The fourth son of Shem is Lud. He is an elusive people in world history and next to impossible to locate by identity researchers and biblical historians. We have discussed the descendants of Phut and of Mizra’s son Lehab intermingling, so that the Bible translation ‘Libya’ applies to both. Commentators have resolutely believed the Lud from Shem and the Lud-im from Mizra are separate peoples. Any references to Lud or ‘Lydia’ have been even more perplexing to the identity hunter in trying to establish which Lud – the one from Ham or the one from Shem? The answer is that Lud, even though primarily descended from Shem, is living nestled within Ham, yet also dwelling beside Shem and Japheth.
Dr Hoeh continues in Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Shem had a son named Lud (Genesis 10:22). Lud early migrated from the Mesopotamian Valley. We read of Lud only as a trading people in the Old Testament. They play no important part in prophecy, but we ought to know where Lud’s descendants are today.
From the region of Western Mesopotamia, the sons of Lud spread into Western Asia Minor and founded the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. “The Assyrians called Lydia Ludu”, says the International Standard Bible Encylopaedia. From Lydia they spread into Europe. Enroute they gave the name Ludias to a river in Macedonia, north of Greece. Nearby, in Thrace, we find the town of Cabyle. A people of the white race called Cabyle or Kabyle are found in North Africa today!
The Romans found the Lydians spread over much of Italy and along the shores of the Adriatic in early times. They called the Lydians Etruscans and Tuscans. In the little country of Albania (next to Greece) the Tosks live today. The BRITANNICA states that these Albanians are probably “identical with Tuscus [and] Etruscans” of Roman times, who were of Lud(article “Albania”). The Greeks call Albania Arberia, a word akin to Berber or Barbar. Associated with them are the Berbers, or Barbars. The Greeks probably derived the word Barbarian, meaning non-Greek, from the Berbers of Lud whom they met.
Ezekiel 30:5 gives the definite implication that part of Lud is to be found today in North Africa. Various forms of the name “Albania” are common even today in Italy. From Italy we can trace many Lydians to the East, around the Black Sea, where they founded another Kingdom of Albania in the Caucasus.
According to many historians, “the name [Albania] arose from the alleged fact that the people were the descendants of emigrants from Alba in Italy”, the BRITANNICA states. In the region of the Causasus today dwell many small tribes, related to one another racially, but distinct linguistically. They are not related to any other people in Russia. They are known by a dozen different names. Among these are the Georgians from whom Joseph Stalin came.
The sons of Lud have not become a great people in the world [in part] due to the… geographic areas in which they settled. Isaiah 66:19 describes them today as dwelling among the Latin and Slavic peoples of Europe.’
The descendants of Lud actually play an important role in the future. Understanding their identity reveals they are located in West Asia and therefore not associated with North African, Latin or Slavic peoples. The Albanians have inherited names from previous peoples when they migrated through Southern Europe. Their name Alba-nia does have a close association with the peoples of Alba who passed Albania and Italy en route to ultimately, Alba in Britain. The Albanians were not a people living in the same location for over 2,500 years; thus their name today is inherited not original.
The Lydian civilisation dwelt in Western Asia Minor and then seemingly disappears from view. We will discover that it was a different people descended from Shem who were the ancient Etruscans. The Etruscans racially and culturally, have much more in common with the Romans and Greeks as well as with the Phoenicians of Carthage [with whom they had an alliance] to indicate any link with Lydia [Lud] to be unlikely. The Georgians though, are a part of Lud.
Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Although there is a Semite of the same name, we find that Lud, grandson of Ham, was father of the Ludim. He was also the first-born of Mizraim. The Hebrew word is ludiyiy (SHD 3866), meaning to the firebrands: travailings (BDB). (The descendants of Lud, the fourth son of Shem, were supposedly the Lydians.)’
Recall, the definition for Lehab [Lubim, son of Mizra] in Pakistan, is: ‘flames, to burn.’
The entry in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia is as follows:
“In Genesis 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish. …”
‘In Isaiah 66.19 Lud is mentioned with Tarshish and Pul (generally regarded as a mistake for Phut), Tubal, Javan, and the isles. Accepting this emendation, the passage agrees with Jeremiah 46:9, where the Ludim are spoken of with Kush and Phut as the allies of Egypt; and also with Ezekiel 27:10, where Lud is referred to with Persia and Put…
Lud, again, is mentioned with Ethiopia (Cush), Put, all the mingled people, Cab, and the children of the land which is in league (or, margin “the land of the covenant”), which were all to fall by the sword (Eze 30:5)…
The existence of Lud in the neighborhood of Egypt as well as in Asia Minor finds parallels in… Assyrian inscriptions… and… certain Assyrian letters relating to horses, by the side of the Cush (Kusu likewise) which stands for Ethiopia.
Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present.
The reference in Isaiah 66:19 seems to locate the land of Lud in the Mediterranean, whilst Jeremiah (46:9) and Ezekiel (27:10; 30:5) place it squarely in Africa. The likelihood is that it is in North Africa on the Mediterranean shores.
The Lydians in Asia Minor came into contact with the Assyrians and with Egypt in the early Seventh century BCE when their king Gyges sent an embassy to Ashurbanipal in 668 or 660 (Interpretative Dictionary Volume 3, page 179). Their language was not known and they were not really understood until the Persians conquered them in 546 BCE. Mellink (ibid.) considers the Lydians of Asia Minor to be neither Hamitic nor Semitic. However, if they were either it would be Semitic.’
We can see the confusion in trying to separate both Luds. This then causes difficulties in who is who, with one commentator even saying they are neither. The Bible revealed the answer and it has been available all along, waiting to be plainly read and believed.
Young’s Literal Translation
Cush, and Phut, and Lud, and all the mixture, and Chub [Lehab], And the sons of the land of the covenant with them by sword do fall…
Lud is associated with India and Pakistan. Pakistan is Phut and Lehab together. Similarly, Lud is a mixture of peoples and thus all mention of Lud, Ludim or Lydia in the Bible relate to the two lines of Lud, together.
Lud is the nation of Iran. Iran is also known as Persia and the main body of people are called Persian and speak Persian or Farsi. The original Persians once lived in this region and are now identifiable with Elam. Modern Iranians have inherited the name.
The name Ludim is used once in the Bible [also translated as Lydia] as opposed to Lud in other places.
Bible in Basic English
Go up, you horses; go rushing on, you carriages of war; go out, you men of war: Cush and Put, gripping the body-cover, and the Ludim, with bent bows.
New English Translation
Go ahead and charge into battle, you horsemen! Drive furiously, you charioteers! Let the soldiers march out into battle, those from Ethiopia and Libya who carry shields,and those from Lydia who are armed with the bow.
The proficiency with bow and arrow may extend to modern warfare. If so, what tends to be thrown or fired now… is missiles.
