finalis verbum

The most damaging aspect of the Biblical identity doctrine has been the element of whatever someone new to the subject first hears, reads or learns of any given identity, it is this knowledge that becomes firmly entrenched and invariably never shifted. As Proverbs 18:17 ESV says, the first case heard always has the advantage, whether right or wrong by virtue of being first. 

‘The one who states his case first seems right, until the other comes and examines him.’

Any secondary information has an uphill battle to gain attention, let alone replace the previously incorrect knowledge if such is the case. 

Yet, the accurate definition and explanation of the nations’ identities in the Bible in our modern age is crucial in understanding prophecy and by extension history. The credibility of the Bible has been at stake and those who have taught erroneous identities have been unwittingly holding the Eternal’s word to ransom. Now is the time for the truth to go out to those who truly seek wisdom and understanding – for the latter days are upon us. J H Allen understood the foundational basis of this knowledge in proving the veracity of the Bible, as written under inspiration by holy men and not the ramblings of eccentric or fanatical prophets. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

We have been moved by the Holy Spirit to thus write concerning the earthly history of God’s chosen race, because so very little of it is known by the masses of our people, and yet it is the foundation upon which the entire structure of Christianity must rest. A knowledge of these earthly things not only renders the claims of Christianity impregnable, but they are also the basis upon which we must rest our faith for better things. For Jesus has said, “If I have told you of earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?” The truth… as set forth in this book – that is, the realization of the promises made to ISRAEL… has… [brought] more skeptics to the light of his truth, than in all our previous ministry… [and]… We are… sure… that the faith of those who have made shipwreck could not have failed, if they had known these things.’ 

‘Genetic evidence has undermined the idea of racial divisions of the human species and rendered race obsolete as a biological system of classification. Race therefore should no longer be considered as an objective category… There are times when it is still accurate to talk about race in society. Though race has lost its biological basis, the sociological consequences of historical racial categories persist. While the scientific foundation for race is now disputed, racial factors in sociological and historical contexts continue to be relevant. First recorded in 1490–1500; from Middle French race “group of people of common descent,” from Italian razza “kind, species”…’

We can say, Scottish people or the English nation rather than calling them what they are. The scientific community has imposed a politically correct use, or rather less use of the word race. It would make sense if the word was banned outright, yet it is still allowable for social or historical definitions, just not for the actual aspect it is defining – our biological inheritance. Whether we use other words such as ethnicity or ancestry, it does not make the physical, biological differences between peoples less obvious or disappear. 

Following are synonyms: tribe, clan, family, stock, line, breed, blood, colour, culture, nation, people, offspring, progeny, seed, stock, strain, ethnicity. Some of these words could have a more inflammatory impact than the word race in my opinion. There is an agenda to attack the White race. The expression, Black lives matter, could be better expressed as ‘all lives matter.’ There is pressure to make white people uncomfortable and to do away with a concept of white people. It is blatant discrimination. Will black, brown, red and yellow people also come under fire? 

The term race is unhelpful in relation to all humanity. I prefer mankind, or if you will, humankind; not the human race. We are a kind, as there are animal kinds. The races are like species within the kind. It is very hard to do away with genetic lines of people that make them common to each other and different to other racial lines. They are  simply, different races. 

With this in mind, Greg Doudna reflects the frustration and division this issue causes, in the questions he poses. The division, confusion and strength of emotion it arouses exist in part, because people do not appreciate the differences in people. This is heightened due to the fact people do not know who they are. Yet, I observe online, mammoth interest in tracing family ancestry and forming a sense of self-identity; particularly with the breakthrough with Haplogroups. People want to understand their own race or racial heritage. Ironically, Haplogroups have also contributed to people becoming even more scathing, condemning and incorrect in their summations. 

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna, 1989, 2006, pages 143-144 – Italics his:

‘…consider three questions. Think:

(1) Is there any biblical basis to such a notion of classification as a “white race” in history? 

Are Italians part of the “white race”? Why? Are Russians? What about Assyrian Christian Iraqis who descend from the Assyrians of old [not correct – refer Chapter XIV Mizra & Chapter XX Asshur]? What about Jordanians? Are Arab tribes who claim descent from Ishmael? Are Spaniards part of the white race? Are Portuguese? Are Greeks? Are Poles? How about Muslim Shi’ite Azerbaijanis from the Caucasus? How about Armenians and Georgians and Chechens from the Caucasus area, otherwise known as Caucasians, or in Russia known negatively as blacks (because their skin is typically darker and more “ethnic” looking than that of Russians)? Are these Caucasians, who are Russia’s blacks, members of the “white race”? (Remember, historically Armenians and Georgians from the Caucasus started out defining the so-called Caucasian/white race). Are Hungarians part of “the white race”? Rumanians? Czechs? Gypsies (Roma)? Albanians? Serbs? How about the Persians of Iran, Iran’s largest ethnic group, who descend from the ancient Aryan Persians [not correct – refer Chapter XVII Lud]?’

A resounding Yes to nearly all. Yes, they are white. They do descend from Shem. In the main, the author has selected the descendants from Shem’s sons Lud, Elam in part, Asshur and Aram in part, as well as a handful from Arphaxad in Eastern Europe. The exception above is the true Arab who descends from Mizra and Ham. It was white peoples living in the Caucasus Mountain area that were classified as Caucasian; not the Armenians or Georgians specifically, who came to dwell later. The Iranian Persians are Lud and not the original Persians from Elam, as we have studied [refer Chapter XVIII, Elam].

‘(2) What is the actual basis for such a notion of a “white race” in history?’

Again, a resounding yes. Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support the Bible record – of a major three way split as evidenced by Noah’s sons and the sixteen lines of variation represented by Noah’s grandsons – and provide the scientific data, for all those with a stubborn, ‘prove it to me with scientific facts only, and not all this Bible nonsense.’ [refer Chapter I Noah] 

The author’s use of the word notion three times is insightful as notion means: a general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something, an opinion, view, or belief, a fanciful or foolish idea; whim. The reality of the peoples of the earth being all one blood and from one source, yet each possessing a variety of physical, mental and emotional characteristics, is so much more than a notion.

1 Corinthians 3:18-20

New Century Version

18 Do not fool yourselves. If you think you are wise in this world, you should become a fool so that you can become truly wise, 19 because the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God

It is written in the Scriptures, “He catches those who are wise in their own clever traps.” 20 It is also written in the Scriptures, “The Lord knows what wise people think. He knows their thoughts are just a puff of wind.”

‘ Same questions as above, repeated. How did some of these groups get to be members of “the white race.” while others did not? Who decided, and why? And finally,

(3) Has this notion done more good or harm?

I leave these questions open, to encourage reflection. ‘

The constant reader knows the supreme Creator in His wisdom separated the races for His purpose. The powers that be, have separated peoples according to their self-serving agenda and yes, created more harm than good.

The Creator planned the different races. The Creator must be racist? The Creator chose to work more closely with one family. The Creator must be playing favourites? If both are true… deal with it. Or, if both are not true, then why do people think they are wiser than the Creator? 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, pages 224-225, emphasis his, bold mine:

‘… Benjamin Disraeli… [British] prime minister… was a Christianised Jew whose writings on race are so profound that they are today largely ignored by politically correct present-day historians. In his book Tancred… 1868, Disraeli wrote: “All is race – there is no other truth”… and in his book Endymion… he wrote: “No man will treat with indifference the principle of race. It is the key to history and why history is so often confused is that it has been written by men who were ignorant of this principle and all the knowledge it involves… Language and religion do not make a race – there is only one thing which makes a race, and that is blood”…’

In academic and scientific fields of research whether private or public, the key for support is monetary funding, sponsorship and donations. Hence, in the main there is pressure to only research, publish findings and to teach that which follows a curriculum or agenda as per the ones holding the purse strings. Independent research is thus few or far between or most often non-existent. 

Ellis Silver, pages 258-259 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Scientists [Anthropologists, ethnologists, geneticists, theologians, ministers] joining an organization have to follow their managers’ orders. Those managers will have been through the same school of indoctrination, and probably additional levels of it too. So they know what’s at stake [if] they try to investigate something that’s even slightly outside the mainstream. The penalties include:

  • loss of credibility
  • loss of funding
  • loss of tenure
  • ridicule from their peers
  • refusal by their peers to review their work
  • refusal by mainstream publications to review or publish their work

As a result, mainstream scientists refuse to have anything to do with these things, even if you provide them with irrefutable evidence. They don’t want to be associated with it. They see it as potentially career-damaging, and, as we’ve seen, they label it “pseudoscience” or “yet another stupid hoax” to emphasize their dismissal of it, usually without even looking at it. Another problem with scientific teaching [doctrinal belief] is that it follows a single, rigid pathway [creed]. Anything that isn’t on that pathway “can’t possibly be true.”’

The reason this work and its findings, has been collated together and why many could and would, not. Though in so doing, this writer has unintentionally and reluctantly, become a contrarian and an iconoclast. 

‘Contrarian: a person who takes an opposing view, especially one who rejects the majority opinion.

Iconoclast: a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition. A breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration.’

Lloyd Pye, pages 64-65 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘[There is] resistance to change within any status quo of the mainstream scientific [and scholarly] community. Truth has nothing to do with it; proof has even less to do with it than truth; and forget logic – logic is wasted on people with a sharp axe to grind. 

What counts in such disputes is usually about 50 years, two generations, which have to retire before any controversial new reality will be fully accepted. First is the status quo crowd at the time of discovery [or proposal]. They reject it because to them it means three very bad things:

  1. being wrong on a major issue;
  2. having to rewrite a large portion of their purview; and
  3. a ripple effect of doubt cast on everything else they have achieved or profess to know.

The next generation spawns two groups: those who cling to the old status quo, and those who accept the new reality. As a whole they never fully embrace it, but they produce enough converts to grant it limited acceptance, allowing it to be openly supported without committing career suicide. 

The converts then teach their views to the next generation, and when they take over they see to it that what had been a “heresy” is accepted wisdom. It always requires time, but time and the truth invariably win out. 

For as harsh as criticism is toward dissent from outside the scientific [or the historic research] establishment, dissent from within [identity adherents] is often worse.’

Why it may take decades for this work to be even remotely valued or viewed as credible. And, how long for any would be detractors or academic intelligentsia in desisting from impugning or assailing the material contained herein. It is of little consequence; they will not inherit the last word, but ultimately the truth and those precious souls that embrace it will. If this work impacts only a handful of people, or even just finds one – you; it will have been worth every hour of the thousands invested over the past thirty years. 

1 Kings 19:18 

Complete Jewish Bible

“… Still, I will spare seven thousand in Israel, every knee that hasn’t bent down before Ba’al…” 

Luke 12:32 

Common English Bible

“[and] little flock… your Father delights in giving you the kingdom.” 

Treasured reader, you have in your hands a seminal work. Not because of its author or writing; rather for its profound revelation, submitted humbly and solemnly. When we read to the end of the book that is called the Holy Bible; right through to the last chapter and on the very final page, it is the aspirants of truth and the followers of Him who declares it, that win…

Revelation 22:14-15

New Century Version

“Blessed are those who wash their robes so that they will receive the right to eat the fruit from the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Outside the city are the evil people, those who… love lies and tell lies.

Dedicated with heartfelt encouragement and admiration to those faithful and true sojourners some three centuries hence; who will complete the good work of the way to the One who gives life eternal and whom will value what is yet concealed herein, for today’s generation will not; for they look, but do not see, read, but do not comprehend, listen, but do not hear.

… “Go, and say to this people:

“‘Keep on hearing, but do not understand; keep on seeing, but do not perceive.’ Make the heart of this people dull, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed.”

Isaiah 6:9–10 ESV

“The dogmas of the quiet past, are inadequate to the stormy present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must rise – with the occasion. As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.”

Abraham Lincoln [1809-1865]

“About the times of the End, a body of men will be raised up who will turn their attention to the prophecies, and insist upon their literal interpretation, in the midst of much clamor and opposition.”

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

“… To the righteous and the wise shall be given books of joy, of integrity, and of great wisdom. To them shall books be given, in which they shall believe… and all the righteous shall be rewarded, who from these shall acquire the knowledge of every upright path.”

Book of Enoch 104:10-11

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings

Chapter XIX

The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam, is Enmebaragsei, the penultimate king of the first Dynasty of Kish who reigned over much of Sumer, possibly as late as circa 2615 to 2600 BCE. The Sumerian King List says he reigned nine hundred years [divide by 60 unconventional chronology derives 15 years]. Enmebaragesi is a key figure as he bridges the divide between myth and history. He is the earliest ruler to be evidenced directly from archaeology. Four inscriptions have been found with his name. En is an honorary title and not part of his original name. Me means ‘crown’, bara means ‘ruler’ and si ‘to fill’.

Enmebaragsei fought a successful campaign against Elam, capturing Uruk, confiscating their weapons and imposing his kingship – he “who made the land of Elam submit.” He preceded the Old Elamite period dated circa 2600 to 1500 BCE, which broadly incorporates three main dynasties from approximately the end of his reign. The Awan I & II era circa 2600 – 2300 BCE and 2300 – 1930 BCE consecutively, the Shimashki [Simaski] era circa 1955 – 1840 BCE and the Sukkalmah era circa 1840 – 1500 BCE. It is the end of the 1st dynasty and the beginning of the 2nd with which we are primarily interested.

The Awan or Avan II dynasty was contemporary with the Mesopotamian emperor Sargon I or the Great of Akkad, reigning from 2224 to 2169 BCE. He defeated the 12th Awan king Luh-Ishshan circa 2194 – 2169 BCE and subjugated Susa. Historical sources concerning Elam now become more frequent, as the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in their resources, such as wood, stone and metal from the Iranian plateau; thereby encouraging more frequent military excursions to the region. 

Though the foreign Guti Dynasty [refer Chapter XXIII Aram] had been ruling in Sumer since 2088 BCE, it was in 2039 BCE that Akkad fell to the Gutians and with it, the final and 11th king of the Dynasty of Akkad – Shu-Dural or Shu-Tural – was ended. The Gutium also spoke an agglutinative language isolate like Sumer and Elam. The Gutian’s ruled Sumer and Elam until 1991 BCE. The last king of nineteen, Tirigan, had only reigned for 40 days, when Utu-hengal [1995 – 1988 BCE] of the 5th Dynasty of Uruk defeated him, thus ending the Gutian Dynasty. 

Now, Utu-Hengal was the father of Ur-Namma the 1st King of the Ur III Dynasty [1988 – 1970 BCE] and he in turn is the father of King Shulgi [1970 – 1924 BCE]. 

These names are mentioned as there is a lot more to say about Ur-Namma as we progress, who was concurrent with King Kutik-Inshushinak of Elam the next to last king before Chedorlaomer; as well as Shulgi the 2nd King of Ur, who was a contemporary of the Elamite King Chedorlaomer, as well as the Patriarch Abraham.

Elam declared independence under the supposedly last and 17th Awan king, Kutik-Inshushinak or Puzur-Insusinak who reigned from 1980 to 1955 BCE, throwing off the Akkadian language and promoting the Linear Elamite script in the process. Kutik-Inshushinak conquered the future principal Elamite cities of Susa and Anshan. The Shimashki dynasty arose at the tail end of the Awan Dynasties as there is an unnamed king from 1955 to 1930 BCE, so that there was a crossover of some twenty-five years. Elam endured continual threat of attacks from the Sumerians and the Gutians. The Elamite empire state of Shimashki at this time extended into northern Iran and as far as the Caspian Sea. 

A century later in 1882 BCE, the Elamites allied with the city of Susa and led by their king Kindattu or Kindadu [1892 – 1872 BCE], the 10th king of the Shimashki Dynasty sacked Ur in Sumer with the first Akkadian King of Isin [Issn], Ishbi-Erra [1895 – 1862 BCE] and defeated the 5th and final king of the Ur III Dynasty, the great grandson of Shulgi, Ibbi-Suen who reigned twenty-four years beginning 1906 BCE.

The succeeding Sukkalmah dynasty [1840 – 1500 BCE], is so named after the ‘Great or Grand regents’, the title borne by Elamite rulers. It was also called the Epartid dynasty after the name of its founder Eparti II – Ebarti or Ebarat who reigned circa 1840 – 1820 BCE – and was concurrent with the Old Assyrian Empire and the Old Babylon period in Mesopotamia. Eparti II was a contemporary of Iddin-Dagan, 1842 to 1822 BCE – the grandson of Ishbi-Erra and 3rd King of the Isin Dynasty in Akkad – marrying his daughter. 

A ruler named Silhaha – or Shilkhakha, 1820 to 1800 BCE – who described himself as ‘the chosen son of Ebarti’ is also credited as the founder of the dynasty. Ebarti II appears as the founder of the dynasty according to building inscriptions, but later kings, refer to the second ruler Silhaha, Eparti’s son, in their filiation claims. Possibly, Silhaha won out over a brother; as there was an Eparti III before Shilhaha. Both their names as the founding members of the Sukkalmah Dynasty, have been found on the Gunagi silver vessels, inscribed in the Linear Elamite script. The Gunagi vessels were discovered only recently in 2004.

Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include the 12th king Siruk-tuh 0r Shirukduh circa 1660 to 1640 BCE, who entered various military coalitions to contain the power of the southern Mesopotamian states; 14th ruler and a son of Siruk-tuh, Siwe-Palar-hupak [circa 1615 – 1595 BCE], who for some time was the most powerful ruler in the region, respectfully addressed as ‘Father’ by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimri-Lim of Mari.

The 16th king Kutir-Nahhunte I – Kedor-nakhunta, circa 1560 to 1530 BCE, exacted revenge and plundered the temples of southern Mesopotamia, as the north was under the control of the Old Assyrian Empire. In fact, Kutir-Nahhunte dealt so serious a defeat to the Babylonians that the event was remembered nearly one thousand years later in an inscription of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, when he conquered Susa in 660 BCE. 

Trade between the Indus Valley Civilisation and the cities of Mesopotamia and Elam have been deduced from numerous Indus artifacts; particularly in excavations in Susa, showing the origination of the post-diluvian society in the east and the subsequent migration west to the plains of Mesopotamia. Objects made with shell species that are characteristic of the Indus coast, such as Trubinella Pyrum and Fasciolaria Trapezium, have been found in the archaeological sites of Mesopotamia and Susa dated circa 2500 – 2000 BCE. Carnelian beads from the Indus were found in Susa in the tell of the citadel excavation.Exchanges seem to have waned after 1900 BCE, with the eventual demise of the Indus valley civilisation. 

It is to this backdrop that we read of an extraordinary account in Genesis chapter fourteen. For a Biblical account, it is remarkably detailed and it comprises two parts. A war between a confederacy of Southern Mesopotamian kings against vassal Canaanite kings to the southwest, which we will look at now and an amazing rescue operation of Lot by the patriarch Abraham which we will study later in Chapter XXVII Moab & Ammon.

Genesis 14:1-11

English Standard Version

In the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim [or Nations], 2 these kings made war with 

Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). 

3 And all these joined forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea) [the north of the present day Dead Sea]. 

Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled [1907-1895 BCE]. 

5 In the fourteenth year [1894 BCE] Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, 

6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir as far as El-paran on the border of the wilderness. 7 Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh) and defeated all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who were dwelling in Hazazon-tamar.

8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out, and they joined battle in the Valley of Siddim 9 with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of Goiim, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar, four kings against five. 10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of bitumen pits, and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, some fell into them, and the rest fled to the hill country [Seir]. 

11 So the enemy took all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their provisions, and went their way.

The five kings of the Plain, happen to represent the exact same five cities that the Angels of the Lord came to destroy sixteen years later and in the process, dramatically rescue Abraham’s nephew Lot, for the second time in his life. The references to the Repha-im, Zuz-im and Em-im are all clans of Nephilim offspring. In fact, the Horites and Amalekites are also included with these mysterious tribes. We will discuss these peoples in depth in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and Chapter XXXIX Esau.

Though Chedorlaomer I of Elam is listed third – he is placed first in verse nine – Chedorlaomer is the leader of the northern confederacy. The only king not stated is that of Bela [Zoar]. This city and its people were the only one of the five that were not destroyed in the Creator’s wrath during the time of Lot. 

The timeframe is particularly critical, as this battle would need to have taken place between Abraham’s birth in 1977 BCE and his death in 1802 BCE. This would align with the end of the Awan II Dynasty and beginning of the Shimashki.

Head of Chedorlaomer [Height 34.3 cm] in Arsenical Copper from Iran [circa 2000 BCE]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1947

Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary defines Chedorlaomer as: a roundness of a sheaf. Smith’s Bible Dictionary as: a handful of sheaves. The full name Chedorlaomer, is not known outside the Bible, although the name is genuinely Elamite. It is composed of two elements, which do appear separately in Elamite sources. ‘Laomer’ is apparently a divine name whose Elamite form is Lagamar. ‘Chedor’ is derived from the Elamite Katir or Kutir, meaning ‘servant.’ We have seen its use in the name of the 16th Sukkalmah Dynasty King Kutir-Nahhunte. The name could also mean ‘servant of the god Lagamar.’

Easton’s Bible Dictionary – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignty over Syria and Palestine. The most famous king of the dynasty was Khammu-rabi [Hammurabi],who united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne [1894 BCE UC], the country was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). 

The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku (“the servant of the moon-god”), the son of an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabug [or Durmah-ilani] who is entitled “the father of the land of the Amorites.” 

A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar (“the servant of the goddess Lagamar”) or Chedorlaomer,Eri-Aku or Arioch, and Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia.’

After the Valley of Siddim campaign, Hammurabi – Amraphel, King of Shinar and – King of Babylon chose to go against his three former allies and circa 1893 BCE he also rebelled. We have the four Northern kings confirmed as well as a credible time frame for events. I propose Hammurabi was born in 1912 BCE UC [unconventional chronology] and ascended the Babylonian throne in 1894 BCE, at the age of 18, after the abdication of the 5th king of the Amorite Dynasty, his father Sin-Muballit, who ruled for nineteen years from 1913 BCE. 

There is fevered debate over when Hammurabi of Babylon lived. This is convenient for scholars, in that it neatly throws a spanner in the works for conclusively supporting the Biblical account as accurate. Hammurabi is a colourful and prominent king in ancient history and thus for detractors it is problematic to have such a clear sign of the authenticity of the Biblical account; which in turn underpins the veracity of the existence of Abraham and his nephew Lot, who both fathered peoples who are key modern nations today.

An excellent paper: Abraham and Chedorlaomer Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence by Gérard Gertoux, provides comprehensive research in presenting the evidence for Chedorlaomer’s identity and his place as a legitimate historical figure. Where we firstly and slightly disagree, is in the chronology by sixty years; for he has I presume, dated the Exodus in the early sixteenth century, circa 1507 BCE as opposed to the middle of the fifteenth century in 1446 BCE [UC]. Secondly, he has adopted the most recent academic opinion regarding the time frame for Hammurabi’s rule, some 200-150 years later than I suggest under the unconventional chronology. He says, bold mine:

‘The only way to assess the veracity (historical truth) of this event is by determining its exact chronology (“the backbone of history”). Foremost one should know that until now Babylonian chronology, which is the best known, has not been yet fixed since Oppert (1863) made the start of the reign of Hammurabi in 2394 BCE, Thureau-Dangin (1927) lowered this date to 2003 BCE and Gasche proposed (1998) lowering it again to 1696 BCE. Hammurabi has rejuvenated about 700 years during the 20th century!

When T.G. Pinches (1856-1934), lecturer in Assyriology at University College, London and at the University of Liverpool, published the Spartoli tablets he made a link between the biblical names: Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal (Genesis 14:1) and Hammurabi, Eri-e-Aku, Kudur-lahgamal and Tudḫula.Unfortunately this deduction has three major errors: 1) Hammurabi (1697-1654) reigned three centuries after the events, 2) his name is very different from that of Amraphel and 3) the reading “laḫ” of the sign KU [for Chedorlaomer] is not documented.’ 

These three reasons are flimsy at best and are really no more than excuses. The dating conflict regarding Hammurabi’s timeline, means it has to be reconciled with other documents to understand when he truly lived. As we will find that Hammurabi was indeed a contemporary of Chedorlaoamer, Arioch and Tidal, it is fitting to parallel his timeline with them. This then resolves the dates for Hammurabi’s life.

Some scholars have made the connecting link between the names Hammurabi and Amraphel. That aside, it is not unusual for people and places to have more than one name. Amraphel may have been his given name. As he was only eighteen when he ascended the Babylonian throne after Sin-Muballit and then ruled for a lengthy forty-two years. A new name may have been chosen as monarchs have done up until our recent history. The Bible possibly records his name as Amraphel as he had just ascended the throne and was in his very first year of his reign. An accurate record, no less than his being subsequently known after his exploits as Hammurabi and recorded as such in future histories.

Etymology shows the lah is actually part of Chedorlaomor’s name, though regardless, the Kudur-…gamal is still strong evidence for the correlation with his identity. Gertoux mixes Akkadian and Elamite together, to show the kudur is Akkadian and la(h)gamal is Elamite. The Akkadian actually says: kudur-lagamar and the Elamite says: kutir-lagamol. The Greek Septuagint refers to him as Chodol-logomor and it is synonymous with the aforementioned as well as the Hebrew name: Kdorla’omer.

Gérard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

Ku-du7-[ur-La-ga-mar] (line 13) reigned 36 years (line 14) over Akkad as king of Awan I (Elam). King List WB 444 (Weld-Blundell Prism) dated c. 1800 B.C. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (number: AN1923.44). Kudur-Lagamar’s name is located in a part of the prism which is unfortunately very damaged but three important data have been preserved: a mighty king of Elam at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE, whose name was Kudu[-], died without a successor. 

A chronological reconstruction based on synchronisms shows that among the dynasties from Sumerian lists the third and last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar.’ 

‘The three Elamite kings of the dynasty of Awan I (Puzur-Insusinak [Kutik-Insusinak 1980 – 1955 BC], [-]-lu [1955 – 1930 BC], Kudur-Lagamar [1929 – 1893 BC]) were regarded as genuine kings of Akkad in parallel with the Sumerian kings of the dynasty of Ur III (Ur-Nammu, Sulgi). Besides they used Akkadian in their writings, in place of Elamite, and they quoted Mesopotamian gods rather than their Elamite divinities.’

The Northern kings listing in Genesis fourteen verse one could be geographical in orientation, as Larsa is south of Babylon and Elam is south of Ellasar. Some researchers believe Tidal, King of Nations refers to a very northwesterly position and the peoples of Hatti, or later the Hittites in Anatolia. This would not fit with the cluster of powers in lower Mesopotamia. Nor would assigning all four kings as Assyrian kings as at least one researcher has proposed. I believe the Gutians, to the direct north of Elam and northeast of Shinar are the fourth power in the alliance. We will look at the Gutium in more detail when we study Shem’s fifth son Aram in Chapter XXIII. 

The three main regions of Shem’s children in Mesopotamia were the states of Assyria, then the Land of Shinar and thirdly, Elam. As we have learned, the land of Shinar was split into north and south. The north was known as Akkad – Akkadia or Accadia – and in time as Babylonia after its main city and the south was known as Sumer. These two regions within Shinar, were the combined offspring of Shem’s son Arphaxad. 

Arphaxad had two great grandsons, Peleg and Joktan. These two sons of Eber were the forefathers of a major split in the family line which we will study – and are confirmed in the super sub-Haplogroup split of R1 into R1a and R1b. I believe there is good reason to consider Peleg’s descendents comprised the northern territory of Akkad and Joktan’s children were located in Sumer. This would explain why two separate, yet closely related cultures arose though still under the banner of the Land of Shinar. Today, the same scenario has occurred with two distinct, yet adjacent regions of eastern and western nations within Europe.

In the British Museum there are artefacts mentioning three of the four northern kings at the Battle of the Valley of Siddim. The first two accounts record Chedorlaomer leading a rebellion with Tidal and Arioch’s son Dursrilani, a co-regent perhaps, against the king of Shinar at Babel circa 1929 to 1909 BCE, prior to the Valley of Siddim battle in 1894 BCE. The unnamed king of Shinar then strikes back. This king would have been from the Amorite Dynasty, the same as Hammurabi, the 6th king. The two possible kings are the 4th king, Apil-Sin [1930-1913 BCE] or the 5th king, Sin-Muballit* [1913 – 1894 BCE]. Each are viable as Apil-Sin is Hammurabi’s grandfather and Sin-Muballit, his father. A clear and reasonable motive for Hammurabi’s later actions against Chedorlaomer, suddenly becomes apparent – revenge.

The first artifact is British Museum #BM 35404 – sp II.987 and it says: 

“The property and the possessions of Babylon, small and great, in their faithful counsel to Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], king of the land of Elam”… I am a King, the son of a king… the son of a daughter of the king who on the throne of dominion have sat… 

Dur-sir-ilani the son of Arioch [Eri-ekua] who with the spoil of the throne of dominion sat, and with the sword was killed.”

The second artifact is British Museum #BM 34062 – sp.158 & SPII.962 and states that  Chedorlaomer the king of the Elamites, turned against the king of Shinar and attacked his cities at Babil and Borsippa:

“The enemy, the Elamite, multiplied evils against Bel and Babil [Babel] which he planned evil against… there he set his mind on destroying the temple… the enemy, the Elamite, took its goods… He decreed it’s destruction… he showed his dislike for and barred the people of Bel of Ezida… the road to Sumer. Who is this Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], the maker of this evil? He has also gathered the Unman-Manda, and the people of Bel he has ruined… the Elamite caused his yoke to be directed down to Borsippa. He set his face against and he traversed also the road of darkness, the road to Mesku. This wicked man the Elamite, destroyed its palace, the princes he subdued with the sword, and from all the temples he carried off their goods as spoils of war, and he took them back to Elam.”

Notice Babylon is referred to as its original name of Babel – prior to the Tower of Babel incident. Chedorlaomer was a formidable opponent and had subdued a future threat in Babylon and the king – either Hammurabi’s father or grandfather – before amalgamating the states into a powerful coalition. 

Abraham and Chedorlaomer Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gérard Gertoux adds:

‘The Spartoli tablets (c. 650 BCE) describe [the] famous attack of Babylonia by a coalition of evil kings named Kudur-KUKUmal, [ku.ku means: carrying no mercy]king of Elam, Tudhula, king of Gutium,and Eri-Aku [king of Larsa]. This coalition of kings (Sumer, Larsa, Gutium) united under Kutur-Lagamar is quite likely, because all these kings were vassals or allies of the king of Elam (and Akkad) at that time, moreover, they came from neighbouring regions. Chedorlaomer’s route and the description of his actions show that this king came to this region near Egypt in order to maintain control over this new land trade route. 

This ambitious project had to have worried Amenemhat I (1975-1946) because southern Canaan was a big source of supply. In order to protect Egypt, Amenemhat I built the “Walls of the Ruler”. One can notice that the area of Sodom is called Sutu(m) in execration texts (then Moab after 1800 BCE) [Moab as a son of Lot, lived where Lot had previously dwelt]. 

Thus the kings of Sumer [Ur] were oppressed on two occasions: once by Kudu[Lagamar] [1909 BCE]* king of Awan, and once by Kindadu [1882 BCE], king of Simaski. These two kings of Elam left a bad unforgettable memory in Sumerian annals. After the destruction of Ur the kings of Elam were blackened because they were charged with all misfortunes that occurred in the land of Sumer.’

The Pharaoh mentioned by Gertoux, Amenemhat I [1677-1647 BCE], was actually a Pharaoh while Joseph and the other sons of Jacob were living in Goshen, the Nile delta region in Lower Egypt – some three hundred years after Gertoux’s orthodox, though inaccurate dating. The wall he built was to the east of the delta region, to protect the eastern Egyptian frontier from the inhabitants of the Sinai Peninsula. As relations with the Israelites were still favourable at this time, it would seem a benevolent act and not an insidious one to contain the prospering sons of Jacob within Egypt’s boundary; though this cannot be ruled out as a partial motive. There is only one possible Pharaoh who ruled between 1929 – the ascension of Chedorlaomer to the Elamite throne – and 1907 BCE, the first year of enforced tribute of the Transjordan City-States, that would have been concerned with the growing strength of Chedorlaomer. 

The 3rd Pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty Djer, was the the son of Hor-Aha. Prominent during Djer’s reign was his grandmother, Queen Neithhotep. Cemetery evidence confirms that she lived during the reign of Hor-Aha and succeeded him into Djer’s rule. Neithoptep had been the wife of the 1st Pharaoh, Narmer also known as Menes. The First Dynasty of Egypt is incorrectly dated as beginning circa 3100 BCE. We will return to the dating and accurate sequencing of the Egyptian dynasties in the unconventional chronology. Djer ruled Lower and Upper Egypt from 1922 BCE for fifty-four years until 1868 BCE. What is interesting about this Pharaoh is that it was Djer, that met Abraham and Sarah in 1902 BCE, during the 20th year of his reign while there was a famine in Canaan. We will return to this story in Genesis chapter twelve, when we study Abraham in Chapter XXVII

The third artifact is British Museum #BM 35496 – sp III.2. A new king of Shinar [Akkad] , namely Hammurabi [Amraphel] attacks Dursirilani, Tidal and Chedorlaomer:

“Samas [Babylonian sun god] the illuminator of… Merodach [chief Babylonian god]… the rulers who were not nourishing… he caused to be slain. Dur-sir-ilani, the son of Arioch [Eri-ekua]…his goods he carried off to the waters of Babylon and back to the temple of Esaggil… his son, with the weapon of his hands, like a lamb he was slaughtered… the child he cut off… Tidal [Tu-ud-hul-amar] son of Gazza… his goods he carried off to the waters of Babylon and to the temple of Esaggil… 

His son, with the weapon of his hands, fell upon him… of his dominion, before the temple of Annunit… Elam, the city of Ahhe to the land of Rabbatu, he spoiled in ruins, he set the fortress of Akkad, the whole of Borsippa…ended Chedorlaomer [Ku-der-lah-ga-mal], his son, and with the steel sword he pierced his heart… his enemy. He took the will of these kings, the lords of sin… their rebellions… who the chief of the gods, Merodach, brought his anger against.”

This was a series of bloodbath battles over a number of years imposed by the king of Shinar, violently slaughtering the other three kings and their families and in the process… ending three separate dynasties. The artefacts confirm the names of Dursirilani, Tidal, and Chedorlaomer. Possibly, Arioch was the one kingly casualty in Abraham’s raid and this is why his son, Dursirilani is listed as king of Ellasar [Larsa] at the time of Hammurabi’s betrayal and revenge. Alternatively, Dursirilani is a co-regnt with his father Arioch.

It was after the Battle of the Valley of Siddim that Hammurabi rebelled and slaughtered his once allies, now enemies, beginning in 1893 BCE. It may now explain why Amraphel is listed first in the Genesis account. Ultimately, he killed his three rivals, powerful rulers of southern Mesopotamia and as the King of Babylon and Akkad, added the kingship of Sumer while subjugating both the lands of Elam and the Gutium.

Regarding Chedorlaomer, the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, on British Museum Sp. II 987 and Sp. III, 2: 

‘… refers to the bond of heaven extended to the four regions, and the fame which Merodach set for the Elamites in Babylon, the city of his glory. So the gods, in their faithful or everlasting counsel, decreed to Kudur-lahgumal, king of Elam their favor. He came down, and performed what was good to them, and exercised dominion in Babylon, the city of Kar-Dunias (Babylonia). When in power, however, he acted in a way which did not please the Babylonians… [between 1929 – 1894 BCE].

The less perfect fragment (Sp. III, 2) contains, near the beginning, the word hammu, and if this be, as Professor F. Hommel has suggested, part of the name Hammurabi (Amraphel), it would in all probability place the identification of Kudur-lahgumal with Chedorlaomer beyond a doubt.’

This would cement an already compelling argument for the veracity of the king of Shinar’s identity being Hammurabi, who as Amraphel was a contemporary of and briefly allied – when he came to the throne in 1894 BCE – with Chedorlaomer and then in turn, rebelled against Chedorlaomer, killing him in 1893 BCE for the humiliation perpetrated against probably his father, Sin-Muballit or possibly his grandfather, Apil-Sin.

Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire, Dr Joshua J Mark, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Hammurabi (also known as Khammurabi and Ammurapi… assumed the throne… and expanded the kingdom to conquer all of ancient Mesopotamia. The kingdom of Babylon comprised only the cities of Babylon, Kish, Sippar, and Borsippa when Hammurabi came to the throne but, through a succession of military campaigns, careful alliances made and broken when necessary, and political manoeuvres, he held the entire region under Babylonian control by [his death].

According to his own inscriptions, letters and administrative documents from his reign, he sought to improve the lives of those who lived under his rule. He is best known in the modern day for his law code which, although not the earliest code of laws, came to serve as a model for other cultures and is thought to have influenced the laws set down by Hebrew scribes, including those from the biblical Book of Exodus.

The fifth king of the dynasty, Sin-Muballit… successfully completed many public works projects but was unable to expand the kingdom or compete with the rival city of Larsa to the south. Larsa [Ellasar] was the most lucrative trade center on the Persian Gulf and the profits from this trade enriched the city and encouraged expansion so that most of the cities of the south were under Larsa’s control. Sin-Muballit [1913-1894 BCE] led a force against Larsa but was defeated by their king Rim Sin I [1924-1865 BCE]. At this point it is uncertain what exactly happened, but it seems that Sin-Muballit was compelled to abdicate in favor of his son Hammurabi. Whether Rim Sin I thought Hammurabi would be less of a threat to Larsa is also unknown but, if so, he would be proven wrong. 

