dedan born

1811 to 1795 Midian’s sons Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida and Eldaah born

1802 BCE Abraham died at age 175 [Genesis 15:13–14] 

Esau sells birthright to Jacob at age 15 [1797 at age 20 according to Steve Rudd]

1790 Isaac and Rebekah meet Abimelech the Philistine king in Gerar as his father had previously. Could not be Pharaoh Narmer who ruled 18 years or Pharaoh Den who ruled 42. Therfore, Abimelech must be a different ruler in a different region, for Gerar is not in Egypt. 

1790 to 1780 Dedan’s sons Asshur, Letush and Leumm born

1777 Esau marries two Horite/Nephilim wives at age 40 [Deuteronomy 2:12, 22]

1775 BCE Leah and Rachel born

1760 Jacob flees from Esau to Laban in Paddan-Aram

1760 to 1755 Esau conquers the Horites and by 1737 moves to Seir

1754 Ishmael died

1753 Jacob age 64 marries Leah and Rachel who are 22 year old twins. Jacob worked 7 years for Rachel from when she was 15 years old; the time when he first met her.

1752 Reuben born when Leah was 23

1750 Simeon born from Leah

1748 Levi born from Leah

1746 Judah born from Leah – Judah the most like Jacob in nature and carrying twin genes – and Dan born from Bilhah

1744 Naphtali born from Bilhah and Gad born from Zilpah

1742 Issachar born from Leah

1742 Asher born from Zilpah 

1740 Zebulun and Dinah born from Leah – Zebulon and Dinah were twins, as the scripture doesn’t say Leah ‘conceived’ for Dinah’s birth, but that she followed – Leah 34 years old 

1727 Judah married Shuah 

1727 First son Er born

1726 BCE Joseph born [Genesis 37:3] – Rachel 49 years old. Judah’s second son, Onan born 

1725 Judah’s third son Shelah born

1720 Jacob flees Laban for Canaan after 40 years

Esau reconciles with Jacob [Genesis 33:1-16] and Jacob settles in Shechem

1718 to 1700 BCE Last king of 2nd Dynasty Khasekhemwy married to Queen Nimaathap and father of Djoser and possibly Sanakhte or Nebka the third king of the 3rd Dynasty

1700 to 1672/71 BCE Djoser or Netjerikhet – the dream interpretation Pharaoh – first king of the 3rd Dynasty. Djoser ruled either 19, 28/29 or 37/38 years. Various lists have either 4, 5 or 8 kings. Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of Djoser and the final ruler of the dynasty and Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled 24 years as both had Viziers. The other 2, 3 or 6 pharaohs sandwiched between these two. There appears to be an overlap between Huni and Amenemhet I of the 12th Dynasty and his seizing the power of both lands of Egypt, between 1677 and 1647 BCE, when he was assassinated.

1717 Dinah 25 years old, is taken by Shechem the son of Hamor. Her brothers Simeon age 33 and Levi age 31 exact terrible revenge [Genesis 34:1-31]

1709 Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt at 17 [Genesis 37:2]

Er married Tamar, then died and in 1708 Onan married Tamar and also died

1707 Shelah old enough to marry Tamar, but doesn’t and in 1706 Tamar tricked Judah into sleeping with her

“Judah had 5 sons: Er, Onan, Shelah, Pharez and Zerah. However we know from Genesis 38 that all of Judah’s sons were not born at the same time, in fact the first three were born much earlier than the last two. To see this, recall that Judah married the daughter of Shuah, a Canaanite, and he had three sons: his firstborn Er, second-born Onan and third-born Shelah (Genesis 38:1-5).  And when Er grew up Judah found him a wife named Tamar that he married (Genesis 38:6). However God slew Er for wickedness, at which point Judah told his next oldest son Onan to marry her (Genesis 38:7-8). Onan then married Tamar but refused to have children with her, therefore God slew him also (Genesis 38:8-10). So Judah’s next option was to give his third oldest son Shelah to Tamar, but he was too young (suggesting that he was born later than Er and Onan), so Judah told Tamar she must wait for Shelah to grow up before she can marry him (Genesis 38:11). However when Shelah was finally old enough to marry, Judah failed to give him to Tamar, at which point Tamar tricks Judah into laying with her (Genesis 38:12-26). As a result, Tamar becomes pregnant by Judah and eventually has twin sons, Pharez and Zarah. Thus, Judah’s sons Pharez and Zarah were born after his sons Er, Onan and Shelah had grown up and were old enough to marry.”

1705 Tamar gives birth to twins – Pharez and Zarah 

1702 Joseph propositioned by Potiphar’s wife and sent to prison

Rebekah died five years before Isaac at age 155, according to Book of Jubilees 35:27, age was 155 or 158; alternatively, but less likely according to Rabinical sources, she died in 1724 BCE age 133 and 27 years before Issac

1699 BCE Benjamin born and Rachel died at age 75 – Leah died after Rachel but apparently before Jacob moved to Egypt, as Leah is buried in Hebron. Somewhere between the ages of 75 and 87. Rachel buried in Bethlehem on the way to Ephrath [Genesis 35:19] and she died before Isaac.

1698 Reuben sleeps with Bilhah, when he is 52 years old 

Joseph interprets the Butler’s and the Baker’s dreams

1697 BCE Isaac died – Esau either died by hands of Jacob or 27 years later at Jacob’s funeral [refer Jubilees 37 & 38]*

1696 Joseph became Vizier to Pharaoh of Egypt and known as Imhotep, at 30 [Genesis 41:46]. Joseph married Asenath the daughter of Poti-Pherah, the priest of On 

During 1696 to 1689 the 7 years of plenty included the storing of surplus grain, 20%.

1691 Manasseh born [Genesis 41:51]

1690 Ephraim born [Genesis 41:52]

1689 to 1682 BCE 7 years of famine

1682 18th year of Pharaoh Djoser according to famine stele

1687 Joseph meets Benjamin for first time who is approximately 12 years old, ‘a boy, lad, little one, little child, young son’ [Genesis 43:7-8, 29-30, 34; 44:20, 30] 

Jacob moved to Egypt at the time of the Passover & Unleavened Bread – 14th to 21st Nisan [Genesis 46:5-27 – 66 people from Jacob’s family travelled to Egypt] – Genesis 47:9, at age 130, with Levi 61 years of age and 240 years until the Exodus.

“A frequently asked question is why Acts 7:14 says 75 souls came into Egypt with Jacob while Genesis 46:27 and Exodus 1:5 say only 70 souls came into Egypt with Jacob. These verses read as follows: “Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.” (Acts 7:14) ”And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.” (Genesis 46:27) ”And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.” (Exodus 1:5) First, notice that Genesis 46:27 speaks of the “house of Jacob”.  Now we know from Exodus 1:5 that the “house of Jacob” must only include those that came out of Jacob’s loins, so the seventy could only include sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters, etc from Jacob.  But in Acts 7:14 the seventy five are called “kindred”. The Greek word used here, G4772, means a “relative”. The same word, G4773, is used to refer to a “cousin”, Luke 1:36  And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren. 