Statue of Arash the Archer at the Sa’dabad Complex in the capital, Tehran
New English Translation
19 I will perform a mighty act among them and then send some of those who remain to the nations – to Tarshish [Japan], Pul [Asshur], Lud (known for its archers), Tubal [chief economic sector and driver of China], Javan [Archipelago SE Asia],
and to the distant coastlands that have not heard about me or seen my splendor.
New English Translation
Men of Persia [Turkey (Elam)], Lud [Iran], and Put [Pakistan] were in your army, men of war. They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.
We learn that Lud is associated with Cush and Phut and also Elam geographically and militarily. All the verses are connected with warfare. It is not a surprise therefore to connect Lud with the modern militaristic state of Iran. Their relationship with India, Pakistan and Turkey, also now falls into place. The jig-saw is looking a little more complete and hopefully of sense to the reader. Pul, is not a mis-translation of Put [Phut]. We will learn later it is a name of a king – a King of Asshur. The reference is too Assyria and again, Iran has close ties with Russia.
What is worth noting, from Ezekiel 27:10, is that Elam [Turkey], Lud [Iran] and Phut [Pakistan] are the heart and core of the future Islamic Alliance that is referred to in the Book of Daniel, as the King of the South. Peripheral players in this powerful alliance may well include other major Islamic nations of Egypt [Pathros (Mizra)], Bangladesh [Havilah (Cush)] and Indonesia [Kitti (Javan)].
The Oxford Bible Church article by Derek Walker, provides a good synopsis of Iran, though understandably links Iran with ‘Persia’ [Elam] rather than Lud – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Ezekiel 38:5 lists Persia as the principal (first mentioned) ally of Magog in the end-time war against Israel [not the state of Israel]. Persia is easy to identify as modern Iran. Iran was called Persia until 1935… then in the 1979 Revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran. Once [Iran] was pro-western and pro-Israel but after Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution, [it] became anti-western, anti-Israel and more within the Russian sphere of influence.
Iran is a predominantly Muslim nation, with a radical fundamentalist leadership. Israel considers Iran as its most dangerous enemy. [Iran] desires to lead the Muslim world, taking centre stage to bring Muslim and Arab nations together against Israel and the USA. [Iran] wants all Muslim nations to devise a common strategy against Israel in the Middle East. Iran is the most extreme of the extremists. Hezbullah is essentially an arm of Iran. Hamas is becoming increasingly dependent on [Iran]. On many occasions [its] leaders have expressed the desire to wipe Israel from the map, which is why there is so much concern that [Iran] is determined to have… nuclear capability.
[Iran] supports many terrorist groups and could easily pass nuclear weapons to them to use against Israel and the West. That is why sanctions have been applied but Russia has protected Iran from the worst of them, because [it] has many lucrative contracts with [Iran], including helping Iran build its nuclear reactor and selling weapons…
Russia continues to align [itself] with Israel’s enemies, and the top of this list is Iran, who would not hesitate to join in [an] invasion.
In order to mount this large-scale invasion, Russia needs Iran as an ally. It would be much more difficult to move a large land army across the Caucasus Mountains bordering Turkey, than the Elburz Mountains bordering Iran. [Iran’s] general terrain is also easier to cross than Turkey’s.’
Map showing the highest population regions and density. Most of Iran’s bigger cities are located in the west of the nation. Iran’s affinity lays more with Turkey and the Arab world, than its eastern neighbours of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
There are a handful of contender nations for leader of the Muslim world: population wise, Bangladesh and Indonesia; diplomatically wise as in gaining pan-Arab support, Egypt; militarily, Pakistan and critically, ideologically wise, Iran. The last two would appear favourites and Iran has the edge maybe, in religious zealotry and militancy compared with Pakistan. On the fringes because of its ostensibly more western footing is Turkey. How it would fit into an Islamic alliance is not as clear cut. Potential leader can not be ruled out particularly as its economy [19th], though marginally behind Indonesia [16th] and Saudi Arabia [18th], is growing to soon make it the dominant nation of the South.
In the Book of Jasher 7:17, we learn that Lud had two sons: Pethor and Bizayon. The Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari [circa 915 CE] recounts a tradition that the wife of Lud was named Shakbah, a daughter of Japheth and their two sons were Faros and Jurjan. He further states that Lud was the progenitor also of the Amalekites – both a grandson of Esau and a separate people by the same name.
The first son, Far-os is reminiscent of Fars province in Iran. Fars, Pars or Faristan is the state that was once the southern part of the original homeland of Elam. The native name of the Persian language is Farsi or Parsi. Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized form of Persis, from the root word Pars. The Old Persian word was Parsaa; while Fars is the Arabicised version of Pars.
The Book of Jubilees 9:6, says that Lud received: “the mountains of Asshur and all appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till it reaches the east of Asshur his brother”. The Ethiopian version specifically reads: “… until it reaches, toward the east, toward his brother Asshur’s portion.” Scholars have associated Lud with the Lubdu of Assyrian sources, who inhabited certain parts of western Media.
Abarim Publications – emphasis and bold mine:
‘The people called Ludim descend from Mizraim… spelled Ludiyim in 1 Chronicles 1:11. But the only person named Lud is a son of Shem. It appears that the only Lud in the Bible and the only Ludim in the Bible have nothing to do with each other; i.e. the Ludim stem from some other, otherwise unmentioned Lud. It may be that there once were two patriarchs named Lud and thus two peoples named Ludim, but that one people and the other patriarch vanished from the story.’
It is incredible that a commentary would head off on such a completely incorrect tangent and therefore, in a mis-leading direction, instead of seeing the simplicity of the obvious answer – that two merged to become one. Some forbearance needs to be given, as in nearly all other instances they have been far and away the best Bible concordance for this project’s requirements and gratefully received.
‘It’s a mystery what the names Lud and Ludim might mean, although scholars have proposed several possibilities. The name Lydia means From Lud and the name Ahilud may mean Brother Of Lud. It can also be that – as is attested by Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names – in the language where this name came from (Phoenician, says Jones) the ‘d’ and the ‘z’ were pretty much indistinguishable and the name is actually Luz, meaning Turn of Twist, and thus the word by which the crooked almond tree was known.
The word (lwd) simply does not occur in Hebrew. BDB Theological Dictionary and NOBSE Study Bible Name List do not translate. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, slightly more daring, indeed derives (Lud) from (luz), a verb meaning to turn aside, depart: The verb (luz) means to turn aside, [to bend] or away. Noun (lazut) means deviation or crookedness. NOUN (luz) describes almond wood. To a Hebrew audience, perhaps the name Lud rang like it has something to do with the verb (yalad), meaning to beget, bring forth: perhaps Lud… means something like [twisted] Productivity or Emergence.’