The historian Durant writes: ‘At the outset of [Babylonian history] stands the powerful figure of Hammurabi, conqueror and lawgiver through a reign of forty-three years. Primeval seals and inscriptions transmit him to us partially – a youth full of fire and genius, a very whirlwind in battle [akin to Alexander the Great], who crushes all rebels, cuts his enemies into pieces, marches over inaccessible mountains, and never loses an engagement. Under him the petty warring states of the lower valley were forced into unity and peace, and disciplined into order and security by an historic code of laws.’

The alliances [Hammurabi] made with other states would repeatedly be broken when the king found it necessary to do so but, as rulers continued to enter into pacts with Hammurabi, it does not seem to have occurred to any of them that he would do the same to them as he had previously to others. 

A technique he seems to have used first in this engagement would become his preferred method in others when circumstances allowed: the damming up of water sources to the city to withhold them from the enemy until surrender or, possibly, withholding the waters through a dam and then releasing them to flood the city before then mounting an attack.’ 

In 1866 BCE, the undefeated Hammurabi had turned against Rim-Sin I because he had refused to support Hammurabi in his ongoing war against Elam despite pledging troops. Hammurabi with extra troops from Mari, attacked Mashkan-shapir located on the northern edge of Rim-Sin’s realm. Hammurabi’s forces reached Larsa with alacrity and after a six-month siege the city of Larsa fell. Rim-Sin I escaped the city but was soon found and taken prisoner and died thereafter in 1865 BCE. Rim-Sin I was the 14th and last king of the Larsa Dynasty that had begun in 2128 BCE.

In 1864 BCE Hammurabi defeated a coalition that stood against him comprising Elam, the Gutium and the Marhashi kingdom in Iran. The following year, he defeated Zimri-Lim the King of Mari, an Amorite kingdom northwest of Babylon and his former ally. Hammurabi not only broke his alliance with Zimri-Lim but also for the first and only time, completely destroyed Mari rather than conquering it. Hammurabi would subdue cities, absorb them into his kingdom, repair and improve them. Scholars have debated his reasons and believe Mari’s great wealth was too threatening and too close to Babylon’s designs on being the greatest city in Mesopotamia. After Mari’s destruction, Hammurabi marched on Asshur, took the region of Assyria and finally Eshunna, so that by 1857 BCE – five years before his death at age sixty – he ruled all of Mesopotamia.

‘A popular title applied to Hammurabi in his lifetime was bani matim, ‘builder of the land’, because of the many building projects and canals he ordered constructed throughout the region. Documents from the time attest to the efficacy of Hammurabi’s rule and his sincere desire to improve the lives of the people of Mesopotamia. These letters and administrative works (such as directives for the building of canals, food distribution, beautification and building projects, and legal issues)

His law code is not the first such code in history (though it is often called so) but is certainly the most famous from antiquity prior to the code set down in the biblical books. The Code of Ur-Nammu… which originated with either Ur-Nammu or his son Shulgi of Ur, is the oldest code of laws in the world. Unlike the earlier Code of Ur-Nammu, which imposed fines or penalties of land, Hammurabi’s code epitomized the principle known as Lex Talionis, the law of retributive justice, in which punishment corresponds directly to the crime, better known as the concept of ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’, made famous from the later law code of the Old Testament… 

By [1857 BCE]… Hammurabi was old and sick. In the last years of his life his son, Samsu-Iluna [1852-1815 BCE], had already taken over the responsibilities of the throne and assumed full reign in [1851 BCE]. 

The conquest of Eshnunna had removed a barrier to the east that had buffered the region against incursions by people such as the Hittites and Kassites. Once that barrier was gone, and news of the great king weakening spread, the eastern tribes prepared their armies to invade. 

The vast kingdom Hammurabi had built during his lifetime began to fall apart within a year of his death, and those cities that had been part of vassal states secured their borders and announced their autonomy. None of Hammurabi’s successors could put the kingdom back together again, and first the Hittites… then the Kassites invaded. The Hittites sacked Babylon and the Kassites inhabited and re-named it. The Elamites, who had been so completely defeated by Hammurabi decades before, invaded and carried off the stele of Hammurabi’s Law Code which was discovered at the Elamite city of Susa in 1902 CE.’

Gérard Gertoux summary:

‘Kedor-Lagomer corresponds to Kudur-Lagarma which is an Akkadian transcription of Kutir-Lagamal “bearer (servant) of Lagamal”. According to the biblical text (Genesis 10:10), Shinar was a region south of Mesopotamia composed of at least three major cities: Babylon (Babel), Uruk (Erech) and Aggad (Akkad). In time the name Babylon came to mean the whole of Babylonia (Daniel 1:2). A coalition of kings (Sumer, Larsa, Gutium) united under Kutur-Lagamar is quite likely to be, because all these kings were vassals or allies of the king of Elam, moreover, they came from neighbouring regions. During the period [1988-1894 BCE] the two main actors in the Mesopotamian world were the kings of Ur III and the kings of [late] Awan I [/II and early Shimashki]. 

The power of these two empires [Ur and Elam] depended on trade and therefore control of trade routes. They earned money through vassal kings who levied customs duties on traders passing through their territories and had to pay to their “emperors” for ensuring their security (by means of military force). Kudur-Lagamar probably wanted to create a new major trade route from Susa to Egypt. The route taken by Abraham and that one followed by Chedorlaomer are in agreement with the major communication routes of the time.

In this context, the capture of the goddess Nanaya [in 1909 BCE] served to justify the westward expansionist projects of Kudur-Lagamar. Indeed, change in titulatures confirm his new role of “king of Akkad”. The complete titulature of the kings of Awan I, as the one of Puzur-Insusinak, was as follows: governor (ENSI) of Susa, viceroy (GIR.NITA) of Elam and king (LUGAL) of Awan. 

Abram…at that time… lived in Ur… he must have learned that Chedorlaomer had confiscated the statue of the goddess Nanaya [Inana or Ishtar, a Queen of Heaven]. [As the Assyrian king] Ashurbanipal refers exactly [c. 660 BC] to Ku-du[r-Lagamar], king of Awan I, in Sumerian royal lists and as the Spartoli tablets describe the attack of Babylonia by the king of Elam named Kudur-KUKUmal, this king of Elam must have been Chedorlaomer. 

Prior to [1909 BC] relationships with the kings of Elam remained cordial… From this date Kutur-Lagamar behaves as “King of Akkad” and, in the same way as Sargon of Akkad, he chose to open a new trade route to the west as far as Egypt. Titulary of Ur… kings changed… [from] King of Sumer and Akkad… [to] King of the 4 corners (of Universe) [an indicative title of the later Mede and Persian (Elam) empire], indicating that Akkad was no longer under full control of the king of Ur… 

[In summation]: King Kudur-Lagamar [1929 – 1893 BCE] alias Chedorlaomer, actually existed since he was the third and last king of Awan I, the only Elamite dynasty mentioned in Sumerian lists. His two main actions that have passed to posterity were the capture of Uruk’s goddess (Nanaya) and [the] looting of the city of Sodom.’

The timing of two years – as deduced from Gertoux’s chronology – prior to the beginning of the tribute being exacted on the Canaanite cities in 1907 BCE, means King Chedorlaomer of Elam with his allies, Tudhula, king of the Gutium, and Eri-Aku king of Larsa would have fought both the kings of Babylon [Akkad] and Sumer [Uruk] to gain control of the land of Shinar. This was twenty years after Chedorlaomer came to the throne of Elam and thus gave him ample time to consolidate his power, build his military capability and win or subjugate the necessary allies. 

This means, we now know which king he fought against in Babel; it would have been Hammurabi’s father, Sin-Muballit [1913-1894 BCE] – 5th king of the Amorite Babylonian Dynasty and in Ur, King Shu-Suen [1915-1906 BCE] the grandson of Shulgi, the son of Ur-Nammu – the founder of the Ur III Dynasty. This explains the abdication of Sin-Muballit in favour of his son, Hammurabi who was probably chosen by Chedorlaomer as a puppet king. A role that the young Amraphel spectacularly did not follow.

Hasting’s Dictionary of the Bible, C H W Johns & James Hastings, 1909:

Arioch king of Ellasar was allied with Chedorlaomer in the campaign against the kings of the plain (Genesis 14:1). He has been identified with Rim-sin, king of Larsa, and consequently Ellasar^ is thought to be for al-Larsa, the city of Larsa. Larsa, modern Senkereh in Lower Babylonia on the east bank of the Euphrates, was celebrated for its temple and worship of the sun-god Shamash.’

The meaning of Ellasar is very close to the meaning of Nimrod, who we will study in detail. Ellasar in Hebrew means ‘rebellious God’ or ‘onto rebellion’ from the word ‘el, God or denoting motion toward and the verb sarar, ‘to be rebellious’ or ‘stubborn’, though more in attitude rather than revolt. The city of Ellasar,^ is believed by most scholars to be the same city identified as Larsa. Some place it far north where the Hurrians dwelt, though this would not fit with the cluster of the other three in southern Mesopotamia. Larsa is located southeast of the very ancient city of Erech [Uruk], from which Iraq derives its name and northwest of Ur – where Abraham’s family originated. 

Tudhula of the Gutium [Tidal King of nations] is reputed to have ruled approximately from 1909 – 1864 BCE. Support for these dates, is that Tidal may have come to power due to Chedorlaomer’s politicking and thus as one of his allies, assisted in the defeat of Babylon and Ur in 1909 BCE. Plus, Tidal if still king would have died when Hammurabi defeated his coalition with Elam in 1864 BCE.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘ERI-AKU er-i-a-koo’, e-ri-a-ku’: This is the probable Sumerian reading of the well-known Babylonian name written with the characters for “servant” (Sem wardu or ardu) and the group standing for the Moon-god Sin* (written En-zu = Zu-en), otherwise Aku, the whole meaning “servant of the Moon-god.” This ruler, who was king of Larsa [Ellasar], is generally identified with the Arioch of Genesis 14:9. Eri-Aku belonged to an Elamite family which held the throne of Larsa, a state which, in common with Babylonia itself, acknowledged the suzerainty of Elam… it may be noted, that the expression adda, “father,” probably means simply “administrator.”’

Gérard Gertoux adds:

‘The Akkadian name Warad-Sin, king (LUGAL) of Larsa, is written Eri-Aku (e-ri-a-ku) which is a transcription of the Sumerian name IR-AGA “servant of the lunar disc” translated into Akkadian as (u)-ar-du-a-gu Warad-Agu, an equivalent of Warad-Sin “servant of the Moon* (god)”.’

What is interesting here is that Rim-Sin I was the final king of the Larsa Dynasty [1924-1865 BCE] and he is identified with Arioch of Ellasar or Eri-Aku of Larsa. Yet Gertoux says Warad-Sin is also Eri-Aku, or Arioch. In the king lists, Warad-Sin was the brother of Rim-Sin I and supposedly ruled for twelve years prior to his brother from 1936 to 1924 BCE and as a co-regency with his father, Kudur-Marbuk. Arioch, may then be a family name, a title or even a description.

For we learn more about Eri-Aku in the Targum of Palestine account of Genesis 14:9, in that Eri-Aku was a giant. He was called Arioch due to his great height. Arioch is derived from Arik which means ‘tall among the giants’. Even compared to other giants, Arioch was impressive and intimidating. This is an interesting piece of information, as the Northern confederacy fought against Nephilim descended giants before turning around literally, to go against the five Canaanite kings. 

Picking up the story from Genesis Six Giants website, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Of course, no ancient records exist that tell us how many giants served under Chedorlaomer. He may have had only Arioch, or that towering king plus a few others, or he may have had many such men in his service. In any event, the results of their opening battle with the Jordanian giants clearly show that he commanded a far superior force. Sweeping down the valley, his army quickly laid siege to Ashteroth Karnaim. This chief city of the Rephaim lay in the district of Bashan, about six miles northwest of Edrei. These giants worshipped Astarte, the goddess of the crested* moon. 

They were greatly decimated. Continuing along what the ancients called the King’s Highway, a trade route that ran the entire length of the Trans-jordanian plateau to the Gulf of Aqabah,Chedorlaomer and his confederate kings next fell upon the enormous Zamzummim people at Ham. Some archaeologists identify this city with modern Ham, which is located in eastern Gilead, about four miles south of Irbid. 

After this, the kings from Elam and Mesopotamia attacked and cut off the terrible Emim giants at nearby Shaveh Kiriathaim.These people, described as “great and many and tall,” occupied the land that the Moabites later took.Sodom and Gomorrah, at the [northern] tip of the Salt Sea, stood next in line. They quickly got ready to defend themselves, expecting the worst. But to their amazement the invaders passed them by. Pressing on southward into the rough mountain range of Seir, Chedorlaomer waged war instead against the giant Horites.’  

The land of Canaan was infested with Nephilim descended Elioud and was literally the land of the giants. In verse seven of Genesis chapter fourteen, just after the Horites are mentioned, we read about the defeated Amalekites. 

This shows that the Amalekites existed before Esau had a future grandson called Amalek, some one hundred and twenty years later. Esau was to marry into and live with the Nephilim related Horites. The Amalekites of the Bible are identifiable in secular sources under a different name, which we will study. The link in Genesis fourteen between the Horites and Amalek and then Esau marrying into the Horites and naming a grandson called Amalek is not only, not a coincidence, but rather significant. The Amalekites were also giants and related to the Horites.

‘He also conquered the Negev to eliminate any threat from that quarter. Having thus neutralized all the country round, he finally turned his attention upon the rebellious Sodom and Gomorrah and their neighbors. Giving up whatever security their fortified walls afforded them, “the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) came out,” notes Moses; “and they arrayed for battle against them in the valley of Siddim,against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar – four kings against five.”’

The Book of Jasher 10:25-27, adds regarding these ‘Canaanites’.

25 And four men from the family of Ham went to the land of the plain; these are the names of the four men, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim. 26 And these men built themselves four cities in the land of the plain, and they called the names of their cities after their own names. 27 And they and their children and all belonging to them dwelt in those cities, and they were fruitful and multiplied greatly and dwelt peaceably.

Recall, the original inhabitants of Canaan, were the peoples descended from Canaan – the son of Ham [refer Chapter XII Canaan]. The Nephilim arrived after the Canaanites and dwelt amongst them. The Book of Jasher claims Nimrod was the king of Shinar. We have learned that Hammurabi is undoubtedly the king in question. It is some 5,000 years since Nimrod and the Tower of Babel incident and though longevity was on his side, it would be unlikely he was still living at this time. Such a powerful figure such as he was, he would have been still ruling and making his presence known if alive. His inferred demise points to when the Tower was destroyed.

‘This bold strategy to meet the invaders in the open field was decided by the surrounding treacherous terrain. Many slime pits, dug to obtain pitch or mortar for building, transversed the area.While most English translations simply describe the Valley of Siddim as being “full of slime pits,” the force of the original Hebrew language, according to Speiser, conveys to the reader a picture of “one bitumen pit after another.” The locals were most familiar with the locations of these pits. The invaders were not. They were also accustomed to the foul-smelling, boiling waters on whose surface floated lumps of asphalt or bitumen the size of bulls. 

The enemy, they hoped, would be at least a little disconcerted by the unfamiliar terrain and terrible odor and afraid of falling into the boiling waters. But the pits failed to deter the invaders. Indeed, they soon turned them to their own advantage. In the resulting warfare, many in the defenders’ ranks saw death. Alarmed by the way the battle was progressing against them, the five local kings and their armies panicked and attempted to flee the field. The slime pits, however, made retreat difficult. In the confusion, two of the fleeing kings – and presumedly many men with them – fell into the tar pits. Those who escaped fled into the mountains.

For a time some scholars disbelieved this Genesis story, labeling it a fiction. But evidence dug up by archaeologists in recent years verifies that in Abraham’s time a great destruction came upon the very places mentioned in Chedorlaomer’s invasion. Dr. Nelson Glueck, whose work in this area extended from 1932 until 1947, when it was halted by the Israeli-Arab disturbances, reports that the highly developed civilization which flourished here during the Middle Bronze I period (c. 2100-1900 B.C.) came to an abrupt and savage end [1894 BCE]. 

This well-known archaeologist found that not only the cities mentioned in Genesis but also many villages – beginning with Ashtaroth-Karnaim and proceeding south through Transjordan and the Negev to Kadesh Barnea in the Sinai – were systematically gutted. “From southern Syria to central Sinai, their fury raged,” he writes. “A punitive expedition developed into an orgy of annihilation. I found that every village in their path had been plundered and left in ruins, and the countryside laid waste. The population had been wiped out or led away into captivity. For hundreds of years thereafter, the entire area was like an abandoned cemetery, hideously unkept, with all its monuments shattered and strewn in pieces on the ground.”’

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, Page 148:

‘The power of the invading kings, numbered as 800,000 according to the Haggadah, must have been overwhelming indeed, for they not only crushed these fortified cities but they never were rebuilt and the land remained unoccupied for a thousand years.’ 

Some will always take an opposing view and there will always be those who do not see what is in plain sight, but we have detailed verification of the Biblical account of a devastating war that is documented as historically authentic. The four northern kings are real personages and led the ancient coalition comprising Elam, Akkad, Sumer and Aram. Acadia represented by Peleg and Sumer by Joktan – both from Shem’s son Arphaxad and collectively the land of Shinar – and with Elam and Aram they exacted terrible revenge for disobedience by the southern kings of Ham and the Elioud giants. The modus operandi of devastating destruction rings true, as we have learned how both Chedorlaomer and Hammurabi were both uncompromising in their style of warfare. Possibly, a further reason why Amraphel is listed first; with his blitzkrieg style he likely took the lead in the actual obliteration of the opposition forces and the desolation of their land.

“Look,” says the Teacher, “I have discovered this by adding one thing to another to find out the explanation…”

Ecclesiastes 7:27 Christian Standard Bible

“I would rather be in minority and be right, than in the majority and wrong.” 

Jodi Picoult 

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Lud & Iran

Chapter XVII

The fourth son of Shem is Lud. He is an elusive people in world history and next to impossible to locate by identity researchers and biblical historians. We have discussed the descendants of Phut and of Mizra’s son Lehab intermingling, so that the Bible translation ‘Libya’ applies to both. Commentators have resolutely believed the Lud from Shem and the Lud-im from Mizra are separate peoples. Any references to Lud or ‘Lydia’ have been even more perplexing to the identity hunter in trying to establish which Lud – the one from Ham or the one from Shem? The answer is that Lud, even though primarily descended from Shem, is living nestled within Ham, yet also dwelling beside Shem and Japheth. 

Dr Hoeh continues in Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine:

Shem had a son named Lud (Genesis 10:22). Lud early migrated from the Mesopotamian Valley. We read of Lud only as a trading people in the Old Testament. They play no important part in prophecy, but we ought to know where Lud’s descendants are today.

From the region of Western Mesopotamia, the sons of Lud spread into Western Asia Minor and founded the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. “The Assyrians called Lydia Ludu”, says the International Standard Bible Encylopaedia. From Lydia they spread into Europe. Enroute they gave the name Ludias to a river in Macedonia, north of Greece. Nearby, in Thrace, we find the town of Cabyle. A people of the white race called Cabyle or Kabyle are found in North Africa today!

The Romans found the Lydians spread over much of Italy and along the shores of the Adriatic in early times. They called the Lydians Etruscans and Tuscans. In the little country of Albania (next to Greece) the Tosks live today. The BRITANNICA states that these Albanians are probably “identical with Tuscus [and] Etruscans” of Roman times, who were of Lud(article “Albania”). The Greeks call Albania Arberia, a word akin to Berber or Barbar. Associated with them are the Berbers, or Barbars. The Greeks probably derived the word Barbarian, meaning non-Greek, from the Berbers of Lud whom they met.

Ezekiel 30:5 gives the definite implication that part of Lud is to be found today in North Africa. Various forms of the name “Albania” are common even today in Italy. From Italy we can trace many Lydians to the East, around the Black Sea, where they founded another Kingdom of Albania in the Caucasus. 

According to many historians, “the name [Albania] arose from the alleged fact that the people were the descendants of emigrants from Alba in Italy”, the BRITANNICA states. In the region of the Causasus today dwell many small tribes, related to one another racially, but distinct linguistically. They are not related to any other people in Russia. They are known by a dozen different names. Among these are the Georgians from whom Joseph Stalin came.

The sons of Lud have not become a great people in the world [in part] due to the… geographic areas in which they settled. Isaiah 66:19 describes them today as dwelling among the Latin and Slavic peoples of Europe.’

The descendants of Lud actually play an important role in the future. Understanding their identity reveals they are located in West Asia and therefore not associated with North African, Latin or Slavic peoples. The Albanians have inherited names from previous peoples when they migrated through Southern Europe. Their name Alba-nia does have a close association with the peoples of Alba who passed Albania and Italy en route to ultimately, Alba in Britain. The Albanians were not a people living in the same location for over 2,500 years; thus their name today is inherited not original. 

The Lydian civilisation dwelt in Western Asia Minor and then seemingly disappears from view. We will discover that it was a different people descended from Shem who were the ancient Etruscans. The Etruscans racially and culturally, have much more in common with the Romans and Greeks as well as with the Phoenicians of Carthage [with whom they had an alliance] to indicate any link with Lydia [Lud] to be unlikely. The Georgians though, are a part of Lud.

Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:

Although there is a Semite of the same name, we find that Lud, grandson of Ham, was father of the Ludim. He was also the first-born of Mizraim. The Hebrew word is ludiyiy (SHD 3866), meaning to the firebrands: travailings (BDB). (The descendants of Lud, the fourth son of Shem, were supposedly the Lydians.)’

Recall, the definition for Lehab [Lubim, son of Mizra] in Pakistan, is: ‘flames, to burn.’

The entry in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia is as follows:

“In Genesis 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish. …”

‘In Isaiah 66.19 Lud is mentioned with Tarshish and Pul (generally regarded as a mistake for Phut), Tubal, Javan, and the isles. Accepting this emendation, the passage agrees with Jeremiah 46:9, where the Ludim are spoken of with Kush and Phut as the allies of Egypt; and also with Ezekiel 27:10, where Lud is referred to with Persia and Put… 

Lud, again, is mentioned with Ethiopia (Cush), Put, all the mingled people, Cab, and the children of the land which is in league (or, margin “the land of the covenant”), which were all to fall by the sword (Eze 30:5)…

The existence of Lud in the neighborhood of Egypt as well as in Asia Minor finds parallels in… Assyrian inscriptions… and… certain Assyrian letters relating to horses, by the side of the Cush (Kusu likewise) which stands for Ethiopia.

Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present. 

The reference in Isaiah 66:19 seems to locate the land of Lud in the Mediterranean, whilst Jeremiah (46:9) and Ezekiel (27:10; 30:5) place it squarely in Africa. The likelihood is that it is in North Africa on the Mediterranean shores.

The Lydians in Asia Minor came into contact with the Assyrians and with Egypt in the early Seventh century BCE when their king Gyges sent an embassy to Ashurbanipal in 668 or 660 (Interpretative Dictionary Volume 3, page 179). Their language was not known and they were not really understood until the Persians conquered them in 546 BCE. Mellink (ibid.) considers the Lydians of Asia Minor to be neither Hamitic nor Semitic. However, if they were either it would be Semitic.’

We can see the confusion in trying to separate both Luds. This then causes difficulties in who is who, with one commentator even saying they are neither. The Bible revealed the answer and it has been available all along, waiting to be plainly read and believed.

Ezekiel 30:5

Young’s Literal Translation

Cush, and Phut, and Lud, and all the mixture, and Chub [Lehab], And the sons of the land of the covenant with them by sword do fall…

Lud is associated with India and Pakistan. Pakistan is Phut and Lehab together. Similarly, Lud is a mixture of peoples and thus all mention of Lud, Ludim or Lydia in the Bible relate to the two lines of Lud, together. 

Lud is the nation of Iran. Iran is also known as Persia and the main body of people are called Persian and speak Persian or Farsi. The original Persians once lived in this region and are now identifiable with Elam. Modern Iranians have inherited the name.

The name Ludim is used once in the Bible [also translated as Lydia] as opposed to Lud in other places.

Jeremiah 46.9

Bible in Basic English

Go up, you horses; go rushing on, you carriages of war; go out, you men of war: Cush and Put, gripping the body-cover, and the Ludim, with bent bows.

New English Translation

Go ahead and charge into battle, you horsemen! Drive furiously, you charioteers! Let the soldiers march out into battle, those from Ethiopia and Libya who carry shields,and those from Lydia who are armed with the bow.

The proficiency with bow and arrow may extend to modern warfare. If so, what tends to be thrown or fired now… is missiles.

Statue of Arash the Archer at the Sa’dabad Complex in the capital, Tehran

Isaiah 66.19

New English Translation

19 I will perform a mighty act among them and then send some of those who remain to the nations – to Tarshish [Japan], Pul [Asshur], Lud (known for its archers), Tubal [chief economic sector and driver of China], Javan [Archipelago SE Asia], and to the distant coastlands that have not heard about me or seen my splendor. 

Ezekiel 27:10

New English Translation

Men of Persia [Turkey (Elam)], Lud [Iran], and Put [Pakistan] were in your army, men of war. They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.

We learn that Lud is associated with Cush and Phut and also Elam geographically and militarily. All the verses are connected with warfare. It is not a surprise therefore to connect Lud with the modern militaristic state of Iran. Their relationship with India, Pakistan and Turkey, also now falls into place. The jig-saw is looking a little more complete and hopefully of sense to the reader. Pul, is not a mis-translation of Put [Phut]. We will learn later it is a name of a king – a King of Asshur. The reference is too Assyria and again, Iran has close ties with Russia. 

What is worth noting, from Ezekiel 27:10, is that Elam [Turkey], Lud [Iran] and Phut [Pakistan] are the heart and core of the future Islamic Alliance that is referred to in the Book of Daniel, as the King of the South. Peripheral players in this powerful alliance may well include other major Islamic nations of Egypt [Pathros (Mizra)], Bangladesh [Havilah (Cush)] and Indonesia [Kitti (Javan)].

The Oxford Bible Church article by Derek Walker, provides a good synopsis of Iran, though understandably links Iran with ‘Persia’ [Elam] rather than Lud – emphasis & bold mine:

Ezekiel 38:5 lists Persia as the principal (first mentioned) ally of Magog in the end-time war against Israel [not the state of Israel]. Persia is easy to identify as modern Iran. Iran was called Persia until 1935… then in the 1979 Revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran. Once [Iran] was pro-western and pro-Israel but after Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution, [it] became anti-western, anti-Israel and more within the Russian sphere of influence.

Iran is a predominantly Muslim nation, with a radical fundamentalist leadership. Israel considers Iran as its most dangerous enemy. [Iran] desires to lead the Muslim world, taking centre stage to bring Muslim and Arab nations together against Israel and the USA. [Iran] wants all Muslim nations to devise a common strategy against Israel in the Middle East. Iran is the most extreme of the extremists. Hezbullah is essentially an arm of Iran. Hamas is becoming increasingly dependent on [Iran]. On many occasions [its] leaders have expressed the desire to wipe Israel from the map, which is why there is so much concern that [Iran] is determined to have… nuclear capability. 

[Iran] supports many terrorist groups and could easily pass nuclear weapons to them to use against Israel and the West. That is why sanctions have been applied but Russia has protected Iran from the worst of them, because [it] has many lucrative contracts with [Iran], including helping Iran build its nuclear reactor and selling weapons… 

Russia continues to align [itself] with Israel’s enemies, and the top of this list is Iran, who would not hesitate to join in [an] invasion. 

In order to mount this large-scale invasion, Russia needs Iran as an ally. It would be much more difficult to move a large land army across the Caucasus Mountains bordering Turkey, than the Elburz Mountains bordering Iran. [Iran’s] general terrain is also easier to cross than Turkey’s.’

Map showing the highest population regions and density. Most of Iran’s bigger cities are located in the west of the nation. Iran’s affinity lays more with Turkey and the Arab world, than its eastern neighbours of Pakistan and Afghanistan. 

There are a handful of contender nations for leader of the Muslim world: population wise, Bangladesh and Indonesia; diplomatically wise as in gaining pan-Arab support, Egypt; militarily, Pakistan and critically, ideologically wise, Iran. The last two would appear favourites and Iran has the edge maybe, in religious zealotry and militancy compared with Pakistan. On the fringes because of its ostensibly more western footing is Turkey. How it would fit into an Islamic alliance is not as clear cut. Potential leader can not be ruled out particularly as its economy [19th], though marginally behind Indonesia [16th] and Saudi Arabia [18th], is growing to soon make it the dominant nation of the South.

In the Book of Jasher 7:17, we learn that Lud had two sons: Pethor and Bizayon. The Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari [circa 915 CE] recounts a tradition that the wife of Lud was named Shakbah, a daughter of Japheth and their two sons were Faros and Jurjan. He further states that Lud was the progenitor also of the Amalekites – both a grandson of Esau and a separate people by the same name.

The first son, Far-os is reminiscent of Fars province in Iran. Fars, Pars or Faristan is the state that was once the southern part of the original homeland of Elam. The native name of the Persian language is Farsi or Parsi. Persia and Persian both derive from the Hellenized form of Persis, from the root word Pars. The Old Persian word was Parsaa; while Fars is the Arabicised version of Pars.

The Book of Jubilees 9:6, says that Lud received: “the mountains of Asshur and all appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till it reaches the east of Asshur his brother”. The Ethiopian version specifically reads: “… until it reaches, toward the east, toward his brother Asshur’s portion.” Scholars have associated Lud with the Lubdu of Assyrian sources, who inhabited certain parts of western Media.

Abarim Publications – emphasis and bold mine:

‘The people called Ludim descend from Mizraim… spelled Ludiyim in 1 Chronicles 1:11. But the only person named Lud is a son of Shem. It appears that the only Lud in the Bible and the only Ludim in the Bible have nothing to do with each other; i.e. the Ludim stem from some other, otherwise unmentioned Lud. It may be that there once were two patriarchs named Lud and thus two peoples named Ludim, but that one people and the other patriarch vanished from the story.’

It is incredible that a commentary would head off on such a completely incorrect tangent and therefore, in a mis-leading direction, instead of seeing the simplicity of the obvious answer – that two merged to become one. Some forbearance needs to be given, as in nearly all other instances they have been far and away the best Bible concordance for this project’s requirements and gratefully received. 

‘It’s a mystery what the names Lud and Ludim might mean, although scholars have proposed several possibilities. The name Lydia means From Lud and the name Ahilud may mean Brother Of Lud. It can also be that – as is attested by Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names – in the language where this name came from (Phoenician, says Jones) the ‘d’ and the ‘z’ were pretty much indistinguishable and the name is actually Luz, meaning Turn of Twist, and thus the word by which the crooked almond tree was known.

The word (lwd) simply does not occur in Hebrew. BDB Theological Dictionary and NOBSE Study Bible Name List do not translate. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, slightly more daring, indeed derives (Lud) from (luz), a verb meaning to turn aside, depart: The verb (luz) means to turn aside, [to bend] or away. Noun (lazut) means deviation or crookedness. NOUN (luz) describes almond wood. To a Hebrew audience, perhaps the name Lud rang like it has something to do with the verb (yalad), meaning to beget, bring forth: perhaps Lud… means something like [twisted] Productivity or Emergence.’

I cannot attest to the national character or approach of an Iranian, so do not know if the following is indicative or not. It is not too dissimilar to the definition of a Philistine

Luddite: ‘a member of any of various bands of workers in England (1811–16) organised to destroy manufacturing machinery, under the belief that its use diminished employment. Also: someone who is opposed or resistant to new technologies or technological change.’

The link between Lydia and Iran can be found in the ancient state of Urartu. It received its name from the Assyrians who bordered their land to the south. The Hebrews called them Ararat and like present day Iran [Shahs and Ayatollahs], were synonymous with a prominent ruler that was the focal point of their civilisation. Herodotus called them Alarodians. Urartu was known for its indomitable fighting spirit and development of a high culture. H A B Lynch, remarks that Urartu was “no obscure dynasty which slept secure behind the mountains, but a splendid monarchy which for more than two centuries rivalled the claims of Assyria to the dominion of the ancient world.” Between 860 and 585 BCE, Urartu contested with Assyria for the dominance of western Asia. Its beginnings are supposedly lost in the mists of pre-history, though their identification with Lud and the people of Lydia in western Asia Minor fits their profile and location. 

Lehmann-Haupt proposes they migrated from that direction, citing as proof their ‘metallurgy, architecture and folkways.’ The people were first known as Nairi. 

They were also known as haldians or children of the god [K]haldis. Haldi was portrayed as a man standing on a bull or lion, symbolic of his power. Temples were built in Haldi’s honour, which had distinctive square towers and reinforced corners. The king was known as the ‘servant of Haldi’ and all wars were carried out in his name.

Urartu sphinx statue and Haldi god relief compared to modern Persian symbols of a winged bull and the Golden Lion, found on the Iranian flag prior to 1979

An important deity was Shivani, the Sun god who given his representation with a winged solar disk, was similar to the Egyptian god, Ra. The consort of Haldi was Arubani, the most important female goddess. Sielardi was the moon goddess and Sardi a star goddess. Urartu artwork includes the Tree of Life symbol common to Mesopotamian cultures and is depicted with a figure stood either side making offerings.

The Urartians referred to themselves as Shurele [transliterated as Shurili or Surili]. A name mentioned within the royal titles of the kings of Urartu; the king of Suri-lands. The word Suri has been theorised as originally referring to chariots or swords. The Shur-ili were able warriors like Lud, so this is possible, or it might be related to the word, king or ruler as in Shah.

All Urartu kings took pride in leading their armies into battle. Weapons as shown at temples, included iron and bronze swords, spears, javelins and bows. Lud is associated with archery in the scriptures. The modern Iranians combine religion and warfare as the Shurili Urartians did, who employed heavy shields which had large central bosses decorated with images of mythical creatures such as bulls, and lions. There is also evidence of helmets and metal scale armour, at least worn by the elite. The main adversary was the Neo-Assyrian Empire, though there is evidence of trade between the two as well. As the Assyrians used chariots, possibly the Shurili did as well, particularly as they were adept at horse breeding. Urartu did secure some victories in the mid-eighth century BCE, though Tiglath-Pileser III [745-727 BCE] laid siege to Tushpa and Sargon II [722-705] in 714 BCE had successful campaigns against the Urartu. Other enemies that bordered the Shurili, included the Cimmerians, Scythians and eventually the Medes.

Forty-two inscriptions found at Van in 1842 reveal a unique people and culture. Professor A H Sayce said: ‘a new language and a new people to the museum of the ancient Oriental world’ has been added. The Vannic texts were described as ‘a vanished civilization from the grave.’  War, vandalism and the passing of time has obscured the chance to learn more than fragments of their history.The seat of the Shurili theocratic monarchy [Shah and Ayatollah combined] was Thuspa; capital of the territory called Biaina, later called Van. Tiglath-Pileser I, king of Assyria, asserted that he had conquered twenty-three kings of Nairi in 1114 BCE. These kingdoms must have been quite small within the Shurili empire of Urartu. 

An inscription of the Assyrian king Assurbelkala [1073‑1056 BCE], first includes the name Uruatru. Shalmanaser II [1030‑1019 BCE], claimed the conquest of ‘the entire country of Uruatru’ in three days. Sardur I [844‑828] united into a confederation the different segments of Urartu. Sardur was the son of Lutipris, who had succeeded Arame. He left an inscription in the Assyrian language, calling himself King of Sura, which, according to Professor Albrecht Goetze, ‘is the same as Subaru.’ 

Sardur’s other titles included, ‘Great King,’ and ‘Ruler of Four Regions,’ or Shar-Kishatti, according to Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. Sardur built a fortress of huge stones west of the Rock of Van, and his son and successor Ispuinis, chose that rock as his residence and the holy seat of the god Khaldis.

Ispuinis and his son Menuas built the empire to its height. Under their successive reigns, it extended from the Zagros Mountains in the East to Palu in the North and Malatia in the West. During their rule great works were constructed around Van, including the aqueduct of Shamiram‑Su, which was forty-five miles in length and brought the pure water of the Khoshab River to the eastern shores of Lake Van [whose water is undrinkable], enabling the King Menuas to found there a city in his name. This canal irrigates the plain of Van even to the present time.

Menuas strengthened the great fortification of Melazkert. It was an ideal location for a fortress by a power operating from the southern lowlands and builders of an empire on the Armenian plains. Made more secure by a fleet of ships on the lake and by the fortification of the passes of Mount Varag, the place became of first rate military importance against the hostile forces that lay in Mesopotamia. These factors explain the comparative immunity and rapid development of the empire of the successors of Sardur I, at a time when Assyria was ruled by warlike monarchs. The period of Ispuinis and Menuas is perceived as the the most important and brilliant in Urartean history.

In 758 BCE, after crushing the revolt of the Hatti king of Milidu (Malatia), Sardur III successor of Argistis I, moved southward, putting the Great King of Carchemish [Jarablus] under tribute and captured the whole territory as far as Halpa [Aleppo]. ‘The empire of Assyria was then encircled’ says the Turkish scholar, Professor Shemseddin, ‘as if [in an iron hoop].’ Later Surili rulers possessed the names of Rusas I and Rusas II. An intriguing coincidence as the Shurili were neighbours of the Assyrians, who themselves are later to be known as Rus and then Russians.