So in Acts 7:14, the seventy five would have included not only the seventy “that came out of the loins of Jacob” (i.e., the “house of Jacob”), but also five relatives, possibly cousins, or more likely second-cousins or other more distant relatives (perhaps descendants of Abraham through Esau or Keturah, or more likely descendants of Abraham’s brothers, Nahor or Haran). We know Jacob lived for 40 years with Laban, who was the father of his wives Rachel and Leah, and Laban was the grandson of Nahor (which makes Jacob and Laban third cousin relatives), so we have a very good example of distant relatives living together. So who might these five relatives have been? One very good possibility is they were the wives of some of Jacob’s sons; notice we read in Genesis 46:26, All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob’s sons’ wives, all the souls were threescore and six; Genesis 46:27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten. Notice in verse 26 that the wives of Jacob’s sons were excluded in the numbering of 66 and 70!  So these five may very likely have been the wives of some of Jacob’s sons, but specifically ones that were relatives. Remember that Isaac’s wife Rebekah was a relative (she was the granddaughter of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, and thus a third cousin once removed of Isaac), and Jacob’s wives, Leah and Rachel, were also relatives (they were great granddaughters of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, and thus fourth cousins once removed), so it would not be at all surprising to find that some of Jacob’s sons also married descendants of Nahor as Isaac and Jacob did, and that these account for the other five souls that accompanied Jacob into Egypt.”

Levi’s sons: Gershon, Kohath and Merari [Genesis 46:8,11]. Kohath’s sons: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohath died 133 years of age. [Exodus 6:18-20, Numbers 26:59]. Amram married Jochebed [his (Great) Aunt – daughter of ‘Levi’] – Amram lived to 137 years of age – the parents of Aaron, Moses and Miriam.

“The family line of Levi, specifically the line of Levi-Kohath-Amram-Aaron, spanned Israel’s 430 year sojourn in Egypt. If Levi’s birth occurred… when Jacob was 69 years old, then this would fully account for Israel’s 430 years in Egypt… This solution allows a reckoning of the four generations of Genesis 15:13-16 that is in full agreement with the remarkably useful lifespan information provided in Exodus 6:16-20, as well as the various pieces of information regarding Jacob, his family and descendants given in Genesis and Exodus.  It should be noted that placing Levi’s birth either earlier or later than when Jacob was 69 years old would not provide a harmonious solution to all the Biblical references above. The Four Generations of Israel’s 430 Year Sojourn.’

Generation        Name                 Lifespan/Years in Egypt

First                     Levi                      76 (same year Levi died – Levi lived 76 years in Egypt and entered at 61 years of age)

Second                Kohath              133 (lived his entire life in Egypt)

Third                    Amram              137 (lived his entire life in Egypt)

Fourth                  Aaron                  84 (at the Exodus)

Total                                                430

Pharez had twin sons Hezron and Hamul – born just as Jacob, Judah and Pharez entered Egypt, Genesis 46:12, 26-27 – thus persons, sixty-seven and sixty-eight were Manasseh and Ephraim; while 69 and 70 were Hezron and Hamul. Only 66 people entered Egypt with Jacob, not 70. Seventy was the total of Jacob’s family members, not including wives. 

1686 Jacob blesses Ephraim age four and Manasseh age 5 [Genesis 48:12]

1685 to 1675 BCE Zarah had five sons, Zimri, Ethan, Heman , Calcol and Dara.

1672 Pharaoh Djoser died, when Joseph 54 years old

1671 to 1665 Sekhemkhet or Djoserty, 2nd king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 6 years

1665 to 1659 Khaba or Teti, 3rd king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 6 years

1659 1635 Huni or Qahedjet – could be same person as Khaba – 4th and final king of 3rd dynasty – ruled 24 years and Joseph now 91 years old 

1680 Mentuhotep II gains rulership of Egypt – beginning of Middle Kingdom and 11th Dynasty

1677 BCE Calcol born – Alleged founder or builder of Athens

1675 BCE Dara or Darda born – founder or builder of Troy 

1673 BCE Mentuhotep III commands first expedition to Punt

1670 BCE Jacob died age 147 years

Esau slain – Jasher 57:1-45*

1662 Mentuhotep IV

1655 Amenemhet I or Sehetepibre, reigned until 1626. 1st Pharaoh of XII Dynasty of Egypt

Pharaoh Amenemhet had no royal blood and had overthrown previous king… ‘Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands’. Amenemhat I was a vizier of his predecessor Mentuhotep IV, overthrowing him from power, scholars vary on if Mentuhotep IV was  murdered by Amenemhat I.

1635 Senusret I or Kheperkare, reigned to 1590. 2nd king – also known as Sesostris I or Senwosret I – one of the most powerful kings of this Dynasty and knew Joseph

1630 Simeon died at age 120

1627 Reuben died at age 125

Book of Jasher Chapter 62:1-6, 24 In that year, being the seventy-ninth year of the Israelites going down to Egypt, died Reuben the son of Jacob, in the land of Egypt; Reuben was a hundred and twenty-five years old when he died, and they put him into a coffin, and he was given into the hands of his children. And in the eightieth year died his brother Dan; he was a hundred and twenty years at his death, and he was also put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. And in that year [1626 BCE] died Chusham king of Edom, and after him reigned Hadad the son of Bedad, for thirty-five years [1626-1591 BCE]; and in the eighty-first year died Issachar the son of Jacob, in Egypt, and Issachar was a hundred and twenty-two years old at his death, and he was put into a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. And in the eighty-second year died Asher his brother, he was a hundred and twenty-three years old at his death, and he was placed in a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. And in the eighty-third year died Gad, he was a hundred and twenty-five years old at his death, and he was put into a coffin in Egypt, and given into the hands of his children. 24. And in the eighty-ninth year died Naphtali, he was a hundred and thirty-two years old, and he was put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. 

1626 Zebulon died at age 114 and Dan died age 120

Book of Jasher 61:3-4  And Zebulun the son of Jacob died in that year, that is the seventy-second year of the going down of the Israelites to Egypt, and Zebulun died a hundred and fourteen years old, and was put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children. And in the seventy-fifth year died his brother Simeon, he was a hundred and twenty years old at his death, and he was also put into a coffin and given into the hands of his children.
Amenemhet I assassinated

1620 Issachar died at age 122

1619 Asher died at age 123

1619 Gad died at age 125 

1617 Judah died at age 129

1616 BCE Joseph died at age 110 – 170 years until the Exodus

Book of Jasher 59:20-28 And Joseph lived in the land of Egypt ninety-three years, and Joseph reigned over all Egypt eighty years. And when the days of Joseph drew nigh that he should die, he sent and called for his brethren and all his father’s household, and they all came together and sat before him. And Joseph said unto his brethren and unto the whole of his father’s household, Behold I die, and God will surely visit you and bring you up from this land to the land which he swore to your fathers to give unto them. And it shall be when God shall visit you to bring you up from here to the land of your fathers, then bring up my bones with you from here. And Joseph made the sons of Israel to swear for their seed after them, saying, God will surely visit you and you shall bring up my bones with you from here. And it came to pass after this that Joseph died in that year, the seventy-first year of the Israelites going down to Egypt. And Joseph was one hundred and ten years old when he died in the land of Egypt, and all his brethren and all his servants rose up and they embalmed Joseph, as was their custom, and his brethren and all Egypt mourned over him for seventy days. And they put Joseph in a coffin filled with spices and all sorts of perfume, and they buried him by the side of the river, that is Sihor, and his sons and all his brethren, and the whole of his father’s household made a seven day’s mourning for him. And it came to pass after the death of Joseph, all the Egyptians began in those days to rule over the children of Israel, and Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who reigned in his father’s stead, took all the laws of Egypt and conducted the whole government of Egypt under his counsel, and he reigned securely over his people.