I cannot attest to the national character or approach of an Iranian, so do not know if the following is indicative or not. It is not too dissimilar to the definition of a Philistine.
Luddite: ‘a member of any of various bands of workers in England (1811–16) organised to destroy manufacturing machinery, under the belief that its use diminished employment. Also: someone who is opposed or resistant to new technologies or technological change.’
The link between Lydia and Iran can be found in the ancient state of Urartu. It received its name from the Assyrians who bordered their land to the south. The Hebrews called them Ararat and like present day Iran [Shahs and Ayatollahs], were synonymous with a prominent ruler that was the focal point of their civilisation. Herodotus called them Alarodians. Urartu was known for its indomitable fighting spirit and development of a high culture. H A B Lynch, remarks that Urartu was “no obscure dynasty which slept secure behind the mountains, but a splendid monarchy which for more than two centuries rivalled the claims of Assyria to the dominion of the ancient world.” Between 860 and 585 BCE, Urartu contested with Assyria for the dominance of western Asia. Its beginnings are supposedly lost in the mists of pre-history, though their identification with Lud and the people of Lydia in western Asia Minor fits their profile and location.
Lehmann-Haupt proposes they migrated from that direction, citing as proof their ‘metallurgy, architecture and folkways.’ The people were first known as Nairi.
They were also known as haldians or children of the god [K]haldis. Haldi was portrayed as a man standing on a bull or lion, symbolic of his power. Temples were built in Haldi’s honour, which had distinctive square towers and reinforced corners. The king was known as the ‘servant of Haldi’ and all wars were carried out in his name.
Urartu sphinx statue and Haldi god relief compared to modern Persian symbols of a winged bull and the Golden Lion, found on the Iranian flag prior to 1979
An important deity was Shivani, the Sun god who given his representation with a winged solar disk, was similar to the Egyptian god, Ra. The consort of Haldi was Arubani, the most important female goddess. Sielardi was the moon goddess and Sardi a star goddess. Urartu artwork includes the Tree of Life symbol common to Mesopotamian cultures and is depicted with a figure stood either side making offerings.
The Urartians referred to themselves as Shurele [transliterated as Shurili or Surili]. A name mentioned within the royal titles of the kings of Urartu; the king of Suri-lands. The word Suri has been theorised as originally referring to chariots or swords. The Shur-ili were able warriors like Lud, so this is possible, or it might be related to the word, king or ruler as in Shah.
All Urartu kings took pride in leading their armies into battle. Weapons as shown at temples, included iron and bronze swords, spears, javelins and bows. Lud is associated with archery in the scriptures. The modern Iranians combine religion and warfare as the Shurili Urartians did, who employed heavy shields which had large central bosses decorated with images of mythical creatures such as bulls, and lions. There is also evidence of helmets and metal scale armour, at least worn by the elite. The main adversary was the Neo-Assyrian Empire, though there is evidence of trade between the two as well. As the Assyrians used chariots, possibly the Shurili did as well, particularly as they were adept at horse breeding. Urartu did secure some victories in the mid-eighth century BCE, though Tiglath-Pileser III [745-727 BCE] laid siege to Tushpa and Sargon II [722-705] in 714 BCE had successful campaigns against the Urartu. Other enemies that bordered the Shurili, included the Cimmerians, Scythians and eventually the Medes.
Forty-two inscriptions found at Van in 1842 reveal a unique people and culture. Professor A H Sayce said: ‘a new language and a new people to the museum of the ancient Oriental world’ has been added. The Vannic texts were described as ‘a vanished civilization from the grave.’ War, vandalism and the passing of time has obscured the chance to learn more than fragments of their history.The seat of the Shurili theocratic monarchy [Shah and Ayatollah combined] was Thuspa; capital of the territory called Biaina, later called Van. Tiglath-Pileser I, king of Assyria, asserted that he had conquered twenty-three kings of Nairi in 1114 BCE. These kingdoms must have been quite small within the Shurili empire of Urartu.
An inscription of the Assyrian king Assurbelkala [1073‑1056 BCE], first includes the name Uruatru. Shalmanaser II [1030‑1019 BCE], claimed the conquest of ‘the entire country of Uruatru’ in three days. Sardur I [844‑828] united into a confederation the different segments of Urartu. Sardur was the son of Lutipris, who had succeeded Arame. He left an inscription in the Assyrian language, calling himself King of Sura, which, according to Professor Albrecht Goetze, ‘is the same as Subaru.’
Sardur’s other titles included, ‘Great King,’ and ‘Ruler of Four Regions,’ or Shar-Kishatti, according to Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. Sardur built a fortress of huge stones west of the Rock of Van, and his son and successor Ispuinis, chose that rock as his residence and the holy seat of the god Khaldis.
Ispuinis and his son Menuas built the empire to its height. Under their successive reigns, it extended from the Zagros Mountains in the East to Palu in the North and Malatia in the West. During their rule great works were constructed around Van, including the aqueduct of Shamiram‑Su, which was forty-five miles in length and brought the pure water of the Khoshab River to the eastern shores of Lake Van [whose water is undrinkable], enabling the King Menuas to found there a city in his name. This canal irrigates the plain of Van even to the present time.
Menuas strengthened the great fortification of Melazkert. It was an ideal location for a fortress by a power operating from the southern lowlands and builders of an empire on the Armenian plains. Made more secure by a fleet of ships on the lake and by the fortification of the passes of Mount Varag, the place became of first rate military importance against the hostile forces that lay in Mesopotamia. These factors explain the comparative immunity and rapid development of the empire of the successors of Sardur I, at a time when Assyria was ruled by warlike monarchs. The period of Ispuinis and Menuas is perceived as the the most important and brilliant in Urartean history.
In 758 BCE, after crushing the revolt of the Hatti king of Milidu (Malatia), Sardur III successor of Argistis I, moved southward, putting the Great King of Carchemish [Jarablus] under tribute and captured the whole territory as far as Halpa [Aleppo]. ‘The empire of Assyria was then encircled’ says the Turkish scholar, Professor Shemseddin, ‘as if [in an iron hoop].’ Later Surili rulers possessed the names of Rusas I and Rusas II. An intriguing coincidence as the Shurili were neighbours of the Assyrians, who themselves are later to be known as Rus and then Russians.
The Urartean language has been deemed as neither Semitic nor Indo-European, as efforts to decipher the cuneiform inscriptions through the present day Armenian language have failed. One investigator P Jensen, found a certain similarity between the Urartean language and that in which the letter of King Tushratta of Mitanni [found at Tel-el‑Amarna, Egypt] was written. The name of the god Tesub of the Mitanni closely resembles that of the god Teisbas of Urartu. Another scholar thinks that ancient Urartu had a cultural connection with Asia Minor and Syria; citing the Hurri-Mitanni or Subarean remains in upper Mesopotamia and Syria as having points of resemblance to the characters of the Khaldian inscriptions.