The Urartean language has been deemed as neither Semitic nor Indo-European, as efforts to decipher the cuneiform inscriptions through the present day Armenian language have failed. One investigator P Jensen, found a certain similarity between the Urartean language and that in which the letter of King Tushratta of Mitanni [found at Tel-el‑Amarna, Egypt] was written. The name of the god Tesub of the Mitanni closely resembles that of the god Teisbas of Urartu. Another scholar thinks that ancient Urartu had a cultural connection with Asia Minor and Syria; citing the Hurri-Mitanni or Subarean remains in upper Mesopotamia and Syria as having points of resemblance to the characters of the Khaldian inscriptions.

Scholars suggest that ‘there appears to have been a pre-Indo-European substratum of speech which strongly influenced the Indo-European-Armenian’ and that ‘the Aryo-European must have exerted great influence upon the Urartean, even long before the times of the Vannic Empire.’ 

This coincides with modern day Persian, as even though classed as Indo-European and supposedly related to Slavic, Germanic, Romance, Greek and Armenian languages, it is not mutually intelligible with them, for Persian is entirely unique. Shurili artwork has been found outside Urartu – by finding bronze items belonging to the royal household and identifying inscriptions on them – such as in Etruscan tombs in central Italy. 

The flag above is pre-revolution and the flag below post-revolution. 

The symbol in the centre of the flag means: God

A well known online Encyclopedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Iran… is a country in Western Asia with [85,533,945] inhabitants. Its central location in Eurasia and proximity to the Strait of Hormuz give it significant geostrategic importance. Iran is the world’s 17th most populous country. Spanning 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 square miles), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. 

The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Eran, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryan, in reference to the Iranians… recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning “one who assembles (skilfully)”.According to the Iranian mythology, the country’s name comes from the name of Iraj, a legendary prince and shah who was killed by his brothers.

Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persis… meaning “land of the Persians”, while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran that is today defined as Fars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, Iran, effective 22 March that year.Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceable in official state contexts. 

 “Greater Iran” (Iranzamin or Iran e Bozorg)refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Central Asia.

By the 1500s, Ismail I of Ardabil established the Safavid Empire with his capital at Tabriz. Beginning with Azerbaijan he subsequently extended his authority over all of the Iranian territories, and established an intermittent Iranian hegemony over the vast relative regions, reasserting the Iranian identity within large parts of Greater Iran.

Iran was predominantly Sunni, but Ismail instigated a forced conversion to the Shia branch of Islam,spreading throughout the Safavid territories in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. 

As a result, modern-day Iran is the only official Shia nation of the world, with it holding an absolute majority in Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, having there the first and the second highest number of Shia inhabitants by population percentage in the world.Meanwhile, the centuries-long geopolitical and ideological rivalry between Safavid Iran and the neighboring Ottoman Empire [Turkey] led to numerous Ottoman-Iranian wars. 

The Safavid era peaked in the reign of Abbas I (1587–1629)[who reinforced Iran’s military, political and economic power], surpassing their Turkish arch-rivals in strength, and making Iran a leading science and art hub in western Eurasia. The Safavid era saw the start of mass integration from Caucasian populations into new layers of the society of Iran, as well as mass resettlement of them within the heartlands of Iran, playing a pivotal role in the history of Iran for centuries onwards.

The Russo-Iranian wars of 1804-1813 and 1826-1828 resulted in large irrevocable territorial losses for Iran in the Caucasus, (comprising modern-day Dagestan, Georgia [population: 3,989,167], Armenia [population: 2,963,243]and Republic of Azerbaijan [population: 10,139,177]),which made part of the very concept of Iran for centuries,and thus substantial gains for the neighboring Russian Empire… which got confirmed per the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay.

Despite Iran’s neutrality during WW I, the Ottoman, Russian and British empires occupied the territory of western Iran and fought the [P]ersian Campaign before fully withdrawing their forces in 1921. [Britain] directed [the] 1921 Persian coup d’etat and Reza Shah’s establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Shah, became the new Prime Minister of Iran and was declared the new monarch in 1925.

In June 1925, Reza Shah introduced conscription law… At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve [in the] military for two years… [and the] Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in [the] military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period.

The 1979 Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution,began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.’ 

After a year of strikes and demonstrations paralyzing the country and its economy, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi [Reza Shah’s son] fled to the United States, and [Ayatollah, meaning a high ranking Shiite religious authority] Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979, forming a new government. After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979.A second referendum in December 1979 approved a theocratic constitution.

The Leader of the Revolution (“Supreme Leader”) is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.The Iranian president has limited power compared to the Supreme Leader Khamenei.The current longtime Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and everything else in the country.

The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security, and justice. Iran’s syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.

On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, launching the Iran-Iraq War. Although the forces of Saddam Hussein made several early advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian forces successfully managed to drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq. 

In July 1982, with Iraq thrown on the defensive, the regime of Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988 when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.’

Iran’s conflicts with Iraq, Turkey and Russia, reflects the war-like stature of Lud and its militaristic leanings.

‘As of 2009, the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations,but not with the United States, and not with Israel—a state which Iran’s government has derecognized since the 1979 Revolution.Among Muslim nations, Iran has an adversarial relationship with Saudi Arabia due to different political and Islamic ideologies. While Iran is a Shia Islamic Republic, Saudi Arabia is a conservative Sunni monarchy.Regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the government of Iran has recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, after [President] Trump recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.

Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, about 8,756to 25,000Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel.’

This is immensely ironic and we will look into this more closely when we study the State of Israel and the modern Jewish people.

Iran has the world’s second largest proved gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic meters and the third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC’S second largest oil exporter, and is an energy superpower.

The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Iranian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Plastics, plastic articles: US$2.6 billion 
  2. Mineral fuels including oil: $1.9 billion 
  3. Organic chemicals: $1.3 billion 
  4. Fruits, nuts: $1.3 billion 
  5. Iron, steel: $906.9 million 
  6. Copper: $332.6 million 
  7. Ores, slag, ash: $312.9 million 
  8. Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: $258.7 million 
  9. Fertilizers: $247.1 million 
  10. Zinc: $142 million

    Fruits and nuts was the lone grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 11.7% from 2019 to 2020. The leading decliner among Iran’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil, thanks to its -89% drop year over year.

… two-thirds of the population [are] under the age of 25. Iran’s population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to more than 84 million by July 2020.Due to its young population, studies project that the growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes around 105 million by 2050

The Library of Congress issued… estimates [of the Iranian population]: 65% Persians (including Mazenderanis, Gilaks, and the Talysh), 16% Azerbaijanis, 7% Kurds, 6% Lurs, 2% Baloch, 1% Turkic tribal groups (including Qashqai and Turkmens), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups (including Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, and Arabs) less than 3%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country’s population, and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%. 

Other nongovernmental estimates regarding the groups other than Persians and Azerbaijanis are roughly congruent with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress. 

However, many estimates regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census; some place the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran between 21.6 and 30% of the total population, with the majority holding it on 25%.In any case, the largest population of Azerbaijanis* in the world live in Iran [more than in Azerbaijan].’

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Similarly, Quintana-Murci et al. found greater proportions of mtDNA haplogroups N1b, R2, HV2, U7, J2 and T* in northern Iran, whereas M*, N*, R5, B, pre-HV1, U2*, U2e and U3 lineages were higher in the south. A recent study, based on both Y-chromosome and mtDNA analyses, found little to no differences in ethnic groups (Indo–European speakers versus Semitic speakers) residing in close geographical proximity within Iran. Furthermore, another mtDNA investigation led to the conclusion that two Indo-Iranian-speaking Talysh groups from Iran and Azerbaijan, that claim a common ancestry, were genetically similar. 

In the same study, however, Y-chromosomal marker composition was shown to differ considerably between the Iranian and Azerbaijani Talysh, with the Azerbaijan Talysh more closely resembling the Azerbaijan neighbors than its Iranian counterpart. 

Results reported by Regueiro et al. also indicate differential gene flow between northern and southern Iranian groups (divided by the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) not only with respect to the R-M198 mutation, as illustrated by Wells et al., but also with [R1b] R-M269 as well. The same study also reveals significant divergence in the overall Y-haplogroup distributions between northern and southern Iranians as well as between both groups and other spatially separated Iranian populations (the Esfahan of Central Iran reported by Nasidze et al. and Uzbekistan discussed in the study by Wells et al. In spite of these efforts, a consensus has not yet been reached as to the source populations, overall genetic relationships and degree of stratification between different Iranian regions.’

The mtDNA Haplogroups in Iran reveal a divergent north-south divide and in the Y-DNA Haplogroups overall picture it is replicated, so that combined there is a haziness in what are the original Iranian [or Persian] Haplogroups. This is due to the simple fact that there is DNA via Lud from Shem and also via Ludim from Mizra [and Ham] that has intermingled over a very long time. 

‘The Peninsular Arabs partition to the left of above mentioned groups of populations; interestingly, IN (present study) is located within this cluster, specifically close to the Qatar collection. Two other North Iranian populations from the South Caspian region, the Gilaki and Mazandarian, are positioned between Arabian and Levant groups, closest to Saudi Arabia, Oman and Egypt.

In the MDS plot based on mtDNA, the southwest Asian populations are restricted to the left portion of the chart, the majority of which sequester in the lower left quadrant. The Afghanis group with the central Asians in the lower center of the graph is an expected association given that Afghanistan is frequently considered as a part of central Asia. The Balkan Peninsula populations form a tight cluster at the right-most extreme of the lower right quadrant, whereas the populations from the Caucasus, Levant/Anatolia and North Africa conform to a ladder-like pattern that extends from the extreme right center of the chart into the upper right quadrant. 

The central and southern Iranians are close to each other and to the North Africa and Levant/Anatolia assemblages. The Peninsular Arabs partition to the left of above mentioned groups of populations; interestingly, IN (present study) is located within this cluster, specifically close to the Qatar collection. Two other North Iranian populations from the South Caspian region, the Gilaki and Mazandarian, are positioned between Arabian and Levant groups, closest to Saudi Arabia, Oman and Egypt.

Clear differences are observed in the maternal versus paternal gene pools of each specific Iranian region, as well as when these are compared with each other. The IN collection exhibits a 92.1% influence from the Peninsular Arabs when mtDNA is examined while this impact [diminishes] to 11.2% when Y-chromosomal data are examined.’ 

(a) MDS plot based on observed frequency of mtDNA haplogroup distributions (stress=0.28852) (b) MDS plot based on observed frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup distributions (stress=0.12492).

‘Similarly, the north Iranian Caspian populations of Gilaki and Mazandarian as well as central Iran and IS exhibit considerable proportions of mtDNA from the Arabian Peninsula (43.5 and 64.3%, 53.3 and 52.1%, respectively), whereas no apparent effect is seen in the Y-chromosomal component for central Iran and only 7.3% is observed for IS. 

 Unfortunately, the Y-chromosome haplogroup counterparts were not reported at the resolution required for these analyses in the north Iran/Caspian populations. Balkan inputs are observed in the mtDNA pool of both IN (7.9%) and IS (23.1%), but are absent in Central Iran and in the other two north Iran collections. Whereas the Balkan region impacts the central Iran group at 28.7% via Y-chromosomal inputs, no Y-influence is detected in either the IN or IS populations. Imprints from the Levant and southwest Asia are mostly of Y-chromosomal origin, but are seen in the mtDNA of the central Iranian population and in the Gilaki. Central Asian impacts are only detected at the Y-chromosomal level and are absent from IS, whereas influences from Caucasia are observed in all instances except via mtDNA in IN despite its close geographical proximity to the region. No north African effects were detected for any of the Iranian populations using either mtDNA or Y-markers.’

The graphs highlight the fact that in northern Iran the mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups hare an affinity with the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula. Both central and southern Iran are more related to each other and are distinct, being relatively equally distant from say Egypt [Mizra] and Turkey [Elam]. Regarding Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups, northern Iran is closest to Georgia, central Iran with the countries of the Balkans, like Macedonia or Greece and southern Iran with Azerbaijan. These nations are all descended from Shem and not Ham.

A comparison of the mtDNA pools of IN and IS populations reveals contrasting frequencies of haplogroups H, J and U. Although haplogroup J constitutes the majority (35.5%) of the maternal component in the north, it is considerably lower (14.5%) in IS. Haplogroup U accounts for the majority (22.2%) of the mtDNA lineages in the south…The IN and IS also differ with respect to haplogroups T*, T1 and T3 (middle eastern- and lower Arabian Peninsula-specific), and L0 and L1 (characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans). In IS, haplogroups T and L are detected at frequencies of 3.4 and 2.56%, respectively, whereas both lineages are completely absent from the northern sample set. These findings, however, contradict the data published by Quintana-Murci et al., where L lineages are reported for the northern but not southern groups, and haplogroups T* and T1 are observed in both regions of the Plateau but are higher in the north than in the south. These differences could be due to the small sample size of the North Iranian collection. The presence of both haplogroups in the Iranian populations may be indicative of gene flow from the Middle East and Africa.’

Or simply, that the Haplogroups from Ludim, which would account for the Middle East and North Africa input, are included* with Lud [Balkans, Caucasia, Anatolia].

‘The admixture analysis results indicate that the majority of Iran’s mitochondrial pool is derived from Arabia. 

The Persian groups obtained from previous studies also display high degrees of similarity with the Peninsular Arabs; however, they all exhibit greater contribution from adjacent populations especially with groups from Caucasia. These genetic affinities are also evident in the MDS projection in which all the Iranian populations plot between the Arab collections, and the Levant-Anatolia and the northeast Africa assemblages. The three north Iranian populations partition nearest to the Arab cluster, whereas the central and south Iranian populations segregate closest to the Levant–Anatolia and the north African groups. 

The genetic affinities between the Arabian Peninsula and Iranian groups may stem from gene flow at various points during the time continuum since the initial out-of-Africa dispersal… and/or during the Arab expansions of the third to the seventh centuries AD. Another plausible explanation for the closeness between Persia and Arabia may be the result of dispersals emanating out of central Asia into the Arabian Peninsula via Persia. However, the effect of these migrations is not well understood, and the degree of similarities between the Peninsular Arabs and the Iranians suggests widespread (involving the movement of large numbers of individuals) rather than discreet (a few scattered communities) migratory waves.

It should be noted that the degree of genetic flow from Arabia, as seen in the admixture analysis results, is much lower for the Y-chromosome than it is for the mtDNA. It is possible that this is the result of a larger male dissemination from other territories into Persia. This is apparent in the high frequencies of Y-haplogroup R1a1 (M198) of central Asian descent, which is believed to be a tell-tale marker for the expansion of the Kurgan horse culture and Indo-European languages. It is widely accepted that Iranians are Aryans [European or western as opposed to Hamitic or equatorial in origin] who migrated from the central Asian steppes around 4000 years before present.

The J1b sub-haplogroup is abundant in the Mediterranean and southern Atlantic regions. Interestingly, the frequency of this marker in IN is significantly (with the Bonferroni adjustment for 11 comparisons) higher than that of any of the surrounding regions surveyed (panel J in portrays mtDNA haplogroup J as a whole), including those from the Levant (Palestine, Syria, Egypt and Jordan), west central Asia (Armenia), the Near East (Iraq and Iran Kurdish) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman, UAE, Qatar and Yemen)… it is tempting to conclude that this distribution pattern suggests a North Iranian origin for this lineage…

Although IN and IS individuals form part of the ancestral core in the global J1b network, most of the remaining Iranian J1b haplotypes are located individually along the branch harboring the 16 222 transition. If the J1b source lies within northern Iran, it seems logical to expect more haplotype sharing or, at least, more integration of the IN and reference collections J1b sequences. The significance of the Iranian J1b frequency distribution and lineage pattern is not clear* at this point. Denser sampling within and around Iran may provide added insight with respect to the phylogeographic history of J1b within this region.’

Phylogeography, is the study of the “historical processes that may be responsible for the past to present geographic distributions of genealogical lineages. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of genetics, particularly population genetics.”

‘The asymmetrical partitioning of mtDNA haplogroups J (IN 35.5% and IS 14.5%) and J1b (IN 22.7% and IS 6%) between the two study populations parallels that of the Y-lineage R1b1a-M269, also found at a substantially higher frequency in the northern portion of the Plateau (15 versus 6% for IN and IS, respectively). Furthermore, as was observed with the J and J1b mtDNA haplogroups, this Y-specific marker is substantially more abundant in IN than in most of the surrounding Middle East, Near East and Levantine groups examined, with the exception of Turkey (14.5%). The M269 mutation is observed at elevated levels throughout Europe and declines in frequency along a southeast trajectory from Europe toward Pakistan (14.5–2.8%). The significance with respect to the enrichment of this European Y-chromosome marker in IN remains unclear. It is not known whether the presence of M269 in north Persia is associated with the northwest Neolithic agricultural movement from the Near East to Europe or if it signals a subsequent back migration eastward from Europe.

The middle of this paragraph is highly signifiant, repeat: highly significant. For here is where we find people who have a higher concentration of R1b than all the other peoples of the Middle East or West and South Asia. As explained, Iran as Lud, is a unique blend of Lud from Shem [western] and Ludim from Ham [equatorial]. The fact that Turkey is the other major nation with a similar percentage of R1b is not a coincidence. For Turkey and Iran are brother nations, as Elam and Lud and both descending from Shem. As we learned that Pakistan is a blend of two distinct peoples, though both from Ham; Iran is a blend of two separate peoples. Notice scientists use the term ‘back migration’ when they don’t realise they are dealing with an anomaly that is pointing towards an event not explicable by the theories of evolution or out of Africa.

The distribution of haplogroup I also differs between the northern (9.7%) and southern (1.7%) regions of Iran. This incongruence is significant at α=0.05 (P<0.03) but not following the application of the Bonferroni adjustment. It is noteworthy that, with the exception of its northern neighbor Azerbaijan, IN is the only population in which haplogroup I exhibits polymorphic levels. Also, a contour plot based on the regional phylogeographic distribution of the I haplogroup exhibits frequency clines consistent with an Iranian cradle. Moreover, when compared with other populations in the region, those from the Levant (Iraq, Syria and Palestine) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and UAE) exhibit significantly lower proportions of I individuals (1–2%). It should be noted that this haplogroup has been detected in European groups (… a tiny island off the coast of Croatia (11.3%), and Lemko, an isolate from the Carpathian Highlands (11.3%) at comparable frequencies to those observed in the North Iranian population. 

In addition, several studies report the Middle East as the origin of this haplogroup, but for unknown reasons, the prevalence of this lineage in the region has been lost. 

Thus, it is plausible that the high levels of haplogroup I present in IN may be the result of a localized enrichment through the action of genetic drift or may signal geographical proximity to the location of origin. 

Or, it might just simply be that the Iranians are fundamentally a White, western people enriched with Hamitic, equatorial DNA comparable to that exhibited in their near neighbours; geographically and ethnically .

Although haplogroup H and its subclades are found in highest frequencies in Europe and Caucasia, the presence of these haplogroups in Iran may reflect gene flow from neighboring southwest Asia where they are present at moderate frequencies. Furthermore, considering the substantial frequency of H2a1 (12.5%) in central and inner Asia, its low frequency in eastern Europe and its absence in western Europe, it is likely that its presence in Iran may be due to gene flow from Asia. The fact that sub-haplogroups H2, H2a1, H4 and H7 are seen only in IS (absent in IN), and at relatively low frequencies, may stem from the low number of individuals collected in IN (n=31).

… mtDNA haplogroup T is common in eastern and northern Europe, and is found as far as the Indus Valley and the Arabian Peninsula. Thus, the presence of sub-haplogroups T*, T1 and T3 in IS, and their absence in IN, may be associated with gene flow from the Arabian Peninsula to southern Iran.’ 

(a) mtDNA haplogroup distributions (b)  Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions.

Huge study on Y-chromosome variation in Iran – Viola Grugni [et al. 2012], posted online – bold theirs, emphasis &/or bold mine:

‘This is the equivalent of a box of candy for anyone interested in Eurasian (pre-)history. I will have [to] digest all the goodies within, and post any of my comments as updates to this post.


One of the most interesting finds is the presence of a few IJ-M429* chromosomes in the sample. Haplogroup IJ encompasses the major European I subclade, and the major West Asian J subclade. The discovery of IJ* chromosomes is consistent with the origin of this haplogroup in West Asia; it is widely believed that haplogroup I represents a pre-Neolithic lineage in Europe, although at present there are no Y chromosome-tested pre-Neolithic remains.’ 

There is also a wide assortment of Q and R in Iran. While some of these may be intrusive (e.g., the 42.6% of Q1a2 in Turkmen, likely a legacy of their Central Asian origins), the overall picture appears consistent with a deep presence of these lineages in Iran. This is especially true for haplogroup R where pretty much every paragroup and derived group is present, excepting those likely to have originated recently elsewhere.

UPDATE II: From the paper

Although accounting only for 25% of the total variance, the first two components (Figure above) separate populations according to their geographic and ethnic origin and define five main clusters: East-African, North-African and Near Eastern Arab, European, Near Eastern and South Asian. The 1stPC clearly distinguishes the East African groups (showing a high frequency of haplogroup E) from all the others which distribute longitudinally along the axis with a wide overlapping between European and Arab peoples and between Near Eastern and South Asian groups. The 2ndPC separates the North-African and Near Eastern Arabs (characterized by the highest frequency of haplogroup J1) from Europeans (characterized by haplogroups I, R1a and R1b) and the Near Easterners from the South Asians (due to the distribution of haplogroups G, R2 and L). 

Iranian groups do not cluster all together, occupying intermediate positions among Arab, Near Eastern and Asian clusters. In this scenario, it is worth… noticing the position of three Iranian groups: (i) Khuzestan Arabs (KHU-Ar) who, despite their Arabic origin, are close to the Iranian samples; (ii) Armenians from Tehran (TEH-Ar), whose position, in the upper part of the Iranian distribution, indicates a close affinity with the Near Eastern cluster, while their position near Turkey and Caucasus groups, due to the high frequency R1b-M269 and other European markers (eg: I-M170), is in agreement with their Armenia origin…

UPDATE V: This confirms my observation from the recent studies in Afghanistan, that there is an inverse relationship of J2a and R1a in Iranian-speaking groups, with an excess of the latter among the eastern Iranians, and of the former among the Persians. 

From the paper:

Among the different J2a haplogroups, J2a-M530 is the most informative as for ancient dispersal events from the Iranian region. This lineage probably originated in Iran… The high variance observed in the Italian Peninsula is probably the result of stratifications of subsequent migrations and/or of the presence of sub-lineages not yet identified. 

Of course, the idea that the diffusion of J2a related lineages ties in with early agricultural expansions has been with us for a long time, but it is time to abandon it. First of all, as we have seen, J2a diminishes greatly as we head towards South Asia; it certainly doesn’t look like the lineage of the multitude of agricultural settlements that sprang up along the southeastern vector soon after the invention of agriculture. 

Second, it is lacking so far in all ancient Y chromosome data from Europe down to 5,000 years ago. It seems much more [probable] that J2 related lineages spread from the highlands of West Asia much later.’ 

It is unfortunate that there is no progress in the phylogeographic assessment of R1a in this paper. There have been substantial discoveries of SNPs within this haplogroup as a result of commercial testing; however there is clearly an ascertainment bias in the newer discoveries, as almost all these SNPs have been detected in Europeans [Eastern Europeans or Slavs]. The new paper confirms the high levels of Y-STR variance in India [Cush], Pakistan [Phut], and Iran [Lud]. 

The Indo-Iranians were then initially the mixed descendants of the Indo-Europeans and the R1a old agricultural population, and were formed in the territory of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. 

This also explains the contrast between Iranian and Armenian groups: the latter mostly lack the R1a lineage, contrasting with all Iranian groups (even their Kurdish neighbors) who possess it. Conversely, Iranian groups, and especially eastern Iranians and Indo-Ayrans lack the R1b lineage.

UPDATE VI: I have created… [a] dendrogram using the Y-haplogroup frequencies and the hclust package of R (default parameters):

From top to bottom, one can identify some clusters:

  • Eastern Europe, further broken down into Balkans and Slavic+Hungary
  • West Asian/Caucasus
  • Iranian Proper
  • Arab

These correspond largely to the clusters identified by the authors, with India and the Turkmen sample emerging as the clear outliers.’

I would urge the reader to take time to study the dendrogram, as it aptly shows the evidence of Iran having one foot in the Arab world as Lud-im and one foot in the Caucasian world as Lud.

UPDATE VII: At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. 

The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial [post Flood] and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23), Central Asia (Q-M25), Asia Minor (J2a-M92) and southern Mesopotamia (J1). In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts) which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran…’

 Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians, multiple authors, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe…

It is worth pointing out the position of Azeris from the Caucasus region, who despite their supposed common origin with Iranian Azeris, cluster quite separately and occupy an intermediate position between the Azeris/Georgians and Turks/Iranians grouping. Interestingly, the results of our MDS analysis do not combine the populations studied according to their geographic and/or linguistic affinity. 

Therefore, Turkic-speaking Qashqais, Azeris, and Turks are located quite distantly from each other on the plot, even though association between the latter two groups has been recently revealed based on complete mtDNA sequences. All populations from the Caucasus region (Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians) are scattered on the plot though their genetic proximity has been demonstrated by Schönberg et al. Similarly, Iranians from Tehran province and Persians studied here are clearly separated from each other.’

‘Overall, the complete mtDNA sequence analysis revealed an extremely high level of genetic diversity in the Iranian populations studied which is comparable to the other groups from the South Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe.

The Iranian populations studied here and previously exhibit similar mtDNA lineage composition and mainly consist of a western Eurasian [European, western] component, accounting for about 90% of all samples, with a very limited contribution from eastern Eurasia [Oriental], South Asia [Hamitic, equatorial] and Africa. The South Asian and African influence is more pronounced in Iranians from the southern provinces of the country. 

Our results confirms that populations from Iran, Anatolia, the Caucasus and the Arabian Peninsula display a common set of maternal lineages although considerable regional differences in haplogroup frequencies exist. Meanwhile, some haplogroups previously defined as South Asian (such as R2 and HV2) could be considered as having Southwest Asian origin, taking into account the relatively high frequency and diversity of those haplogroups in Iran.

We would expect to view a rather complicated Haplogroup structure for Lud. We will compare Iran with the three related peoples from the Caucasus region of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. There is the admixture of Lud-im from Mizra to consider and also Iran’s proximity to the descendants from Ham, of Iraq on its western border, Pakistan on its eastern border, Uzbekistan descended from Japheth to the north and finally Lud’s brother Elam on its northwestern frontier.

The mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups for Iran are:

H [16.9%] – J [13.8%] – U [11.8%] – HV [7.4%] – K [7.3%] – T2 [4.9%] –

U5 [3.3%] – T1 [3.1%] – U3 [2.8%] – X [2.8%] – I [2.4%]  W [2.4%] –

U2 [1.6%] – U4 [1%] – HVO + V [0.6%] – L [0.2%] 

                          HV      H        J      T2      U       K

Iran                     7       17      14       5       12       7

Iraq                     9       17      13       4         7       5

Georgia              4       20       3        9        5     12

Azerbaijan         6       23       6      10        9      4

Armenia             6      30      10       5        8       7

Turkey                5       31       9        4        6       6

In essence, Iran’s combined regions provide an mtDNA top three Haplogroup picture the most similar to Iraq. The mixing with Ludim is evident; yet the fact remains that the Arab and Persian peoples are still distinct ethnicities. It is evident that Iran overall has more in common with Azerbaijan and Georgia than Armenia and Turkey; which clearly do have a strong similarity. 

The Y-DNA Haplogroups of Iran:

Iran: J [31.4%] – R1a [14.3%] – G [11.7%] – R1b [10.1%] – E1b1b [7%] –

L [ 5%] – T [3.4%] – I [0.5%] – N [0.1%]

Iran:   J2 – R1a1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L1c – T1a – I –

N1c1 – [Q – F – K – H]

Iran has more J2 than J1, meaning less J1 that is associated with Middle Eastern or Arabian peoples and more J2 which is associated with Southern European peoples. Its higher levels of G and E1b1b show its link with Mizra and its inherited Haplogroups from Ludim. The R1a and R1b are also typically European or western Haplogroups and show its link to predominantly Shem. There are exceptions, like Pakistan and India [Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and Central Asia [Chapter IV Madai], though they possess different strands of R1a and similarly with the R1b of the Spanish descended Latinos of Central and Southern America [Chapter XIV Casluh & Caphtor].

The Y-DNA Haplogroups of their near neighbours to the north.

Azerbaijan:  J [31%] – G [18%] – R1b [11%] – R1a [7%] –

E1b1b [6%] – I [3%] 

Georgia:   J [36.4%] – G [31.8%] – R1a [10.6%] – R1b [9.1%] –

E1b1b [ 3%] – I [1.5% ] L [1.5%] – T [1.5%] 

Armenia:     J [24%] – R1b [19%] – G [11%] – R1a [6%] –

E1b1b [6%] – I [5%] 

Azerbaijan:  J2 – G2a – R1b – R1a1a – E1b1b – I – [F – K]

Georgia:       G2a – J2 – J1 – R1a1a – R1b – E1b1b – I – L1c –

T1a – [Q – F]               

Armenia:      R1b – J2 – G2a – J1 – R1a1a – E1b1b – I – T1a –

L1c – Q – N1c1 – [F – K]

Iran is closest to Azerbaijan genetically and the fact that more Azerbaijanis live in Iran – approximately twenty million plus – as opposed to inside Azerbaijan – approximately  ten million – is a fact that supports their common ancestry as Lud. Iran also shares common ground with Georgia [Lud], but not with Armenia [Elam]. The haplogroups associated predominantly with descent from Ham – as there are crossovers – are J1, G2a, and E1b1b. Haplogroups more common to descent from Shem, are R1b and I. The crossover Haplogroups are R1a and J2.

Y-DNA Haplogroups of Iran’s immediate neighbours to the East and West, plus Turkey and Uzbekistan.

Iran:        J [31.4%] – R1a [14.3%] – G [11.7%] – R1b [10.1%] – E1b1b [7%] –

L [ 5%] – T [3.4%] – I [0.5%] – N [0.1%]

Turkey:    J [30.5%] – R1b [20.3%] – E1b1b [ 13.6%] – R1a [11.9%] –

G [8.5%] – I [6.8%] – T [1.7%] 

Iraq:     J [57.6%] – E1b1b [10.8%] – R1b [10.8%] – R1a [6.9%] –

T [5.9%] – G [2.5%] – L [1%] – N [1%] – I [0.5%]

Pakistan:      R1a [37%] – J [20%] – L [12%] – R2 [ 8%] – C [3%] – G [3%] –

H [3%] – Q [2%] –  F [1%] – O [0.5%] 

Uzbekistan: R1a [25%] – J2 [13%] – C3 [12%] – R1b [10%] – K [7%] –

P [6%] – O2 [4%] –R2 – I1 – N1c1

Iran:               J2 – R1a1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L1c – T1a – I –

N1c1 – [Q – F – K – H]

Turkey:          J2 – R1b – E1b1b – J1 – E1b1b – R1a1a – G2a – I2a1 –

N1c1 – L – T1a – Q – I1 – I2a2 – [F – K – R2]

Iraq:               J1 – J2 – E1b1b – R1b – R1a1a – T1a – G2a – E1b1a –

L1c – N1c1 – I – Q  

Pakistan:       R1a1a – J1/J2 – L1c – R2 – C – G2a – H – Q – F – O

Uzbekistan:   R1a1a – J2 – C3 – R1b – K – P – O2 – R2 – I1 – N1c1

Iraq’s J1 is 40% and J2 is 18%. Iran shares similar Hamitic Haplogroups with its western neighbour and nemesis, Iraq. As Iraq is adjacent to Iran and descended from Mizra [possibly from Ludim in the main or in part], we would expect them to be closely related to Lud-im within Iran. Not surprisingly, Iran does not have as much Y-DNA commonality with Pakistan from Phut and Uzbekistan from Madai, even though Uzbekistan is the closest of the Central Asian Republics. It is interesting to note the crossover Haplgroups that Pakistan and Uzbekistan share, of C, O and R2. 

As expected, it is Turkey that Iran has the most Y-DNA Haplogroup synchronicity with of its neighbours. This may be a surprise to many readers, who though may be aware that Iran is not the same as Iraq and Pakistan would have assumed a similar linage with them. Whereas Iran’s predominant lineage as Lud, is linked instead with Turkey who is Elam. The table showing the key Haplogroups of these nations bears out the relationships as described.

                           J      E1b1b      G       R1a       R1b

Iran                   31          7          12        14         10

Azerbaijan       31          6          18          7         11

Georgia            36          3          32       11           9

Armenia          24          6          11          6          19

Turkey             31          14          9         12         20

Iraq                  58          11          3           7         11

Pakistan          20                       3          37 

Uzbekistan      13                                   25        10

It is the first two to three haplogroups that are most important in correlating a strong genetic relationship and then the next two or three. 

There is an obvious relationship between Azerbaijan and Iran and the haplogroup clusters for Iran and Near Eastern  peoples indicate that Azerbaijan does have a closer link with Iran than Georgia. Iran’s kinship with the Arabs is evident and a lesser degree with Uzbekistan as we have learned, has had much mixture with Elam and so the commonality it loosely shares with Iran, is evident. The Bible says that Lud and Ludim, with Phut and Lehab, are a mingled or mixed people and this region of the world certainly fits this description.

Worthy of mention is that both Iran and Turkey or Lud and Elam, have interacted considerably with the Arab world. Both nations have not strayed as far from their original homeland positions in ancient Mesopotamia – like Asshur, Aram and Arphaxad – so that they have been in the pathway of peoples migrating east-west and vice-versa. 

Located in the crossroads of the world, that incorporates West Asia and Anatolia – much like Madai in Central Asia – has meant a variety of additional Haplogroups, albeit at fractional percentages being added to their core DNA.

Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning; it is not known in the inner parts of fools.

Proverbs 14:33 New English Translation

“Being on the side of the majority is often a sign that you are wrong, or the most unlikely to be right.” 

Mokokoma Mokhonoana

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Mizra: North Africa & Arabia

Chapter XIV

Ham’s second son is Mizra, translated correctly, though a little misleadingly as Egypt. There is always it seems, an exception to the rule and in this case regarding point number two in the Introduction, this is it. To a degree, that is. The descendants of Mizra have paradoxically, migrated further afield, though they also live in their original historic homeland. 

In Genesis 10:13-14 NET, we are introduced to Mizra’s seven sons. Taking our cue from Canaan and Cush, we would expect to find a handful of descended nations, rather than just one or seven. We are also met with a slight conundrum, though easily resolved. Mizra identifies as the people known as Arabs in North Africa and in the Middle East, as well as the peoples of Latino [Spanish] descent throughout Central and South America [with the exception of Brazil].

Mizraim [Mizra] was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, Pathrusites Casluhites (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorites.

Some versions list instead as: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim [Lubim], Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim and Caphtorim.

Footnotes: ‘The Casluhites lived in Crete and eventually settled east of the Egyptian Delta, between Egypt and Canaan [on the coast]. Several commentators prefer to reverse the order of the words to put this clause after the next word, since the Philistines came from Crete (where the Caphtorites lived). But the table may suggest migration rather than lineage…

Mizraim is translated as Egypt principally, in the Bible. Outside of the genealogy listings of Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, the word Mizraim is used once in Genesis 50:11 ESV, on the occasion of Jacob’s death, the father of Joseph. 

11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.” Therefore the place was named Abel-mizraim [mourning (or meadow) of Egypt]; it is beyond the Jordan.

An accurate map [excepting Spain] of Mizra’s five sons in North Africa and the Near, Middle East [green] and two sons in the New World [red].

Egypt is mentioned some seven hundred times in the Bible. The context usually implies all the sons of Mizra, or occasionally the principal son, Pathros. A couple of chapters address Mizra specifically, such as in Ezekiel 29:9-10 ESV:

 … and the land of Egypt shall be a desolation and a waste. Then they will know that I am the Lord. “Because you said, ‘The Nile is mine, and I made it,’ therefore, behold, I am against you and against your streams, and I will make the land of Egypt an utter waste and desolation, from Migdol to Syene, as far as the border of Cush [India].

We will see that their descendants do live ‘as far as the border of Cush, India. In Isaiah 19:22-25 ESV we read of a future time, when three great peoples are at peace:

22 And the Lord will strike Egypt, striking and healing, and they will return to the Lord, and he will listen to their pleas for mercy and heal them. 23 In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria will come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians [Arabs] will worship with the Assyrians [Russians]. 24 In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25 whom the Lord of hosts has blessed, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel my inheritance.”

The widespread assumption or belief – held by many people within and without Islam – is that the Arab people descend from Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham. This has been supported largely because the Prophet Mohammad in the Quran was seen as being a spiritual successor to Abraham… thus in time a physical descent was gradually assumed to be true. In the Bible, Ishmael [with the other sons of Abraham, from his second wife Keturah] are described as living in Arabia or the wilderness. This was in the Arabian Peninsula [mainly including Saudi Arabia today]. It is not calling Ishmael an Arab, but stating where he originally lived. The sons of Mizra though, have in turn become known as Arabs, due to their dwelling in Arabia, before fanning out, migrating both northeast and westwards into north Africa.

An article by Mark Durie, 2019, entitled, Ishamel is not the Father of the Arabs addresses the issue – emphasis & bold his:

‘The commonly held view that Ishmael was the father of the Arab nations is not supported by the Bible, nor by other historical evidence. For centuries, many Muslims, Christians and Jews have taken it for granted that the Arabs descended from Abraham through Ishmael. As Gerald Hawting put it:

“The idea that the Arabs are the physical descendants of Abraham through Ishmael is indeed taken by many, non-Muslims as well as Muslims, as a genealogical and historical fact.”