1612 Naphtali died at age 132

1611 Benjamin died prematurely age 88

1611 Levi died at 137 years of age

Book of Jasher Chapter 63:1-2 And in the ninety-third year died Levi, the son of Jacob, in Egypt, and Levi was a hundred and thirty-seven years old when he died, and they put him into a coffin and he was given into the hands of his children. And it came to pass after the death of Levi, when all Egypt saw that the sons of Jacob the brethren of Joseph were dead, all the Egyptians began to afflict the children of Jacob, and to embitter their lives from that day unto the day of their going forth from Egypt, and they took from their hands all the vineyards and fields which Joseph had given unto them, and all the elegant houses in which the people of Israel lived, and all the fat of Egypt, the Egyptians took all from the sons of Jacob in those days.

Exodus 1:8-11

English Standard Version

Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. 9 And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. 10 Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.” 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with heavy burdens. They built for Pharaoh store cities, Pithom and Raamses.

1593 BCE beginning of change of attitude by Egyptians towards the Israelites and beginning of affliction some 23 years after Joseph’s death and 18 years after Levi’s death with Pharaoh Amenemhet II, ruler from 1593 to 1558 BCE – Genesis 50:24-25, Exodus 1:8-22, Giving approximately 147 – age of Jacob when he died – years of affliction until the Exodus. Thus Moses recognised the affliction from say, age 10 in 1516 BCE, when the Israelites had already served for 77 years, with 70 years remaining.

1593 Amenemhet II or Nubkhaure ruled to 1558 BCE 3rd king – son of Senusret I and may or may not have known Joseph. If he was born in 1615 he would be 22 when becoming Pharaoh, thus plausible that he did not know Joseph at all.

1560 Senusret II or Khakheperre ruled until 1548 and 4th king of 12th Dynasty – son of Amenemhet II and definitely did not know Joseph

1548 Senusret III or Khakaure reigned to 1529, 5th king – most powerful of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs 

1536 BCE Moses’s sister Miriam born 

1529 BCE Amenemhet III or Nimaatre, 6th king and son of Senusret III

Nigel Hawkins: “Modern thinking using the revised chronology results in [a[ much clearer picture with the history [of] Israel and Egypt lining up and matching archaeological records. Abraham is considered to be a contemporary of Menes [Narmer]. Imhotep is considered to be the Joseph of the Bible and Djoser is considered to be the Pharaoh that he served. This would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites making them make mud bricks. Also of note is that the pyramid of Amenemhet III was made of mud bricks containing straw. Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty and lived 450 to 500 years after Pharaoh Djoser in the 3rd dynasty. He had only daughters who had a son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. 

It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses. The Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty in 1445 BC. He was the only Pharaoh of that dynasty. The Hyksos (15th & 16th dynasties) which were contemporary with Joshua and the Judges, came to an end when King Saul destroyed the Amalekites (Hyksos). Dynasty 17 was contemporary with dynasty 16. Amenhotep I and Thutmosis I of the 18th dynasty were contemporaries of David. Hatshepsut was the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon. Thutmosis III came to power during the reign of Jereboam and became the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. After Joseph’s death, the Israelites were given the task of making mud bricks. Interestingly, the core of the Pyramid of Amenemhet III is made of mud bricks containing straw. Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian dynasty which preceeded the Exodus in 1445 BC [1446 BCE].”

Modern Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) 

DateDynastyEgyptContemporary_in_Israel
2080BC1stMenesAbraham
1900BC3rdDjoser_+_ImhotepJoseph
1531BC12thAmenemhet_III (6th_Pharaoh)Moses
1445BC13thNeferhotep IThe Exodus (Moses)
1405 -1021BC15th_&_16thHyksosJoshua to Saul
1018BC18thAmenhotep I & Thutmosis IKing David
950BC18thHatshepsut [Queen of Sheba]Solomon
929BC18thThutmosis IIIJereboam

1529 Moses’s brother Aaron born 

1526 BCE Moses born 90 years after Joseph’s death – raised by Princess Sobeknefru and adopted by Amenemhet III 

1494 Moses co-rules as Amenemhet IV – also known as Amenemes IV or Maakherure – 7th king of 12th Dynasty, from the age of 32 

1486 Moses 40 years old – flees Eygpt: lives with Jethro of Midian and marries his daughter – Moses’s second wife 

1485 Caleb born [Joshua 14:7–10, Numbers 14:29–30, 34]]

1483 Amenemhet III died and from 1483 to 1479 Queen Sobeknefru or Sobekkare and Neferusobek, ‘the beauty of Sobek’ was the 8th and last ruler of the 12th Dynasty, daughter of Amenemhet III. She is the first ever known archeologically attested female Pharaoh

1464 Joshua born [Numbers 14:29–30, 34]

1457 Pharaoh Neferhotep I or Khasekhemre reigned 11 years until Exodus – purportedly the 21st king of the XIII Dynasty

1455 Moses’s father Amram died age 137

1446 BCE March 22nd, Exodus from Egypt [1 Kings 6:1, Psalm 105:23-45] – Pharaoh Neferhotep I not a firstborn as he did not die in the 10th plague.

It was 430 years from Abraham’s 100th year, when he was 99 years old to the Exodus – Exodus 12:40-41, Genesis 17:1-13, Galatians 3:15-17. The count of 400 years as per Genesis 15:13-14 and Acts 7:6-7 was the 130th year of Abraham and the 30th of Isaac in 1847 BCE.

“Thus, all one has to do is to add 430 years to Abraham’s year 99 and there is a grand total of 529 years from Abraham’s birth to the Exodus. Then add 46 years to the time that Joshua divided the land of the Amorites (Joshua 14:7-10) and the number 575 is reached from Abraham’s birth. But remember that Abraham lived to be 175 years of age (Genesis 25:7). So, one simply needs to subtract 175 from 575 and we arrive at exactly 400 years from Abraham’s death and the year when the sins of the Amorites reached maturity. This means that both the “400 years” in Genesis 15:13 are literal (to the very year), but that also the “430 years” of Moses (Exodus 12:40,41) and referred to by the apostle Paul (Galatians 3:14-19) are literal (to the very year).”

The New Egyptian Chronology – A revised Egyptian chronology results in startling new archeological discoveries which authenticate Old Testament histories, David Reagan

“… Rohl points out that our modern translations of this passage are based on the Masoretic text which dates from the 4th Century AD. Rohl shows that there are three more ancient versions of this text and that all three state that the 430 years was from the time the Hebrews entered the land of Canaan, not Egypt. The three older sources are The Septuagint (the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in about 280 BC), the writings of Josephus (who quotes the verse in his First Century AD writings, stating that he is quoting from Temple documents), and The Samaritan Version of the Torah (which dates from the 2nd Century AD). 