Scholars suggest that ‘there appears to have been a pre-Indo-European substratum of speech which strongly influenced the Indo-European-Armenian’ and that ‘the Aryo-European must have exerted great influence upon the Urartean, even long before the times of the Vannic Empire.’
This coincides with modern day Persian, as even though classed as Indo-European and supposedly related to Slavic, Germanic, Romance, Greek and Armenian languages, it is not mutually intelligible with them, for Persian is entirely unique. Shurili artwork has been found outside Urartu – by finding bronze items belonging to the royal household and identifying inscriptions on them – such as in Etruscan tombs in central Italy.
The flag above is pre-revolution and the flag below post-revolution.
The symbol in the centre of the flag means: God
A well known online Encyclopedia – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Iran… is a country in Western Asia with [85,533,945] inhabitants. Its central location in Eurasia and proximity to the Strait of Hormuz give it significant geostrategic importance. Iran is the world’s 17th most populous country. Spanning 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 square miles), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world.
The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Eran, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryan, in reference to the Iranians… recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning “one who assembles (skilfully)”.According to the Iranian mythology, the country’s name comes from the name of Iraj, a legendary prince and shah who was killed by his brothers.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persis… meaning “land of the Persians”, while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran that is today defined as Fars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, Iran, effective 22 March that year.Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceable in official state contexts.
“Greater Iran” (Iranzamin or Iran e Bozorg)refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Central Asia.
By the 1500s, Ismail I of Ardabil established the Safavid Empire with his capital at Tabriz. Beginning with Azerbaijan he subsequently extended his authority over all of the Iranian territories, and established an intermittent Iranian hegemony over the vast relative regions, reasserting the Iranian identity within large parts of Greater Iran.
Iran was predominantly Sunni, but Ismail instigated a forced conversion to the Shia branch of Islam,spreading throughout the Safavid territories in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.
As a result, modern-day Iran is the only official Shia nation of the world, with it holding an absolute majority in Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, having there the first and the second highest number of Shia inhabitants by population percentage in the world.Meanwhile, the centuries-long geopolitical and ideological rivalry between Safavid Iran and the neighboring Ottoman Empire [Turkey] led to numerous Ottoman-Iranian wars.
The Safavid era peaked in the reign of Abbas I (1587–1629)[who reinforced Iran’s military, political and economic power], surpassing their Turkish arch-rivals in strength, and making Iran a leading science and art hub in western Eurasia. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Caucasian populations into new layers of the society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them within the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role in the history of Iran for centuries onwards.
The Russo-Iranian wars of 1804-1813 and 1826-1828 resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Iran in the Caucasus, (comprising modern-day Dagestan, Georgia [population: 3,989,167], Armenia [population: 2,963,243]and Republic of Azerbaijan [population: 10,139,177]),which made part of the very concept of Iran for centuries,and thus substantial gains for the neighboring Russian Empire… which got confirmed per the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay.
Despite Iran’s neutrality during WW I, the Ottoman, Russian and British empires occupied the territory of western Iran and fought the [P]ersian Campaign before fully withdrawing their forces in 1921. [Britain] directed [the] 1921 Persian coup d’etat and Reza Shah’s establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Shah, became the new Prime Minister of Iran and was declared the new monarch in 1925.
In June 1925, Reza Shah introduced conscription law… At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve [in the] military for two years… [and the] Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in [the] military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period.
The 1979 Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution,began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.’
‘After a year of strikes and demonstrations paralyzing the country and its economy, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi [Reza Shah’s son] fled to the United States, and [Ayatollah, meaning a high ranking Shiite religious authority] Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979, forming a new government. After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979.A second referendum in December 1979 approved a theocratic constitution.
The Leader of the Revolution (“Supreme Leader”) is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.The Iranian president has limited power compared to the Supreme Leader Khamenei.The current longtime Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and everything else in the country.
The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security, and justice. Iran’s syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, launching the Iran-Iraq War. Although the forces of Saddam Hussein made several early advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian forces successfully managed to drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq.
In July 1982, with Iraq thrown on the defensive, the regime of Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988 when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.’
Iran’s conflicts with Iraq, Turkey and Russia, reflects the war-like stature of Lud and its militaristic leanings.
‘As of 2009, the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations,but not with the United States, and not with Israel—a state which Iran’s government has derecognized since the 1979 Revolution.Among Muslim nations, Iran has an adversarial relationship with Saudi Arabia due to different political and Islamic ideologies. While Iran is a Shia Islamic Republic, Saudi Arabia is a conservative Sunni monarchy.Regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the government of Iran has recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, after [President] Trump recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, about 8,756to 25,000Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel.’
This is immensely ironic and we will look into this more closely when we study the State of Israel and the modern Jewish people.
‘Iran has the world’s second largest proved gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic meters and the third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC’S second largest oil exporter, and is an energy superpower.
The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Iranian global shipments during 2020.
- Plastics, plastic articles: US$2.6 billion
- Mineral fuels including oil: $1.9 billion
- Organic chemicals: $1.3 billion
- Fruits, nuts: $1.3 billion
- Iron, steel: $906.9 million
- Copper: $332.6 million
- Ores, slag, ash: $312.9 million
- Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: $258.7 million
- Fertilizers: $247.1 million
- Zinc: $142 million
Fruits and nuts was the lone grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 11.7% from 2019 to 2020. The leading decliner among Iran’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil, thanks to its -89% drop year over year.
… two-thirds of the population [are] under the age of 25. Iran’s population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to more than 84 million by July 2020.Due to its young population, studies project that the growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes around 105 million by 2050.
The Library of Congress issued… estimates [of the Iranian population]: 65% Persians (including Mazenderanis, Gilaks, and the Talysh), 16% Azerbaijanis, 7% Kurds, 6% Lurs, 2% Baloch, 1% Turkic tribal groups (including Qashqai and Turkmens), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups (including Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, and Arabs) less than 3%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country’s population, and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%.
Other nongovernmental estimates regarding the groups other than Persians and Azerbaijanis are roughly congruent with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress.
However, many estimates regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census; some place the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran between 21.6 and 30% of the total population, with the majority holding it on 25%.In any case, the largest population of Azerbaijanis* in the world live in Iran [more than in Azerbaijan].’
Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Similarly, Quintana-Murci et al. found greater proportions of mtDNA haplogroups N1b, R2, HV2, U7, J2 and T* in northern Iran, whereas M*, N*, R5, B, pre-HV1, U2*, U2e and U3 lineages were higher in the south. A recent study, based on both Y-chromosome and mtDNA analyses, found little to no differences in ethnic groups (Indo–European speakers versus Semitic speakers) residing in close geographical proximity within Iran. Furthermore, another mtDNA investigation led to the conclusion that two Indo-Iranian-speaking Talysh groups from Iran and Azerbaijan, that claim a common ancestry, were genetically similar.