Authors and teachers often treat the word Ishmael as a kind of code for Islam or Muslims. According to Sir Fergus Millar, Professor Emeritus of Ancient History at Oxford University, it was Josephus, a Jewish historian writing in the first century CE, who first advanced the idea that Ishmael was the ancestor of the Arabs. In The Antiquities of the Jews Josephus stated that Ishmael was “the founder” of the Arabian nation, and Abraham was “their father”. From Josephus, this assumed connection between the Arabs and Abraham, through Ishmael, passed into the historical consciousness of Christians, and then made its way into early Islam.

The Qur’an does not speak of Ishmael or Abraham as ancestors of the Arabs – although it does have Abraham and Ishmael praying for Allah to make their descendants a Muslim people – but the link is established in the hadith literature, in traditions about Muhammad’s own genealogy. In this way Abraham and Ishmael came to be considered, in Islamic tradition, not only a spiritual antecedent of Muhammad as an Islamic prophet, but also the physical ancestor of (at least some of) the Arabs.

What does the Bible say? It speaks both of Ishmaelites, the descendants of Ishmael, and of Arabs, but does not join them together. I. Ephʿal has pointed out that the references to Ishmaelites are earlier in the Bible, and the references to Arabs later. Both refer to non-sedentary, nomadic peoples, but they are separated by centuries. 

Ephʿal concludes that references to “Ishmaelites” cease by the mid 10th century BCE, and the references to “Arabs” only commence in the mid-8th century BCE, so “there is no historical basis to the tradition of associating Ishmaelites with the Arabs”. The Bible does link the Ishmaelites with the Midianites, using these names as synonyms in two places. Genesis describes Joseph as being sold to a caravan of camel-riding Ishmaelites who are also called Midianites (Genesis 37:25–28, 36; 39:1; see also Judges 8:22-24).

The evidence indicates that Ishmael was not the father of the Arabs, and neither was Abraham. The Ishmaelites were probably Canaanites, speaking, not an early form of Arabic, but a dialect similar to Hebrew. In time they disappeared or were absorbed into other groups, like so many other ancient peoples. Much later Josephus invoked Ishmael’s name to conjure up a genealogy for the Arabs. He has a lot to answer for. The rest, as they say, is history.’

We will look into this further when we study Ishmael. The author states they were probably Canaanites. Not sons of Ham Canaanites; but they were part of the later ‘Canaanites.’ Far from being assimilated into other peoples or disappearing, the Ishmaelites due to their numbers, have always been an influential people to the degree of Empire status more than once on the world stage.

Dr Hoeh says the following regarding Mizra – bold mine:

‘Mizraim is commonly applied to Egypt. In fact, “Mizr” is the name which the natives still apply to Egypt today. The Greeks called the land Aegyptus [Aiguptos] – hence our Egypt.

First, notice that… Mizraim first settled on the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. From there they spread through the Eastern Mediterranean isles and into Africa. The Philistines, who came from Mizraim, inhabited Southern Palestine even in the days of Abraham (Genesis 21:34). They are still there today – in the Gaza strip in Palestine – causing no end of trouble (Zechariah 9:6-7). 

The Philistines (a branch of the family of Casluhim) settled originally on the Island of Crete in the Mediterranean. Crete is called, in the Bible, Caphtor (Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7). The Island of Caphtor was originally settled by the Caphtorim, a tribe of Mizraim (Genesis 10:14). Both the Philistines and the Caphtorim destroyed the Canaanites in South Palestine and lived in their place (Deuteronomy 2:23). No wonder there are so few Canaanites left! The main body of non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine today are not Canaanites, but Philistines!

The Pathrusim of Genesis 10:14 migrated from Asia Minor to central Egypt. Every prophecy shows Pathros to be a part of Egypt along the Nile (Jeremiah 44:1,5 and Ezekiel 29:14). The Naphtuhim probably settled in the extreme south of Egypt, founding the capital city of Napata among the black people of Africa.’

The Lehabim – the word “Lehabim” means a people of reddish color – settled Libya originally. Libya is in North Africa. Today they are found scattered throughout the savanahs of the Western Sudan in Africa. In this region today we find a people “of reddish brown or light chestnut color … with smooth hair, never woolly, straight and even aquiline noses . . .differentiating them from the [Black] type”. The original word “Lehabim” was shortened in Bible times to “Lubim” (II Chronicles 12:3; 16:8). 

The [Africans] call these people “fulbe”, meaning, probably, Lubim dwelling in the ancient land of Phut. In the central reaches of the Sahara (the great desert in North Africa) live the Ludim (Gen.10:14) – the lightest of the Egyptians.

For example the Arabs acknowledge that they are descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham. In Bible prophecy they are often mentioned by the name “Ishmael.”‘

We will learn that the Philistines are not the non-Jewish peoples [Palestinians] of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, for they have travelled farther afield. The final sentence is a good example of how the first thing heard, is the one that lingers the longest whether correct or incorrect. How easy it is to be indoctrinated without even realising. Just because a people claim to be someone does not make it necessarily so…

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis theirs, bold mine: 

Mizraim is derived from a Hebrew term, and is a plural word with the meaning double straits (SHD 4714, mitsrayim – dual of matsor (4693). This duality may refer to the distinction between the original kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptians referred to their land as Kmt in the hieroglyphs. In Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions Egypt was known as Musur and Musri, probably from the word Misrmeaning simply, land. The Ugaritic inscriptions refer to Egypt as Msrm, while in the Amarna tablets it is called Misri. The term Misr is still seen in the modern Arabic name for the nation, Jumhuriyah Misr al-‘Arabiyah (the Arabic Republic of Egypt).’

A well known online Encylopaedia –  emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mizraim is the dual form of matzor, meaning a “mound” or “fortress”… Some Ancient Egyptian inscriptions at the time of Pharoah Amenhotep IV refer to Egypt as Masara and to Egyptians as Masrawi.

According to Eusebius’ Chronicon, Manetho had suggested that the great age of antiquity of which the later Egyptians boasted had actually preceded the Flood and that they were really descended from Mizraim, who settled there anew. A similar story is related by medieval Islamic historians… and the Persians… stating that the pyramids etc. had been built by the wicked races [the Nephilim & the line of Cain] before the Deluge, but that Noah’s descendant Mizraim (Masar or Mesr) was entrusted with reoccupying the region afterwards. The Islamic accounts also make Masar the son of a Bansar or Beisar and grandson of Ham, rather than a direct son of Ham… Some scholars think it likely that Mizraim is a dual form of the word Misr meaning “land”, and was translated literally into Ancient Egyptian as Ta-Wy (the Two Lands) by early pharaohs at Thebes who later founded the Middle Kingdom.

… according to George Syncellus the Book of Sothis, attributed to Manetho, identified Mizraim with the legendary first Pharaoh Menes, said to have unified the Old Kingdom and built Memphis. Mizraim also seems to correspond to Misor, said in Phoenician mythology to have been the father of Taautus who was given Egypt, and later scholars noticed that this also recalls Menes, whose son or successor was said to be Athothis.

… the author David Rohl has suggested a different interpretation: Amongst the followers of Meshkiagkasher (Sumerian ruler) was his younger ‘brother’ – in his own right a strong and charismatic leader of men. He is the head of the falcon tribe – the descendants of Horus the ‘Far Distant’. The Bible calls this new Horus-king ‘Mizraim’ but this name is, in reality, no more than an epithet. It means ‘follower of Asr’ or ‘Asar’ (Egyptian Arabic m-asr with the Egyptian preposition m ‘from’). Mizraim is merely m-Izra with the majestic plural ending ‘im’. Likewise, that other great Semitic-speaking people – the Assyrians – called the country of the pharaohs ‘Musri’ (m-Usri).’

Mizra denotes duality. In Hebrew it means: ‘double siege’ or ‘double distress’ from masor, ‘siege’ or ‘entrenchment’ and the verb sur, ‘to bind, besige’. Also mesar, ‘distress’ and the verb sarar, ‘to bind.’

Abarim Publications – bold theirs:  

‘Egypt was known by the names Musuru, Musru, Misir or Masri in other languages, and Mizraim is probably simply a phonetic transliteration into Hebrew of any of them.

The verb from which the noun derives, is part of a group of five different roots: 

Sur I: to lean or incline

Sur II: to confine, secure or besiege

Sur III: to be an adversary 

Sur IV: to form or fashion

Sur V: to be sharp

The word (mesar), meaning straights or distress, written in a dual form would yield the name Mizraim. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names assumes that this is what Mizraim would have meant to a Hebrew audience and reads Double Distress. But it should be noted that the name Mizraim means also Double Stronghold…

An identifying clue to who and where the sons of Mizra are is the fact that the Arabic nations are invariably in a condition of war – either against the state of Israel, Black Africans, minorities in their countries, or most noticeably, their own people.

Isaiah 19:2-3

Young’s Literal Translation

And I armed Egyptians against Egyptians, And they fought, each against his brother, And each against his neighbour, City against city, kingdom against kingdom.And emptied out hath been in its midst the spirit of Egypt. And its counsel I swallow up, And they have sought unto the idols, And unto the charmers, And unto those having familiar spirits, And unto the wizards.

The NET translates verse two as:

“I will provoke civil strife in Egypt: brothers will fight with one another, as will neighbors, cities, and kingdoms.

In Hebrew, Pathros means: ‘South Land’ from the Egyptian pe-te-res or ‘place of interpretation’ from the verb patar, ‘to interpret dreams.’ 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold theirs:

‘Pathros is the name [for] Mizraim’s South Region. Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt, and southern Egypt was known as Upper Egypt. 

The name Pathros occurs half a dozen times in the Bible, always in clear association with Mizraim (Ezekiel 29:14, Isaiah 11:11). The writers of the Septuagint transliterated the name Pathros with Pa-athyris, meaning Belonging to Athor, but who Athor is remains a mystery.

Some words of interest: (pata), meaning to entice, deceive, persuade. Derivation (peti) means simple, foolish. (pat) means fragment, bit. The verb (rasas) means moisten. Derivation (rasis) means drop of dew. The identical but unused and not translatable root (rss) yields identical derivation (rasis), meaning fragment. Hence to the Hebrews the name Pathros may have sounded like Bits And Pieces, or even Wet Lands [the Nile], and Entreaty For A Drop, or any combination of the above.’

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim continues on Mizra’s fifth son Pathros – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The Pathrusim (SHD 6625, meaning southerners) were a tribe located at Pathros near Thebes in Upper Egypt. The name Pathros means region of the south (6624), possibly from the Egyptian Pa-To-Ris. The LXX refers to the people as the Patrosoniim.

In the apocryphal Book of Jasher, both the Pathrusim and Casluhim were recorded as the progenitors of the Pelishtim, Azathim, Gerarim, Githim and Ekronim, who were associated with several prominent Philistine cities, such as Gerar, Gath and Ekron. The conclusions must be that if they did conjoin it was by branches. The main branch went south to Thebes while the cadet branch joined the Cashluhim and formed the five Philistine cities and hence also the five names in Jasher.

The Hebrew Pathrosand the gentilic Pathrusimare derived from the Egyptian p’-t’-rsy, which is a term used to designate the whole of Egypt above Memphis. In the Assyrian material Esarhaddon refers to himself as the king of Musur, Paturisi, and Kusi,meaning, from Isaiah 11:11, that Musur and the Hebrew Misrayim was restricted to Middle and LowerEgypt, thus leaving Pathros for the Thebaid. Jeremiah 44:1,15, Ezekiel 29:14 and 30:14 refer to Pathros as the original home of the Egyptians. The gentilic Pathrusim occurs only in Genesis 10:14 and 1 Chronicles 1:12. 

The prominence of Pathros in the Bible and its central position in Egypt and the Nile  points to its identity actually being, the modern nation of Egypt.

Isaiah 11:11

English Standard Version

In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, from Assyria [Russia], from Egypt [Middle East and North Africa], from Pathros [Egypt], from Cush [India], from Elam [Turkey], from Shinar [Europe], from Hamath [Nigeria], and from the coastlands of the sea [SE Asia].

Jeremiah 44:1, 15

English Standard Version

The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Judeans who lived in the land of Egypt, at Migdol, at Tahpanhes, at Memphis, and in the land of Pathros… Then all the men who knew that their wives had made offerings to other gods, and all the women who stood by, a great assembly, all the people who livedin Pathros in the land of Egypt,answered Jeremiah:

Ezekiel 29:14

English Standard Version

and I will restore the fortunes of Egypt and bring them back to the land of Pathros, the land of their origin, and there they shall be a lowly kingdom.

Ezekiel 30:14

English Standard Version

I will make Pathros a desolation and will set fire to Zoan and will execute judgments on Thebes.

These verses reveal Pathros is very much part of Mizra, though a separate, prominent people or nation, who dwell in their original homeland.  

The flag of Egypt – with the Arab colours of Red, white and Black. Flags of the Arab nations either use these core colours and or incorporate green, representing Islam.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country and is an early cradle of civilisation. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire. Egypt declared itself a republic after a revolution deposing the monarchy in 1952. Egypt has endured decades of social and religious strife, with political instability. It has fought armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973; occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising the state of Israel.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic the  official language.With a population of over 104,840,393 people, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East and the Arab world [and second in Africa after Nigeria]. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert which constitute most of Egypt’s territory, are sparsely populated. 

The Arab world inherited vast lands of mainly desert. The people live primarily, as shown, near water. This area of the world has been actively inhabited since the flood by many migrations and peoples so that the soil has become barren.

Egypt is a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim World – a middle power worldwide. 

With a large and diversified economy, Egypt is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. Egypt has the third largest economy in Africa after Nigeria and South Africa. Egypt has the strongest military in Africa. South Africa is 4th and Nigeria 5th. The other Arab nations in the top ten, after Egypt are Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya.

The ancient Egyptian name of the country km.t, means black land, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, as distinct from the deshret or red land of the desert. A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis theirs: 

‘The English name “Egypt” is derived from the Ancient Greek “Aigyptos“, via Middle French “Egypte” and Latin “Aegyptus“. “Misr”… is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while “Masr”… is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew (“Mitzrayim”). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian “mi-is-ru” (“misru”)related to misru/misirru/misaru, meaning “border” or “frontier”.The Neo-Assyrian Empire used the derived term, Mu-sur.’

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Egyptian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$4.7 billion 
  2. Gems, precious metals: $3 billion 
  3. Plastics, plastic articles: $1.7 billion 
  4. Electrical machinery, equipment: $1.6 billion 
  5. Fruits, nuts: $1.5 billion 
  6. Fertilizers: $1.2 billion 
  7. Vegetables: $1 billion 
  8. Clothing, accessories (not knit or crochet): $891.8 million 
  9. Iron, steel: $696.2 million 
  10. Perfumes, cosmetics: $571.7 million 

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 44.3% from 2019 to 2020. That gain was propelled by higher Egyptian sales of gold on international markets.

The leading decliner among Egypt’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil thanks to a -41.8% annual drop, weighed down by lower revenues for both refined and crude petroleum oils and petroleum gas.’

Of interest from 2018 to 2019, knitted and crocheted clothing and accessories represented the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, increasing by 78%. 

In Ezekiel 27:7 NKJV it says: 

Fine embroidered linen from Egypt was what you spread for your sail… 

King of Cotton, describes Egyptian cotton:

‘Egyptian cotton has not gained such a reputation without reason. Egyptian cotton “is” the world’s finest cotton and the following characteristics are what sets Egyptian cotton apart from other natural fibres: 

The length of the fibre makes it possible to make the finest of yarns without sacrificing the strength of the yarn… [The thread count is the number of threads in each square inch and generally speaking, the higher the thread count, the more luxurious, dense and soft the material will feel]. The strength of the fibre makes fabrics more solid and more resistant to stress. Its ability to absorb liquids gives fabrics made of Egyptian cotton deeper, brighter and more resistant colours. Its softness feels like nothing else in the world. Egyptian cotton is hand picked which guarantees the highest levels of purity. In addition, hand picking puts no stress on the fibres – as opposed to mechanical picking – leaving the fibres straight and intact.

All these factors have resulted in Egyptian cotton being by far the best cotton in the world. Fabrics made of Egyptian Cotton are softer, finer and last longer than any other cotton in the world.’

The first born son of Mizra is Lud, translated [in the plural] as Ludim in the Bible. There is another Lud in the Bible, the fourth son of Shem. Sometimes translated as Lydia or Lydians, after the people who dwelt in Western Asia Minor. They have intermingled and become synonymous. We will give more attention to both Luds later; though to highlight the confusion researchers have experienced in trying to keep them separate we will refer to Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis & bold mine :

‘Although there is a Semite of the same name, we find that Lud, grandson of Ham, was father of the Ludim. He was also the first-born of Mizraim. 

The entry in the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE) is as follows:

In Genesis 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish… 

Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present. Mellink (ibid.) considers the Lydians of Asia Minor to be neither Hamitic nor Semitic. We dealt with the probable movement of the Semite Ludim to the Hindu Kush at the border of India and beyond into the Punjabin the papers Sons of Shem…’

Trying to split these two identities causes difficulty; once their mergence is understood it becomes clear. We have an identical situation with Mizra’s third son Lehab. The Lubim have merged with Phut [Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and both can be identified as ‘Libya’ in the Bible and the modern nation of Pakistan

Recall the verses we recently read in the preceding chapter: 2 Chronicles 12:3, 16:8, Nahum 3.9 and Ezekiel 30.5. All four verses translate Lubim or Lehab as Libya, the same as Phut. Libya refers to Phut, as does Lehab or Lubim; two identities, yet together they form a single nation. In Daniel 11.43 YLT, we see a fifth and final example of this:

and he hath ruled over treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt [Mizra – the Arabs], and Lubim [Pakistan] and Cushim [India] [are] at his steps.

In Ezekiel 29:10 we read that Mizra’s people or ‘border’ would reach to Cush and so it does as Pakistan’s eastern border adjoins India.

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – Emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The term Lehabim (SHD 3853; sing. 3851) means flames or blades.It has been suggested that these people ought to be identified with the Lubim, arising from the proposal that “the one word may be a corruption of the other” (ISBE). The name Lubim is possibly the same as that of the country, Libya, to the northwest of Egypt. 

It is probably that the term Lybios as a son of Mizraim refers to the Ludim and the Lehabim who were conjoined, as were two other sons of Mizraim in North Africa, thereby forming the Philistines and also the Thebans.’

An insightful point, particularly regarding the Philistines, which we will address in the next chapter; though I would suggest that the correct conjoining has been between Mizra’s son Lud-im and Shem’s son Lud and between Mizra’s son Lehab [Lubim] and Ham’s son Phut [Libya].

Mizra’s second and fourth sons respectively are Anam and Naphtuh. I am placing them together as they account for the Arab peoples either side of Pathros. That is, the Arabic nations lying to the east and west of Egypt. They are mentioned only in Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One and are therefore included in the general scriptures and prophecies pertaining to Mizra-im

Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘The second son of Mizraim has a name meaning affliction of the waters (anamiym,SHD 6047), and apparently derives from an Egyptian word. The Septuagint uses the term Enemetiim. An Assyrian text from the time of Sargon II refers to certain people as Anami, although they were apparently located in Cyrene, Libya as Albright suggests and… equates them with the cuneiform A-na-mi found in a geographical text from the time of Sargon II and parallel to Kapara, who were the Caphtorim. Little else is known of this tribe.

As the fourth of the tribes descended from Mizraim, the Naphtuhim have a name which means openings (SHD 5320, naphtuchiym), and is considered a word of foreign origin. The Septuagint gives their name as Nephthalim. The ISBE entry for this group reads:

“A son of Mizraim… but, according to most modern authorities, a district or a dependency of Egypt. Brown-Driver-Briggs… suggests that the Naphtuhim were located in Lower Egypt, and a connection has been made with Na-Ptah, the Egyptian word for Memphis.” 

Lambdin in his article… places the Naphtuhim between the Lehabim [Pakistan] (which are identified with the Libyans) and the Pathrusim [Egypt]as inhabitants of Upper Egypt, and hence they are inhabitants of the Delta.’

The nations to the east of Egypt – in the Near East – lean towards an identification with Naphtuh and the nations to the west of Egypt – in North Africa – an identification with Anam.  Anam in Hebrew also means: ‘responding waters’ from the verb ana, ‘to answer’ and the noun mayim, ‘waters.’

Abarim Publications:

‘There are four verbs of the form (‘nh), or perhaps one verb with four distinct usages: Verb (‘ana I) means to answer, respond or correspond, and… means time… (‘ana III) means to afflict, oppress or humble, Noun (‘anaw) refers to the poor, afflicted or needy.

It’s not immediately obvious where the name Naphtuhim comes from, or that it is Hebrew to start with. But as it is, the name Naphtuhim may have reminded a Hebrew audience of the root-group (patah), conveying meaning of to open or to engrave… and since the opening of the lips precedes speaking , and the opening of ears precedes hearing, our verb may also mean to speak and to hear… to the opening of constricting things… to loosen or release. Noun (petiha) denotes a drawn sword (the edge of a sword was known as the “mouth” of it).’

The most prominent nation in the Arab world aside from Egypt is Saudi Arabia, with a population of 35,527,051 people. Of the top ten nations with the most natural resources it is a formidable number two, behind China. Saudi Arabia by Arabic standards is a small country in the Middle East, slightly larger than Mexico. Saudi Arabia has some $34.4 trillion worth of natural resources – notably oil. Saudi Arabia has been the world’s leading exporter of oil since its discovery in 1938. Possessing 22.4% of the world’s reserves, the country’s economy relies heavily on its oil exports. It has the fourth largest natural gas reserves and other major natural resources include ‘copper, feldspar, phosphate, silver, sulfur, tungsten, and zinc.’

Saudi Arabia had a GDP of $792.97 billion in 2019, being the 18th largest economy in the world.The Saudi government owns and operates much of the country’s major industry through its oil company Aramco. Global environmental concerns drive an increased interest in developing non-fossil fuel energy sources, thus the Saudis look to diversify their economy, including encouraging private investment in healthcare and other service industries. The script on the Saudi Arabian flag is the shahada, the Islamic creed: ‘There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ 

The combined populations of the twenty-four Arabic nations and territories is some four hundred and fifty million people. A united confederacy of Arabic nations would certainly be a formidable force and could well participate with the leadership and primary allies of the King of the South – Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Indonesia.

Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2008 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. However, when attending to the relative contribution of the different L haplogroups, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Yemen are highly similar for their L3 (34%), L2 (36%) and L0 (21%) frequencies whereas in Oman and UAE the bulk of L lineages belongs to L3 (72%).’ 

Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups are detected in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs have only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component [7%)], similar to the specific haplogroup contribution of North Africa [5%] and a small Indian influence [3%]. The majority of the Saudi Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages have a western Asia provenance – up to 85%.

The majority (12) of the 19 M lineages found in the Arabian Peninsula that do not belong to M1 have matches or are related to Indian clades, which confirm previous results. Five undefined M lineages were genome sequenced. It is confirmed that 5 of the 6 Saudi lineages analyzed have also Indian roots. All these Indian M sequences have been found in Arabia as isolated lineages that belong to clusters with deep roots and high diversity in India. Therefore, its presence in Arabia is better explained by recent backflow from India than by supposing that these lineages are footsteps of an M ancestral migration across Arabia.’

A third option is available that explains the link between the Indian peoples of Cush and the Arabs of Mizra and that is simply, that they are brothers. The theories on who migrated from where to where are based on an evolutionary view of history and therefore the issue remains perplexing for geneticists and ethnologists alike.

‘The high diversity of N1a in the Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia and Egypt raises the possibility that this area was a secondary center of expansion for this haplogroup. However, the highest diversity for N1b and N1c are in Turkey, and Kurds and Iranians, respectively. Macrohaplogroup R is the main branch of N and their major subclades (H, J-T, K-U) embraced the majority of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages. The Western Asia haplogroup H is the most abundant haplogroup in Europe and the Near East. However in the Arabian Peninsula its mean frequency is moderate…’

Haplogroups N, R and H are associated primarily with the descendants of Shem and Europe. There is some crossover into Ham’s descendants through intermarriage and mixing. The mtDNA N haplogroup that is stronger in the Turks and Persians, reflects their lineal descent from Shem and not from Ham.

‘Haplogroup T shows regional heterogeneity in Saudi Arabia and has significantly lower frequencies in Southern Yemen and Oman countries. Haplogroup U comprises numerous branches (U1 to U9 and K) that have different geographic distributions. In Saudi Arabia all of them have representatives albeit in minor frequencies, K (4%) and U3 (2.3%) being the most abundant clades. There is no geographical heterogeneity for the total U distribution in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, it is significantly different among the Arabian Peninsula countries, with Southern countries showing higher frequencies than the others.

As a whole, haplogroup J reaches its highest frequency in Saudi Arabia, where its regional distribution is also significantly heterogeneous but opposite to that found for (preHV)1. For the J, the West (37.5%) and Southeast (25.7%) regions have higher frequencies than the Central (17.6%) and North (16.3%) regions. Heterogeneity in the whole Peninsula is also significant being Saudi Arabia (21%) and Qatar (17.8%) the two countries with the highest J frequencies. However, the subclade distribution is different in each country. Subclade J1b is the main contributor (9.4%) in Saudi Arabia while other J subclades account for 14.5% in Qatar. With the Qatar exception, J1b is the most frequent subclade in the Arabian Peninsula. Nevertheless, whereas the J1b branch TMRCA (11,099 ± 8,381 years ago) was contemporary to that of the northern J1b1a1, the recalculated age of the (preHV)1b branch (by adding all the new HVSI sequences found in the present survey to the ones previously used, was of only 4,036 ± 2,211 years ago which situates this expansion in the Bronze Age. These results could be satisfactorily explained if we admit an older Paleolithic implantation in Saudi Arabia of the J1b clade that, perhaps, with some other N and L clades would form the primitive population.’ 

‘Graphical relationships among the studied populations. MDS plot based on FST haplogroup distances. Codes are:

Ce = Central Saudi Arab, Dz = Druze, Et = Ethiopian, Ke = Kenyan, No = Northern Saudi Arab, Nu = Nubian, SE = Southeastern Saudi Arab, Su = Sudan, We = Western Saudi Arab. Bd = Bedouin Arab, Eg = Egyptian, In = Iranian, Iq = Iraqi, Jo = Jordanian, Ku = Kurd, Om = Omani, Pa = Palestinian, Qa = Qatar, Sy = Syrian, Tu = Turk, UA = United Arab Emirates, Ye = Yemeni.’

Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route, multiple authors, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although the bulk of the Arabian sequences (70%) belong to different clades of macrohaplogroup R, 13% percent of Arabian samples belong to haplogroup L, with a clear sub-Saharan African origin. One of the two L Arabian completely sequenced samples was a typical L2a1 lineage with a reversion at the 16309 position. The second is a derived L3i1a sequence, with its closest counterpart observed in Ethiopia pointing to a recent importation from northeastern Africa. Seven per cent of the Arabian samples were assigned to macro-haplogroup M, of which 4% are members of the North African haplogroup M1, and the remaining 3% conform a miscellaneous group of sequences from South, Southeast and Eastern Asian origins and sole representatives of Melanesia (Q1), Madagascar (M32c) or Australia (M42). In particular, the rare Arabian M sample completely sequenced in this study belongs to the Indian M42b1 clade, sharing only transversion 95C with a Munda sequence (MUN22) at the same clade. A sister branch of the Indian M42b, with a coalescence time estimation around 55 kya, has spread in Australia.’ 

The genetic link between the Melanesians and Indians of Cush and the Black Africans of Canaan with the Arabs of Mizra.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Observed in Iraqi Population, multiple authors, 2015:

‘Mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of [the] control region were sequenced from 100 random healthy unrelated individuals of three sequential generations [belonging] to the Arab [ethnicity of the] Iraqi population. The aim of this study was to [detect] the mtDNA haplotypes and [classify them] into mtDNA haplogroups [thereby] useful in forensic genetics applications and determining the Iraqi population history. The sequence variation within [the] D-loop control region were analyzed [and] the composition of haplogroups… showed [a] high frequency of haplogroups U, H, J, M, D, T and N (18%, 14%, 10%, 9%, 7%, 7% and 7%, respectively), [a] moderate frequency of haplogroups L and I was (4%) and B, A, R and K (2%), and [a] low frequency of haplogroup pre-HV (1%). This study [also indicated a] lack of V, P, Y, X, O, Z, Q, G, E and C haplogroups.’

                     Pre-HV  HV   H      U     J   M    T     I     K    B     L1     L3    W      X    V   

Iraq                               6     17     15    8    8     3     2   12     3                4      9     

Syria                  4         4     25    16   10    1   10            4             3                 3             3 

Palestinian       2         2     31      8     9    2   13            7          0.9                3       3  

Arabia               4         4     13     11   21  NR   5  0.8    4  NR  NR      11       2      2  

Iran                   6         6      17    22   14  NR  8      2    8  NR  NR       2      2       3  

Turkey              4         4      25    19   11     4  12      2   6           NR   0.3      4       4  

Slav                 NR     NR     41    19   11  0.9  12      3   4                            0.9   0.6     3

Italy                   2         2      33   22    7           9       4   8                                2       3     5 

German          NR    NR      50   14    8           9      3    7                                 1    0.5    3 

American          7         7       31   23    9         12      2    8  0.5                        1        2  

A comparison of  MtDNA haplogroups in the aforementioned paper, consisting of Arab populations and others from West Asia, Europe and beyond. It throws a light on the simplicity, yet complexity of the haplogroup sequencing that dictates the similarities, yet differences between ethnicities and races. A different set of figures from a different study, though not identical still highlights the relative percentage shift from an eastern Arab population in Iraq, towards a western one in Libya. Though obviously related, the Arabs have sprung from different sons of Mizra and thus the variety within even core mtDNA haplogroups such as H and J is marked.

                              L      HV      H     HVO+V      J      T      T2       U       K 

Syria                     6       3        26           3           9       3        9       10       6

Iraq                      8       9         17        0.2          13      5        4         7        5

Palestine             11      2         27       0.5          10      3        5         4        7

Saudi Arabia      10      1          9           0          20      2        4         5        4

Egypt                   22     4         16       0.4            9      5        6         3        5

Libya                   28      1         17           8          10      2        5         6        5

A considerable number of genetic disorders that are specific to Arabs, are located on a HLA segment on their chromosome 6. These segment mutations are then also markers for Arabs in genealogical and forensic profiling tests and studies, indicating they are a separate ethnic or racial family; not a mixture of European and South Asian or African peoples and certainly not a hybrid people.

Four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components characterise the populations in the Arab world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi. The Arabian component is the prime autosomal element in the Gulf region, though it is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant and Northeast Africa. 

Its presence is also found in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians which shows historical admixture. The Levantine component is the principal autosomal element in the Near East and the Caucasus area. The Coptic component is the main autosomal element throughout Northeast Africa. It peaks amongst the Egyptian Copts in the Sudan and is found at high frequencies in the both the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa.The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Northwest of Africa and includes the Berber populations. 

These four divisions equate to Mizra’s sons Pathros [Coptic], Anam [Maghrebi], Naphtuh [Levantine] and possibly Ludim [Arabian], if Naphtuh does not include the twin Levantine and Arabian components. Clarification on this will be covered in a separate chapter discussing Shem’s son Lud.

A genetic study published in the European Journal of Human Genetics in 2019, stated that West Asians, that is Arabs, are closely related to Europeans, Northern Africans and to Southwest Asians. I would concur with the latter two; though the first group is a little misleading. Arabs share certain haplogroups at a higher frequency with Europeans from Southeastern Europe, though this does not hold to be true with the majority of Europeans. Northeastern and especially Northwestern Europeans, are genetically far removed from an Arab. Arab haplogroups link them more closely too Indian, Pakistani and Black African peoples and a lesser degree to peoples of the Caucasus and Southeast Europe. The same cannot be said for the remainder of Europe. This scenario is reminiscent of the Indian-Aryan misnomer in Chapter XIII, Cush and Phut.

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, multiple authors, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Somalis and Ethiopians are sequestered to the right extreme of the plot, whereas the other North African group from Egypt is adjacent to a closely intertwined Levant/Peninsular Arab grouping. The Yemenis are the only population from the Arabian Peninsula that deviates from this spatial pattern, likely due to their… geographical isolation from the rest of the Peninsular Arabs.

When all branches of haplogroup U are considered together, there are no well-defined frequency clines observed except for the obvious lack of the haplogroup within the African continent.Upon sub-dividing the branches of the aforementioned haplogroup (only the most highly represented branches within the Iranian domain were further explored), clear region-specific gradients are detected. 

For example, sub-haplogroups U2 and U7 are widely distributed throughout Asia and the Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting their highest frequencies in the southwest Asian collections and displaying east-to-west frequency clines. It is noteworthy that both haplogroups are found in the Arabian Peninsula.

Y-chromosomal haplogroup J is present in high frequencies throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, dissipating considerably in all directions. Haplogroup R, on the other hand, presents very high frequencies in the central Asian/southwest Asian regions, with levels decreasing immediately beyond the Indus Valley area. A slight increase in frequencies is observed in the Balkan Peninsula.’

  1. MDS plot based on observed frequency of mtDNA haplogroup distributions (stress=0.28852). (b) MDS plot based on observed frequency of Y-chromosome haplogroup distributions (stress=0.12492). 

Recapping: Analysing the haplogroup family trees of the world, it is evident, that mtDNA which is passed from mothers to all their children, includes the main East Asian haplogroups [alphabetically] of B*, D* and M plus the American Indian* additional haplogroups of A and C. The key haplogroups for Ham are L and M and we will learn the main haplogroups of Shem are H, T and U. Whereas, the Y-DNA haplogroups passed from fathers to their sons, includes the main Japheth haplogroups of C*, D, K and O, plus the additional American Indian* haplogroup of Q. The key Shem Y-DNA haplogroups we will find are I, R1a and R1b and the prime haplogroups of Ham are A, B, E, H and J. 

The key Black African Y-DNA haplogroups are in order of frequency, E, A and B. The E haplogroup splits into the clades of E1b1a, E1b1b and E2. The primary mtDNA haplogroups for the Canaanites include haplogroups L0 to L6. The main Indian and Pakistani Y-DNA haplogroups are for India: R1a H L R2 and for Pakistan: R1a J L R2. The principal mtDNA haplogroups for Cush and Phut are M, U and R. 

An intersting split occurs in the Arab world. Those nations to the west in North Africa, have a Y-DNA descending sequence of E1b1b, J1, J2, T/G, [R1b/R1a]. Those Arab nations eastwards in the Arabian Peninsula, Levantine and the Gulf, have nations who possess the same haplogroups, though the majority in a markedly different order of J1, J2, E1b1b, G/T, [R1a/R1b]. 

The overview table supports three suppositions. Firstly, there is a clear difference between Arab Y-DNA Haplogroups and those of Europe – as we shall discover – with very high levels of E and J and very low levels of R1a and R1b. Secondly, there is a marked visible difference between the Arabs of North Africa and the Middle East – because they are from two different sons of Mizra, Anam and Naphtuh – in their type and levels of Haplogroup E1 and E2. Thirdly and related to the previous point, is the fact that Egypt though superficially looking as if it could belong to either group, is actually unique, aside from the Sudan – because it descends from another son of Mizra, Pathros.

(a) mtDNA haplogroup distributions (b) Y-chromosomal haplogroup distributions.’

The prime mtDNA haplogroups for Mizra are H, L and J. The Arab peoples possess Y-DNA [paternal] haplogroups common to the Black africans, particularly E1b1b and a lesser degree, E1b1a, A and B. They similarly share in small quantities with India, R1a, L and H; while with Pakistan, they share small quantities of R1a, L and H and proportionately,  considerable levels of haplogroup J and specifically J1 [M267] – see below.

To the south of Egypt, there are nations that include Arabs though they are not necessarily the majority. Black Africans are a substantial part of these populations. The  main Arab E1b1b haplotype is E-M215, for K it is KM9 and for it is F is F-M89.

Egypt:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – T1 – R1b – G – E1b1a – R1a

– A – F – L – I – Q – K

Egypt: E1b1b [44%] – J1 [21%] – J2 [7%] – T1 [6%] – R1b [6%] – G [6%]

– E1b1a [3%] – R1a [2%] – A [1.3%] – F [1%] – L [0.8%] – I [0.5%]

– Q – [0.3%] – K [0.3%] 

The approximate six percent of the western European sub-Haplogroup R1b in Egyptians is comprised of R1b-V88 at 2.97% and R1b-M269 also at 2.97%. R1b-V88 is a mutation of R1b found specifically in Arab peoples of Africa that has originally derived from intermixing. Whereas, R1b-M269 is the main R1b Haplogroup spread across Western Europe. It is found in lesser percentages across Eastern Europe and the Middle East as evidence of intermarriage and historical contact amongst migrating peoples.

Eritrea:    E1b1b – J – A – T – B

Djibouti:  E1b1b – J – T – A/B

Somalia:  E1b1b – J -[R1b] – B – A – G – [E2] – T

Chad:       E1b1b – [R1b] – A – J – B

Sudan:     J – E1b1b – [R1b] – A/B 

The nations of Anam laying to the west of Pathros [Egypt].

Libya:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – R1b – T1 – R1a – L – I – G

Libya: E1b1b [49%] – J1 [27%] – J2 [7%] – R1b [6%] – T [5%] –

R1a [1.7%] – L [1.5%] – I [1.5%] – G [1%] 

The breakdown of Libya’s R1b is R-V88 at 6.02%, with no R-M269. Thus recent admixture is virtually non-existent compared to historical contact.