The Septuagint version reads as follows: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, that is which they sojourned in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years.” Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter XV:2) puts it this way: “They [the Israelites] left Egypt in the month of Xanthiens, on the fifteenth day of the lunar month; four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.” It appears that in the compilation of the Masoretic text, the phrase “and in the land of Canaan” was dropped either because of a scribal error or because of an exercise in interpretation.”

Moses 80 years of age – Battle with the Amalekite Hyskos after exiting Egypt. From 1446 to 1445 Dudimose II Pharaoh. The 1st of Tammuz was the 3rd new moon after leaving Egypt, some 2 1/2 months after the Exodus and when the golden calf incident occurred during the giving of the Law – the 10 Commandments – to Moses. 

1444 BCE Joshua 20 years old, Caleb 40 years old – spies sent out to spy Canaan while the Israelites camped at Kadesh-barnea [Numbers 14:29-30, 34, Deuteronomy 2:14] 

1406 Moses died at 120 years of age. His sister Miriam died the same year. 

New leader and successor to Moses, Joshua, crossed the Jordan River – the Battle of Jericho was fought

“Dame Kathleen Kenyon of the London Institute of Archaeology excavated the city of Jericho, the first major conquest by Joshua, in the 1950’s, finding a Middle Bronze Age city ingeniously defended by means of a wall 12 feet thick on a slope which was plastered smooth, preventing the enemy from gaining a foothold should they get past a deep ditch which was just outside the walls. The ditch itself was filled with bricks from the city walls, indicating the walls were pulled down. However, she could not connect this evidence with Joshua, as she was using the conventional chronology. Placing it within the time frame of the New Chronology confirms Joshua’s actions. The remains of the city wall’s bricks within the ditch would have allowed an army to penetrate rapidly into the city (Joshua 6). Further evidence found were many large jars filled with carbonized grain as well as other supplies and goods, indicating the city had fallen quickly. These supplies were also burned; the evidence of fire destroying every part of Jericho is overwhelming, as is recorded in Joshua 6:24; in places the layer of ash was more than three feet thick. The city was not resettled for well over 500 years, when in 850 B.C. King Ahab ordered a rebuilding to take place, which was confirmed in the archaeological record as taking place during the Late Bronze Age.

Other findings confirming Joshua’s actions included:

  • The cities of Bethel, Lachish, Hazor, Debir, Arad, and Hebron, written in the Biblical record as having been conquered by Joshua and put to the torch, were found with evidence of severe fire damage.
  • Joshua 15:14 and Judges 1:10 record mention of King Sheshai of Hebron, who was defeated by Joshua. Numerous scarabs found in various sites in Palestine record this man.
  • The name of Jabin, king of Hazor, was found on a tablet in the ruins of that city in 1992, the same Jabin who was defeated according to Joshua 11:1, 10.

After wondering forty years in the wilderness, Israel invaded the land of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. Though all the first men of war died in the wilderness, a new generation of Israelite men numbering 601,730 were armed for war [Numbers 26:51]. This means there were still about two and a half million people who crossed the River Jordan and were responsible for capturing the city of Jericho (again, if all the men were living men). However, we are told that 40,000 (not 600,000) did in fact cross the Jordan River (Joshua 4:13). Moses was including in each of the censuses the pedigrees of the Israelites (and these genealogical tables listed people with the living Israelites who could have numbered the actual amount of men Moses mentioned). 

In truth, Moses included the dead (the pedigrees) as well as those living in his census accounts. This means that even though the dead were dead, they still were reckoned by Moses (and by God) as having their inheritance along with the living Israelites to the Land of Canaan. This was simply a way in which all were guaranteed their right of inheritance… [Exodus 18:21].”

1402 Aaron died

1400 Seven nations defeated as per Acts 13:16-20 – Paul says ‘about 450 years’ which is 1850 BCE. It was in 1878 BCE [Genesis 17:1] when Abraham was told twice about receiving promises and fits with ‘about 450 years’ as stated by Paul. Caleb 85 years of age [Joshua 14:7,10-11] 7th year of conquest [Deuteronomy 2:14, Numbers 14:29-30, 34, Acts 13:16-20]. 

Just over 400 years from Abraham’s death – in 1802 BCE – and the year when the ‘sins of the Amorites reached maturity’ and they were defeated [Genesis 15:13–14, Joshua 14:7–10]. 

Joshua and the Elders judge for 53 years until 1354 when Joshua died at 110 years of age [Judges 2:8, Numbers 11:29, Exodus 33:11, Joshua 14:10, 24:29, 31], with the Elders administering fro the next four years. 

1390 The tribe of Dan heads north and takes the peaceful and isolated city of Laish, renaming it Dan. In the process confirming a pattern of idolatry that remains consistent throughout their history [Judges 17:1-18:31] 

1351 Sodomy and murder by the Benjaminites of the Levite’s concubine leads to civil war that has the tribe of Benjamin almost exterminated, to just 600 men [Judges 19:1-21:25] 

1350 Begins 8 years of oppression by Cushan-rishathaim the King of Aram-Naharaim [Judges 3:8] 

1342 to 1302 BCE 1. Othniel [God is force] from the tribe of Judah [1], was the first Judge of Israel and judges for 40 years, which includes a time of peace [Judges 3:7-11] – Othniel’s father Kenaz, younger brother of Caleb. Married Caleb’s daughter – his niece – Achsa or Achsah, which in Hebrew means: ‘serpent-charmer.’ Because of a promise Caleb made to his troops [Judges 1:12-13] 

Beginning of period of Judges in 1342 until 1015 BCE, the time of Samuel’s death is 327 years: 327 + 49 years until the beginning of the Temple in 966 + 104 years from the Exodus in 1446, equals 480 years total. 

1302 to 1284 King Eglon of Moab subjugates Israel [Judges 3:14]. Naomi, the mother-in-law of Ruth moved to the land of Moab.

1284 to 1204 BCE 2. Ehud meaning ‘strong’ was the second Judge for 80 years. Ehud was the left handed son of Gera from the tribe of Benjamin [1] Judges 3:30. His Judgeship included 80 years of peace after the 18 years of Moabite – with the Ammonites and the Amalekites – oppression, which ended with the death of King Eglon of Moab. 

1284 Ruth and Boaz moved to Bethlehem 

1267 The Fir Bolg comprising the tribe of Reuben returned to Ireland 

1230 The Tuatha de Danaan returned to Ireland; ruling for 174 years, to 1056 BCE 

1204 to 1184 A period of 20 years of oppression by King Jabin the Canaanite [Judges 4:2-3]

1191 to 1184 An additional period ran parallel of 7 years of oppression by Midianites and the Amalekites [Judges 6:1]

3. Shamgar, a third Judge in Israel, who appears to have been alive prior to the time frame of the fourth Judge Deborah and fifth Judge Gideon. The Bible does not provide the length of his service. His name in Hebrew means: cupbearer, fleer. Shamgar – possibly from the tribe of Benjamin [2] according to a couple of sources or Naphtali according to one source and thetribe of Simeon from another – was the son of Anath [Judges 3:31; 5:6]. He may have fought against Canaanite oppression and hence the reference to the Canaanite god Anath.