In the same study, however, Y-chromosomal marker composition was shown to differ considerably between the Iranian and Azerbaijani Talysh, with the Azerbaijan Talysh more closely resembling the Azerbaijan neighbors than its Iranian counterpart.
Results reported by Regueiro et al. also indicate differential gene flow between northern and southern Iranian groups (divided by the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) not only with respect to the R-M198 mutation, as illustrated by Wells et al., but also with [R1b] R-M269 as well. The same study also reveals significant divergence in the overall Y-haplogroup distributions between northern and southern Iranians as well as between both groups and other spatially separated Iranian populations (the Esfahan of Central Iran reported by Nasidze et al. and Uzbekistan discussed in the study by Wells et al. In spite of these efforts, a consensus has not yet been reached as to the source populations, overall genetic relationships and degree of stratification between different Iranian regions.’
The mtDNA Haplogroups in Iran reveal a divergent north-south divide and in the Y-DNA Haplogroups overall picture it is replicated, so that combined there is a haziness in what are the original Iranian [or Persian] Haplogroups. This is due to the simple fact that there is DNA via Lud from Shem and also via Ludim from Mizra [and Ham] that has intermingled over a very long time.
‘The Peninsular Arabs partition to the left of above mentioned groups of populations; interestingly, IN (present study) is located within this cluster, specifically close to the Qatar collection. Two other North Iranian populations from the South Caspian region, the Gilaki and Mazandarian, are positioned between Arabian and Levant groups, closest to Saudi Arabia, Oman and Egypt.
In the MDS plot based on mtDNA, the southwest Asian populations are restricted to the left portion of the chart, the majority of which sequester in the lower left quadrant. The Afghanis group with the central Asians in the lower center of the graph is an expected association given that Afghanistan is frequently considered as a part of central Asia. The Balkan Peninsula populations form a tight cluster at the right-most extreme of the lower right quadrant, whereas the populations from the Caucasus, Levant/Anatolia and North Africa conform to a ladder-like pattern that extends from the extreme right center of the chart into the upper right quadrant.
The central and southern Iranians are close to each other and to the North Africa and Levant/Anatolia assemblages. The Peninsular Arabs partition to the left of above mentioned groups of populations; interestingly, IN (present study) is located within this cluster, specifically close to the Qatar collection. Two other North Iranian populations from the South Caspian region, the Gilaki and Mazandarian, are positioned between Arabian and Levant groups, closest to Saudi Arabia, Oman and Egypt.
Clear differences are observed in the maternal versus paternal gene pools of each specific Iranian region, as well as when these are compared with each other. The IN collection exhibits a 92.1% influence from the Peninsular Arabs when mtDNA is examined while this impact [diminishes] to 11.2% when Y-chromosomal data are examined.’
(a) MDS plot based on observed frequency of mtDNA haplogroup distributions (stress=0.28852) (b) MDS plot based on observed frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup distributions (stress=0.12492).
‘Similarly, the north Iranian Caspian populations of Gilaki and Mazandarian as well as central Iran and IS exhibit considerable proportions of mtDNA from the Arabian Peninsula (43.5 and 64.3%, 53.3 and 52.1%, respectively), whereas no apparent effect is seen in the Y-chromosomal component for central Iran and only 7.3% is observed for IS.
Unfortunately, the Y-chromosome haplogroup counterparts were not reported at the resolution required for these analyses in the north Iran/Caspian populations. Balkan inputs are observed in the mtDNA pool of both IN (7.9%) and IS (23.1%), but are absent in Central Iran and in the other two north Iran collections. Whereas the Balkan region impacts the central Iran group at 28.7% via Y-chromosomal inputs, no Y-influence is detected in either the IN or IS populations. Imprints from the Levant and southwest Asia are mostly of Y-chromosomal origin, but are seen in the mtDNA of the central Iranian population and in the Gilaki. Central Asian impacts are only detected at the Y-chromosomal level and are absent from IS, whereas influences from Caucasia are observed in all instances except via mtDNA in IN despite its close geographical proximity to the region. No north African effects were detected for any of the Iranian populations using either mtDNA or Y-markers.’
The graphs highlight the fact that in northern Iran the mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups hare an affinity with the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula. Both central and southern Iran are more related to each other and are distinct, being relatively equally distant from say Egypt [Mizra] and Turkey [Elam]. Regarding Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups, northern Iran is closest to Georgia, central Iran with the countries of the Balkans, like Macedonia or Greece and southern Iran with Azerbaijan. These nations are all descended from Shem and not Ham.
‘A comparison of the mtDNA pools of IN and IS populations reveals contrasting frequencies of haplogroups H, J and U. Although haplogroup J constitutes the majority (35.5%) of the maternal component in the north, it is considerably lower (14.5%) in IS. Haplogroup U accounts for the majority (22.2%) of the mtDNA lineages in the south…The IN and IS also differ with respect to haplogroups T*, T1 and T3 (middle eastern- and lower Arabian Peninsula-specific), and L0 and L1 (characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans). In IS, haplogroups T and L are detected at frequencies of 3.4 and 2.56%, respectively, whereas both lineages are completely absent from the northern sample set. These findings, however, contradict the data published by Quintana-Murci et al., where L lineages are reported for the northern but not southern groups, and haplogroups T* and T1 are observed in both regions of the Plateau but are higher in the north than in the south. These differences could be due to the small sample size of the North Iranian collection. The presence of both haplogroups in the Iranian populations may be indicative of gene flow from the Middle East and Africa.’
Or simply, that the Haplogroups from Ludim, which would account for the Middle East and North Africa input, are included* with Lud [Balkans, Caucasia, Anatolia].
‘The admixture analysis results indicate that the majority of Iran’s mitochondrial pool is derived from Arabia.
The Persian groups obtained from previous studies also display high degrees of similarity with the Peninsular Arabs; however, they all exhibit greater contribution from adjacent populations especially with groups from Caucasia. These genetic affinities are also evident in the MDS projection in which all the Iranian populations plot between the Arab collections, and the Levant-Anatolia and the northeast Africa assemblages. The three north Iranian populations partition nearest to the Arab cluster, whereas the central and south Iranian populations segregate closest to the Levant–Anatolia and the north African groups.
The genetic affinities between the Arabian Peninsula and Iranian groups may stem from gene flow at various points during the time continuum since the initial out-of-Africa dispersal… and/or during the Arab expansions of the third to the seventh centuries AD. Another plausible explanation for the closeness between Persia and Arabia may be the result of dispersals emanating out of central Asia into the Arabian Peninsula via Persia. However, the effect of these migrations is not well understood, and the degree of similarities between the Peninsular Arabs and the Iranians suggests widespread (involving the movement of large numbers of individuals) rather than discreet (a few scattered communities) migratory waves.