Tunisia:     E1b1b – J1 – J2 – F – R1b – T1 – R1a – K – G – E1b1a – B – I 

Tunisia: E1b1b [72%] – J1 [17%] – J2 [3%] – F [2%] – R1b [2%] –

E1b1a [1.4%] – T1 [0.7%] – R1a [0.5%] – K [0.3%] – G [0.2%] –

B [0.1%] – I [0.1%]

The breakdown of Tunisia’s R1b is R-V88 at 1.83% and R-M269 at 0.33%.

Algeria:      E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – F – K – R1a – Q – G – I

Algeria: E1b1b [56%] – J1 [22%] – R1b [10%] – J2 [5%] – F [4%] –

K [0.6%] – R1a [o.6%] –  Q [0.6%] – G [0.5%] – I [0.1%] 

The breakdown of Algeria’s R1b is R-V88 at 2.56% and R-M269 at 7.04%. Algeria is the opposite to Libya in that it shows more recent admixture than historically. 

Morocco:    E1b1b – J1 – R1b – J2 – G – B – K – F – A – I

Morocco: E1b1b [83%] – J1 [7%] – R1b [5%] – J2 [2%] – G [0.6%] –

B [0.6%] – K [0.5%] – F [0.3%] – A [0.3%] – I [0.1%] 

The breakdown of Morocco’s R1b is R-V88 at 0.92% and R-M269 at 3.55%, similar to Algeria. The Western Sahara [Mauritania] and Berbers are the furthest west.

Mauritania:    E1b1b – J – E1b1a – E1a

W Sahara:       E1b1b – J1 – R1b – B  

Berbers:           E1b1b – J – E1b1a – A/B – E1a

Berbers            E1b1b [79%] – J [6%]

West Sahara:  E1b1b [67%] – J1 [13%] – R1b [7%] – B [0.5%]

The breakdown of the West Saharan Arab population R1b is R-V88 at 6.88% and R-M269 0.53%.

Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco have a Y-DNA haplogroup sequence that differs from that of Egypt, tellingly in haplogroups J2, T1 and G. Libya appears to align with Egypt [apart from haplogroup G], though as their population is considerably smaller than the other four nations of North Africa, plus the fact that Libyans live primarily in the west of their nation, close to the Tunisian and Algerian populations, they are included as Anam. The Moroccan sequence is closer to Tunisia as Algeria is with Libya.

                      E1b1b     J1       J2        T       G

Egypt               44        21        7         6        6     

Libya               49        27        7         5         1

Tunisia            72        17        3      0.7     0.2

Algeria             56       22        5                0.5

Morocco          83         7        2                0.6

Comparing the nations to the northeast of Egypt:

Syria:        J1 – J2 – R1b – E1b1b – R1a – G – T – L – I 

Syria: J1 [30%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [14%] – E1b1b [ 12%] – R1a [10%] –

G [6%] – T [5%] – L [3%] – I [2%] 

Iraq:         J1 – J2 – E1b1b – R1b – R1a – I – T1a – G2a – E1b1a – L – N1c1 – Q 

Iraq: J1 [43%] – J2 [20%] – E1b1b [10%] – R1b [10%] – R1a [6%] –

I [3%] – T1a [3%] – G2a [2%] – E1b1a [0.9%] – L [0.5%] – N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Iraq’s R1b is R-M269 at 10.8%, with no R-V88, hence admixture with Europeans has been more recent and due to Iraq’s location this is logical.

Kuwait:     J1/J2 – R1a1a – E1b1b – G2a – R1b – T1a – I – H – G – K – L

Lebanon:  J2 – J1 – E1b1b – R1b – G – L – T1 – I – L – R1a – Q – N 

Lebanon:  J2 [26%] – J1 [20%] – E1b1b [17%] – R1b [8%] – G [7%] –

L [5%] – T [5%] – I [4%] – L [3%] – R1a [2%] – Q [2%] – L – N [0.1]

Jordan:    J1 – E1b1b – R1b – J2 – G – I – R1a – T

Jordan:  J1 [31%] – E1b1b [26%] – R1b [18%] – J2 [13%] – G [4%] –

I [4%] – R1a [2%] – T [1%]

Palestinian Arab: J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1b – G – I – R1a – T

Palestinian Arab: J1 [39%] – E1b1b [20%] – J2 [17%] – R1b [9%] – G [7%] –

I [5%] – R1a [1.5%] – T [1%] 

This grouping is clearly different from those nations lying to the west of Egypt. A number of the nations have a higher percentage of haplogroup G, similar to Egypt and unlike the rest of North Africa. Levels of E1b1b are far lower, with haplogroup J being  more prominent than in North Africa. Lebanon stands out as the only nation with more J2 than J1 – J2 being associated with European nations particularly southern Europe.

                            J1       J2     E1b1b      G       T   

Egypt                 21         7        44          6       6

Syria                  30       17        12          6        5

Iraq                   43       20        10          2        3

Lebanon           26       20        17          7        5 

Jordan              31        13        26          4        1 

Palestine          39        17        20          7        1 

Egypt is even more distinct from this northeast group of Arabic nations. It is similar to some only in the lesser G and T haplogroups. The other five peoples are linked with a discernible family alignment.

Comparing the nations to the east of Egypt in the Arabian Peninsula.

Saudi Arabia:  J1 -J2 – E1b1b – E1b1a – T – R1a – G – Q – R1b – L

Saudia Arabia:  J1 [40%] – J2 [16%] – E1b1b [8%] – E1b1a [8%] –

T [5%] – R1a [5%] – G [3%] – Q [3%] – R1b [2%] – L [2%] 

The United Arab Emirates

UAE:                 J1 – E1b1b – J2 – R1a – E1b1a – T – G – R1b – L – Q 

UAE:  J1 [30%] – E1b1b [12%] – J2 [10%] – R1a [8%] – E1b1a [5%] –

T [5%] – G [4%] – R1b [4%] – L [3%] – Q [2%] 

Bahrain:           J – E1b1b – R1a – R2a – H – G – K – L – B

Qatar:               J – R1a – E1b1b – G – E1b1a [3%] – L – R1b – [R2a] – [B] – [I] – [T]

Qatar:   J [67%] – R1a [7%] – E1b1b [6%] – G [3%] – E1b1a [3%] –

L [3%] – R1b [1%]

Oman:              J – E1b1b – R1a – T – G – R1b – L – [H]

Oman:  J [48%] – E1b1b [16%] – R1a [ 9%] – T [8%] – G [2%] –

R1b [2%] – L [0.8%] 

Yemen:             J1 – E1b1b – J2 – E1b1a – G -[R1a] – [T]

Yemen:  J1 [73%] – E1b1b [13%] – J2 [9%] – E1b1a [3%] – G [2%] 

This grouping is more closely related to the nations northeast of Egypt, though with the subtle difference of the third haplogroup percentage shifting from R1b to R1a. Comparing Saudi Arabia with Syria and Iraq highlights their similarly and the support that both regions located in the Middle East comprise Naphtuh. The nations of North Africa are clearly more closely related as are the nations of the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula to each other; while Egypt straddles the two regions. The nations westwards are possibly Naptuh and those eastwards, Anam. Further research or input to indicate the Anam and Naphtuh divide definitively would progress the support for this supposition.

                              J1      J2      E1b1b        G        T    

Egypt                  21         7         44            6        6

Saudi Arabia     40       16          8             3        5

UAE                    30       10        12             4        5    

Oman                                          16             2        8

Yemen                73         9         13             2

Syria                   30       17         12             6        5

Iraq                     43       20        10            2         3

Comparing the major Arab lineage Egypt, Pathros, with the other major lines from Cush, India; Phut, Pakistan and Canaan, Nigeria. Egypt has the highest level of R1b-M269 [from admixture] at 2.97%, Pakistan has 2.8%, India has 0.5% and Nigeria 0%.

As an aside, the African American does have R-m269, at 14%. This figure certainly reflects admixture with the line of Shem.

Egypt:        E1b1b – J1 – J2 – T1 – R1b – G – E1b1a – R1a – A – F – L – I – Q – K

Nigeria:     E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Pakistan:   R1a – J – L – R2 – C – G – H – Q – F – O

India:         R1a – H – O – L – R2 – J – T – F – P – C – R1b – G

Pakistan as Phut, exhibits haplogroups in common with India – R1a, R2, L and H. It also shares J and G with the Arab peoples, due to its Lehab [Lubim] component from Mizra – as highlighted in Cush & Phut, Chapter XIII. 

Y-DNA haplogroup J is a strong common denominator throughout the Middle east and Southwest Asia; while G is interesting, as it is found primarily in the Caucasus and the Middle East, yet it has found its way to Pakistan – due to its admixture with Lehab.

                              E1b1b   E1b1a     A        J        G        L       R1a

Egypt                      44           3        1.3     28        6      0.8        2

Nigeria                    4          68           3

Pakistan                                                     20        3        12       37

India                                                              9     0.1       18       28

Egypt has genetic material in common with Nigeria as much as it does with Pakistan and India. Nigeria and India are pole opposites and Pakistan and Egypt bridge the gap, with Egypt closer to Nigeria and Pakistan closer to India. This bears out the second point in the introduction regarding nations living adjacent to peoples that they are more closely related to, a concentric geography. All are brother nations as the sons of Ham: Mizra, Canaan, Phut and Cush.

Fools are rewarded with nothing but more foolishness, but the wise are rewarded with knowledge.

Proverbs 14:18 New Century Version

“I don’t imagine you will dispute the fact that at present the stupid people are in an absolutely overwhelming majority all the world over.” 

Henrik Ibsen

“In the end truth always wins.”

George F Jowett

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Canaan & Africa

Chapter XII

Canaan: the fourth and youngest son of Ham. Before we continue in earnest, there is a vital key to understanding not just Canaan but numerous identities to follow. This matter is being laboured as it has been the single biggest block in understanding where the peoples of the Bible were and where they are now. It requires a return to point number two in the introduction. 

Original peoples dwelt in a region after the flood; they then migrated. New peoples would move in; they then would be known by the names already associated with the area, the actual land, invariably from the previous dwellers. Tracking and identifying these former peoples, plus now the new ones becomes difficult, because historians and researchers assume they can rely on the names already established for the land area as still being applicable to the new migrations who are actually completely different people. 

Giving two peoples the same name because of where they are living and not based on who they are is non-sensical and mis-leading. We will discuss why the children of Canaan dwelt where they did and who the new people were that moved into their territory when Canaan migrated. All the information one can find on Canaan and Canaanites* in books, papers and the internet, unknown to the authors themselves, invariably relates to either a. other people of Ham’s line, b. Shem’s descendants, c. the line of Cain or d. the Nephilim and incredibly, not the true descendants of Canaan. 

Israel a History of – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From Ca’naan came eleven sons, the eldest being Sidon. Sidon founded the city Sidon, and was the progenitor of the Phoenicians. From Heth came the Hittites (Genesis 23:10), who ruled over an empire in Asia Minor for over 800 years. Hittites are very active throughout the entire Old Testament. They were present in Canaan at the time of Abraham, reaching their zenith sometime later in Asia Minor, yet were still a force during the reign of Solomon 1,000 years later (II Chronicles 1:17). Eventually their empire crumbled, and there is evidence that some of the Hittite people fled eastward. Cuneiform monuments record the name “Khittae”, and this may have been modified to Cathay. Archaeologists have noted many similarities between the Hittites and the Mongoloids.’

We will discover that the Phoenicians are descended from Shem and not Ham. True Canaanites had well dispersed by the time the Israelites arrived in Canaan in 1407 BCE. The Phoenicians were sea, shipping and trading people. The original Canaanites were not fond of the sea or boats. Similarly, Heth was a prominent son of Canaan. Later, prominent descendants of Shem were also called, Hittites. These Hittites were a war-like people, establishing a powerful empire that rivalled the Assyrians. Both Empires lived side-by-side in Asia Minor and established an alliance, rather than antagonising each other. These Hittites descend from Shem. We have seen earlier that the Khitt-ae are from Kitti, son of Javan and are the Malay peoples of Indonesia. An earlier people in Anatolia prior to the Hittites were the Hattians. The Hatti, derived from Khatti – a different word – and though easily confused with the Khittae, are an entirely different people, descending from Shem.

‘The Sinites are an interesting tribe. There is tenuous evidence that they may be the ancestors of the Chinese. Possibly the Sinites migrated east all the way to China. Of the descendants of Ham, Sin and Heth are the two most probable ancestors of the Oriental people. Ca’naan’s descendants, according to scripture, “spread abroad” (Genesis 10:18). Of the lines descending from the sons of Noah, these peoples migrated perhaps more than any other. The contributions made by the descendants of Ham, the youngest of the sons of Noah, are staggering. They were the first explorers. They became the first cultivators of the basic food groups. They discovered and invented medicines, and surgical practices. They were the first to develop fabrics, and the devices used to sew these fabrics. They were the inventors of mathematics, surveying, and navigation.’

The Chinese descend from Japheth and are East Asian – not Hamitic. The Phoenicians, Hittites and Chinese have not been slaves or subjugated to other nations. The peoples described above who travelled extensively and contributed to the advancement of society are the Phoenicians who built the city of Tyre and caused Sidon to flourish, making them world-renowned with their import-export trading interests. 

A H Sayce page 55-59 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Canaan bordered on Egypt, and the name is usually explained to mean the lowlands. It originally denoted, in fact, the narrow strip of land which lies between the sea and the mountains on the coast of Palestine. Here the great cities of the Phoenicians were built, and it was from hence that the Phoenician ships started on their voyages in search of wealth. As time went on, the name of Canaan came to be applied to the land beyond the mountains on the east. In the letters written from Palestine to the Egyptian court a century before the Exodus, and discovered among the ruins of Tel el- Amarna, Kinakhkhi or Canaan denotes the district which intervened between the cities of the Philistines and the country northward of Gebal. The latter was called the land of the Amorites. In the books of the Old Testament the word Canaan has acquired an even greater extent of meaning than it has in the tablets of Tel el-Amarna. The cities of the Philistines, as well as the barren region east of them, are alike included in Canaan. Even the Amorites have become Canaanites, like the inhabitants of Hamath far away to the north.’

Canaan is mentioned many, many times in the Bible, not in reference to their people but the land they first settled, that in time became busier than grand central station in terms of human traffic and the varying numbers of nations that dwelt in the region for millennia.

‘The original land [actually much later] of Canaan was called Phoenicia by the Greeks and Kaft by the Egyptians. It is possible that both names were derived from the palms which grew luxuriantly there. Kaph and Kipptih signify a palm-branch in Hebrew, and phoenix in Greek has the same meaning. But it is also possible that the latter word was derived from the name of the country in which the Greeks first became acquainted with the palm, not that the country took its name from the tree.

The language of Canaan, as it is called by Isaiah [19:18], differed but slightly from Hebrew. The Hebrew tribes, in fact, like their kindred in Moab and Ammon, must have exchanged their earlier Aramaic dialects for the language of the country in which they settled. In no other way can we explain how it came about that the Syrian emigrant [Deuteronomy 26:5] should have acquired the ancient language of Canaan. The adoption of the new language was doubtless facilitated by the relationship of the Aramaic dialects to Hebrew or Phoenician. They belonged to the same family of speech and bore the same relation to one another that French bears to Italian.

Interesting and coincidental observation regarding language, which we will re-visit when studying Aram and Moab. 

‘It will be seen that the tribes and cities of which Canaan is said to have been the father were related to one another only geographically. The blond Amorite and the yellow-skinned Hittite of the north had nothing in common from a racial point of view either with one another or with the Semitic tribes of Canaan. Geography and not ethnology has caused them to be grouped together.

Sayce hits upon the key point regarding Canaan. The blond Amorites are not the descendants of Amor, the son of Canaan. All the information we read regarding Canaan in extraneous material and in the Bible after Abraham and certainly by the time the  sons of Jacob [Israelites] arrived [between circa 1,900 – 1400 BCE], witnesses a change in who the Canaanites were. The original Canaanites had departed for Africa and other Canaanites* had moved into the vacated strip of land, or had forced the true Canaanites south. It was a lucrative piece of real estate with its rich soil and extensive ports. There were many peoples and those who were evil, the Nephilim descended giants and those who had intermarried with them, by default fell to the descendants of Jacob during the waging of a momentous war for seven years to clear the land after they entered in 1407 BCE. 

A well known online encyclopaedia, accurately states the multiculturalism and variety of ethnicities that fell under the ‘Canaanite’ banner at the time of this intermediate period and the incorrect ascribing of the term to the Phoenicians from an ethnic vantage, yet accurate from a geographic perspective – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name “Canaan” appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations. The word “Canaanites” serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations.It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible.The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians,and after the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage (founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (chanani) of North Africa during Late Antiquity.’

Herman Hoeh, Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Originally the sons of Canaan settled in Palestine. Canaan, remember, was the first born of Ham [Canaan was Ham’s youngest son – see Chapter XI]. Canaan’s descendants – and this includes the other sons of Ham – were to be “servant of servants” (Genesis 9:25). Their children are to serve both Shem and Japheth (verses 26,27). There is nothing wrong with serving – we all have to learn to serve. Shem and Japheth must become God’s servants, too. That is why Canaan is called a “servant of servants.” Many have quoted this in direct reference to the [Black African]. As brothers of Canaan, the [Africans] have shared the same position in life, but [Africans] are not Canaanites.

Dr Hoeh has confidently stated his position, firstly, based on the later ‘Canaanite’ peoples and the trading ‘trafficking’ of the Phoenicians – very understandable, yet incorrect. And secondly, to distance himself from the thorny issue of equating the Black peoples with Canaan – particularly at time of writing in 1957 America. 

‘The Canaanites were great traffickers of old. The word Canaanite in Zechariah 14:21 is, in fact, translated as “trafficker” in the Jewish translation. The Sidonians, descendants of Canaan, were famous seamen in the days of Solomon. The Greeks called them “Phoenicians”. But the Phoenicians called themselves “Kna” or “Knana”, meaning Canaanite.’

From a historical time-line perspective, the original Sidonians were linked to Canaan [who were not sea-traders], the intermediate Sidonians to Aram [the original Phoenicians], a son of Shem and the later Sidonians, who  were linked with Midian, another great trading people and a son of Abraham. The Phoenicians lived in Canaan as the collective area was known, hence their identification with this name – it was they who were the ‘famous seamen.’

‘When Israel entered the land of Palestine under Joshua, whole tribes of the Canaanites were destroyed or driven out of central Palestine (Judges 3:1-4) because some of the Canaanites were extremely degenerate in their morals. Now turn to Genesis 10:18, “Afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad”. Where did they journey?’

The ‘extremely degenerate’ Canaanites at this time, that the sons of Jacob encountered, were not the original sons of Canaan but the Nephilim descended giants who had infiltrated the land. We will cover this subject in-depth in a later chapter.

‘The Canaanites settled the island of Malta and parts of Sicily, Southern Italy, Sardinia, North Africa and even Southern Spain and Portugal, where the sons of Javan were already living. Most people are familiar with the Phoenicians from grade and high school days. In North Africa the Canaanites are called Moors – a name probably derived from Amors, the Hebrew form of “Amorites”. From these lands they have spread into North and South America since the days of Columbus. The Portuguese – of mixed Canaanite and Tarshish stock – have settled much of Brazil. And the Sicilians are [well known] in big cities in America. The underworld “Mafia” organization which springs from Canaanitish Sicily, is but a modern version of their ancient tendency to traffic among the nations of the world.

Canaanites have also intermarried into Esau – Turkey today (Genesis 26:34), and Judah (Genesis 38:2), and Israel (Judges 3:5-7). Only a few Canaanites remain in North Palestine and Lebanon. The Canaanites are seldom included in the prophecies which pertain to this twentieth century. They exert no great position or influence in the world.’

Esau’s ‘Canaanite’ wives were not true Canaanites but – as stated earlier of the four options for non-Canaanite* peoples a, b, c & d – they were from d. Nephilim families. Judah did take a wife from the original Canaanites. The Israelites as mentioned in the Book of Judges took wives from later Canaanites from b. Shem’s descendants. We will learn that the Latins of Europe – such as the Portuguese and Sicilians – are descended from Shem and are not from Japheth or Ham. The majority of Latinos in the Americas though, are descended from a. Ham, but not from Canaan; as is also true of the Moors and the Arab peoples of the Lebanon and Palestine. Another fascinating coincidence has occurred, with regard to the Portuguese and Brazil, which we will return to in a later chapter.

The original meaning of Canaan was different. The term ‘Trafficker’ and link to trade, was applied to Canaan the land and the later people living in Canaan and not to the original Canaanites. Herman Hoeh states the brother[s] of Ham have ‘shared the same position in life’. The Bible reveals that Canaan was to be a servant people, not Ham or any of the other three brothers of Canaan. Herman Hoeh ironically, while denying the simple truth of the Canaanites classification, in the process, reveals the true identity of Canaan. For they are the Black peoples of East, Central, West and South [Sub-Sahara] Africa

Matthew 18:1-5

New English Translation

At that time the disciples came to Jesus saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” 2 He called a child, had him stand among them, 3 and said, “I tell you the truth, unless you turn around and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven! 4 Whoever then humbles himself like this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5 And whoever welcomes a child like this in my name welcomes me.

A child who has a basic understanding of world history and has learned about the slave trade, would… if presented with the question: which people in the world have endured untold hardships, extremes of poverty and the severest of suffering at the hands of slave traders, over recorded history? One can’t help but think a child, in their natural, honest speak-as-they-see-it innocence, would quickly offer the Black descended people of Africa as their answer. It has been in the scriptures, right in front of us for a very long time. 

Luke 7:35

New English Translation

35 But wisdom is vindicated [or shown to be right ] by all her children [by all those who follow her].”

It is a highly sensitive issue and many are reticent to vocalise the palpable truth; so as to escape the vitriolic criticism that could inevitably ensue. Not speaking the undeniable, doesn’t alter it or make it disappear. It is a harshness beyond compare, that a whole line of people would be punished because of one man’s transgression; though we do not see all the pieces of the puzzle put together as the Creator does. 

The reality is that the Black people have suffered at the hands of the British, Americans, Dutch, Portuguese as well as the Arabs in recent history and as recorded in the Bible, at the hand of the Egyptians – the El Amarna tablets circa 1500 BCE. African tribes have continuously waged war against each other with horrific violence, making slaves of one another. There has been no rest for the descendants of Canaan and it continues to the present day where in the main, African governments and regimes brutally subjugate their own people. 

As tragic as the taking of people from their families and homes was and transplanting them in the New World of America, the Caribbean and Brazil, with dangerous, deadly ocean crossings and often savage masters; it has resulted for future generations of African Americans to have at least a chance of a life of opportunities, far greater than their fellow peoples – those living on the African Continent today. I empathise with all the descendants of African Americans though that have not benefited in being transplanted from their homeland and if history could be rewound, this reason alone would be enough cause to turn back time.

The severity of the punishment handed down to the Canaanites stopped short with them and did not include their possession of territory. Their land is vast, with huge natural resources. In the top ten countries with the most natural resources that China tops, one African nation is included at number nine; the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Mining is the primary industry of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2009, the country had over $24 million in mineral deposits including the largest coltan reserve and vast amounts of cobalt. The DRC also possesses large copper, diamond, gold, tantalum, and tin reserves, along with over three million tons of lithium. Lithium and cobalt both integral ingredients for batteries in electric vehicles.

Regarding Canaan’s name, there is somewhat of a conflict, between what the word actually means and what it became associated with. Strong’s Concordance #H3667 includes: Merchant, Traffick, Traffickers, Trader, Lowland and from root H3665, Humiliated. Canaan, as inferred by several commentators, was to be a ‘servant of servants’, ‘humbled, subdued’ and ‘subjugated’. The land of Canaan was low lying and it became synonymous with Merchants and trafficking of goods. Saying that, Canaan as a people were also trafficked and treated as merchandise. 

Abarim Publications – bold theirs: 

‘For a meaning of the name Canaan, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Low. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Merchant or Servant… We would interpret the name Canaan as International Trade or International Synchronicity… From the verb (kana), to be brought into synchronicity.’

Canaan can mean the ‘land of purple’ from the term kinahnu: purple dye. The colour purple became associated with the Phoenicians. It is an interesting coincidence that The Color Purple is the title of Alice Walker’s 1982 novel and subsequent Steven Spielberg film. The story is about African American gender, race and nationhood. The link with purple to Canaan’s descendants is insightful, as purple is associated with the following lofty traits, invariably denied to Canaan but no less desired:

Bourne Creative:

‘Purple combines the calm stability of blue and the fierce energy of red. The color purple is often associated with royalty, nobility, luxury, power, and ambition. Purple also represents meanings of wealth, extravagance, creativity, wisdom, dignity, grandeur, devotion, peace, pride, mystery, independence, and magic.

The color purple is a rare occurring color in nature and as a result is often seen as having sacred meaning. Lavender, orchid, lilac, and violet flowers are considered delicate and precious. Throughout history, purple robes were worn by royalty and people of authority or high rank… the rare occurrence of purple in nature made it one of the most expensive color dyes to create.

The amount of melanin a person has dictates not only the colour of their skin. 

Rastafari: The Truth About Melanin – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body [more] rapidly in Black people… Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than [white infants], and [demonstrate] more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts… Carol Barnes writes “… your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (athletics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!”

The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically… Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called [Soul] in Black people. Is God Black? The Original Man was [black], “made in the Image of God” his Parent. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.

When studying Noah, we established that the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man are described as white in the Bible. The same is written in the Book of Enoch chapter 46:1-3.

1 At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor… 2 And I asked the one… who had revealed to me all the secrets… “Who is this… 3 And he answered me and said to me, “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells. And He will open all [that is] hidden… for Yahweh of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts in eternal uprightness.” 

We will look further in to man being the image of God. There is a link to the colour black as this author states; just not quite the answer one would expect.

‘Most [white people] have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, thereby limiting their [spiritual]* capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal [and] pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradition regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian [royalty’s] crowns.’

A succinct definition online: ‘Uraeus is an important symbol associated with the Gods, Goddesses, and Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is represented by the image of an upright cobra in a threatening pose and is believed to have its origins in Iaret, an Egyptian word meaning the risen one. The icon symbolized divine authority, royalty, sovereignty, and supremacy and was worn as a crown or head ornament by the ancient Egyptian divinities and rulers. This sacred serpent symbol reiterated the connection between the Gods and the Pharaohs and wearing the Uraeus conveyed legitimacy to the royal personage. The rearing cobra indicated that the ruler enjoyed the protection and patronage of Goddess Wadjet, the Lower Egypt deity. After the unification of Egypt, the Uraeus was depicted together with the Vulture, which was the symbol of Nekhbet, the patroness of Upper Egypt. The merged symbol was called ‘The Two Ladies’, the joint protectors of the country.’

‘Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally and morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most [white people] are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians 15-25%; Europeans 60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural differences between [blacks] and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, rigid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and… feelings. Melanin [gives] humans the ability to [feel] because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy.’

A case in point, is the faith* that Black people exhibit towards their Saviour and their exuberance and passion at Church services. This has often produced thoughts of respect and a little jealousy, towards their genuine peace and joy.

‘After considering Melanin to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western… science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to make [the Black race inferior], “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview).

In humans, melanin is the primary determinant of skin and hair color. However, few people know that melanin is found in almost every organ of the body and is necessary for the brain and nerves to operate, the eyes to see, and the cells to reproduce. It is also found in the stria vascularis of the inner ear. In the brain, tissues with melanin include the medulla and pigment-bearing neurons within areas of the brainstem, such as the locus coeruleus and the substantia nigra. It also occurs in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland.

Exposure to the sun has the potential to cause premature aging of the skin, as well as various skin cancers. [The] ability to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation depends on the amount of melanin in your skin, which is determined by the number of melanocytes that are active beneath the surface… Melanin is an effective absorber of light; the pigment is able to dissipate more than 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation. In even the most light-skinned people, the body’s melanocytes respond to sun exposure by producing more melanin, which creates the effect known as tanning. However, there is a limit to the degree of protection that melanin can provide, and it’s significantly higher in people with naturally darker skin.

Melanin can absorb a great amount of energy and yet not produce a tremendous amount of heat when it absorbs this energy, because it can transform harmful energy into useful energy. According to dermatologist and dermapathologist Dr. Leon Edelstein, director of the National American West Skin Pathology Consultation Service, melanin can absorb tremendous quantities of energy of all kinds, including energy from sunlight, x-ray machines, and energy that is formed within cells during the metabolism of cells. His theory is that melanin has the ability to neutralize the potentially harmful effects of these energies.

Darkly pigmented people tend to exhibit less signs of aging. Dermatologist Susan C. Taylor, author of “Brown Skin,” points out that Blacks and other people of color generally look younger than their lighter-skinned peers because of the higher levels of melanin in their skin. The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against folate depletion. 

Folate is water soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. Folate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, folate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Folate breaks down in high intense UVR. Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects.’ 

‘Dr. Frank Barr, pioneering discoverer of melanin’s organizing ability and other properties, theorizes in his technical work, Melanin: The Organizing Molecule: “The hypothesis is advanced that (neuro)melanin (in conjunction with other pigment molecules such as the isopentenoids) functions as the major organizational molecule in living systems. Melanin is depicted as an organizational “trigger” capable of using established properties such as photon – (electron) – photon conversions, free radical-redox mechanism, ion exchange mechanisms, and semiconductive switching capabilities to direct energy to strategic molecular systems and sensitive hierarchies of protein enzyme cascades. Melanin is held capable of regulating a wide range of molecular interactions and metabolic processes…”

The map of former African colonies is a grim picture. To be clear, the African people have suffered because of their forefather Canaan and his actions; not, because the Black people are inferior to any other racial line, or because they have brought suffering on themselves. Black peoples are not inferior to any other race of people on Earth. Nor do they deserve any kind of racial discrimination for their ethnic characteristics and colour of their skin.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the Greek New Testament the name Canaan is spelled Χανααν [Acts 7:11 and 13:19]  and Canaanite (female) is spelled Χαναναια (Matthew 15.22]. The masculine form Χαναναιος does not occur in the New Testament but both Matthew and Mark make mention of a Simon the Kanaanite (Κανανιτης;  [Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18]).

The name Canaan may have been original — meaning “land of purple,” says HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, which relates it to Phoenicia, also meaning purple — and turned proverbial, but it may also have been taken from the Hebrew verb (kana) and projected back upon this person… The verb (kana) means to synchronize, or to give up individual leanings in order to unite more effectively as a group. Noun (kin’a) means bundle or pack.’

A further irony, as the sons of Canaan have not been a unified people and their leaders have not given up individual leanings.

‘The Old Testament’s passion for reaching the “land of Canaan” may have a very clear connotation of reaching the blissful situation of international synchronicity. Being located on the bridge between three continents, the [intermediate] historical people of Canaan maintained a flowering culture of trade. Thus the words, meaning Canaan, and, meaning Canaanite, acquired the additional meaning of trade or merchant (Zephaniah 1:11, Ezekiel 16:29).’

The original allotment of land running north-south on the furthest eastern coast of the mediterranean or the far west coast of the fertile crescent, had been designated for Shem’s descendants. Canaan’s descendants had dwelt there before migrating southwest to Africa. Ultimately, the sons of Jacob also migrated away from this strip of land.

In the Book of Jubilees chapter Ten, verses 28-33, we read about Canaan after the flood and when land was apportioned to Japheth Ham and Shem, in the wider Near and Middle Eastern region. Recall, Madai [Chapter IV] requested to live adjacent to Shem’s descendants. 

And Ham and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion in the land of the south. And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt [the Nile], that it was very good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west(that is to) the sea [North Africa], and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him: ‘Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition; for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem; for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the [Holy Judge], and in the presence of Noah our father.’ But he did not harken unto them, and dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of Egypt… 

Canaan’s three brothers all migrated to northern Africa. Canaan followed later as predicted, settling in North West Africa. Ultimately, two brothers left Africa and two remained. One being Canaan, who eventually spread southward throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

We read in Genesis 10:15-18 ESV, of the sons of Canaan:

Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

In other words: Sidon, Heth, Jebu, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath. 

The endeavour to identify all eleven of Canaan’s lines of descendants – as there are some forty plus African nations containing Canaan’s offspring – for now, remains a future project. We will concentrate on Sidon the firstborn and Heth the second born, who is also a prominent line. 

Insight into Canaan’s sons is provided by Professor Aaron Demsky, in Reading Biblical Genealogies – Including a close look at how the description of the Canaanite lineage was constructed (Genesis 10:15-18) – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Sons of Canaan… include twelve names. In order to come up with twelve Canaanite sons – another typological number implying a full people (see below) – it needed to include different kinds of names.

… Six of the names are ethnic names, known from the lists of the indigenous Canaanite peoples, that appear either in part or in full some twenty-five times in the Bible. Three of these terms are the externally documented: Canaanites, Amorites and Hittites. The rest are unknown in non-biblical texts: Jebusites, Girgashites and Hivites. The [Perizzites], who appear in a number of these lists, are not mentioned here.

… The list also includes five Phoenician-Syrian city-states as part of the Canaanite league:

1. Sidon along the coast,

2.`Arqa (Tel `Arqa, ca.20 kms north east of Tripoli) [Ark]

3. Sin (Shian in the Assyrian sources; in later Jewish documents it is identified with Tripoli in Lebanon)

4. Arwad (Ruad, an island port between Tripoli and Latakia) [Arvad]

5. Semer (Assyrian Ṣumur, south of Arwad) [Zemar]

6. Hamath (Hama one of the major cities in middle Syria), situated on the Orontes.

The names of these “sons” are not presented uniformly.

1. The first three—Canaan, Sidon and Heth—are proper names.

2. The “descendants” are written as gentilics (i.e., relational adjectives in the nisbe form) with the definite article (the Jebusite, the Amorite), etc. Canaan also appears in this form at the end of the list.

Chiastic Form

The “descendants” are listed in chiastic order. Sidon is the firstborn followed by Heth. Following Heth are the other five Canaanite peoples, related to Heth, and then the five city states, obviously related to Sidon, as they are all Phoenician city-states like Sidon…

The Significance of Twelve

As we see from the later genealogies of Nahor (Genesis 22:20-24), Ishmael (Genesis 25:13-15), and of course, Jacob, twelve is a significant number in biblical tradition for classifying large ethnic units, or tribal leagues, in the patriarchal period. In this case of Canaan, however, we find a certain creativity in order to produce the desired number. The list has two anomalies:

1. The patriarch here is one of the twelve.

2. Five city-states (or feudal kingdoms) have been recast as clan units. 

As noted above, the larger branches of the three sons of Noah are defined not only by ethnicity and language affinity, but also by geographic proximity (verses 5, 20, 31). Moreover, emphasizing the integral territorial aspect of tribal identity, sundry geographical notices were appended, e.g., verses 10-12; 30. Similarly, in verse 19, this genealogy of Canaan is enhanced by a fascinating geographic description of the borders of Canaan (verse 19): The Canaanite territory extended from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha. This description serves both to minimalize Canaanite territory and to introduce places that will appear in later narratives.

Northern Border – Phoenician Cities  

Following a three pointed pattern of delineating borders, which I have identified, i.e., “From X, coming to Y, near Z”, the list begins with Sidon, which probably now implies the entire Tyrean kingdom on the Phoenician coast from Acco in the south to Nahr Kalb in the north (Joshua 13:4-6; compare the territory of Asher 19:24-30).

South-Western Border – Philistine Cities

The second point, on the south-western border of Canaan, Gerar (Tel Harur, present day Netivot on Nahal Gerar, i.e. biblical Nahal HaBesor), was defined by the third point Gaza, some 20 kms away. This description of the southern border of Canaan serves another literary purpose by anticipating the stories of Abraham and Isaac going to Gerar and the story of Jacob’s funeral cortège from Egypt to Hebron at the end of the book (Genesis 50:10-11).

Eastern Border – The Dead Sea and the Five Cities  

From the south western corner of the Land, the border goes to the southern edge of the Dead Sea. The description introduces the five cities [technically only four as Lot escaped to Zoar and it was spared] which are eventually destroyed in the story of Lot and Sodom.’

A possible two groupings for the descendants of  Canaan, as proposed by Demsky – 

Cities: Sidon [proper name], Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath

Clans: Heth [proper name], Jebus, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, [Canaan] 

According to Demsky, the clans are the literal sons of Canaan and amongst other places, they lived in the aforementioned cities. This position seems to create further questions. How did these six cities acquire their names? It would seem plausible they are so named after their founders. They being the first and seventh to eleventh sons listed in Genesis chapter Ten. Is an extra Canaan applicable and if so, is he Canaan junior or possibly a grandson of Canaan senior? There are a fair number of scriptures for some of the cities and sons, so we will look at a sample. The majority refer to later ‘Canaanites’ where the original sons of Canaan were not living and so are discounted in this chapter.

The Book of Jasher 7:13 includes additional or duplicate names, totalling ten sons instead of eleven, with Jebus missing:

And the sons of Canaan were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi [Arvad?], Zimodi [Zemar?] and Chamothi [Hamath].

Sidon, or Zidon in Hebrew means: ‘fishery, hunting place.’ From the verb sud, to hunt or fish. The noun mesad means fastness or stronghold – a typically defensive structure. ‘Sud’ in French means south.* When studying Kitti [Chapter VIII] – an economic, key geographic maritime, port people – we looked at Isaiah chapter 23. There are additional major nations in a similar key geographic port location.