‘At the first mention, Shamgar is identified as a Biblical Judge, who repelled Philistine incursions into Israelite regions, and slaughtered 600 of the invaders with an ox goad [a little similar to Samson]. The other mention is within the Song of Deborah, where Shamgar is described as having been one of the prior rulers, in whose days roads were abandoned, with [travellers] taking winding paths, and village life collapsing… the subsequent textfollows on directly from the previous narrative.In several ancient manuscripts this reference to Shamgar occurs after the accounts of Samson rather than immediately after the account of Ehud, in a way that is more narratively consistent; some scholars believe that this latter position is more likely to be the passage’s original location. The Bible also indicates that he was the “son” of Anath (the name of a Canaanite deity). In recent years, arrowheads bearing the names ben-anat and Aramaic bar anat, dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC, have been discovered. This has led several recent scholars to theorize that the expression “son of Anath” probably designates a warrior title.’

1184 to 1144 BCE 4. Deborah in Hebrew means: bee, wasp. Deborah was a prophetess and the only female Judge of Israel and her judgeship included 40 years of peace [Judges 4:4–5:31]. She was the wife of Lapidath. Deborah was possibly from the tribe of Ephraim as she would ‘sit under a palm tree in the hill country* of Ephraim’, or more probably, she was of the tribe of Naphtali [1] – due to her close association with Barak. 4a. Barak in Hebrew means: Lightning and was from the tribe of Naphtali [2]. Barak was asked to lead by Deborah but chose not to be a Judge but remained an army commander. In 1184 Deborah burned Mt Tabor then Hazor during the campaign against Jabin.

“Archaeological digs have been conducted at many biblical sites in ancient Canaan. Of particular relevance here are those conducted at Hazor which confirm that it was ruled by an Ibin (etymologically similar to Jabin) and was destroyed by fire approximately 1200 BC in the standard chronology.” 

1184 to 1144 BCE 5. Gideon in Hebrew means: Feeler, Hewer, also known as Jerub-Baal. Land had rest for the same forty years during Gideon’s judgeship before he died in 1144 [Judges 6:1-8,11-8:32]. He was the son of Joash which in Hebrew means: great warrior. Gideon was from the tribe of East Manasseh [1]. Jerub-Baal in Hebrew means: let baal contend. Gideon defeated the Midianites and ended their 7 year oppression. Gideon had 70 sons born to his wives [Judges 8:30-31].

“In 2019 a pottery sherd was recovered from the Khirbet al-Ra’I dig site in central Israel that included the name Yrb’l (Jerubba’al), the alternative name for Gideon. This sherd has been dated to 1100-1050 BC, or about a century after where we would place Gideon, and while it may not be linked to THE Jerubba’al, it does attest to the name. If the dating is correct, this may refer to someone that was named after the famous hero.”

1144 BCE Eli born 

1144 to 1141 BCE 6. Abimelechin Hebrew means: father of a king. 2 Samuel 11:21 Abimelech was one son of Gideon by a concubine and thus from the tribe of East Manasseh [2]. Questionable whether he should be counted as Judge or a king, for he was an evil tyrant that ruled for a mere 3 years [Judges 9:1-22-57]. Abimelech murdered 69 of Gideon’s sons, except for the youngest Jotham who hid and escaped.

“The great temple of Ba’al Bereth at Shechem shows a destruction by fire in this period, consistent with that attributed to Abimilech in Judges 9.”

1141 to 1118 BCE 7. Tola in Hebrew means: crimson, warm colour. Tola was from the tribe of Issachar [1] and served for 23 years [Judges 10:1-2]. Though Tola was from Issachar, he like Deborah, lived and judged in the ‘hill country* of Ephraim’ [Judges 10:1]. Also, both Eli and Samuel were from the tribe of Levi, yet both served at Shiloh in the territory of Ephraim. 

1124 to 1106 A period of 18 years of Ammonite oppression [Judges 10:8]

1118 to 1096 BCE 8. Jair the Gileadite, from the tribe of East Manasseh [3]. Jair in Hebrew means: JAH [or God] enlightens. Served for 22 years and was the father of 30 sons, who all administered cites in Gilead [Judges 10:3-5].

1106 to 1100 BCE 9. Jephthah judged Israel for 6 years [Judges 11:1-12:7]. It was exactly 300 years after Israel crossed the Jordan in 1406 BCE, that Jepthah began to serve  Israel by fighting the Ammonites [Judges 11:26, Joshua 13:9-11]. Jephthah the Gileadite in Hebrew means: opposer – 6 years. Judges 10:6-12:7. Jepthah was the son of a harlot and his father’s name was Gilead from the tribe of East Manasseh [4]. 

1100 to 1093 BCE  10. Ibzan served as a Judge for 7 years [Judges 12:8-10]

‘Many scholars believe that the Bethlehem referred to in this passage is the Bethlehem in the territory of the Tribe of Zebulun, in Galilee (Joshua 19:15), rather than the more famous Bethlehem in the Tribe of Judah.’ 

In Hebrew, his name means: splendid. Jewish tradition supports Ibzan with being the same person as Boaz and from the tribe of Judah. Yet the chronology of the two men does not fit and as the Judges were principally from the north of Israel during the period, this lends weight to Ibzan representing the tribe of Zebulun [1]. Ibzan had 30 sons also 30 daughters. 

1093 to 1083 BCE 11. Elon served as a Judge for 10 years [Judges 12:9-12]. Elon was from the tribe of Zebulun [2] and his name in Hebrew means: oak, strong. 

1090 Samuel born – High Priest Eli had sons, Hophni and Phinehas [1 Samuel 1:3] who had become priests at age 25 [Numbers 8:24]. Eli’s eyes were growing dim when he was 66 years old, while Samuel was still a boy [1 Samuel 3:1-2; 4:15]; of about 12 years of age in 1078 BCE. Thus Eli’s age and that of his sons, means Samuel was born about 1090 BCE.

1083 to 1075 BCE 12. Abdon who served as a Judge for 8 years [Judges 12:13-15]. He like Ibzan, Jair and Gideon had a large family, with 40 sons and 30 grandsons and was the son of Hillel the Pirathanite. Abdon was from the tribe of Ephraim [1].Abdon in Hebrew means: service, servile.

1086 – 1046 BCE 13. Eli became a Judge at age 58 in 1086. Eli ruled from Shiloh in  Ephraim, though he was from the tribe of Levi [1]. In Hebrew, his name means: JAH is High. Eliled Israel as a Levitical high priest for 40 years and died at age 98 in 1046 BCE [1st Samuel 1:1-4:18; 14:3]. His specific line of descent was via Ithamar, the younger of Aaron’s two surviving sons. 