It should be noted that the degree of genetic flow from Arabia, as seen in the admixture analysis results, is much lower for the Y-chromosome than it is for the mtDNA. It is possible that this is the result of a larger male dissemination from other territories into Persia. This is apparent in the high frequencies of Y-haplogroup R1a1 (M198) of central Asian descent, which is believed to be a tell-tale marker for the expansion of the Kurgan horse culture and Indo-European languages. It is widely accepted that Iranians are Aryans [European or western as opposed to Hamitic or equatorial in origin] who migrated from the central Asian steppes around 4000 years before present.
The J1b sub-haplogroup is abundant in the Mediterranean and southern Atlantic regions. Interestingly, the frequency of this marker in IN is significantly (with the Bonferroni adjustment for 11 comparisons) higher than that of any of the surrounding regions surveyed (panel J in portrays mtDNA haplogroup J as a whole), including those from the Levant (Palestine, Syria, Egypt and Jordan), west central Asia (Armenia), the Near East (Iraq and Iran Kurdish) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman, UAE, Qatar and Yemen)… it is tempting to conclude that this distribution pattern suggests a North Iranian origin for this lineage…
Although IN and IS individuals form part of the ancestral core in the global J1b network, most of the remaining Iranian J1b haplotypes are located individually along the branch harboring the 16 222 transition. If the J1b source lies within northern Iran, it seems logical to expect more haplotype sharing or, at least, more integration of the IN and reference collections J1b sequences. The significance of the Iranian J1b frequency distribution and lineage pattern is not clear* at this point. Denser sampling within and around Iran may provide added insight with respect to the phylogeographic history of J1b within this region.’
Phylogeography, is the study of the “historical processes that may be responsible for the past to present geographic distributions of genealogical lineages. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of genetics, particularly population genetics.”
‘The asymmetrical partitioning of mtDNA haplogroups J (IN 35.5% and IS 14.5%) and J1b (IN 22.7% and IS 6%) between the two study populations parallels that of the Y-lineage R1b1a-M269, also found at a substantially higher frequency in the northern portion of the Plateau (15 versus 6% for IN and IS, respectively). Furthermore, as was observed with the J and J1b mtDNA haplogroups, this Y-specific marker is substantially more abundant in IN than in most of the surrounding Middle East, Near East and Levantine groups examined, with the exception of Turkey (14.5%). The M269 mutation is observed at elevated levels throughout Europe and declines in frequency along a southeast trajectory from Europe toward Pakistan (14.5–2.8%). The significance with respect to the enrichment of this European Y-chromosome marker in IN remains unclear. It is not known whether the presence of M269 in north Persia is associated with the northwest Neolithic agricultural movement from the Near East to Europe or if it signals a subsequent back migration eastward from Europe.
The middle of this paragraph is highly signifiant, repeat: highly significant. For here is where we find people who have a higher concentration of R1b than all the other peoples of the Middle East or West and South Asia. As explained, Iran as Lud, is a unique blend of Lud from Shem [western] and Ludim from Ham [equatorial]. The fact that Turkey is the other major nation with a similar percentage of R1b is not a coincidence. For Turkey and Iran are brother nations, as Elam and Lud and both descending from Shem. As we learned that Pakistan is a blend of two distinct peoples, though both from Ham; Iran is a blend of two separate peoples. Notice scientists use the term ‘back migration’ when they don’t realise they are dealing with an anomaly that is pointing towards an event not explicable by the theories of evolution or out of Africa.
The distribution of haplogroup I also differs between the northern (9.7%) and southern (1.7%) regions of Iran. This incongruence is significant at α=0.05 (P<0.03) but not following the application of the Bonferroni adjustment. It is noteworthy that, with the exception of its northern neighbor Azerbaijan, IN is the only population in which haplogroup I exhibits polymorphic levels. Also, a contour plot based on the regional phylogeographic distribution of the I haplogroup exhibits frequency clines consistent with an Iranian cradle. Moreover, when compared with other populations in the region, those from the Levant (Iraq, Syria and Palestine) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and UAE) exhibit significantly lower proportions of I individuals (1–2%). It should be noted that this haplogroup has been detected in European groups (… a tiny island off the coast of Croatia (11.3%), and Lemko, an isolate from the Carpathian Highlands (11.3%) at comparable frequencies to those observed in the North Iranian population.
In addition, several studies report the Middle East as the origin of this haplogroup, but for unknown reasons, the prevalence of this lineage in the region has been lost.
Thus, it is plausible that the high levels of haplogroup I present in IN may be the result of a localized enrichment through the action of genetic drift or may signal geographical proximity to the location of origin.
Or, it might just simply be that the Iranians are fundamentally a White, western people enriched with Hamitic, equatorial DNA comparable to that exhibited in their near neighbours; geographically and ethnically .
Although haplogroup H and its subclades are found in highest frequencies in Europe and Caucasia, the presence of these haplogroups in Iran may reflect gene flow from neighboring southwest Asia where they are present at moderate frequencies. Furthermore, considering the substantial frequency of H2a1 (12.5%) in central and inner Asia, its low frequency in eastern Europe and its absence in western Europe, it is likely that its presence in Iran may be due to gene flow from Asia. The fact that sub-haplogroups H2, H2a1, H4 and H7 are seen only in IS (absent in IN), and at relatively low frequencies, may stem from the low number of individuals collected in IN (n=31).
… mtDNA haplogroup T is common in eastern and northern Europe, and is found as far as the Indus Valley and the Arabian Peninsula. Thus, the presence of sub-haplogroups T*, T1 and T3 in IS, and their absence in IN, may be associated with gene flow from the Arabian Peninsula to southern Iran.’
(a) mtDNA haplogroup distributions (b) Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions.
Huge study on Y-chromosome variation in Iran – Viola Grugni [et al. 2012], posted online – bold theirs, emphasis &/or bold mine:
‘This is the equivalent of a box of candy for anyone interested in Eurasian (pre-)history. I will have [to] digest all the goodies within, and post any of my comments as updates to this post.
One of the most interesting finds is the presence of a few IJ-M429* chromosomes in the sample. Haplogroup IJ encompasses the major European I subclade, and the major West Asian J subclade. The discovery of IJ* chromosomes is consistent with the origin of this haplogroup in West Asia; it is widely believed that haplogroup I represents a pre-Neolithic lineage in Europe, although at present there are no Y chromosome-tested pre-Neolithic remains.’
‘There is also a wide assortment of Q and R in Iran. While some of these may be intrusive (e.g., the 42.6% of Q1a2 in Turkmen, likely a legacy of their Central Asian origins), the overall picture appears consistent with a deep presence of these lineages in Iran. This is especially true for haplogroup R where pretty much every paragroup and derived group is present, excepting those likely to have originated recently elsewhere.