Isaiah 23:1-3

Complete Jewish Bible

A prophecy about Tzor [Tyre]: Howl, you “Tarshish”[Japanese] ships, because the harbor is destroyed! On returning from Kittim [Indonesia], they discover they cannot enter it. 2 Silence, you who live on the coast, you who have been enriched by the merchants of Tzidon [Sidon] crossing the sea. 3 By the great water the grain of Shichor, the harvest of the Nile, brought you profits. She was marketplace for the nations. 4 Shame, Tzidon, for the sea speaks; the fortress of the sea says,“I no longer have labor pains or bear children, yet I have raised neither boys nor girls.”

Verse 12 NCV:

He said, “Sidon, you will not rejoice any longer, because you are destroyed. Even if you cross the sea to Cyprus [Kitti], you will not find a place to rest.”

Zechariah 9:1-3

Revised Standard Version

The word of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus [Aram]. For to the Lord belong the cities of Aram [son of Shem], even as all the tribes of Israel; Hamath [city of Canaan] also, which borders thereon, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. Tyre has built herself a rampart, and heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the mud of the streets.

Tyre is associated with the intermediate ‘Canaanites’ or Phoenicians; whereas the later ‘Phoenicians’ are linked with Sidon. Though the Phoenicians are White peoples descended from Shem, both nations today also contain a Black population descended from Canaan. We will study scriptures regarding Sidon, when we look at the European peoples who dwell within this nation. Sidon is en route from Tarshish and Kitti and links them to Tyre. All are major trading nations and key ports. As Sidon is associated with Hamath and other Canaanites, we are looking for a prominent nation on the coast of Africa. Sidon is the Republic of South Africa* and its black citizens include the Canaanite clan of Hiv.

Sin and Zemar are not mentioned outside of Genesis and 1 Chronicles. Ark is mentioned in Joshua 16:1-3, NET within the future lands of the tribe of Jospeh:

The land allotted to Joseph’s descendants extended from the Jordan at Jericho to the waters of Jericho to the east, through the desert and on up from Jericho into the hill country of Bethel. The southern border extended from Bethel to Luz, and crossed to Arkite territory at Ataroth. It then descended westward to Japhletite territory, as far as the territory of lower Beth Horon and Gezer, and ended at the sea.

Arvad equates with the people of Angola. Arvad is connected in a military capacity with Sidon and particularly Tyre.

Ezekiel 27:8, 11 

New English Translation: 

The leaders of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers; your skilled men, O Tyre, were your captains… The Arvadites joined your army on your walls all around, and the Gammadites were in your towers. They hung their quivers on your walls all around; they perfected your beauty.

The link between Angola and Tyre will be become very clear when we study Tyre. Excluding Arab nations, Angola is the eighth most populous African nation – with 34,141,995 people – and possesses the fifth strongest military in sub-Saharan Africa, behind Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya at fourth. The meaning of Arvad is a ‘wandering fugitive’ from the verb ‘arad, ‘to flee’ or ‘be free’ and the verb rud, ‘to wander restlessly.’

Hamath is mentioned a number of times and linked with Arvad, who in turn is associated with Sidon. Hamath is the most prominent Canaanite region [city-state] after Sidon and is the nation of Nigeria, with its people coming from the clan of Heth. A coincidence is Ham-ath being similar to the name Ham, as Niger-ia has been named from the their racial strand.

2 Kings 19:13

English Standard Version

Where is the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad [Arvad], the king of the city of Sepharvaim, the king of Hena, or the king of Ivvah? [Isaiah 36:19]

2 Samuel 8:9-10

English Standard Version

When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer [of Zobah], Toi sent his son Joram to King David… [1 Chronicles 18:1-5, Ezekiel 47:17]

The link between Hamath and King David of Judah is significant and not a coincidence. These verses also highlight the strength of Hamath, thus a sizeable nation commensurate with the economic or military clout of Sidon is being discussed. Nigeria with South Africa is a leading nation in Africa. It has an immense population of 212,655,051 people – seventh highest in the world. Notice on the fertility rate chart that Nigeria has one of the highest rates in the world. Nigeria is in red, located south of Niger in Pink, with the highest rate in the world.

A well known online encyclopaedia, provides a helpful summary of Nigeria’s recent history – emphasis and bold mine:

‘… The Kano [Canaan] Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, [Hamath city-state of Canaan] with other major Hausa cities… all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known… as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks…)There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire [Kainam, Kenan] as the region’s major centre for Islamic civilization.

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the [regions] Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. 

The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors’ territory as forced labour; [in] time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors’ society. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports.’

We will return to the significance of the Portuguese being the first European peoples [in the modern era] to both trade and colonise areas outside of Europe.

‘In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering… and [advancing]… with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. 

The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic [civilisation], the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.

A changing legal imperative ([the] transatlantic slave trade [was] outlawed by Britain in 1807)… [caused] after that illegal smugglers [to purchase] slaves along the coast by native slavers. Britain’s West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain. 

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company… By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River. [The] British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company’s territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern… and the Northern… [Protectorates] into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. 

Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. By independence in 1960, regional differences… were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present [day, with imbalances] between North and South. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). The United States is the country’s largest foreign investor.

Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. As of 2014 it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Next to petrodollars, the second-biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030.

Nigeria is the 25th largest economy in the world and the biggest in the sub-Saharan African continent. Its 2019 nominal GDP was $448 billion dollars. Nigeria’s economy relies heavily on the oil industry and is the largest oil exporter on the continent; with Africa’s largest reserves of natural gas. Resource extraction industries, such as coal, tin, and other metal mining are integral to the Nigerian economy. Oil dominates in terms of contribution to GDP and exports. Between a fifth and a half of Nigerians work in agriculture, primarily small-scale subsistence agriculture. Nigeria’s economy has grown rapidly in the past few decades, but it also faces significant challenges such as desertification and lack of infrastructure

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Nigerian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$29.7 billion 
  2. Ships, boats: $2.1 billion
  3. Oil seeds: $346.4 million
  4. Cocoa: $338.1 million 
  5. Fertilizers: $183.5 million 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $169.1 million 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $130 million 
  8. Tobacco, manufactured substitutes: $64.5 million 
  9. Raw hides, skins not furskins, leather: $62.8 million 
  10. Machinery including computers: $46.8 million 

Machinery including computers represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 417.9% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aircraft and spacecraft via a 141.5% gain.

Year over year, the severest decliners among Nigeria’s top 10 export categories were tobacco including manufactured substitutes (down -37.8%), mineral fuels including oil (down -36.3%) and the highly capital-intensive ships and boats product category (down -33.9%).’

The Flag of Nigeria with Coat of Arms

Heth in Hebrew means: ‘terror, dread,’ From the verb hatat, ‘to deplete of courage.’ A formidable name and the latter White peoples known by that name, certainly lived up to it. The Hittites in the Bible, are in every case, in reference to the the later peoples. One passage which refers to the original people of Heth is in Genesis chapter twenty-three.

Genesis 23:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And he said to them, “If you are willing that I [Abraham] should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat for me Ephron the son of Zohar, 9 that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he owns; it is at the end of his field. For the full price let him give it to me in your presence as property for a burying place.” 

10 Now Ephron was sitting among the Hittites, and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the Hittites, of all who went in at the gate of his city, 11 “No, my lord, hear me: I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the sight of the sons of my people I give it to you. Bury your dead.”

Jebus in Hebrew means: ‘trodden underfoot, he will trample down.’ The numerous references to the Jebusites [including all the Canaanite clans] are in the main, to the Nephilim descended giants or people that intermarried with them that dwelt in Canaan. We will look at a selection of verses for these peoples in a different chapter. Amor in Hebrew means: ‘talkers.’

Genesis 15:18-21

English Standard Version

18 On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 the land of the… 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites… 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.”

Girgash in Hebrew means: ‘dwellers in a clayey soil,’ ‘take and stroke’, Hiv: ’villagers’ and Perizz: ‘wildling, rural.’ The Canaanites and Perizzites are always placed together. Their relationship is not clear, yet they appear to be close and as one.

Genesis 13:7

English Standard Version

… and there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock. At that time the Canaanites and the Perizzites were dwelling in the land.

A well known online encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters [six clans].The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world’s populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa.

Whether there are twelve, eleven, ten or six main Canaanite lines is difficult to ascertain. The identification of six ancestral clusters though, supports Aaron Demsky’s hypothesis and so we may well have found Canaan’s six clans. The major African ethnic groups could be divided as located in: West Africa, the Horn of Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, Southeast Africa and Southern Africa. 

In Chapter X, Magog, Tubal & Meshech, the article Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Descend from Three Neolithic Super-Grandfathers stated in its additional paper – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… clade E [is distributed] mainly in Africa, so there are two hypotheses, 1) haplogroups D and CF migrated out of Africa separately; 2) the single common ancestor of CF and DE migrated out of Africa followed by a back-migration of E to Africa. From this study, the short interval between CF/DE and C/F divergences weakens the possibility of multiple independent migrations (CF, D, and DE*) out of Africa, and thus supports the latter hypothesis… Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among the hunter-gatherer groups in Ethiopia and Sudan. A3b1 is a Khoisan exclusive haplogroup [Southern Africa].’

The alternative view of mankind beginning in the Middle East is more viable and this would support what we have learned with the descendants of Canaan migrating to Africa, not from it… and then a ‘back-migration.’ Scientists concur that Y-DNA haplogroup A is the oldest [original] haplogroup – associated with Black people – and then make the incorrect assumption, that all people have come out of Africa. The exact same assumption has been made with mtDNA L0 and L1. 

This supports the unproven evolutionary theory, but does not allow for a provable pre-flood world, with a singular – Black line – [or dual racial lines if we include the Neanderthal of Day Six – a Yellow/Red line] and the introduction of a White line [through Noah and his son Shem] just prior to the Flood. After the Flood, the new races [sixteen lines from Noah’s grandsons] repopulated the world from the Hindu Kush and Indus Valley regions, as opposed to the African continent.

African Human mtDNA phylogeography at a glance, Alexandra Rosa & António Brehm, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:


‘Macrohaplogroup L divides into haplogroups L0-L6… Haplogroup L0 further includes sub-haplogroups L0a, L0d, L0f and L0k… L0d, the first individual sub-clade to derive from the L0 node… its divergence from L0abfk… The distribution of this clade appears to be restricted to Khoisan people in South Africa, and to Tanzanian and Angolan populations… Similarly, sub-haplogroup L0k is found almost exclusively among South African Khoisan… existing also at low frequencies among click-speaking Tanzanian groups… 

Their L0d and L0k shared lineages, which represent more than half of their maternal pool suggest an ancestral link predating the appearance of present-day click-speakers, likely remnants of an East African proto-Khoisan population… The mtDNA pool of the Khoisan people shows over 60% of L0d and L0k lineages… 

The L0a1 sub-clade has an eastern and southeastern African distribution including Nubia, Sudan and Ethiopia… L0a2 lineages are thought to trace the dispersal of Bantu-speakers towards South Africa…’


‘MtDNA L1… One of its daughter clades, haplogroup L1b, is concentrated in western-central Africa, particularly along the coastal areas… peaking in the Senegal Mandenka and Wolof… and Fulani people in Burkina-Faso, Chad and South Cameroon… L1c occurs frequently in Central and West Africans… Curiously, more recent reports state frequencies ranging 18-25% in Angola Bantu ethnic groups… A substantial revision for the L1c phylogeny has been proposed by Quintana-Murci et al. (2008). It shed additional light… and helped corroborate past relationships between Central African Bantu-speaking farmers and their hunter-gathering neighbors, the Pygmies… Both groups likely shared an ancestral Central-African proto-population rich in L1c mtDNAs… and evolved into the diverse forms observed today among the modern agricultural populations (L1c1a, L1c1b, L1c1c, L1c2-6, etc.) while L1c1a is the only surviving clade in western Pygmies… Both L1b and L1c were proposed as Central Africa autochthonous lineages…


Haplogroup L5, previously known as L1e, occupies an intermediate position between L1 and L2’3’4’6… 

It has been observed at low frequencies in eastern Africa, namely Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, with minor gene flow introducing these lineages in the Mbuti Pygmies and North Cameroon Fali… The Central African Pygmies particular genetic pool including both L1c and L5 may assign them a “relict” status, similar to that proposed for the Khoisan… 


Together with L3, haplogroup L2 comprises ~70% of the sub-Saharan maternal variation. Haplogroup L2a is the most frequent and wide- spread mtDNA cluster in Africa, reaching over 40% in Tuareg from Niger/Nigeria and Mali… Recent star-like demographic bursts in L2a1a and L2a2 and their expansion to southeast people are most likely associated with the expansion(s) of the Bantu-speaking populations… L2b-L2d haplogroups are dominant and largely confined to West and West-Central Africa…   


The variation classified as haplogroup L6… is nowadays largely confined to Yemeni people and a few samples in Ethiopian Amhara and Gurages. It is noteworthy that L6 presents a very narrow phylogeography… Given its presence in Ethiopians, where its sister clades are also diverse and frequent… L6 has a most likely origin in East Africa, where it might have been preserved in isolation for tens of thousands of years. In any case the homeland of L6 may still be missing.


Haplogroup L4 is a sister clade of L3, typical of East and Northeast Africa, although present at low frequencies… The L4a motif has been found in Sudan and Ethiopia, though initially misclassified as L3e4… Similarly we also refer to L4b2, previously known as L3g… or L4g… This is frequent in Tanzania and Amhara and Gurages from Ethiopia…


… superhaplogroup L3… is widespread in Africa, its frequency and diversity providing evidence of a sub-Saharan expansion of its sub-clades towards West Africa… This superhaplogroup is subdivided into various clades and harbours also the two main M and L superhaplogroups found outside of Africa. Both L3b and L3d are prevalent in the West quadrant of sub-Saharan Africa… in average 10%…

L3b also shows considerable frequencies in the Hutu people in Rwanda… and South African Kung… L3d constitutes an important percentage of the South African maternal pool, being more expressive in Angola and Tanzania… a subset of L3b is common among Bantu speakers of south-western Africa and thus is a likely marker of the Bantu expansion… The L3e cluster has been subdivided into L3e1, L3e2, L3e3 and L3e4, since the time of HVS-I information per se… 

The oldest branches of L3e are thought to have arisen in Central Africa/nowadays Sudan… Within L3e2, the L3e2b lineages constitute the most frequent and widespread type of L3e, primarily found in West and Central Africa…

The network in Cerný et al. (2007) reflects a clear starlike phylogeny of L3e5 types found mostly in western Central Africa. Although an important diffusion has occurred into North Africa, the root type is relatively prevalent in the Chad Basin… The diffusion of haplogroup L3f ranges from Ethiopia in the east, to Angola and Mozambique in the south, the Chad Basin in Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau in the west and Tunisia in the north…

L3f1 founder lineages in Central and West Africa… L3f2 is a quite infrequent clade found almost exclusively among Chad speaking populations from the Chad Basin and virtually absent from Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan peoples… Therefore, it is contemporary with its sister clade L3f1, and probably arose around the Chad Basin area. Nevertheless, the haplogroup is present in northern Cushitic groups from Somalia and Ethiopia…’

African Americans

‘The current distribution range of African mtDNA lineages is far broader than the African continent. Long-distance gene flow mediated by the Atlantic slave trade since the 16th century is worth mentioning in this review. 

Brazilians harbor the most important reservoir of African maternal lineages outside of Africa. Early description of the genetic landscape of Brazilians with sub-Saharan ancestry confirms the historical evidence, with L1c and L3e lineages summing up to nearly half of the African share… Later studies on Afro-Americans residing in the American continent report 65% of mtDNA types in South America as having a Central African origin, 41% and 59% of Central Americans tracing progeny to West Central Africa and West Africa respectively, while North American ancestors are estimated as being 28% West-Central Africans and 72% West Africans… These results corroborate the historical record of these regions… The origin of Afro-Americans in U.S.A. is associated with West African (>55%) and West-Central/Southwest African (<45%) mothers, also in close proximity to historical data… 

Recent results on admixture analysis suggest that Africans brought to Brazil as slaves were originally from two geographical regions: i) 69% of the maternal pool of Black Brazilians in Rio de Janeiro is attributed to West-Central and Southeast Africa, close to two former Portuguese colonies (Angola and Mozambique) and ii) 82% of mtDNA lineages in Porto Alegre are found in West Africa, in the northern portion of the Gulf of Guinea… Such detailed analysis is possible given the clear mtDNA haplogroup structure which allows the discrimination of geographic/linguistic origins. Once again genetic records are in agreement with historical data…’ 

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced migration of an estimated 11 million Africans to the Americas. Only 9 million are thought to have survived the passage, and many more died in the early years of captivity. Historical accounts indicate that virtually all enslaved Africans brought to North America came from either West or West Central Africa. A recent comparison of mtDNA sequences from 1148 African Americans living in the US with a database of African mtDNA sequences showed that more than 55% of the US lineages have a West African ancestor, while fewer than 41% came from West Central or South West Africa.

Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mother to daughter with few, if any, changes occurring over many generations, it is possible to compare contemporary African-American mtDNA haplotypes with contemporary mtDNA haplotypes in a worldwide database to obtain information about the ancestral origins of these mtDNAs.’ 

‘In such a comparison, continent-specific haplotypes are readily observed, and the assignment of mtDNAs to continent of origin is relatively straightforward. The more difficult task is to tie particular mtDNA haplotypes to specific geographical regions and ethnic groups within a continent. This task is particularly difficult for Africa, as there is more genetic diversity among Africans than among people from any other continent…

The most extensive pan-African haplotype… is in the L2a1 haplogroup. 40% of African-American mtDNAs did not match any sequence in the database, it is clear that matches to a single African ethnic group will not be the outcome for most African Americans, and even when a match to a single ethnic group is obtained, multiple matches may occur in a larger database. Furthermore, for the typical African American, the maternal ancestor who was the source of the mtDNA was just one of hundreds of enslaved African ancestors. In fact, it likely that there has been more mixing of African ethnic groups in the Americas than has ever occurred elsewhere. Thus, the ancestors of virtually all contemporary African Americans came from a large number of ethnic groups located throughout the region from Senegal to Angola.

Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, multiple authors, 2007:

‘Several L haplogroup lineages occur most frequently in eastern Africa (e.g., L0a, L0f, L5, and L3g), but some are specific to certain ethnic groups, such as haplogroup lineages L0d and L0k that previously have been found nearly exclusively among southern African “click” speakers. The presence of very old mtDNA haplogroups (i.e., L0d, L0f, and L5) in Tanzanians that are rare or absent in other regions of Africa suggests populations in Tanzania may have had a large long-term effective population size and/or a large degree of long-term population structure, which has acted to preserve many divergent and rare mtDNA haplogroup lineages that appeared early in modern human history. The presence of these ancient lineages in Tanzania also suggests that eastern Africa might be the source of origin of many other African mtDNA haplogroup lineages. 

Our findings are consistent with other studies of mtDNA genetic diversity in African populations that have suggested populations in eastern Africa form a highly diverse gene pool…’

A sample of Y-DNA haplogroups from the six largest African nations; plus Ghana is included, as it has a very pure haplogroup sequence. Kenya and Tanzania are represented by Bantus and South Africa is represented by southern Bantus, the Zulu [also southern Bantu] and the Khoisan.

Ethiopia:           E1b1b – A – T – J – B – E2 

Khoisan:            A – E1b1a – E1b1b – B – E2

RSA Khoisan:   E1b1a – A – E1b1b – B – E2 

Tanzania:          E1b1a – E1b1b – E2 – B – A – T

Kenya:               E1b1a – E2 – A – E1b1b – B

RSA Bantu:       E1b1a – E2 – B – A – E1b1b

RSA Zulu:          E1b1a – E2 – B – A 

DR Congo:        E1b1a – E2 – E1b1b – A 

Nigeria:             E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Ghana:               E1b1a – E1a – E1b1b

The haplogroup J in Ethiopia is reflective of Arab peoples or admixture. The haplogroups E, A and B and their respective clades are the main Haplogroups for the Black African peoples. Ethiopia and Ghana are poles apart percentage wise, on an east – west axis and Nigeria and the Khoisan on a north – south axis.

                                 E1b1a    E1b1b       E2         B          A 

Ethiopia                                  63           1.5        1.5         10

RSA Khoisan            36         15              4         12         33

Khoisan                     23         16              2         12         44

Tanzania                   48         22            16           9          3

Kenya                         52         14            17           3         14

RSA Bantu                 55          4             21          11          5

RSA Zulu                    55                         21         20          3

DR Congo                  64         14            19                       3

Nigeria                       68           4              7          10         3

Ghana                         92           1         

Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and its population is 118,587,254 people, the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The largest ethnic group in Ethiopia is the Oromo; of which I have used their Y-DNA haplogroup spread rather than the combined population, as it affects the E1b1b, A and J percentages significantly.

Kenya in East Africa has the sixth highest population with 53,771,296 people. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is in Central Africa, with the third highest population of 92,609,143 people. The main ethnic group in the Congo are the Kongo and in Nigeria it is the Igbo. Tanzania is in East Africa, with the fourth highest population of 61,981,437 people. Ghana in West Africa, has a population of 31,898,831 people – the tenth highest.

In the south, the Republic of South Africa has the fifth highest population of 60,262,064 people, of which the vast majority are Black people. The Y-DNA haplogroups of the largest ethnic group, are from the Zulu.

People with understanding want more knowledge, but fools just want more foolishness.

Proverbs 15:14 New Century Version

“The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widely spread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible.” 

Bertrand Russell [1872-1970]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Ham Aequator

Chapter XI

Noah’s second and middle son is Ham. We will discover that his descendants have spanned across the globe, principally throughout the hottest regions of the earth relative to the equator. Ham’s children have dispersed widely and are the darker skinned peoples of the world, ranging from black to olive skin and all the shades of brown between. They are located in Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East, South West Asia, the Indian Sub-Continent, South East Asia and Oceania.

A H Sayce, page 50 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘It is true that although Semites, Aryans, and Alaro-dians represent different races of mankind, they nevertheless all alike belong to the white stock, and may thus be said to be but varieties of one and the same original race… even granting it to be probable that the various white races are all descended from a common ancestry… it is possible that they may have developed out of more than one dark race.

Abarim Publications, emphasis and bold theirs:

‘The name that occurs in the English Bible as Ham is really two completely different Hebrew names; one which is pronounced Cham, and the other Ham. They have two completely different meanings, but since English readers are so used to the name Ham… call them Ham I and Ham II:

The name Ham I – Meaning: Hot, or Protective Wall from the verb (ham), to be hot, or the verb (hmh), to protect or surround.

This name [C]Ham is identical to the adjective (ham), meaning warm, and also to the noun (ham), meaning father in law… The verb (hamam) means to be hot and is sometimes used to describe mental agitation. The noun (hamman) denotes [a] kind of mysterious small pillar (perhaps a device). The verb (yaham) also means hot, but mostly in a mental sense: to be excited or angered. The noun (hema) mostly refers to a severe mental “burning”: anger or rage.

For the meaning of this name [C]Ham, Alfred Jones (Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names) confidently derives it from the verb (hamam), meaning to be hot, and renders it Heat, Black. Then he… connects blackness with sin. What escapes the… scholar is that:

  • This version of the name Ham is also identical to (ham), father-in-law, from the unused root (hmh) of which the cognates mean to protect or surround.
  • In the Bible not blackness but whiteness is associated with sin. Miriam turned white [2 Kings 5:27] because of her aggression against Moses’ second [3rd] wife, who was a Cushite and thus quite likely very black. And the bride of the Song of Solomon, often regarded as a type of the Church, was black as well (Song of Solomon 1:5). 
  • NOBSE Study Bible Name List simply reads Hot for Ham, but in view of the above, a closer rendering would be Passion or Intensity.

The name Ham II – Meaning: Noisy from the verb (hama), to be noisy.

Ham II, which is spelled and pronounced as Ham, denotes a once-mentioned town where kings Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal defeated the Zuzim during the war of four against five kings (Genesis 14:5).

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names derives this Ham from the verb (hama), meaning cry aloud… The… verb (hama) means to be noisy… derived masculine noun (hamon) denotes a noisy multitude.’

The Zuzim or Zuzites [Zuz] in Ham, are one of six clans of the Nephilim descended  giants mentioned in the Old Testament that lived on the earth after the flood. They are also called Zamzummim or Zamzummites [Deuteronimy 2:21]. We will study Genesis chapter fourteen in more detail. Nephilim are associated with at least two of the four sons of Ham. The definition of the word Ham inferring his descendants would be intense, passionate and at times hot headed is accurately applicable.

Psalm 105:23, 26-27

New English Translation

Israel moved to [Hebrew: entered] Egypt; Jacob lived for a time [Hebrew: lived as a resident foreigner] in the land of Ham [Africa]… He sent his servant Moses, and Aaron, whom he had chosen. They executed his miraculous signs among them, and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

Egypt is translated from the Hebrew and Aramaic: Mizraim as Mizra is a son of Ham. He was located in Northern Africa with two of his three brothers.

Psalm 78:50-52 and 106:21-22

English Standard Version

… he did not spare them from death, but gave their lives over to the plague. He struck down every firstborn in Egypt, the firstfruits of their strength in the tents of Ham. Then he led out his people [the sons of Jacob] like sheep and guided them in the wilderness like a flock… They forgot God, their Saviour, who had done great things in Egypt, wondrous works in the land of Ham, and awesome deeds by the Red Sea.

The Book of Jubilees provides additional geographic information on the land inheritance of the sons of Ham. It is referenced against the location of the Garden of Eden. We will return to this passage when we study Eden. The lands of Ham were to the south and west as opposed to the north for Japheth. Ham was located principally, in the continent of Africa. 

Book of Jubilees 8:10-11, 22-24

10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father. 

22 And for Ham came forth the second portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west to the sea of ‘Atel and it extends towards the west till it reaches the sea of Ma’uk -that (sea) into which everything which is not destroyed descends. 23 And it goes forth towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden of Eden. 24 And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to occupy forever for himself and his sons unto their generations forever.

We now arrive at an enigmatic passage of scripture in Genesis chapter nine. A comprehensive or definitive answer to the account is elusive. It is as mysterious as Noah’s role as Ancestor Zero. The early chapters of Genesis are a very abbreviated, amalgamated version of events. The Bible stereotypically understates rather than overstates; though Genesis nine exhibits deliberate editing and censorship. Moses, who is credited with compiling the early books of the Bible may not have glossed over events as they stand and thus, subsequent scribes and translators are likely culpable. The subject matter is unsavoury, unsettling and altruistically, it is lightly trusted that the editing was intended for our sensibilities rather than a deliberate desire to cover the truth. 

Recall, we learned earlier that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine after the Flood, very likely in the Kashmir. Further details are added in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 7:1-7

1 … Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit [it typically takes newly planted vines up to three years to grow grapes] in the fourth year [10,833 BCE] and he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [Tishri: September/October]. 

2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, until the first day, on the new month [new Moon] of the first month [Abib/Nisan: March/April].3 And he celebrated with joy the day of this feast [New Moon], and he made a burnt sacrifice unto Yahweh, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, that he might make atonement thereby for himself and his sons [similar to a later Patriarch named Job]. 

4 And he prepared the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5 And he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the altar and caused a sweet savoir to ascend acceptable before Yahweh his Sovereign Ruler. 

The system of worshipping and obeying the Eternal One, through animal sacrifices was not inaugurated by Moses and Aaron during the time of the Israelites, but rather, re-activated. Abel and Noah in the antediluvian age and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob after the flood, all offered sacrifices to the Creator; for either the purpose of thanksgiving or atonement [forgiveness]. 

6 And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his children with joy. 7 And it was evening, and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept.

A number of scenarios are possible and it is remarkably similar to an ancient crime scene and a re-opening of an investigation into a very cold case. The protagonists appear to include Noah, his son Ham and, or his son Canaan. It is not ostensibly clear who the perpetrator is, nor entirely the victim.

Genesis 9:18-26 

New Century Version

18 The sons of Noah who came out of the boat with him were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 

We are first alerted to misadventure by the concluding disjunctive clause, the parenthetical, Ham was the father of Canaan

The interlinear states:

And sons Noah that went forth ark were Shem Ham Japheth Ham [H2526 Cham] father [H1 ‘ab]

Canaan is not mentioned here, yet he is in verse twenty-two; this absence is troublesome. We are told who the sons of Noah are; why delineate Canaan as Ham’s son in an indirect way, in a context about Noah’s sons. Was Canaan actually Noah’s son?

19 These three men were Noah’s sons, and all the people on earth came from these three sons.

20 Noah became a farmer [H376 ‘iyesh: husbandman] and planted a vineyard. 

NET: The epithet a man of the soil indicates that Noah was a farmer. “Noah, a man of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard”; Hebrew “and Noah, a man of the ground, began and he planted a vineyard.”

21 When he drank wine made from his grapes, he became drunk and lay naked in his tent. 

NET: The Hebrew verb (galah) in the Hitpael verbal stem (vayyitgal) means “to uncover oneself” or “to be uncovered.” Noah became overheated because of the wine and uncovered himself in the tent.

22 Ham, the father of Canaan, looked at his naked father and told his brothers outside. 

The interlinear states:

And Ham father Canaan saw* [H7200 Ra’ah] nakedness** [H6172 ‘ervah] his father told his two brethren

We are told that Ham is the father of Canaan. Why not just state Ham. The writer or editor desperately wants the reader to believe Canaan is Ham’s son. Is this because he is, though not legally. Or is it because Canaan isn’t Ham’s son at all. By including Canaan; the implication is that Ham is looking upon something that may have involved Canaan. Looked at his naked father implies that there had been a sexual act; but, by whom?

NET: ‘some would translate “had sexual relations with,” arguing that Ham committed a homosexual act with his drunken father for which he was cursed. However, the expression “see nakedness” usually refers to observation of another’s nakedness, not a sexual act (see Genesis 42:9, 12 where “nakedness” is used metaphorically to convey the idea of “weakness” or “vulnerability”; Deuteronomy 23:14 where “nakedness” refers to excrement; Isaiah 47:3; Ezekiel 16:37; Lamentations 1:8. The following verse (v.23) clearly indicates that visual observation, not a homosexual act, is in view here. In Leviticus 20:17 the expression “see nakedness” does appear to be a euphemism for sexual intercourse, but the context there, unlike that of Genesis 9:22, clearly indicates that in that passage sexual contact is in view. The expression “see nakedness” does not in itself suggest a sexual connotation. Some relate Genesis 9:22 to Leviticus 18:6-11, 15-19, where the expression “uncover [another’s] nakedness” (the Piel form of galah) refers euphemistically to sexual intercourse. 

However, Genesis 9:22 does not say Ham “uncovered” the nakedness of his father. According to the text, Noah uncovered himself; Ham merely saw his father naked. The point of the text is that Ham had no respect for his father. Rather than covering his father up, he told his brothers. Noah then gave an oracle that Ham’s [Canaan] descendants, who would be characterized by the same moral abandonment, would be cursed. 

It is hard for modern people to appreciate why seeing another’s nakedness was such an abomination, because nakedness is so prevalent today. In the ancient world, especially in a patriarchal society, seeing another’s nakedness was a major [offence]. (See the account in Herodotus, Histories 1.8-13, where a general saw the nakedness of his master’s wife, and one of the two had to be put to death.) Besides, Ham was not a little boy wandering into his father’s bedroom…’

The thrust of the verse is that Ham is complicit. If he is momentarily discounted, from an actual act against Noah directly he is not absolved from witnessing a possible aftermath of an episode involving Noah; with the addition of not responding accordingly. Rather, he flippantly chooses to alert his brothers instead.

In verse 22, the Hebrew word for saw* is translated by the KJV as see 879 times and look [104], but also as enjoy [4]. It can mean to ‘look intently at, behold, to gaze at.’ The circumstances hint that Ham did more than spot his naked father and then quickly leave to go and tell his brothers. There are two possibilities, in that Ham observed the situation before him far longer than was appropriate, or more tellingly, somehow re-arranged or manipulated the [crime] scene he discovered. Did he try to extricate himself or was it Canaan he sought to protect.

As plausible as it may be that Ham or perhaps Canaan just looked, this verse has to be put with verse 24, where it says: ‘when [Noah] woke up and learned what his youngest son had done to him.’ Support for this line of reasoning is in the meaning for the Hebrew word nakedness** in verse 22. The KJV translates it as nakedness 50 times, though also as shame [1], unclean [1] and uncleanness [1]. 

The nakedness in question is implying that the nudity on display was a shameful exposure of indecency or improper behaviour; as in ‘exposed, undefended, disgrace, blemish.’ The latin term pudenda would apply, in that in the very least, the genitalia of Noah were visible. Interestingly, pudendum though meaning human external genital organs it is especially applied to those of the female.

23 Then Shem and Japheth got a coat [H8071 simlah] and, carrying it on both their shoulders, they walked backwards into the tent and covered their father. They turned their faces away so that they did not see their father’s nakedness.

NET: The word translated “garment” has the Hebrew definite article on it. The article may simply indicate that the garment is definite and vivid in the mind of the narrator, but it could refer instead to Noah’s garment. Did Ham bring it out when he told his brothers?

Why would Ham go to the trouble of telling his brothers and not cover his father himself if it was simple exposure. Why would Shem and Japheth cover their father simply because he was naked, unless they were actually reacting to something more serious. The Hebrew word for coat [simlah] is translated in the KJV as raiment [11], clothes [6], garment [6] and apparel [2]. It signifies a wrapper or mantle [sleeveless cloak or cape] as a covering garment. 

It does contain the ‘permutation for the feminine (through the idea of a cover assuming the shape of the object beneath); [for instance] a dress, especially a mantle.’ There may be significance in this, or it may have simply been a unisex dressing gown suitable for someone who is sleeping lying down.

24 Noah was sleeping because of the wine [H3196 Yayin]. When he woke up and learned  [H3045 Yada’] what his youngest [H6996 Qatan] son [H1121 ben], Ham, had done [H6213 asah] to him, 

NET: ‘Hebrew “his wine,” used here by metonymy for the drunken stupor it produced. The Hebrew verb (ʿasah, “to do”) carries too general a sense to draw the conclusion that Ham had to have done more than look on his father’s nakedness and tell his brothers [though it does imply more than just looking was undertook by someone other than Ham].’

The Interlinear states:

And Noah awoke from his wine knew what his younger son had done

The Hebrew word for knew, yada’ is translated by the KJV as know [645], knowledge [19], perceive [18], understand [7]. It can mean to ‘know a person carnally’ and ‘to be revealed.’

Surprisingly, Ham is not specifically mentioned. We now find two clues in the Hebrew words for younger and son. The KJV translates younger [Qatan] as small [33], little [19], youngest [15], younger [14], least [10] and lesser [2]. It signifies one who is ‘insignificant or unimportant.’ This may be a reference to Ham, though this is hard to credit for him considering his position in the family hierarchy. Shem and Japheth vary in the order they are positioned in the Old Testament, between first and last [eldest or youngest], though Ham is always placed in the middle of his brothers. 

This one instance, where the Bible editors have decided to imply Ham is the youngest cannot be used in support of Ham actually being the youngest, as it contradicts other verses. Whereas, Canaan was Ham’s youngest son of four. [Alternatively, was Canaan Noah’s youngest son of four?] 

The Hebrew word for son ben, is translated by the KJV as son [2978], children [1568], old [135], first [51], man [20] and young [18]. A variety of meanings, though the one of much interest sandwiched between son and child [the member of a family group] is, grandson

The use of this word, would suddenly shift focus to someone other than Ham, who is not even stated in verse 24. Canaan on the other hand is mentioned in verse 22, when Ham looked on his father. Canaan in comparison to Ham, would be less significant in importance and ‘smaller’ than Ham literally in age and figuratively in stature. 

The Hebrew word for ‘had done’ is translated in the KJV as do [1333], make [653], wrought [52], commit [49], perform [18] and dress [13]. It signifies, ‘to fashion, to be used, to press, squeeze.’ Strongs adds: ‘bruise’ and ‘dress(ed).’ These last definitions may be of tell tale sexual significance, when we investigate two different theories next. 

Noah knew something had happened. Just being looked at doesn’t warrant cursing your’ innocent grandson. It only makes sense, if either Ham or Canaan were guilty of more than just prurient observation. How would Noah have known he was stared at, especially while inebriated? If an act of some kind had been committed against him, or affecting him, there must have been evidence for Noah to know.

25 he said, “May there be a curse [H779 ‘arar] on Canaan! May he be the lowest slave [H5650 ‘ebed] to his brothers.”

The Hebrew word for curse is translated 62 times and once as bitterly. It is a severe curse, that from the primitive root means to ‘bitterly curse, execrate.’ Execrate means ‘to detest utterly, abhor, abominate, imprecate evil upon, damn’ and ‘denounce.’ This is no simple curse but one with enormous repercussions. If it is a punishment to fit the crime, then the crime must be one of great magnitude.

The Hebrew word for servant is translated by the KJV as servant [744], manservant [23], bondman [21] and bondage [10]. It means to be a slave and the interlinear says a ‘servants of servants.’ Not a servant to other servants, but the lowest of all servants. This is a massive clue later, in identifying Canaan’s descendants.

The people of Canaan are accused of sins in the scriptures, the man Canaan is apparently guilty of nothing. Why does Noah curse Canaan and not Ham?