1086 Samson born

1070 Saul born 

1066 to 1046 14. Samson judged Israel for twenty years from the age of 20 until he died at the hands of the Philistines at age 40 [Judges 16:31]. His name literally means: the Sun or Sun man. and by extension distinguished, strong. Samson’s death culminated in the destruction of their main Palace and Temple complex and forty years of Philistine oppression from 1086 to 1046 [Judges 13:1]. Samson’s genealogical origin is not clear. It is normally attributed to the tribe of Dan, as his adoptive father Manoah was a Danite. Though events in Judges chapters 17 and 18 elude to the tribe of Ephraim and some commentators have suggested a strong case for Samson’s mother descending from the tribe of Judah [2].

1050 Jonathan born – ten years older than David

1046 – 1015 BCE 15. Samuel was a Nazarite like Samson [1 Samuel 1:11] and Judged [1 Samuel 7:15] as a Priest like Eli, from the age of 44 for 31 years [1 Samuel 3:1; 13:13]. Samuel in Hebrew means: heard of God. Samuel stands out as one of the final Judges and first in a line of prophets that lasted till Malachi and then John the Baptist in the New Testament [1 Samuel 3:20-21, 1 Chronicles 9:22]. Samuel anointed both Saul and David as kings. Samuel became Judge when Eli died at 98 years of age [1 Samuel 4:15-18] after 40 years as judge and the capture of the Ark 0f the Covenant seven months before the ending of the Philistine oppression by Samson [1 Samuel 6:1]. The Ark was returned and spent some twenty years in Kiriath-jearim [1 Samuel 2:18-4:1; 6:21; 7:1-8:1] from 1046 to 1026 when Saul was anointed king. When the Ark was captured, the Philistines burned Shiloh [1 Samuel 4:12-17]. Even though this is not stated in the bible, excavations confirm the the city’s destruction.

Did the Philistines destroy the Israelite Sanctuary at Shiloh? The Archaeological Evidence, Biblical Archaeology Review, June 1975: ‘Ms. Buhl, a Keeper of the National Museum of Denmark, recently wrote part of the final report on the Danish excavations at Shiloh. Ms. Buhl’s task was admittedly complicated by the fact that the Shiloh excavations had been carried out by a Danish expedition about 40 years earlier – in three campaigns in the 1920’s and early 1930’s under the direction of Hans Kjaer. Kjaer tragically died of dysentery a month after the last season began. As a result, no final report was ever written – until Ms. Buhl and a colleague assumed the task four decades later. Prior to his death, Hans Kjaer did publish two preliminary reports on the excavations containing a major finding for students of the Bible: Shiloh had been destroyed in about 1050 B.C., about the time that the Philistines had captured the Ark of the Lord – after it had been taken from the central sanctuary at Shiloh to lead the Israelite forces in battle. It seemed reasonable to conclude that the Philistines had destroyed the Israelite sanctuary at Shiloh following the fateful defeat of the Israelite army near Aphek.’

A twenty year period of peace ensued with the Philistines [1 Samuel 7:9-13]. Samuel was from the tribe of Levi [2] [1 Chronicles 6:31-33] and went on a circuit year by year to Bethel [in Ephraim on the border with Benjamin], Gilgal [in West Manasseh, near border with Benjamin] and Mizpah [in Benjamin] and judged from each city. Then he would return to his home in Ramah, located in the land of Benjamin [1 Samuel 7:16-17]. Samuel unwisely made his two sons judges when he was old, at about age 60 [1 Samuel 8:1-3]. They were so wicked, corrupt and unpopular; Israel demanded a king – to be like the other nations – and their rule was short-lived. Judges 21:25 ESV ‘In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.’

1040 BCE David born

1030 to 1026 BCE 16. Joel which in Hebrew means: JAH is God. 17. Abijah which in Hebrew means: JAH is Father. They judged in Beersheba in the land of Simeon.

“All of these judges are found in the book of Judges except for Eli and Samuel, who are found in 1st Samuel. Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, and Samuelare mentioned in (Hebrews 11:32) as “Heroes Of The Faith.” The “Spirit of the Lord” is said to have come upon 4 of these judges: Othniel (Judges 3:10), Gideon (Judges 6:34), Jephthah (Judges 11:29), and Samson (Judges 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14).”

 1026 Israel gathered at Mizpah to witness the anointed Prince Saul [I Samuel 8:3-22; 10:1 17-24], where previously the tribe of Benjamin had been nearly exterminated [Judges 20:1-48]. Samuel was age 64 and Saul was 44 years old – the exact same age as Samuel when he became a judge.

1025 Jabesh Gilead besieged by the Ammonites – Saul breaks the deadlock with a 330,000 man army and Samuel confirms and crowns Saul as king at age 65 and Saul 45 years old – at Gilgal [I Samuel 11:14-15]

1025 – 1010 Saul reigned for fifteen years and died – 1 Samuel 13:1, Acts 13:21, 1 Samuel 7:1-2.

1023 Jonathan defeated and killed the Philistine Garrison at Geba; after Saul had been king for two years [1 Samuel 13:1-4]. Jonathan single-handedly defeated 20 Philistines, scaling cliffs at Michmash at age 27 [I Samuel 14:1-52]. King Saul fights a war against Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah and the Philistines. 

1022 – 998 BCE Ahmose I – first king of the XVIII Dynasty – brother of Kamose, who ruled 3/5 years, as the last king of the XVII Dynasty

1022 Saul with a 210,000 man army, defeated King Agag the Amalekite; but by allowing him to live, loses the kingship [1 Samuel 15:1-35]. The same year, David at 17, is anointed by Samuel. David then entered the service of Saul at the Palace [1 Samuel 16:1-23]. David subsequently defeated the giant Goliath at the Battle of Sochoh with  the Philistines [1 Samuel 17:33]. The word ‘youth’ is the Hebrew word na’ar. The same word is used of Joseph at age 17. Jonathan age 28 befriends David who is 18. David becomes more famous fighting in Saul’s army [1 Samuel 18:1-7]. 

1020 David marries Saul’s daughter Michal, his first wife at age 20 and pays a dowry of 200 Philistine penises

1019 War with Philistines – end in defeat and victory for David 

1016 BCE David driven away by Saul after 6 years in the Palace. David living as a fugitive; spending 7 years on the run from age 23 to 30. 

1015 BCE Samuel died age 75 years in the 10th year of Saul’s reign confirmed by Josephus [1 Samuel 25:1], 5 years before Saul’s death. David’s wife Michal given to Paltiel 

1013 Philistines attack Keilah at harvest time and again defeated by David and his loyal mercenary followers 

1012 David cuts Saul’s robe in the cave he was hiding in, when Saul stopped to rest 

1011 Philistines invade the land and King Saul finally gives up his pursuit of David. David married Abigail 

1010 King Saul – 1 Samuel 31 Battle with the Philistines at Mount Gilbo – died age 60 and his son Jonathan died at age 40. David was 30 when Saul died [2 Samuel 5:4] 

1010 to 1008 BCE Saul’s son from his concubine Rizpah, Ish-bosheth briefly ruled Israel at age 40 [2 Samuel 2:10-11] 

1010 to 1003 BCE Reign of King David over the Kingdom of Judah from Hebron, for 7 years and 6 months, and from 1003 to 970 David reign over both the Kingdom of Judah and Israel from Jerusalem [2 Samuel 5:5]. David was a contemporary of Amenhotep I, or Djeserkare, the 2nd king – ruled either 21/27 years – and Thutmose I or Aakheperkara], the 3rd king – ruled 6/28 years – of the XVIII Dynasty. 