UPDATE II: From the paper
Although accounting only for 25% of the total variance, the first two components (Figure above) separate populations according to their geographic and ethnic origin and define five main clusters: East-African, North-African and Near Eastern Arab, European, Near Eastern and South Asian. The 1stPC clearly distinguishes the East African groups (showing a high frequency of haplogroup E) from all the others which distribute longitudinally along the axis with a wide overlapping between European and Arab peoples and between Near Eastern and South Asian groups. The 2ndPC separates the North-African and Near Eastern Arabs (characterized by the highest frequency of haplogroup J1) from Europeans (characterized by haplogroups I, R1a and R1b) and the Near Easterners from the South Asians (due to the distribution of haplogroups G, R2 and L).
Iranian groups do not cluster all together, occupying intermediate positions among Arab, Near Eastern and Asian clusters. In this scenario, it is worth… noticing the position of three Iranian groups: (i) Khuzestan Arabs (KHU-Ar) who, despite their Arabic origin, are close to the Iranian samples; (ii) Armenians from Tehran (TEH-Ar), whose position, in the upper part of the Iranian distribution, indicates a close affinity with the Near Eastern cluster, while their position near Turkey and Caucasus groups, due to the high frequency R1b-M269 and other European markers (eg: I-M170), is in agreement with their Armenia origin…
UPDATE V: This confirms my observation from the recent studies in Afghanistan, that there is an inverse relationship of J2a and R1a in Iranian-speaking groups, with an excess of the latter among the eastern Iranians, and of the former among the Persians.
From the paper:
Among the different J2a haplogroups, J2a-M530 is the most informative as for ancient dispersal events from the Iranian region. This lineage probably originated in Iran… The high variance observed in the Italian Peninsula is probably the result of stratifications of subsequent migrations and/or of the presence of sub-lineages not yet identified.
Of course, the idea that the diffusion of J2a related lineages ties in with early agricultural expansions has been with us for a long time, but it is time to abandon it. First of all, as we have seen, J2a diminishes greatly as we head towards South Asia; it certainly doesn’t look like the lineage of the multitude of agricultural settlements that sprang up along the southeastern vector soon after the invention of agriculture.
Second, it is lacking so far in all ancient Y chromosome data from Europe down to 5,000 years ago. It seems much more [probable] that J2 related lineages spread from the highlands of West Asia much later.’
‘It is unfortunate that there is no progress in the phylogeographic assessment of R1a in this paper. There have been substantial discoveries of SNPs within this haplogroup as a result of commercial testing; however there is clearly an ascertainment bias in the newer discoveries, as almost all these SNPs have been detected in Europeans [Eastern Europeans or Slavs]. The new paper confirms the high levels of Y-STR variance in India [Cush], Pakistan [Phut], and Iran [Lud].
The Indo-Iranians were then initially the mixed descendants of the Indo-Europeans and the R1a old agricultural population, and were formed in the territory of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.
This also explains the contrast between Iranian and Armenian groups: the latter mostly lack the R1a lineage, contrasting with all Iranian groups (even their Kurdish neighbors) who possess it. Conversely, Iranian groups, and especially eastern Iranians and Indo-Ayrans lack the R1b lineage.
UPDATE VI: I have created… [a] dendrogram using the Y-haplogroup frequencies and the hclust package of R (default parameters):
From top to bottom, one can identify some clusters:
- Eastern Europe, further broken down into Balkans and Slavic+Hungary
- West Asian/Caucasus
- Iranian Proper
These correspond largely to the clusters identified by the authors, with India and the Turkmen sample emerging as the clear outliers.’
I would urge the reader to take time to study the dendrogram, as it aptly shows the evidence of Iran having one foot in the Arab world as Lud-im and one foot in the Caucasian world as Lud.
‘UPDATE VII: At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions.
The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial [post Flood] and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23), Central Asia (Q-M25), Asia Minor (J2a-M92) and southern Mesopotamia (J1). In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran…’
Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians, multiple authors, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe…
It is worth pointing out the position of Azeris from the Caucasus region, who despite their supposed common origin with Iranian Azeris, cluster quite separately and occupy an intermediate position between the Azeris/Georgians and Turks/Iranians grouping. Interestingly, the results of our MDS analysis do not combine the populations studied according to their geographic and/or linguistic affinity.
Therefore, Turkic-speaking Qashqais, Azeris, and Turks are located quite distantly from each other on the plot, even though association between the latter two groups has been recently revealed based on complete mtDNA sequences. All populations from the Caucasus region (Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians) are scattered on the plot though their genetic proximity has been demonstrated by Schönberg et al. Similarly, Iranians from Tehran province and Persians studied here are clearly separated from each other.’
‘Overall, the complete mtDNA sequence analysis revealed an extremely high level of genetic diversity in the Iranian populations studied which is comparable to the other groups from the South Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe.
The Iranian populations studied here and previously exhibit similar mtDNA lineage composition and mainly consist of a western Eurasian [European, western] component, accounting for about 90% of all samples, with a very limited contribution from eastern Eurasia [Oriental], South Asia [Hamitic, equatorial] and Africa. The South Asian and African influence is more pronounced in Iranians from the southern provinces of the country.
Our results confirms that populations from Iran, Anatolia, the Caucasus and the Arabian Peninsula display a common set of maternal lineages although considerable regional differences in haplogroup frequencies exist. Meanwhile, some haplogroups previously defined as South Asian (such as R2 and HV2) could be considered as having Southwest Asian origin, taking into account the relatively high frequency and diversity of those haplogroups in Iran.
We would expect to view a rather complicated Haplogroup structure for Lud. We will compare Iran with the three related peoples from the Caucasus region of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. There is the admixture of Lud-im from Mizra to consider and also Iran’s proximity to the descendants from Ham, of Iraq on its western border, Pakistan on its eastern border, Uzbekistan descended from Japheth to the north and finally Lud’s brother Elam on its northwestern frontier.
The mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups for Iran are:
H [16.9%] – J [13.8%] – U [11.8%] – HV [7.4%] – K [7.3%] – T2 [4.9%] –
U5 [3.3%] – T1 [3.1%] – U3 [2.8%] – X [2.8%] – I [2.4%] W [2.4%] –
U2 [1.6%] – U4 [1%] – HVO + V [0.6%] – L [0.2%]
HV H J T2 U K
Iran 7 17 14 5 12 7
Iraq 9 17 13 4 7 5
Georgia 4 20 3 9 5 12
Azerbaijan 6 23 6 10 9 4
Armenia 6 30 10 5 8 7
Turkey 5 31 9 4 6 6
In essence, Iran’s combined regions provide an mtDNA top three Haplogroup picture the most similar to Iraq. The mixing with Ludim is evident; yet the fact remains that the Arab and Persian peoples are still distinct ethnicities. It is evident that Iran overall has more in common with Azerbaijan and Georgia than Armenia and Turkey; which clearly do have a strong similarity.