NET: ‘Cursed be Canaan. The curse is pronounced on Canaan, not Ham. Noah sees a problem in Ham’s character, and on the basis of that he delivers a prophecy about the future descendants who will live in slavery to such things and then be controlled by others. In a similar way Jacob pronounced oracles about his sons based on their revealed character… Wenham points out that “Ham’s indiscretion towards his father may easily be seen as a type of the later behavior of the Egyptians and Canaanites. Noah’s curse on Canaan thus represents God’s sentence on the sins of the Canaanites, which their forefather Ham had exemplified.” He points out that the Canaanites are seen as sexually aberrant and Leviticus 18:3 describes Egypt and Canaan, both descendants of Ham, as having abominable practices. Hebrew “a servant of servants” (’eved ’avadim), an example of the superlative genitive. It means Canaan will become the most abject of slaves.’

The New English Translation footnotes supports the mildest interpretation of Genesis nine and adopts the view that Ham saw his father in a compromising position of nakedness. Noah thus disrespected, then felt compelled to curse Ham’s youngest son’s descendants to perpetual slavery and impoverishment. An honest appraisal of this line of enquiry would have to admit there are gaping plot holes. Strikingly, nor does the punishment have equivalency for the crime.

Looking closely at the story, the scenario includes Ham and Canaan as perpetrators, with Noah or as strange as it may sound, a second unknown person as a further victim. Reader be aware, the next segment is unsettling.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh in his article Noah’s Four Sons, puts forward a case of a combination of two texts from two editors in the scriptural account – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A Supplementary-Hypothesis Solution

Viewed through the conceptual tool-kit of the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, one form of source criticism, it is likely that in an earlier version of the story (the J source), Noah had four sons, not three: Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan. The later Priestly source had a different tradition, however, that Noah had only three sons (5:31, 6:10, 7:13, 9:19, 10:1, all P texts).

P was by nature a conservative supplementer/editor – he finds a way to assert his view that does minimal violence to the biblical text. (According to the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, erasure or deletion was rarely if ever employed.) Accordingly, I would argue that P was not comfortable erasing Canaan entirely from the text in [favour] of his own view – and adds the clause “and Ham was the father of” to verse 18 to make it seem as though Canaan were Noah’s grandson rather than his son. P adds these same words again in verse 22, thereby making Ham the assailant instead of Canaan. Finally, he adds 9:19 to re-emphasize his view that Noah had only three sons. By doing so he brings J’s text in line with his own tradition of three sons, but at the expenseof the coherence of the story.

Here is the original text: [Note: // represents where the seams are.] The J Text 9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and //Canaan // 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 // Canaan saw the nakedness of his father, and told two of his brothers outside. 9:23 Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, walked backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were averted, and they didn’t see their father’s nakedness. 9:24 Noah awoke from his wine (-induced stupor), and knew what his youngest son had done to him. 9:25 He said, “Canaan is cursed. He will be a servant of servants (serving) his brothers.” 9:26 He said,“Blessed be YHWH, the God of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant. 9:27 May God make Japheth mighty. Let him dwell in the tents of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant.”

Here [an italicised]-coded version of the original J text with the P supplements: J + P (Canon)

9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was the father of Canaan. 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated. 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside…

An Unexpected Corroboration?

Some intriguing corroboration to this enumeration is found in the midrash (late first millennium C.E.) – Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, 23, which also saw Canaan as one of Noah’s sons and solves the text-critical problem similarly. It goes without saying that Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer had no knowledge of J’s base text, though his harmonistic reading may be suggestive of a similar thought pattern:

Noah found a vine… the vine still had grapes upon it…he planted a vineyard from this vine…and on that very day fruit grew…he drank wine from it (the vine) and he revealed himself in his tent. Canaan came in, saw his father’s nakedness, tied a string to his penis and castrated him, then he went out to tell his brothers… Ham came in, saw his father’s nakedness and neglecting the commandment to honor one’s father, reported it to his two brothers as though he were in the market and laughing at his father. His brothers rebuked him, they took a cover, and walking backwards covered their father’s nakedness… Noah arose from his stupor, discovered what his youngest son had done to him, and cursed him, as it says, “Cursed is Canaan”.

The author of Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer not only solves the problem of Canaan, but that of Ham as well. In J, it is unclear where Ham appears in the story; he plays no part and goes unmentioned. In Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, Canaan is the son who castrates his father, thereby receiving a curse, and Ham laughs at his father instead of helping him, thus he does not get the blessing his brothers, Shem and Japhet receive, nor the curses Canaan receives. It is unclear how the author of this midrash understood the biblical text that says that Canaan was Noah’s grandson and not his son.

Similarly, and perhaps even stranger, the Quran notes that Noah had four sons (Sura 11, Hud v. 42–43). This unnamed fourth son refuses to come aboard the Ark, and instead climbs a mountain and is drowned. Some later Islamic commentators give his name as either Yam or Kan’an, the latter the Arabic version of Canaan. It is difficult to determine the relationship between Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran, though they may have shared the same source. In any case, it is striking that an ancient tradition that was erased by P hundreds of years before the first millennium C.E. found its way back into texts over a thousand years later in such disparate sources as Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran.’

The irony is not lost of a Rabbi quoting the Quran. Conjecture and assumptions of the author aside, the explanation of an older text stating Canaan as a son of Noah possibly answers the parenthetical conundrum of Genesis 9.18. It may add meaning to why Canaan as a son of Noah was cursed directly by his father and yet still allows for the involvement of Ham and his tantamount condoning of Canaan’s actions. In a similar incident in Genesis 21:8-10, Sarah the wife of Abraham, sees Ishmael mocking Isaac. She takes a dim view and Ishmael’s banishment [with his mother Hagar] stems in part, from this incident. Though Ishmael is punished by being banished, he still receives a future blessing and inheritance.

Castration as an explanation would definitely answer the reason for the severity of the curse inflicted; as opposed to death. This was not a great option, when considering Canaan was to be the ancestor of at least six sons. Though, we are left scratching our heads as to what would be the motive? Stop Noah siring more sons, who would receive blessings and allotments of land, thus decreasing Canaan’s share? Genesis 9:24 and Noah saying he knew what his youngest [grand]son had done to him, leaves no doubt that something tangible had been done to Noah by a ‘younger son.’ Canaan was the youngest, whether his father was Ham or Noah. This is convincingly ruling out Ham and casting Canaan in the spotlight as chief person of interest. 

Dr Rabbi David Frankel in his article, Noah, Ham and the Curse of Canaan: Who Did What to Whom in the Tent? A new solution to why Canaan (not Ham) was cursed, presents alternative solutions – bold his, italics mine:

‘What Did Noah’s Youngest Son Do?

As already anticipated by the Rabbis, and suggested by some modern scholars, an earlier version of our story probably related a much more severe crime – the homosexual rape of his father when he was inebriated. This indeed is the kind of [offence] that would most naturally provoke the severe reaction depicted in the text. This assumption also accounts for the formulation of verse 24,

Noah awoke from his drunken stupor and knew what his youngest son had done to him. If his son had only looked at him, how would Noah have “known” when he awoke that this had occurred? Further, the final words “had done to him” imply a much more concrete and physical act than mere gazing. The statement that Noah knew what was done to him after waking from his drunken stupor contrasts with Lot who was similarly abused sexually by his daughters whiledrunk, and concerning whom we read(Genesis 19:35), and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose.

Leviticus 20:17 shows that “seeing nakedness” is a euphemism for sex: Leviticus 20:17 If a man has sexual intercourse with his sister, whether the daughter of his father or his mother, so that he sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace. They must be cut off in the sight of the children of their people. He has exposed his sister’s nakedness; he will bear his punishment for iniquity.

Most likely, the phrase describing Noah’s nakedness, “and he became revealed inside his tent” was meant to evoke the theme of incest, as “revealing of nakedness” serves as the euphemism for incest in the prohibitions of Leviticus: Leviticus 18:6 None of you shall come near anyone of his own flesh to uncover nakedness… Thus, the sin, in the original narrative, is not homosexual sex itself, but forced incest of a son with his father in a situation in which the father has no ability to defend himself; this would explain the harshness of the father’s curse.

How then do we explain the part of the story in which Noah’s other sons enter the tent and cover their father without looking at him: Genesis 9:23 Shem and Japheth took the garment and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so they did not see their father’s nakedness.

This clearly implies that [the] sin was gazing and nothing more.Nevertheless, I believe that the evidence in [favour] of the sexual interpretation is too strong to simply dismiss. I suggest that the text was revised by an editor who took the euphemism “seeing nakedness” literally, as if the sin was really visual alone. Whether out of deference to Noah or in the name of modesty more generally, this editor sought to temper the severe [offence] of forced incest with an incapacitated father.This reinterpretation was accomplished by adding a report about the two brothers’ contrasting act of covering their father without looking.

The same editor also added the report of the perpetrator mockingly (?) relating to his brothers that he saw their father’s nakedness (verse 22b: “He told his two brothers who were outside”) so as to facilitate the subsequent presentation of the brothers’ contrasting act; the same editor then added the blessings of Shem and Japhet, the two “good” brothers/sons, at the end of the story.

In short, according to this reconstruction, the blessings of Shem and Japhet (beginning with “he also said”) and the subordination of Canaan to both of them are secondary (verses 26-27) additions. Thus, the original story told simply of the sin of the youngest son against his father, and the cursing of Canaan to be subservient to his unnamed brothers. Admittedly, this story is disappointingly brief in comparison with the one we are used to. On the other hand, it seems only fitting that a story as unseemly as this one would lack narrative embellishment and be as concise and to the point as possible.’ 

A similar scenario is of Jacob’s eldest son Reuben, who commits adultery [incest of sorts] with his fathers wife’s handmaiden Bilhah. Reuben disqualifies himself and his descendants from the birthright blessings – which are then given to Joseph and Judah. 

‘The original story about forced rape of a father would explain why Noah would curse his youngest son so harshly, but Canaan is not Noah’s youngest son; Japhet is! In fact, Canaan isn’t Noah’s son at all! For this reason, many scholars suggest that in an earlier form of the story, Canaan must have been Noah’s youngest son, not Japhet. 

Without the redaction supplement of “Ham the father of,” v. 22 would have originally read “[Ham, father of] Canaan saw his father’s nakedness.” It indeed makes perfect sense to accept this reconstruction of v. 22, and to assume that if the story concludes with the cursing of Canaan, Canaan must have been the original youngest-son-culprit of the story.

On the other hand, the idea that Canaan was Noah’s youngest son is difficult.Verses 18-19, which introduce the non-Priestly account here, state that Noah’s three sons are Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and that they are the progenitors of the world. Moreover, the nation lists in chapter 10 (Priestly and non-Priestly alike) treat Ham as the father of Canaan and the progenitor of nations;Canaan and his offspring are only a subgroup under Ham.

The most important thing to note about the edited story is the strange preservation of the curse as directed at Canaan (three times!), in spite of the identification of the sinner of the story as Ham and the brothers as Shem and Japhet. Wouldn’t it have been more consistent to change the curse of Canaan into the curse of Ham?

In this case scenario, Noah may have disowned [his son] Canaan. As Ishmael was banished, Canaan would have been relegated in status by Noah, not just by the curse. Ham was not blameless, even so, Canaan’s posterity could have been included with Ham [to save face], rather than shown as a separate fourth line of people from Noah as originally intended. There is no other reason why the subsequent Bible texts included an adjusted table of nations to accommodate the change in Canaan’s status.

Considering the data thus far, it is very problematic in subscribing to Ham the role of perpetrator – rather than an accomplice – and somewhat problematic in subscribing Canaan as Noah’s son, rather than he being Ham’s youngest son. Even so, some consideration should be given to this second hypothesis, as Canaan’s descendant’s lines listed in Genesis Ten are numerous; more divergent than for Japheth, for Shem or for Ham’s other sons. Eleven lines are listed for Canaan. Canaan stands out and his sons descendants, exhibit a spectrum of skin tones, racial characteristics and a more detailed genome than all the other peoples in the world put together.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh has presented the case for Genesis 9:19 ‘These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated’, as being part of the supplemented text P edit. I would offer that the whole sentence may not be additional but just the quick change from four to three sons, though the seam would indicate the whole sentence.

Dr Rabbi David Frankel concludes his article with a theory that the Genesis nine account is in fact about Ham and Canaan. Ham the actual victim. I have considered this theory and have concluded that considerable editing is required in proving it. Whereas, I can accept additions or deletions to Biblical text, the wholesale change of names and shifting verses into other chapters seems a stretch too far. 

The same author is eager to down grade Canaan’s curse to a limited curse – subservient only to Ham [Egypt] – rather than encompassing Shem and Japheth; thus throwing doubt on the Biblical account as it stands, saying it is an editorial agenda in text P to strengthen the future family status of Jacob’s sons.

It is curious that no matter how strenuously editing tries to transfer blame to Ham, it is Canaan that emerges as the accused. One commentator has suggested that Canaan was Ham’s son though not by Ham’s wife Na’eltama’uk, but by Noah’s wife Emzara. Whether there is incest in Genesis nine or not, it may have followed a previous undisclosed act of incest between Ham and a relation of Noah, but not his wife; as a peculiar anomaly links Canaan to the family of Arphaxad, one of the five sons of Shem.

The Creator has much to say on the matter of incest and it was considered a grievous transgression, punishable by death during Israelite times. We saw in the line of Seth that it was the fifth generation that began marrying their cousins. Prior to this, the second through to the fourth generation had little choice but to marry their sisters. If such an act was committed to a relation of Noah and or to Noah, it would seem that Ham or Canaan were fortunate to retain their lives; though death would have been an impossible stumbling block to Ham or Canaan’s lines continuing. Ultimately, the curse placed on Canaan’s descendants is unarguably, the most serious action Noah could have taken. Death would have been kinder, but would have eliminated a whole racial line of people before it had even begun. The most well known incident of incest in the Bible involved the daughters of Lot, which we will address when we study their sons, Moab and Ammon. 

The Book of Leviticus chapter 18, verse 6-18 is dedicated to every possible situation of incest – of which a few are quoted and statements associated with the incident in Genesis chapter nine are in bold: 

English Standard Version

6 “None of you shall approach any one of his close relatives to uncover nakedness. I am the Lord. 7 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, which is the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 9 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your sister, your father’s daughter or your mother’s daughter, whether brought up in the family or in another home. 

As might of happened with Ham and Canaan.

10 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your son’s daughter [granddaughter] or of your daughter’s daughter, for their nakedness is your own nakedness. 11 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife’s daughter, brought up in your father’s family, since she is your sister [step sister]… 14 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother, that is, you shall not approach his wife; she is your aunt. 

15 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 17 You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and of her daughter, and you shall not take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter to uncover her nakedness; they are relatives; it is depravity. 18 And you shall not take a woman as a rival wife to her sister, uncovering her nakedness while her sister is still alive.

The Patriarch Jacob married two sisters, though not by choice, but rather a shrewd play by his father-in-law Laban. We will also address this incident. Leviticus chapter 20:11-21 continues with punishment for incest:

English Standard Version

11 If a man lies with his father’s wife, he has uncovered his father’s nakedness; both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. 12 If a man lies with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have committed perversion; their blood is upon them. 13 If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. If a man takes a woman and her mother also, it is depravity; he and they shall be burned with fire, that there may be no depravity among you… 17 “If a man takes his sister, a daughter of his father or a daughter of his mother, and sees her nakedness, and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace, and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people… 21 If a man takes his brother’s wife, it is impurity. He has uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.

The last verse applies to the time of the Israelites but not necessarily to the epoch that preceded it after the flood.

In Genesis 5:6-10 ESV ‘… Seth… he fathered Enosh… Enosh… fathered Kenan…’ Canaan’s name isn’t just similar to Cain but also in Seth’s line [and thus Noah] there was a grandson of Seth named Kenan. One could say, this is a family name.

We read in the Book of Jubilees 8:1-6

… in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu’eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam [Arphaxad’s older brother], and she bare him a son… and he [Arphaxad] called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 

And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. 

And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai [Chapter IV], the son of Japheth, and… he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: ‘Truly I have been sent’… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed [another Chesed was a son of Nahor, Abraham’s brother], his father’s brother…

In Genesis 10:24-25 ESV we read: ‘Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. In the Masoretic text of the Bible Kainam [Cainan] is left out of the genealogy as we see here, yet in the Septuagint [LXX] Cainan is included, as in the Book of Jubilees. In the New Testament book of Luke, we read the genealogy of Christ through his adoptive father, Joesph.

Luke 3:35-38

New English Translation

35 the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36 the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37 the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan, 38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

Footnote: ‘It is possible that the name Καϊνάμ (Kainam) should be omitted, since two key mss, P75vid and D, lack it. But the omission may be a motivated reading: This name is not found in the editions of the Hebrew OT, though it is in the LXX, at Genesis 11.12 and 10:24. But the witnesses with this reading (or a variation of it) are substantial: א B L ƒ1 33 (Καϊνάμ), A Θ Ψ 0102 ƒ13 M (Καϊνάν, Kainan). The translation above has adopted the more common spelling “Cainan,” although it is based on the reading Καϊνάμ. The Greek text has Kainam here. Some modern English translations follow the Greek spelling more closely (NASB, NRSV Cainan) while others (NIV) use the OT form of the name (Kenan in Genesis 5:9, 12).’

The Septuagint reading supports Luke 3:36. The fact that Cainan [Kainam, Kenan, Canaan] has been inserted in enough manuscripts to draw attention and not be discounted, is a significant red flag. The insertion of Canaan’s name leads to one conclusion: that Canaan being the biological son of Ham, was the adoptive son of Arphaxad, who became his legal father. The Hebrew word ‘fathered’ includes more than just a biological [blood-line] parent. It can mean a father-in-law, a grandfather or distant relative and in this case, a male [non-blood-line] parent who raises the child.

Why would Arphaxad adopt Canaan or make him his ward? As Cainan is shown as being between Arphaxad and his blood-line son Shelah, Canaan must have been born before Shelah. Arphaxad would be Ham’s nephew and Canaan’s cousin. Though if he was considerably older, he may have taken Canaan under his wing. 

The relationship is  of note because in the Septuagint, Genesis 10:22 it says: ‘Sons of Sem, Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Cainan…’ Canaan was ethnically of Hamitic lineage, but is also listed in the lineage of Shem.

The Book of Jubilees reveals that Rasueja [Rasu’eja] gave birth to Cainan. The distancing between Ham and Canaan – even appearing as if Canaan was not Ham’s son – and his subsequent upbringing in Arphaxad’s household would be understandable, if Ham has had a sexual liaison with Rasueja. This would have been incest and all the ramifications that went with it, for she was Noah’s great, great granddaughter. Canaan was Ham’s fourth son and as such, one of the sixteen blood-lines that re-populated the earth. Did Arphaxad retain Canaan [Cainan] in his family to spite Ham or to have a closer grip and control over Canaan, who with his descendants were ordained to be slaves; or was it an act of compassion towards his wife Rasueja and her bastard son.

From everything we have discussed, the key points are: a. Are Ham and Canaan father and son or brothers? b. Was Noah violated and if so, was it by Ham or Canaan? c. Was there a previous event that culminated with the incident in Noah’s tent? It can be argued that there has been concerted effort in the scriptures to lessen Canaan’s role and heighten Ham’s. To take the spotlight off Canaan and portray him as a victim to Ham’s transgression. Ham did something unspeakable and Canaan’s children have paid a heavy price. At face value [and behind the scenes editing] the Bible appears to state this and previously, I have accepted this interpretation from teachers who expounded that Ham is the main subject of Genesis chapter nine and consequently the guilty party. A closer inspection of the Genesis nine passage as we have discovered, has convinced me that this is not correct.

The parenthetical addition of Canaan as the son of Ham is a clue. So is Noah waking up to know what [Ham’s] youngest had done to him. And, Canaan is cursed by Noah, Ham is not. The inclusion of Canaan in Arphaxad’s household and family line, with the naming of Canaan’s mother as Rasueja, yet his still remaining in Ham’s genealogical family tree in the table of nations as a Hamite not as one from Shem, underpins the strong likelihood that Ham is his real father by incest.

Ham transgressed twice then. Once with the incestuous act against Arphaxad with his wife and again when he disrespectfully handled his father’s predicament and sided with his son. He observed Noah and the aftermath of a sexual encounter. The phrase, looked upon his nakedness is categorically more than just seeing a naked body, though in Ham’s case does not mean he is culpable of more himself – as the Hebrew infers. Whereas later, Noah was very much aware of what had been done and by whom – his grandson. Hence the proclamation against Canaan. 

Habakkuk 2:15-16

New English Translation

15  “Woe to you who force your neighbour to drink wine—you who make others intoxicated by forcing them to drink from the bowl of your furious anger so you can look at their naked bodies. 16 But you will become drunk with shame, not majesty. Now it is your turn to drink and expose your uncircumcised foreskin! The cup of wine in the Lord’s right hand is coming to you, and disgrace will replace your majestic glory!

The sin was so severe that it resulted in Canaan becoming only the second person in the Bible record to be cursed, after Cain.

Genesis 4:10-11

English Standard Version

10 And the Lord said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. 11 And now you are cursed…

In verse one of Genesis nine, the Creator blesses Noah and his sons, which includes Ham. Later in chapter nine after the incident, Ham is left out of a specific blessing and does not receive one with Japheth and Shem. It does say, Canaan was to be a slave to all his brothers. We will discover that Canaan has been a slave to some of Ham’s descendants. Whether castration or incest by rape, both are heavy accusations. Castration is difficult to accept without further evidence and a motive. From the context and his response, a sexual act of some kind, was undeniably inflicted on Noah. 

Sadly, this is the only explanation that would warrant such a devastating curse as the one put upon Canaan. If Canaan was conceived in incest, it is a peculiar parallelism indeed to then have possibly committed a similar transgression himself.

The principal mtDNA [maternal] haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants include:

Haplogroup L0 – oldest and original haplogroup on the human mtDNA tree. L0 supposedly arose one hundred and fifty thousand years ago in eastern Africa where the alleged oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans have been found. These facts are open to debate. L0a arose later, associated with the southeastern part of the African continent.

Haplogroup L1 – one of the oldest branches of the maternal family tree is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve and sister to L0. Frequently found in western and central sub-Saharan Africa, though seldom appears in eastern or southern Africa. L1 gave rise to the branches L2 to L6.

L2 – a direct descendant of mitochondrial Eve. It is currently found in a third of sub-Saharan Africans and its subgroup L2a is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among African Americans.

Haplogroup L3 – not associated with Ham’s descendants but is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve, and the ancestor of all the non-African haplogroups in the world today.

Haplogroup M – Subgroup M1 ‘intrigues scientists with its presence in East Africa’ and another subgroup, M3, is native to India.

Haplogroup N – from L3, N is one of the two major lineages with M, from which non-African haplogroups descend. Today, members of this haplogroup are found in many continents around the world.

Haplogroup R – both ancient and complex. Its members can be found all over the world. Originating in the Near East, members of haplogroup R are located in Africa and the Middle East.

Haplogroup X – associated with Southwest Asia, is also found in Europe, North Africa, and the Near East. 

Conversely, the main Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants are summarised by Leonor Gusmão María BriónIva Gomes in a Handbook of Analytical Separations: Global distribution of Y haplogroups, 2008:

‘Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among… groups in Ethiopia and Sudan.

Haplogroup E is one of the most branched, with many subhaplogroups described. E1 and E2 were described in Northeast Africa, and E3 shows a wide geographic distribution, with two main clades: E3a, present all around Africa and among African-Americans; and E3b, present in Western Europe, North Africa, and the Near East.

Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup G appear in the Caucasus region; however it also shows significant frequencies in the Mediterranean areas and the Middle East.

Until now, haplogroup H has not been well studied, members of this haplogroup were mainly found in the Indian continent.

It is generally agreed that haplogroup J was dispersed by the westward movement of people from the Middle East to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.

Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.

Haplogroup L is found mainly in India and Pakistan, as well as in the Middle East and, very occasionally, in Europe, particularly in Mediterranean countries.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup M are shown in Melanesia, being restricted to the geographical distribution of Papuan languages.

The P clade is the parent of haplogroups Q and R, and is rarely found. It has been detected at low frequencies in the Caucasus and India.

Haplogroup R1a is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.’

Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved,  a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.

2 Timothy 2:15 English Standard Version

“A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true.” 

“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” 

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Togarmah & the Koreas

Chapter VI

There are exceptions to every rule, in family living together – point number one in the introduction. We will encounter two significant exceptions amongst Japheth’s grandsons, with the first being the youngest son of Gomer and his prompt decision to dwell apart from his siblings. Togarmah is highlighted as a people with military capability and is prominent as part of the formidable alliance with Magog and Gomer’s other sons.

Book of Jasher 10:10-12

10 And the children of Tugarma are ten families, and these are their names: Buzar, Parzunac, Balgar, Elicanum, Ragbib, Tarki, Bid, Zebuc, Ongal and Tilmaz; all these spread and rested in the north and built themselves cities. 11 And they called their cities after their own names, those are they who abide by the rivers Hithlah and Italac unto this day. 12 But the families of Angoli, Balgar and Parzunac, they dwell by the great river Dubnee; and the names of their cities are also according to their own names.

Ancient Civilisation:

‘Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the Armenians traditionally claim to be descended from Togarmah… Ancient Armenia reached into Turkey. The name Turkey probably comes from Togarmah.’

We will see repeatedly, nations claiming to be a Bible identity though this does not make it so.


‘The Jewish Targums claim that Germany was also derived from Togarmah and his descendants. Turkey and Turkestan also have possible connections with Togarmah.’

Derek Walker – emphasis mine:

‘Togarmah is another country aligned with Russia. He was a son of Gomer, son of Japheth (Genesis 10:1-3), known in Assyrian records as Tilgarimmu, a city state in Eastern Anatolia (Asia Minor, modern Turkey)… This identification is generally acknowledged by all.

The Bible confirms Togarmah’s location in Ezekiel 38:6: “Beth-Togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all its troops.” The word Beth at the beginning of the word is the Hebrew word for “house.” It means “house or place of Togarmah.” In Ezekiel 38:6: “the house of Togarmah, and all its hordes” are specifically pointed out as being from the north. 

Therefore we know it is directly north of Israel. Some of the sons of Togarmah can be traced to the Turkoman tribes of Central Asia. Rimmer had no doubts that Togarmah is ancient Armenia (most of which is in Turkey today…) and cited certain Assyrian chronicles as well as Tacitus in support of his view. He said that the title the House of Togarmah is a common description for Armenia in Armenian literature. 

All agree to identify Togarmah with Armenia and Turkey. This fits Ezekiel, for Turkey is directly north of Israel. There’s a possible etymological connection between the names Togarmah and Turkey and Turkestan. In Ezekiel’s time, there was a city in Cappodocia (Turkey) known as Tegarma, Tagarma, Til-garimmu, and Takarama. It’s significant that [four] of the ancient locations Ezekiel gives are found today in the nation of Turkey. Clearly God is emphasising Turkey’s important part in the end-time coalition…’

The location of Togarmah in Asia Minor if accurate, relates to thousands of years ago. Many peoples have dwelt at this major continental intersection at one time or another; migrating as new peoples arrive. All these different groups of people cannot now still be living there, or all be called Turks.

Dr Hoeh adds:

‘One branch of the family of Gomer, however, did not journey to Southeast Asia. Ezekiel 38:6 explains it: “The house of Togarmah in the uttermost parts of the north, and all his bands” (Jewish translation). The far, far north means Russian Siberia today! That is where the descendants of Togarmah (Gen.10:3) live. These Asiatics are still a wild nomadic people, much as they were 2500 years ago, trading “with horses and horsemen and mules” (Ezek.27:14).’ 

The descendants of Togarmah figure more prominently in world affairs than as non-specifically identified nomadic, tribal, horsemen. The two scriptures mentioned by Dr Hoeh pertaining to Togarmah:

Ezekiel 27:14

New Century Version

14 “‘People of Beth Togarmah traded your goods for work horses, war horses, and mules.

This verse today, with a modern application, is revealing a people who are economically and technically advanced; producing machinery and transport for industry and arms weaponry.

Ezekiel 38:6 English Standard Version, translates as quoted by Hoeh.

Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all his hordes—many peoples are with you.

Derek Walker explained the meaning of ‘Beth’ as house. It is a family unit. Its use is showing Togarmah as a separate entity from his brothers Ashkenaz and Riphath. We learned when studying Madai, that Asshur [Assyria] lives in the north. There are not many options in Central and East Asia for who Togarmah might be. Other translations say:

New Century Version

… the nation of Togarmah from the far north…

New English Translation

… and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north…

There are only four peoples [five nations] Togarmah could be: China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea or Japan.

Youngs Literal Translation

… The house of Togarmah of the sides of the north…

This is a more specific translation and eliminates China and Mongolia.

Modern King James version

… the house of Togarmah from the recesses of the north…

This translation effectively eliminates Japan, for the connotation is a bend, a crook or even a hook. In the King James version it says ‘of the north quarters’. Of the north in Hebrew, from the root H6845, signifies ‘hidden, dark, gloomy’ and ‘unknown.’ Quarters in Hebrew, from H3411: yrekah meaning side or sides [used 21 times in KJB], coasts [3], parts [2], border [1], quarters [1]. It also means ‘flank, extreme parts,’ ‘the rear or recess’, ‘recesses.’

The Peninsula jutting out from the Asian continent with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [North] and the Republic of Korea [South] is the clear answer to where Togarmah is located today. This was not obvious until looking at this verse very closely. I had initially considered that Meshech and Tubal are North and South Korea and Japan is Togarmah. Though, only Korea could equate to being tucked away and hidden in a crook or recess. 

Korea was split in two in 1945 and unlike North and South Vietnam doe not look like uniting anytime soon. The use of House of Togarmah in Ezekiel 38:6, may hint at just one of the Koreas being part of the military alliance with Magog and the rest of Gomer – or it might be revealing the eventual unification of Korea.

Abarim Publications:

‘The name Togarmah most likely originated in a language other than Hebrew, and therefore does not occur as a word in the Hebrew language. But, transliterated as is, at the heart of the name Togarmah sits the common Hebrew noun (gerem), bone, which figuratively is used to mean self or strength. It comes from the verb (garam), meaning to lay aside or save… The verb [garam] means to leave over, to save for later… to break bones [or breaking bones].’

Recall the names of Gomer, Riphath and Askenaz: ’Bring to an end’, ‘Crushers’, ‘fire is scattered’ or ‘sprinkling of blood’. Further dread, with the addition of ‘Bone breaker’ to this formidable list of adversaries. 

Readers paying careful attention, may remember this quote earlier from the preceding chapter on Gomer – emphasis & bold mine:

The study said that Vietnamese people were the only population in the study’s phylogenetic analysis that did not reflect a sizable genetic difference between East Asian and Southeast Asian populations. Jung Jongsun et al. (2010) said that genetic structure analysis found significant admixture in “Vietnamese (or Cambodian) with unknown Southern original settlers.” The study said that it used Cambodians and Vietnamese to represent “Southern people,”… The study also said that Vietnamese people are located between Chinese and Cambodian people in the study’s genome map.’

Bhak Jong-hwa, a professor in the biomedical engineering department at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) states:

‘… the ancient Vietnamese, which was a population that flourished with rapid agricultural development after 8,000 BC, slowly travelled north to ancient civilizations in the Korean peninsula and the Russian Far East. Bhak said that Korean people were formed from the admixture of agricultural Southern Mongoloids from Vietnam who went through China – [According to most linguists and archaeologists with expertise in ancient Korea, the linguistic homeland of proto-Korean and of the early Koreans is located somewhere in Manchuria, particularly the Liao River.] – and hunter-gatherer Northern Mongoloids in the Korean Peninsula. Bhak said, “We believe the number of ancient dwellers who migrated north from Vietnam far exceeds the number of those occupying the peninsula,” making Koreans inherit more of their DNA from southerners.

Regarding Vietnam, recall that the Vietnamese have a genetic structure that is partially dissimilar to their related neighbours – with an unknown admixture – and more aligned to East Asian peoples in contrast. Korea has been populated in part from a migratory wave of people travelling eastward in the north and, primarily from another wave of migrants travelling northwards through China from… Vietnam – with Koreans actually possessing a majority of their DNA from these southern immigrants.

This is quite an admission and provides the link between Togarmah and his brother Ashkenaz in continental South East Asia. Who would have thought there is a genetic association between the Vietnamese and Koreans. Yet the Bible revealed this fact millennia’s ago, when it described Togarmah dwelling separately from his brothers. 

The Genetic history of Koreans: Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have produced evidence to suggest that: ‘the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous [marrying their own] ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups [O2b, O1b2 and C].Several studies confirmed that Koreans have both a Northeast and Southeast Asian genome.’

Paternal lineages – Jin Han-jun [2003]: ‘Korean males display a high frequency of Haplogroup O-M176 [O1b2, formerly O2b], a subclade that probably has spread mainly from somewhere in the Korean Peninsula or its vicinity,and Hapologroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3), a common Y-DNA haplogroup among East and Southeast Asians in general.’

Maternal lineages: ‘Haplogroup B, which occurs very frequently in many populations of Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas, is found in approximately 10% (ethnic Koreans from Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia) to 20% (Koreans from South Korea) of Koreans. Haplogroup A has been detected in approximately 7% (Koreans from South Korea) to 15% (ethnic Koreans from Arun banner, Inner Mongolia) of Koreans.’Haplogroup A is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among the Eskimo and many other Amerind ethnic groups of North and Central America.’ Other major Korean mtDNA haplogroups include: D4 [29%], M7 [11%], G [6%] and F [5%].

Immunoglobulin G: Hideo Matsumoto professor emeritus at Osaka medical College, tested Gm types [genetic markers] of immunoglobulin G of Korean populations in 2009. Matsumoto said that, ‘Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene possibly originating in southern China and found at high frequencies across Southeast Asia southern China, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Assam and parts of the Pacific. Matsumoto said that the average frequency of Gm afb1b3 for Koreans was 14.7% which was intermediate between a frequency of 10.6% for general Japanese and a frequency of 24.1% for Beijing Han Chinese.’

Autosomal DNA – Jin Han-jun [1999] said: ‘based on genetic studies of classic genetic markers of protein and nuclear DNA… that these 9-bp deletion frequencies are consistent with earlier surveys which showed that 9-bp deletion frequencies increase going from Japan to mainland Asia to the Malay peninsula.’

‘The Cavalli-Sforza’s chord genetic distance (4D,) from Cavalli-Sforza & Bodmer (1971), which is based on the allele frequencies of the intergenic COII/tRNALys region, showed that Koreans are more genetically related to Japanese than Koreans are genetically related to the other East Asian populations which were surveyed. The close genetic affinity between present day Koreans and Japanese is expected due to the Yayoi migration from China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan which began about 2,300 years ago. Horai [1996] detected mtDNA D-loop variation which supports the idea that a large amount of maternal lineages came into Japan from immigrants from the Korean Peninsula after the Yayoi period.’

‘Kim Jong-jin [2005] conducted a study about the genetic relationships among East Asians based on allele frequencies. Focusing on how close Chinese, Japanese and Koreans are genetically related to each other. The study concluded that Middle West Korea was a melting pot in the Korean Peninsula with people traveling from North to South, South to North, and people traveling from East China…’

Jung [2010] said that Koreans are genetically homogenous. The study stated ‘the affinity of Koreans is predominately Southeast Asian with an estimated admixture of 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian for Koreans… all of the Koreans which were analyzed uniformly displayed a dual pattern of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian origins. The study said that Koreans and Japanese displayed no observable difference between each other in their proportion of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian admixture.’ We will refer to this parallel when we discuss the Japanese people.

Koreans [paternal] Y-DNA is related to the Vietnamese; whereas their autosomal DNA [non-sex chromosomes] is more closely aligned with the Chinese. The main Haplogroup O2b of the Koreans, is a sister group of the primary Vietnamese Haplogroup O2a. Vietnamese people have only minor percentages of Haplogroup O2b in their DNA compared to Koreans. 

The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree, multiple authors, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Haplogroups A, C, D, G, Y, and Z almost completely cover the mtDNA pool of Northeast Asians, whereas in Southeast Asians C, Y, or Z mtDNAs have rarely been found, but instead haplogroups B and F are predominant. 

N9a** is, compared with its sister bough Y, widely spread [in SE Asia], although at very low frequencies, among most East Asian populations… Considering the geographic distribution of the boughs and twigs we see further regional patterns. In contrast to A4, which is widely spread, the A5 twig, with its low diversity suggesting shallow time depth [not sons of Japheth but grandsons of Japheth with an evolution and migration unlike their siblings and uncles], is specific to Koreans and Japanese… Similarly, B4 is the prevailing bough in haplogroup B… covering all haplogroup B types in Native Americans and Polynesians. B5 is found most frequent, accounting for about one third to one half of the B types, in eastern China, Korea, and Japan… 

E1 is so far found only in Southeast Asia… F1a is the main branch of F… in Southeast Asia, whereas F1b is more frequent in Central Asians and Mongols, Koreans, and Japanese. G2a is highest among Central Asians (8.8%) [Kazakhstan] and also above 3% in Tibetans and Ainu and rare or absent among southern Chinese, Vietnamese, island Southeast Asians… and Siberians. G3 is not yet well screened, but evidently it is seen in Korea, Mongolia, and Central Asia. 

Haplogroup M7, although characteristic for East Asian populations, has not been found in the northeast of the continent… It is also very rare in Central Asians… This haplogroup has been detected so far in China and Vietnam, the Korean peninsula and Japanese islands, as well as among Mongols, the West Siberian Mansi, and island Southeast Asia. Koreans possess lineages from both the southern and the northern haplogroup complex and share M7a with Japanese, Ainu, and Ryukyu islanders. 