999 BCE Solomon born

998 – 978 BCE Amenhotep I the 2nd king of the XVIII Dynasty 

990 Rape of Tamar by her brother Amnon, age 20 [2 Samuel 13:1-2] 

988 Absalom has Amnon killed and flees to his grandfather, the king of Geshur 

985 Absalom returns to Jerusalem age 23 

983 David reconciles with Absalom, then his son plans mutiny for four years to take over David’s throne 

979 Absalom insurrection: declared king in Hebron and dies at age 29 

978 – 972 BCE Thutmose I – 3rd king of XVIII Dynasty 

972 – 960 BCE Thutmose II – 4th king of XVIII Dynasty 

971 Rehoboam born to Naamah the Ammonite princess and Solomon 

970 David died age 70 [2 Samuel 5:4] 

970 to 930 BCE Solomon reigned and died age 69 [1 Kings 11:42] 

966 Beginning of the building of Solomon’s Temple in 4th year of his reign – 480 years after the Exodus [1 Kings 6:1] 

960 to 945 BCE Queen Hatshepsut was the 5th Pharaoh of XVIII Dynasty. Queen Hatshepsut or Maatkare, also known as the Queen of Sheba and she visited King Solomon having a love affair and a son. 

959 Temple completed in 7 years [1 Kings 6:38] 

945 to 912 BCE Thutmose III or Menkheperre – 6th King of XVIII Dynasty – contemporary of Solomon, Rehoboam and Jeroboam

The kings of Judah ruled just shy of 350 years from the death of Solomon until captivity by the Chaldeans and the kings of Israel ruled just over 200 years until the captivity by the Assyrians. There is much debate on the synchronising of the two lines of kings. 

The answer is found in the fact that co-regencies over lap, inclusive counting is used for non-accession years and non-inclusive counting for accession years of monarchs, as per various scribes at different points in history. Thus, the chronology in the Bible is accurate, when understood from these perspectives. A final point is that Judah used the 1st of Tishri the 7th month as their new year [September/October] and Israel in turn used the 1st of Abib or Nisan the 1st month as theirs [March/April]. 

930 to 913 BCE 1 Judah. Rehoboam crowned first king of new Kingdom of Judah at 41 years of age and ruled 17 years

“The solar eclipse on June 2, 930 BCE in Gemini (‘twin brothers’ as a possible symbol of two countries with the kings of the similar names, Rehoboam and Jeroboam, after Solomon’s reign) might be symbolically related to the end of Solomon’s reign which lasted for about forty years. These dates correlate with extra-Biblical sources.”

930 to 910 BCE 1Israel. Jeroboam I first king of new Kingdom of Israel – All the kings of Israel were deemed evil, for there was not one counted as righteous except perhaps King Jehu in part. 

913 to 910 2J. Abijah 

912 to 887 BCE Amenhotep II 7th King of XVIII Dynasty 

910 to 869 3J. Asa 

910 to 909 2I. Nadab

909 to 886 3I. Baasha – murderd Jeroboam and all his family

887 to 877 BCE Thutmose IV – 8th king of XVIII Dynasty – famous for his Dream Stele 

886 to 885 4I. Elah 5I. Zimri ruled 7 days and murdered Baasha and his family

885 to 880 6I. Tibni

885 to 874 7I. Omri

877 to 840 BCE Amenhotep III – The Magnificent 9th king of the XVIII Dynasty – Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Amenhotep III ruled Egypt at the height of its power; building numerous temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. 

874 – 853 8I. Ahab and his Queen Jezebel – most evil king of Israel and wholesale child sacrifice during his reign 

874 to 846 Elijah

869 to 844 4J. Jehoshaphat 

853 – 852 9I. Ahaziah 

852 – 841 10I. Joram 

848 to 800 Elisha

844 to 836 5J. Jehoram 

841 to 814 11I. Jehu who was partially Good and principally bad – murdered many people and made piles of the heads of 70 royal princes [2 Kings 10:8]

840 to 824 BCE Amenhotep IV – 10th king of XVIII Dynasty. 

“Amenhotep IV became a pacifist, a monotheistic revolutionary who turned Egypt’s religious structure upside-down with his insistence that they worship one god, the sun (Aten); he changed his name to Akhetaten as a result. Abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship of Aten. This change was not popular with the Egyptian people and he was nearly wiped from Egyptian history. Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc… He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.”

836 to 835 6J. Ahaziah 7J. Queen Athaliah 

835 to 795 8J. Joash – began righteous, turning to evil in his old age 

824 to 821 BCE 11th and 12 rulers of XVIII Dynasty uncertain – Smenkhkare for 1 year and Neferneferuaten a Queen for 2 years, probably Nefertiti 

821 to 812 BCE Tutankhaten – 13th king of XVIII Dynasty. There were two more rulers after him with the dynasty ending 32 years later in 780 after his death at 18. He ascended the Egyptian throne at age 9 and changed his name to Tutankhamun; reinstating Amun worship over Aten, after just 20 years. 

814 to 798 12I. Jehoahaz 

810 to 790 Jonah [Prophet of Israel]

798 to 782 13I. Jehoash [Joash]

795 to 766 9J. Amaziah – began righteous, turning to evil in his old age 

793 to 753 14I. Jeroboam II

791 to 739 10J. Uzziah 

790 to 760 Joel 

785 to 725 Hosea 

780 to 760 Amos

753 to 752 15I. Zechariah – reigned for 6 months 16I. Shallum – 1 month

752 to 732 17I. Pekah 

752 to 742 18I. Menahem 

750 to 695 Isaiah 

749 to 733 11J. Jotham 

745 to 725 Micah

742 to 740 19I. Pekahiah

736 to 720 12J. Ahaz 

735 Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria planned to attack King Ahaz of Judah and install a puppet king, in the hope of a three way alliance against the King of Assyria, Tiglath-Pileser III [745-727 BCE]. Ephraim and Syrian War 735 to 732 BCE. Beginning of Ephraim’s fall, within 65 years [Isaiah 7:8].

732 to 723 20I. Hoshea – child sacrifice. From the first king Jeroboam I to the 20th king Hoshea was 208 years and the total years for reigns – not including co-regencies is 236 years. 

722 to 718 BCE The fall of the Kingdom of Israel to the Assyrian King Sargon II [722-705 BCE]

720 to 691 13J. Hezekiah 

696 to 641 14J. Manasseh 

670 to 667 BCE End of 65 years for Ephraim’s complete fall during reign of Assyrian King Esarhaddon [681-669 BCE]

660 to 630 BCE Nahum [Prophet of Judah]

641 to 639 15J. Amon 

639 to 608 16J. Josiah [2 Kings 23:16-17, 20, 23 – 18th year, 621 BCE] 17J. Jehoahaz 3 months 

630 to 620 Zephaniah

630 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II born 

628 to 588 BCE Jeremiah 

620 to 610 Habakkuk

608 to 597 18J. Jehoiakim 19J. Jehoiakin 3 months 

607 to 587/586 BCE The fall of the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem falls 587 and Temple is burned and destroyed 10th Av [Monday 28.08]

606 to 534 Daniel [Prophet of the captivity] 

605 Edom invades and occupies Judah Negev

597 to 586 20J. Zedekiah– From the first king Rehoboam to the 20th king Zedekiah was 344 years and the total years for reigns – not including co-regencies is 387 years. 