The Y-DNA Haplogroups of Iran:
Iran: J [31.4%] – R1a [14.3%] – G [11.7%] – R1b [10.1%] – E1b1b [7%] –
L [ 5%] – T [3.4%] – I [0.5%] – N [0.1%]
Iran: J2 – R1a1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L1c – T1a – I –
N1c1 – [Q – F – K – H]
Iran has more J2 than J1, meaning less J1 that is associated with Middle Eastern or Arabian peoples and more J2 which is associated with Southern European peoples. Its higher levels of G and E1b1b show its link with Mizra and its inherited Haplogroups from Ludim. The R1a and R1b are also typically European or western Haplogroups and show its link to predominantly Shem. There are exceptions, like Pakistan and India [Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and Central Asia [Chapter IV Madai], though they possess different strands of R1a and similarly with the R1b of the Spanish descended Latinos of Central and Southern America [Chapter XIV Casluh & Caphtor].
The Y-DNA Haplogroups of their near neighbours to the north.
Azerbaijan: J [31%] – G [18%] – R1b [11%] – R1a [7%] –
E1b1b [6%] – I [3%]
Georgia: J [36.4%] – G [31.8%] – R1a [10.6%] – R1b [9.1%] –
E1b1b [ 3%] – I [1.5% ] L [1.5%] – T [1.5%]
Armenia: J [24%] – R1b [19%] – G [11%] – R1a [6%] –
E1b1b [6%] – I [5%]
Azerbaijan: J2 – G2a – R1b – R1a1a – E1b1b – I – [F – K]
Georgia: G2a – J2 – J1 – R1a1a – R1b – E1b1b – I – L1c –
T1a – [Q – F]
Armenia: R1b – J2 – G2a – J1 – R1a1a – E1b1b – I – T1a –
L1c – Q – N1c1 – [F – K]
Iran is closest to Azerbaijan genetically and the fact that more Azerbaijanis live in Iran – approximately twenty million plus – as opposed to inside Azerbaijan – approximately ten million – is a fact that supports their common ancestry as Lud. Iran also shares common ground with Georgia [Lud], but not with Armenia [Elam]. The haplogroups associated predominantly with descent from Ham – as there are crossovers – are J1, G2a, and E1b1b. Haplogroups more common to descent from Shem, are R1b and I. The crossover Haplogroups are R1a and J2.
Y-DNA Haplogroups of Iran’s immediate neighbours to the East and West, plus Turkey and Uzbekistan.
Iran: J [31.4%] – R1a [14.3%] – G [11.7%] – R1b [10.1%] – E1b1b [7%] –
L [ 5%] – T [3.4%] – I [0.5%] – N [0.1%]
Turkey: J [30.5%] – R1b [20.3%] – E1b1b [ 13.6%] – R1a [11.9%] –
G [8.5%] – I [6.8%] – T [1.7%]
Iraq: J [57.6%] – E1b1b [10.8%] – R1b [10.8%] – R1a [6.9%] –
T [5.9%] – G [2.5%] – L [1%] – N [1%] – I [0.5%]
Pakistan: R1a [37%] – J [20%] – L [12%] – R2 [ 8%] – C [3%] – G [3%] –
H [3%] – Q [2%] – F [1%] – O [0.5%]
Uzbekistan: R1a [25%] – J2 [13%] – C3 [12%] – R1b [10%] – K [7%] –
P [6%] – O2 [4%] –R2 – I1 – N1c1
Iran: J2 – R1a1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L1c – T1a – I –
N1c1 – [Q – F – K – H]
Turkey: J2 – R1b – E1b1b – J1 – E1b1b – R1a1a – G2a – I2a1 –
N1c1 – L – T1a – Q – I1 – I2a2 – [F – K – R2]
Iraq: J1 – J2 – E1b1b – R1b – R1a1a – T1a – G2a – E1b1a –
L1c – N1c1 – I – Q
Pakistan: R1a1a – J1/J2 – L1c – R2 – C – G2a – H – Q – F – O
Uzbekistan: R1a1a – J2 – C3 – R1b – K – P – O2 – R2 – I1 – N1c1
Iraq’s J1 is 40% and J2 is 18%. Iran shares similar Hamitic Haplogroups with its western neighbour and nemesis, Iraq. As Iraq is adjacent to Iran and descended from Mizra [possibly from Ludim in the main or in part], we would expect them to be closely related to Lud-im within Iran. Not surprisingly, Iran does not have as much Y-DNA commonality with Pakistan from Phut and Uzbekistan from Madai, even though Uzbekistan is the closest of the Central Asian Republics. It is interesting to note the crossover Haplgroups that Pakistan and Uzbekistan share, of C, O and R2.
As expected, it is Turkey that Iran has the most Y-DNA Haplogroup synchronicity with of its neighbours. This may be a surprise to many readers, who though may be aware that Iran is not the same as Iraq and Pakistan would have assumed a similar linage with them. Whereas Iran’s predominant lineage as Lud, is linked instead with Turkey who is Elam. The table showing the key Haplogroups of these nations bears out the relationships as described.
J E1b1b G R1a R1b
Iran 31 7 12 14 10
Azerbaijan 31 6 18 7 11
Georgia 36 3 32 11 9
Armenia 24 6 11 6 19
Turkey 31 14 9 12 20
Iraq 58 11 3 7 11
Pakistan 20 3 37
Uzbekistan 13 25 10
It is the first two to three haplogroups that are most important in correlating a strong genetic relationship and then the next two or three.
There is an obvious relationship between Azerbaijan and Iran and the haplogroup clusters for Iran and Near Eastern peoples indicate that Azerbaijan does have a closer link with Iran than Georgia. Iran’s kinship with the Arabs is evident and a lesser degree with Uzbekistan as we have learned, has had much mixture with Elam and so the commonality it loosely shares with Iran, is evident. The Bible says that Lud and Ludim, with Phut and Lehab, are a mingled or mixed people and this region of the world certainly fits this description.
Worthy of mention is that both Iran and Turkey or Lud and Elam, have interacted considerably with the Arab world. Both nations have not strayed as far from their original homeland positions in ancient Mesopotamia – like Asshur, Aram and Arphaxad – so that they have been in the pathway of peoples migrating east-west and vice-versa.
Located in the crossroads of the world, that incorporates West Asia and Anatolia – much like Madai in Central Asia – has meant a variety of additional Haplogroups, albeit at fractional percentages being added to their core DNA.
Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning; it is not known in the inner parts of fools.
Proverbs 14:33 New English Translation
“Being on the side of the majority is often a sign that you are wrong, or the most unlikely to be right.”
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