596 – 574 Ezekiel 

587 Obadiah 

562 Nebuchadnezzar II died – Tree banded for 7 times 360 prophetic years, equals 2520 years [Daniel 4:20-23]. 

“On March 25, 1957, the six ECSC [European Coal and Steel Community] members [Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg] signed the two Treaties of Rome… [one] Euratom, which was designed to facilitate cooperation in atomic energy development… and the European Economic Community (EEC).”

539 Fall of Babylon – Cyrus II the Great of the Medo-Persian Empire allows a remnant of the tribe of Judah to return to Jerusalem [Ezekiel 4:5-6]; 390 years after the death of King Solomon 

536 BCE Temple foundation laid 

520 to 518 Haggai [Prophet of the return to Jerusalem] 

520 to 510 Zechariah 

516 Temple finished and Ezra goes to Jerusalem 

457 BCE [Daniel 9:24-27] 70 Weeks Prophecy* 486 1/2 years to 30 CE [490 years minus 3.5 years as the Messiah taken in the midst of the ‘week’]. Ezra returns to Jerusalem from Babylon. 

444 Nehemiah to Jerusalem 

420 to 397 Malachi

170 BCE to 1990 CE Age Pisces – The Fish 

165 BCE Antiochus Epithanes IV material abomination of the Temple occurred on same day – 422 years later – as original destruction in 587 BCE, the 28.08. 

3 BCE Birth of John the Baptist on Passover in the Spring. Birth of Christ 6 months later in the Autumn, on the 11th September – the New Moon of the 1st day of Tishri, the 7th month.

30 CE Death of the Messiah on the Passover of the 14th Abib or Nisan – the 5th April.

Beginning of Ephesus Era of the Church [Revelation 2:1-7] — Christ’s death the beginning of the end of the physical sacrifices for 2300 years [Daniel 8:13-14, 25-27].

69 – 155 Polycarp Bishop of Smyrna and disciple of the Apostle John

70 CE Destruction of Temple 

100 John died 

130 to 196 Polycrates Bishop of Ephesus  

250 to 336 Arius 

300 CE Beginning of Smyrna Era [Revelation 2:8-11] 

650 Beginning of Pergamos Era [Revelation 2:12-17] 

800 Crowning of Charlemagne and count of 1260 years as per Isaac Newton 

1000 BCE 1260 [+30], 1290 [+45] and 1335 days for years [Daniel 12:10-12, Revelation 11:3; 12:6]

“The Holy Roman Empire established itself as the most powerful state. The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen… In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all’lsola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.”

1050 Beginning of Thyatira Era [Revelation 2:18-29] 

1140 to 1218 Peter Waldo – Pierre Vaudes, or de Vaux

1350 Beginning of Sardis Era [Revelation 3:1-6] 

1500 Beginning of Philadelphia Era [Revelation 3:7-13] – Protestant Reformation in 1517 and King James Bible 1611 

1844 BCE*

“From a Christian point of view, 1844 should be a memorable year, the year when God began the last part of the plan of salvation. 

There were many events that happened this year that have affected the world and people… 1) The not unknown Karl Marx began writing his work, The Communist Manifesto this year. Through this manifesto, Marx sought to kill God, and this manifesto came to play a major role in the spread of communism, primarily in Eastern Europe, Russia and later also in China, Cuba, and some other countries in Asia. These countries had or have, not entirely unexpectedly, according to the contents of the manifesto, non-Christian or anti-Christian regimes. We can probably state today that communism managed to put an end to the spread of the gospel where communism became dominant, even though there were and are underground groups in most countries.

2) … Charles Darwin, began in 1844 to collect his notes and thoughts for a book later known as The Origin of Species. According to Wikipedia, the book’s full title is: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. What Darwin [was] trying to do with this book is kick legs under the Bible’s creation theory and thus kill God’s claim that He created the heavens and the earth and all living things… and rested on the seventh day which He declared holy and blessed. Darwin’s theory of evolution… has been hammered into the school system for more than 150 years, and it is assumed that no critical questions will be raised about the theory. Already from the kindergarten stage, children today are taught (read: indoctrinated) this doctrine, while Christianity has been forbidden to learn (read: preach). Christianity has been effectively gagged into silence with the help of the so-called human rights. The theory of evolution has also gradually gained a foothold in several liberal churches, it has almost been implemented as a dogma in many denominations.

3) In the same year, 1844, an Iranian named Baha´u´llâh founded the Baha´i religion. This is the religion that most UN delegates profess today. This religion has as its main goal to unite all religions, merge them, and can be called an ecumenical forge. 

The telegraph. On May 24, 1844, Samuel Morse sent the first telegram from Washington to Baltimore, and the text he sent was apt: What hath God wrought? The railway. The first locomotive was built in 1813, and when George Stephenson built his Rocket in 1829 this innovation still needed to be developed. When the first railway line was planned in Dhio March 20, 1844, the development of the railway accelerated. And with these two innovations, the telegraph and the train, the world began to shrink. Modern archaeology. Saw the light of day in 1798 and thanks to this, the Elamite cuneiform was translated for the first time in 1844. 

This gave help to open the book of Daniel, which until then had been a sealed book… Codex Siniaticus Codex Siniaticus was found in a rubbish bin in an old monastery at Mont Sinai in Egypt.”

1900 Beginning of Laodicea Era [Revelation 3:14-22] 

1990 to 4150 Age of Aquarius – The Water Bearer 

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012:

“The Yuga Cycle doctrine tells us that we are now living in the Kali Yuga; the age of darkness, when moral virtue and mental capabilities reach their lowest point in the cycle. The Indian epic The Mahabharata describes the Kali Yuga as the period when the “World Soul” is Black in hue; only one quarter of virtue remains, which slowly dwindles to zero at the end of the Kali Yuga. Men turn to wickedness; disease, lethargy, anger, natural calamities, anguish and fear of scarcity dominate. Penance, sacrifices and religious observances fall into disuse. All creatures degenerate. Change passes over all things, without exception.” 

2025 End of Ascending Kali Yuga Age of 2,700 years and beginning of transitional Period of 300 years

2029 13th April Apophis Asteroid 

2068 12th April Apophis Asteroid 

2325 End of Transitional Period between Kali Yuga and new Satya Yuga Golden Age

2603 BCE 30,000 years since creation of Adam and Eve

3333 End of Millennium – Battle of Armageddon Magog, Meshech and Tubal [Revelation 20:13, 7-10; Ezekiel 38:1-23; 39:1-29] – Year of the Snake, time of the Dragon

4150 – 6310 Age of Capricorn – The Goat. Year 4150 equals 49 ages – a Biblical Jubilee [Leviticus 25:8-12] – of 2160 years since 101,690 BCE and the first Age of Aquarius

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

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