The geographic specificity of the boughs and twigs of M7… is most intriguing: M7c1c is specific to island Southeast Asia and M7b1 is of Chinese provenance, whereas M7a, M7b2, and M7c1b are found almost exclusively in Korea and Japan. In fact, M7 is one of the prevailing haplogroups not only among Japanese (of Honshu and Kyushu) but also for Ainu and Ryukyuans, thus testifying to a common genetic background.

Khazaria, Korean Genetics – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Among Korean males who have been studied, the Y-DNA (paternal DNA) haplogroups [O1b2] (P49) and [O2] (M122) were particularly common. About 7.9 percent of Koreans belong to a branch of [O1b] known as haplogroup O1b2 [the Vietnamese also have O1b2]. Koreans are racially a purely Mongoloid population. They carry the 1540C allele on their EDAR gene which among other things results in thicker hair than other races. Koreans also have the ABCC11 gene nearly universally so they have dry earwax as opposed to the wet earwax of most people in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.’

The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers, Han-Jun Jin, Chris Tyler-Smith, and Wook Kim, 2009: 

“The mtDNA haplogroup D4 is very common among Korean people. This haplogroup is also prevalent in Siberia. The study found mtDNA haplogroup A in about 10% of the Koreans tested. A is the most frequently encountered mtDNA haplogroup among… New World Indian (Amerindian) populations from North America and Central America. Meanwhile, the mtDNA haplogroup B is also found in some Koreans and it’s also common in China and Japan. Less common Korean mtDNA haplogroups include F, M, R, U, and Z.”

“The Koreans are generally considered a northeast Asian group because of their geographical location. However, recent findings from Y chromosome studies showed that the Korean population contains lineages from both southern and northern parts of East Asia.”

Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of the Koreans, multiple authors, 2003:

“We have analyzed eight Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), M9, M175, LINE1, SRY(+465), 47z, and M95) and three Y-STR markers (DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393) in 738 males from 11 ethnic groups in east Asia in order to study the male lineage history of Korea… the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups reveals the complex origin of the Koreans, resulting from genetic contributions involving the northern Asian settlement and range expansions mostly from southern-to-northern China.

The haplogroups carrying the M9-G mutation and additional sublineages of M9-G in Korea appear to be at an intermediate frequency (81.9%) between southeast and northeast Asian populations. This result implies that the Korean population may be influenced by both the northeast and southeast Asian populations. Even within haplogroup O, the most frequent Korean STR haplotype (23-10-13 with the markers DYS390-DYS391-DYS393, 19% of haplogroup O… is the most frequent in the Philippines (27%), whereas the second most frequent Korean haplotype (24-10-12, 16%) is the most frequent in Manchuria (45%)…

In this study, the Koreans appear to be most closely related overall to the Manchurians among east Asian ethnic groups… although a principal components analysis of haplogroup frequencies reveals that they also cluster with populations from Yunnan and Vietnam…

“Using two multiplex systems, all 593 Korean mtDNAs were allocated into 15 haplogroups: M, D, D4, D5, G, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, R9, B, A, and N9. As the D4 haplotypes occurred most frequently in Koreans, the third multiplex system was used to further define D4 subhaplogroups: D4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4h, and D4j.”

“[Mitochondrial] Haplogroup N9a** is characteristic of eastern Asian populations, where it is detected at… frequencies in Japan (4.6%), China (2.8%), Mongolia (2.1%) and Korea (3.9%)…”

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia, 2009:

“Koreans were found to have the least amount of Austronesian DNA compared to other East Asian peoples, even a little less than the Japanese.

This is a significant point, as this lends weight to the proposal that the Koreans [and Japanese] have been separated from the main body of their respective family enclaves. The Austronesian [Polynesian] peoples and the related archipelago southeast Asian nations of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, migrated southwards from Taiwan after crossing from mainland China thousands of years ago. The Japanese as remaining major Island people, were not included in this migratory path. Similarly, for the majority of the Korean people. Thus the Koreans [and Japanese] having the lowest amount of Austonesian DNA is not a surprise and supports their unorthodox movement and evolution in relation to their respective brothers.

Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes, multiple authors, 2005: 

“All southeastern Asian populations cluster together on the left side of the plot; with only northern Han Chinese, Korean, and Manchu populations showing closer affinities with southeastern groups than with their geographic neighbors. All other northeast Asians, as well as central Asians, south Asians, and Oceanic populations, are on the right side of the plot… 

[There is a] very low incidence of (Y-DNA) D chromosomes in Korea… [and] very few O-47z chromosomes found in Korea and Southeast Asia… Haplogroup M12 is the mitochondrial counterpart of Y chromosome D lineage. This rare haplogroup was detected only in mainland Japanese, Koreans, and Tibetans, with the highest frequency and diversity in Tibet (Tanaka et al. 2004). 

… Y chromosomes that originated in Southeast Asia expanded to Korea and Japan…”

There is a wealth of haplogroup data for South Korea and the opposite regarding North Korea. Though it confirms their haplogroups match, as they are one people artificially divided within two nations. 

The Korean Y-DNA haplogroups in descending percentage order:

O2a1 [42%] – O1b2 [ 33%] – C [13%] – K [4%] – N [4%] – O1a [3%] – D1b [ 3%] – Q [2%]

Other trace haplogroups include: P and NO, both indicative of an Oriental descent. It is interesting to now compare Vietnam and Korea.

Vietnam:  O2a [40%] – O1b [33%] – Q1 [7%] – O1a [6%] – C [4%] –

D1 [3%] – N [3%]

Korea:       O2a [42%] – O1b [ 33%] – C [13%] – K – [4%] – N [4%] –

O1a [3%] – D1 [ 3%] – Q [2%]

Vietnam:    O2a – O1b – Q1 – O1a – C – D1 – N 

Korea:         O2a – O1b – C – K – N – O1a – D1b – Q 

The Vietnamese and Koreans share near identical percentages for their first two major clades. Substantiating the familial link and the geographic estrangement as revealed in the scriptures regarding Togarmah and his brothers Ashkenaz and Riphath.

What would be the odds, that these two peoples – two brothers – of Vietnam and Korea would be cut in half so-to-speak, during the twentieth century. Both peoples are also located on the eastern extremity [coastlines] of their respective regions. 

The House of Togarmah is a very specific title and an uncommon usage in the Bible. It may allude to one Korea in the predicted East Asian Army; or it might be specifying North Korea’s involvement in Magog’s military machine. Once we have concluded Japheth’s sons identities, it will be apparent why both options have to be weighed.

A comparison of North and South Korea:

IndicatorNorth KoreaSouth Korea
Official languagesKorean
GovernmentJuche single-party stateRepresentative Democracy
Formal declaration9 September 194815 August 1948
Area120,540 km2100,210 km2
Population 25,778,81651,835,110
GDP total (2011/2014)$40 billion$1.755 trillion
CurrencyKorean People’s wonKorean Republic won
Active military personnel1,106,000639,000
Military expenditure (2010/2012)$10 billion$30 billion

North and South Korea’s combined population is close to the Amerindian and the Turko-Mongol populations in the world. With regard to Ezekiel 27:14 and the economic, military strength of Togarmah, it is worth listing the key industries and exports of both countries.

North Korea: military products, machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining [coal, iron ore, limestone, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead and precious metals], metallurgy, food processing and tourism.

South Korea: electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding and steel.

South Korea, with a 2019 GDP of $1.65 trillion is the 12th largest economy in the world. South Korea’s economic journey is a twentieth century success story – the miracle on the Han River. South Korea is reputed for its strategy of export led growth, the dominance of its large business conglomerates [Chaebols] and its highly motivated and educated populace. South Korea has built a network of free trade agreements with over fifty-eight countries which account for over three-quarters of the world’s GDP.

South Korea ranks highly on the index of nations with superior technology, at number three in the world. South Korea is the birthplace to some of the biggest names in technology and development: LG, Hyundai, and Samsung are all global leaders. South Korea is also in the forefront of the Robotics field. 

South Korea is included in the group of Next Eleven countries that are projected to dominate the global economy in the middle of the 21st century. Other N-11 nations include Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, and Vietnam. Most of the group’s total gross domestic product derives from Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey, whose economies have grown significantly. The World Bank described South Korea as one of the fastest growing major economies of the next generation along with the burgeoning  economies of the BRIC nations [Brazil, Russia, India and China], as well as Indonesia. 

Fools do not want to understand anything. They only want to tell others what they think.

Proverbs 18:2 New Century Version

“Did I ever think I might have been wrong? Yes, sometimes and briefly. But never because of the supposed majority against me.” 

Christopher Hitchens 

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Gomer: Continental South East Asia

Chapter V

Japheth’s eldest son is Gomer. He had three sons and they are the first three great grandsons of Noah listed in Genesis Ten.

Genesis 10:3

English Standard Version

The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

We will discuss the first two sons – Ashkenaz and Riphath – with Gomer and look at the third son, Togarmah separately. The following quotes are reprinted in large part, to show how the first suggestion of an identity – in this instance 435 years ago – can take hold and perpetuate an error. Also, to highlight the pitfalls of using words as proof, when they are either just interesting or completely misleading. These two points have almost irreparably cast the whole identity of nations into discredit.

Ancient Civilisation:

‘In modern Turkey is an area which in New Testament times was called Galatia. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus records that the people who were called Galatians or Gauls in his day (c. AD 93) were previously called Gomerites. They migrated westward to what are now called France and Spain. For many centuries France was called Gaul, after the descendants of Gomer. North-west Spain is called Galicia to this day. Some of the Gomerites migrated further to what is now called Wales. The Welsh historian, Davis… records that the Welsh language is called Gomeraeg (after their ancestor Gomer).’

The words Gaul and Gallic have a closer association with the words Gael[s] and Gaelic. The descendants of Gomer as Asian kin of Tiras and Madai, can not be the ancestors of the Welsh.


‘Herodotus and Plutarch associate Gomer, Japheth’s first son, with the peoples of Cimmeria, a region north of the Black Sea. Cimmeria is modern day Crimea. A certain group of Gomer’s descendants eventually moved westward, and the name was more than likely preserved in the names Germany and Cambria, or Wales.’

There is a link between the Welsh and the Cimmerians, just not with Gomer. Likewise, some have tried to equate Gom-er with Ger-man. Trying to fit an Asian group into a European line will not work. Assumptions are easily made and ancient historians too readily relied upon.

A H Sayce pages 48-49 – emphasis mine:

‘Jeremiah (51.27) makes it pretty clear in what part of the world we are to look for Ashkenaz… Ararat was the district which lay between the Araxes and the mountains south of Lake Van, while the Minni adjoined the kingdom of Ararat on the east. Ashkenaz accordingly must have been precisely where an inscription of Sargon places the people of the Asguza, and we may therefore feel but little hesitation in identifying the two together. The Gimirra, or Kimmerians, are placed in the same locality by certain cuneiform inscriptions which relate to the closing days of the Assyrian Empire. On Riphath no light has as yet been thrown by the decipherment of the records of the past…

As per point number two in the introduction, Sayce has possibly located where these people once lived though not where they finally migrated.

Oxford Bible Church, Derek Walker – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Another participant in the end-time confederation of nations is ancient Gomer… Some prophecy teachers as well as the Rabbinical view identify Gomer as Germany, and the Jewish Talmud positively identify Gomer with the Germans.’ 

A line of Japheth [Asian] is being incorrectly matched to a line of Shem [European]. It would be helpful to learn exactly what the positive identification of Germany with Gomer is?

‘A closer examination, however, reveals that the Gomerites were the ancient Cimmerians, expelled in 700 BC from the southern steppes of Russia into the area we know today as Turkey. Gomer, scholars seem to almost universally agree, “refers to the Celtic Cimmerians of Crim-Tartary.” Gomer is well known to the ancient world as Gimarrai of north central Asia Minor [Cappadocia]. These people are also known as the Cimmerians. This seems to be the simplest, most obvious interpretation. Gomer is to be identified with the Cimmerians (the Cimarrai of the Assyrian inscriptions), located on the shores of the Black and Caspian Seas. Gomer is Gimarra is Cimmeria is Cappadocia – central Turkey.

The Cimmerians are well known to secular historians. The Scythians chased them across the Caucasus mountains into Asia Minor (Turkey). They made their way through that land, destroyed the Phrygian kingdom in the 7th-8th century BC., and in the 5th century raided the kingdom of Lydia. They kept all of southern and western Asia in turmoil for a century and a half. 

Dr Young, citing the best of the most recent archaeological finds, says of Gomer [Cimmerians]: “They settled on the north of the Black Sea and then spread themselves westward and southward to the extremities of Europe.” Josephus said Gomer founded those whom the Greeks called the Galatians. This confirms the best identification of Gomer as Turkey.’

Confusion has arisen as ‘Gomer’ is superficially linked to the Gimarri/Cimmerians, later the Gaels and Gauls. The Cimmerians were warlike and spread to the extremities of southwestern Europe, before migrating to the British Isles. They just weren’t the Gomerites from Japheth.

Possibly the first author to identify Gomer, the Cimmerians and Cimbri with the Welsh name for themselves Cymri, was the English antiquarian William Camden in his work: Britannia [published in 1586]. In his 1716 book Drych y Prif Oesoedd, Welsh antiquary Theophilus Evans, posited that the Welsh were descended from the Cimmerians and from Gomer.

An identity is offered and whether correct or incorrect, it takes hold. Scholars and researchers assume the question is answered. A certain academic laziness ensues and 435 years later an original error deleteriously affects the mosaic, of the overall identity jig-saw puzzle.

Celtic linguists follow the etymology proposed by Johann Kaspar Zeuss in 1853, which derives Cymry from the Brythonic word Combrogos, meaning fellow countryman. The name Gomer [as in the pen-name of 19th century editor and author Joseph Harris] and its modern Welsh derivatives such as Gomeraeg [as an alternative name for the Welsh language] became popular for a time in Wales, but the Gomerian theory has long since been discredited as an outdated hypothesis with no historical or linguistic validity.

In rabbinic literature the kingdom of Ashkenaz was associated with the Scythian region, then later with the Slavic territories and from the Eleventh century, with Germany and northern Europe. Medieval Jews associated the term with the geographical area of the Rhineland and the Palatinate of Western Germany. The Jewish culture that developed in the area came to be called Ashkenazi. How the name of Ashkenaz came to be associated in the rabbinic literature with the Rhineland is a subject of speculation.

Associating a name from a grandson of Japheth with descendants from Shem is certainly going too muddy the waters. Ironically, we will learn later that the name Ashkenaz actually does have an association with the Jewish people – just not derived from Gomer.

Herman Hoeh comments – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Look in your Bible for a map – if you have one in your Bible. There you will probably have pictured the descendants of Gomer migrating into Europe! Nothing could be further from the truth. They migrated in exactly the opposite direction! But do you know why many have assumed that Gomer may be in modern Europe today? Because the people of Northwest Europe journeyed through the land of Gomer before coming to Europe and were therefore called Kymmri! Prophecy says this very fact would occur! Notice what Israel is called while in captivity: “Gomer” (Hosea 1:3). The woman “Gomer” mentioned by the prophet had the same name which the children of Israel bore when coming into Europe! The Israelites were called Khumri or Cymmri, or Khmeri, or Cimmerians upon reaching northwest Europe. But where are the descendants of Gomer today?

Gomer originally settled northeast of Elam. From here they were driven to the Caucasus, between the Black and the Caspian Sea. Then they journeyed to Southeast Asia! Notice! The native name for Cambodia in Indo-China is Khmer —the land of Gomer! Read the BRITANNICA article on Cambodia. Associated with Gomer are the Chams and Annamese. Could this be only a coincidence? The Cambodians are related to the Siamese [Thailand], Burmese [Myanmar] and other brown [Asians] of the Indonesian Isles and the Philippines. In the ancient land of Gomer dwelled a small tribe called the Lullu (ENCY. BIBLICA…). In extreme South China today dwell the Lulu, a non-Chinese race related to the people of Southeast Asia!’

The eldest two sons of Gomer, Ashkenaz and Riphath, migrated to mainland South East Asia and settled in what was called Indochina. The name Indochina, was given to Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, due to their being culturally and socially influenced by Indian (Indo-) and Chinese culture. The region comprises the nations of Myanmar [formerly Burma]and the Burmese, Thailand [formerly Siam and the Siamese], Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

We will look at the island nations of South East Asia separately as they identify with a different son of Japheth.

The meaning of Gomer in Hebrew: ‘completion, complete’ or ‘perfect.’ From the verb meaning, ‘to complete, bring to an end’ or ‘come to an end’.

We read of Gomer in the Book of Jubilees 9:8-9. 

And the first portion came forth for Gomer to the east from the north side to the river Tina; and in the north there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of the north until it reaches to the sea of Me’at.

Gomer is said to be next to and south of Magog. Riphath is not mentioned outside Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, though seems to be synonymous with Gomer. The meaning of his name is not straight forward. It can include: ‘fruit, grain, healers’ and possibly ‘crushers.’ The noun is ripa, some sort of beaten and dried grain or fruit. The verb is rapa, to heal.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘… since we don’t know how to translate the word [Riphath] we also don’t know what to do with the name… To add to the confusion, in 1 Chronicles 1:6 this descendant of Gomer is called Diphath – the letters d and r look much alike. Maybe this discrepancy is due to a scribal error, and maybe the man simply had two names. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names refers to a root that doesn’t exist. Jones erroneously points at Job 26:11, where the verb (rapap), meaning to shake or tremble is used. And so Jones reads Crusher… NOBSE Study Bible Name List and BDB Theological Dictionary don’t even try to translate this name. Whatever Riphath may have been supposed to mean, the intent is lost for good. But to a Hebrew  audience, the name Riphath may have sounded like Healers.’

Ashkenaz and Riphath are not obvious in their identification, though their names provide possible clues. Thailand is at the forefront for herbal remedies as well as cosmetic surgery, as Riphath possibly alludes in to heal.

Gomer’s eldest son, Ashkenaz’s name is from the noun esh, ‘fire’, ke, ‘like’ or ‘as’ and the verb naza, ‘to sprinkle’. In Hebrew it means: ‘sprinkles like fire’ or ‘so fire is scattered’ with a connotation of a fire offering or a ritualistic sprinkling of blood or water and immediately reminded of the Vietnam war and the destructiveness of napalm.

The leading economy of the the five nations is Thailand, with the second highest population [behind Vietnam] and the second biggest area [after Myanmar]. Thailand is the 22nd largest economy in the world [5th in East Asia] with a GDP of $543.55 billion. The Thai economy possesses relatively high quality infrastructure as well as pro-free enterprise and pro-investment policies. Thailand is very dependent on exports; accounting for about two-thirds of its GDP. Thailand has a substantial international tourism industry. While its agricultural sector only makes up about 10% of its economy, it employs nearly a full 30% of its workers.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Thai global shipments during 2020.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$37.7 billion
  2. Electrical machinery, equipment: $34.1 billion
  3. Vehicles: $24.1 billion
  4. Gems, precious metals: $18 billion
  5. Rubber, rubber articles: $15.5 billion
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $11.9 billion
  7. Meat/seafood preparations: $6.6 billion
  8. Mineral fuels including oil: $6.1 billion
  9. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $4.7 billion
  10. Fruits, nuts: $4.2 billion

Gems and precious metals was the fastest-growing among the top 10 export categories, up by 14.9% since 2019 propelled by higher international sales of gold. The leading decliner among Thailand’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil which fell -27.8% year over year.’

In the Bible, Gomer is mentioned just once [aside from the genealogical lists]; in a yet future, intimidating military alliance with several other nations. In Ezekiel 38:2-6, ESV we read:

2 “Son of man, set your face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him 3 and say, Thus says the Lord God: Behold, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 

4 And I will turn you about and put hooks into your jaws, and I will bring you out, and all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full armor, a great host, all of them with buckler and shield, wielding swords. 5 Persia, Cush, and Put are with them, all of them with shield and helmet; 6 Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all his hordes—many peoples are with you.

Notice Togarmah is differentiated from Gomer, as his descendants migrated to a distant land. Gomer is able to field a large army in this already massive military operation.

Countries comprising Continental SE Asia

CountryPopulation (2020)

With a combined population of nearly 250 million people, we can understand how this would be feasible. If we return briefly to Gomer and his first two sons names meanings, it is a rather frightening prospect when they are placed together:

‘Bring to an end’, ‘Crushers’, ‘fire is scattered’ and ‘sprinkling of blood’.

Ashkenaz is highlighted in a single verse in Jeremiah 51:27, NET:

“Raise up battle flags throughout the lands. Sound the trumpets calling the nations to do battle. Prepare the nations to do battle against Babylonia. Call for these kingdoms to attack her: Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz. Appoint a commander to lead the attack. Send horses against her like a swarm of locusts.”

‘Footnote: Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz were three kingdoms located in the Lake Van-Lake Urmia region that are now parts of eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran. These kingdoms were conquered and made vassal states by the Medes in the early sixth century.

The regions of Ararat and Minni are described as kingdoms, placed on a similar footing with Ashkenaz. Actually, they are even listed before Ashkenaz. Thus they are not regions within another territory. The fact that the Bible states them, shows they are an identifiable family subdivision of Gomer as his additional sons, or perhaps the link to his eldest son Ashkenaz, means they are Gomer’s grandsons. 

As we read from A H Sayce, we know this was where these peoples were once located [modern Armenia], though they are not there now. If Ashkenaz and Riphath’s children are located in former Indo-China; how do these other two peoples relate to them.

It is not integral in understanding Gomer’s future role, where Ashkenaz and Riphath are located, though it is valuable in investigating for those people who may be represented by them today. With the introduction of Ararat and Minni, coupled with Diphath, the enigmatic double of Riphath, the mystery broadens. We have five Biblical identities associated with Gomer’s sons Ashkenaz and Riphath and we have [unsurprisingly], five modern nations in continental Southeast Asia.

Previously we addressed the original Ararat Mountains being the Himalayas and the mountain ranges in Anatolia [Turkey] being a later identification. If the people of Ararat and Minni once were associated with this area in the past, then might they be near the Himalayas or in a mountainous region today.

The most mountainous nation in Southeast Asia is coincidentally Myanmar – followed by Indonesia. The Hkakabo Razi is believed to be Myanmar’s highest mountain. The 19,295 foot tall mountain is also the highest mountain in Southeast Asia and is located in the northern Myanmar state of Kachin, in an outlying subrange of the Greater Himalayan mountain system adjacent to the tripoint border with India and China. 

Abarim Publications – bold mine:

‘Ararat is the name of a mountain range, which is famous for being the site of the first ship wreck in history: the stranding of the Ark of Noah (Genesis 8:4). Nowadays nobody knows for sure where the Ararat might be… according to Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names the name Ararat comes from (1) the common Hebrew word (har) hill, mountain. And (2) the Hebrew verb (yarad) to go down, descend, march down. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Mountain Of Descent, which is a wonderful interpretation if it didn’t ignore the final teth.

The following cluster of words seems more appropriate: (‘arar), to curse; (retet), trembling, panic, and (rata), wring out (Job 16:11), a word that, according to BDB Theological Dictionary may have to do with (yarat), precipitate, or be headlong, contrary (Numbers 22:32, “…because your way is contrary to me”. BDB Theological Dictionary suggest an alternative reading, “…thou hast precipitated the journey in front of me”.) As is the case with many names from the earliest chapters of Genesis, it’s impossible to retrieve the intended meaning of the name Ararat. We can’t even be sure in which language this name originated. But the way this name was later spelled, it seems to stylise the Noah story: A curse and a trembling; then a mountain and a future in a flash laid out.’

The definition of Ararat is insightful with its accurate description of Noah’s family trekking down a mountain of magnitude, to populate the Indus Valley after the Flood. 

Minni in Hebrew means: ‘my portion, partly’. A subtle link with ‘my portion’ to Madai’s ‘middle land’ and Japheth’s ‘enlarged’. From the preposition min, ‘from’, or the verb mana, ‘to count or reckon.’ The name Minni appears to have also originated from a language other than Hebrew.

In 1 Chronicles, Riphath is called Diphath. This is puzzling, as I do not believe it is an accident of a scribes quill. We learnt there was no clear definite meaning for Riphath. Diphath seems a shadow of the same name. As there appears to be three components to Ashkenaz, there seems to be a similar aspect, with two parts to Riphath. 

In the Book of Jasher 10:8-9

8 And the children of Gomer, according to their cities, were… by the river Franza, by the river Senah. 9 And the children of Rephath are the Bartonim, who dwell in the land of Bartonia by the river Ledah, which empties its waters in the great sea Gihon, that is, oceanus.

The River Mekong is 2,703 miles long [the worlds 12th longest river, 7th in Asia]. It serves all five nations and strategically opens out to the South China Sea via Vietnam.

From the Internet One:

‘Interestingly, linguistic-wise, Cambodia and Vietnam share… the same language family. Integration of Cambodia into [the] Vietnam[ese] cultural and political sphere[s] also took place regularly in [an] historical context[;] [with the] conquest and cultural conversion often instigate[d] by the Vietnamese empire of the past[,] against the remnant of the old Khmer empire.’

From the Internet Two – emphasis & bold mine:

‘I’m often asked how similar Burmese is to the national languages of its Southeast Asian [neighbours], namely Thai, Lao and Khmer. And I’ve got to say: Burmese is quite different from the other three, whether it’s phonology, grammar, vocabulary, or writing.

In my perspective, one can divide Southeast Asia into two distinct sub-regions: continental Southeast Asia (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam) and insular Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore). The national languages of Southeast Asia can similarly be divided along those same lines. It’s worth noting that all languages fall into a number of language families, which groups together languages that share a common ancestor, the proto-language of that family.

According to this conceptualization, Burmese is a clear outlier, as it is the only national language that’s part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, among the ranks of Chinese varieties and Tibetan. Thai and Lao are members of the Tai-Kadai language family. In fact, the two are quite similar, such that Thai and Lao are seen as languages in a Tai language ‘dialect continuum’ spanning from Thailand to southwest China. On the other hand, Khmer is part of the Mon-Khmer language family, linguistically related with neighboring Vietnamese.

The principal lowland inhabitants of Laos are the Lao, who politically and culturally are the dominant group. They comprise the bulk of the Lao Loum; approximately 60% of the total population. The Lao are considered a branch of the Tai people, who began migrating southward from China in the first millennium A.D. Thais tend to have high frequencies of Y-DNA haplogroup O-M95 including its O-M88 subclade, which also has been found with high frequency among both the Cham of Vietnam, the Kuy people in Laos and Cambodia, as well as the Jarai of Cambodia.

The genetic testing website 23andme groups Khmer people under the ‘Indonesian, Khmer, Thai & Myanmar’ reference population. This reference population contains people who have had recent ancestors from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Notice Vietnam is excluded, plus the similarity with Malaysia and Indonesia is probably due to overspill and the migration of people of Ashkenaz, Riphath and the others to these two non-Gomer nations.

Kim Wook in 2000, stated that genetically, Vietnamese people are more clustered with East Asians, of which his study analyzed DNA samples from Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians, rather than with Southeast Asians. The same study analysed DNA samples of Indonesians, Filipinos and Thais included with the Vietnamese. The study observed that Vietnamese people were the only population in the study’s phylogenetic analysis that did not reflect a sizeable genetic difference between East Asian and Southeast Asian populations. In other words, they intriguingly bridge the genetic gap between these two regions.

Jung Jongsun in 2010, said that genetic structure analysis found significant admixture in ‘Vietnamese with unknown Southern original settlers’ and that Vietnamese people are located between Chinese and Cambodian people in the study’s genome map. We will return to the anomaly of the Vietnamese being different from their four related neighbours, whilst having a strong link with northeastern Asia.

Complete human mtDNA genome sequences from Vietnam and the phylogeography of Mainland Southeast Asia, multiple authors, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Vietnam is an important crossroads within Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and a gateway to Island Southeast Asia… However, comparatively few studies have been undertaken of the genetic diversity of Vietnamese populations. We sequenced the entire mtDNA genome from 609 unrelated Vietnamese individuals… 399 distinct sequences (haplotypes) belonging to 135 haplogroups were identified, all belonging to the two macro-haplogroups M and N… Overall, F1 is the predominant haplogroup (19.38%) followed by B4 (17.41%), M7 (9.36%), B5 (7.22%), and M71 (6.08%); these haplogroups are also common in other MSEA populations…**

To identify Vietnamese-specific lineages (clades or branches consisting of sequences only from Vietnam), we constructed phylogenetic trees relating 2742 entire mtDNA genome sequences (including 609 newly sequenced mitogenomes from the present study and 2133 previously reported sequences from MSEA). Several previously undescribed sub-branches of haplogroups A, B, C, D, F, M and N were identified… In total, 111 novel lineages unique to Vietnam were found in the dataset. The majority of these belong to haplogroups B, F and M (25, 26 and 29, respectively); these are major haplogroups of MSEA, accounting for 76.35% of the sequences.**

Haplogroup A occurs mostly in northern and eastern Asia at frequencies from 5 to 10%, and is one of five founder haplogroups among native Americans. Overall, haplogroup A is most widespread in AA groups from Vietnam and Thailand… Within MSEA,haplogroup A is at highest frequency in northern Vietnam and northwestern Thailand.

Haplogroup B is one of the most common haplogroups in northern and eastern Asia, with three major subhaplogroups B4, B5 and B6. With the 164 Vietnamese mtDNA sequences belonging to haplogroup B, several new sub-clusters within B4, B5, and B6a are identified… B4 is the second most frequent haplogroup in Vietnam and is widespread across MSEA, especially northern Vietnam, northern Thailand, and Taiwan. 

However, B4 subhaplogroups that are relatively frequent in Taiwan… are absent in the Vietnamese AN groups… while haplogroup B4 has the highest frequency in northern Vietnam and Taiwan, there is very little overlap of B4 subhaplogroups between Vietnam and Taiwan… Overall, there is remarkably little sharing of sequences between groups from different language families or countries… haplogroup B5 reaches the highest frequency in northeastern Thailand. Haplogroup B6a is distributed mostly in northern Thailand.

Haplogroup C is widespread across East Asia and is one of the five founder haplogroups among native American populations… Haplogroup C5 is represented by a single haplotype belonging to subhaplogroup C5d*… and is present only in Vietnamese HM groups, while C4 is distributed in Vietnamese, Thai, and S. Chinese groups… Haplogroup F is one of the most common haplogroups throughout Asia… Haplogroup F1a is at high frequency in northern Vietnam and northeastern Thailand… Haplogroup G is one of the most common mtDNA haplogroups among Japanese, Ainu, Mongol and Tibetan populations, and is also found at a lower frequency across East Asia, Central Asia and MSEA… The G2a1* sequence is from a TK group… Among MSEA populations, haplogroup G reaches the highest frequency in northern Vietnam. 

M is a macro-haplogroup found at high frequency all across Asia (including MSEA)… Haplogroup M7 reaches the highest frequency in eastern Thailand and northern Taiwan… Haplogroup M71 is found in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam… haplogroup M71 has the highest frequency in central Vietnam… N9a, one of three major sub-clades of haplogroup N, is found in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia… Haplogroup N9a reaches the highest frequency in southern peninsular Malaysia…

The mtDNA macro-haplogroup M is indicative of all Oriental Asians. What is significant, is that M71 bonds the five continental southeast Asian nations, revealing  a common ancestry and a shared status as brothers.

Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis in Southeast Asia reveals evolutionary effects of cultural isolation in the multi-ethnic population of Myanmar, multiple authors, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘… we sequenced the mtDNA control region of 327 unrelated donors and the complete mitochondrial genome of 44 selected individuals… 

Population genetic analyses of Burmese control region sequences combined with population data from neighboring countries revealed that the Myanmar haplogroup distribution showed a typical Southeast Asian pattern, but also Northeast Asian and Indian influences. Analyzing mtDNA data from Myanmar is of great genetic interest, because in spite of accumulating knowledge in recent years the resolution of the mitochondrial haplogroup phylogeny in SEA, especially in macrohaplogroup M, is still very low compared to West-Eurasian haplogroups… 

Myanmar is subdivided into more than 100 ethnic groups amongst them the Bamar represent 68% of the population. Other important minorities are Shan (10%), Karen (7%), Arakanese (4%), Chinese (3%) and the ethno-linguistically related Mon and Khmer (2% each).  F1a1a** with 15.9% of all sequences was by far the most frequent haplogroup in this study, followed by C4b1 (7.0%), B6 (6.4%) and A4 (5.2%). R9b1a1a, D4 and G2b1a reached 4.6% each. The 78 individuals actually belonging to M split into 50 different haplogroups, 29 of them with only a single representative. The most common haplogroup in M was M21a (1.8%)… 

The Myanmar sample was typical for Southeast Asian populations with a high percentage of R9’F and B lineages as well as a variety of M haplogroups. The minor contribution of N lineages (without A, B and R9’F) to the gene pool also turned out to be characteristic for Southeast Asia. Noticeable was a relatively high percentage of A and C lineages in Myanmar compared to the neighboring countries… 

A distinct geographic pattern appeared in the multi-dimensional scaling plot of pairwise Fst-values: The Myanmar sample fitted very well within the Southeast Asian cluster, the Central Asian populations formed a second cluster, the Korean sample represented East Asia, the Afghanistan population was representative for South Asia and Russia symbolized Western Eurasia. The main haplogroup distributions are displayed as pie charts. The size of the pie diagrams corresponds to sample size. 

The proportion of N-lineages (without A,B and R9’F) increases from very low percentages in Southeast and East Asia over 50% in Central Asia to more than 75% in Afghanistan and 100% in the sample of Russian origin. The proportion of the American founding haplogroups A, B, C and D displayed an interesting pattern: from inexistent in Russians it increased to more than 50% in East Asian Korea.

The mitochondrial haplogroup distribution in Myanmar showed a typical Southeast Asian pattern, confirming earlier findings but also adding new information: the population sample of Myanmar displayed quite a few parallels to North and Northeast Asian and also to South Asian populations. No traces of European or African influence to the maternal gene pool of Myanmar were detected. The description and dating of eight new mitochondrial haplogroups and the detection of three further basal M lineages shed more light on the population history of Southeast Asia.’

An in-depth analysis of the mitochondrial phylogenetic landscape of Cambodia, multiple authors, 2021 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A total of 224 unique haplotypes were identified, which were mostly classified under haplogroups B5a1, F1a1, or categorized as newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches of R, N and M clades. The mtDNA data presented here increases the phylogenetic resolution in Cambodia significantly, thereby highlighting the need for an update of the current human mtDNA phylogeny. As a result of the historic expansion of the Khmer Empire in the twelfth century, the majority (96%) of Cambodia’s present-day population belongs to Khmer… 

Haplogroup distribution in different populations/data sets. (A) Frequency plot of macrohaplogroups in different populations, including 1000 Genome Project data. The super populations are given for African ancestry, European ancestry, South Asian ancestry and admixed American ancestry. East Asia is reported individually as Vietnam (KHV = Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), China (CDX = Chinese Dai in Xishuangbanna, CHB = Han Chinese in Beijing, CHS = Southern Han Chinese) and Japan (JPT = Japanese in Tokyo). 

(B) Haplogroup distribution by publication… Bodner (Laos), Duong (mostly Vietnam), Kutanan (mostly Thailand), Summerer (Myanmar), Zhang (Cambodia). “This study” indicates the present work’s data set. Macrohaplogroups represent M (yellow), N (green) and R (blue) groups.’

The article, Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in a population sample from Thailand, multiple authors, 2020, found that, ‘the [mtDNA] haplogroup composition [for Thailand] is comparable with other Southeast Asia population samples…’ The most frequent haplogroups being B5a [9.4%], F1a1a [8.9%] and M [8.9%].**

It depends how one chooses to group these five peoples, whether linguistically, historically, geographically or biblically. The Vietnamese are somewhat separated from the others genetically. Linguistically and historically, they are grouped with Cambodia, Laos is linked with Thailand linguistically and historically. Myanmar is separated from the others linguistically. Thailand has a thriving economy that sets them apart. Historically, Myanmar and Thailand share a common heritage, as both were British colonies; whereas Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos were French colonies. 

Biblically, Riphath and Diphath are not specifically mentioned in scripture, whereas Ashkenaz is, with Ararat and Minni. From this, one could logically expect the latter three to equate to the three larger nations and the former two to the two smaller nations. Thus, Riphath and Diphath are Cambodia and Laos. Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz are in order, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Myanmar the mountainous nation, Thailand located in the middle, with a significant portion of blessings and Vietnam the nation with a history of war, fire and blood.

The final determining factor is their genetic variance or similarity and this is what we learn from their respective Y-DNA haplogroups. 

Cambodia:  O2 – O1a – J2 – C – R1a – K – D1 – H1a

Laos:            O2 – O1a – J2 – C – D1 – R1a – K – H1a 

Thailand:    O2 – O1a – C – D1 – K 

Myanmar:   O2 – D1 – K – C – O1b – F – O1a 

Vietnam:     O2 – O1b – Q1 – O1a – C – D1 – N 

The very close similarity between Cambodia and Laos is confirmed within the first four main haplogroups, with a subtle difference only in the lesser trace clades. The key Oriental Y-DNA groups of O and C, as well as D and K are evident. The inclusion of J2, R1a and H are probably indicative of their link with India and its historical influence.

The distinctiveness of the other three nations suggests they are not offspring of Ashkenaz or derived from the Vietnamese but lean heavily towards them being the direct lineage of Gomer. This would support their separate listed status in the Book of Jeremiah. The three peoples were obviously powerful enough [together] to cause the Babylonians problems and this is supported by Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam having sizeable populations today. 

Vietnam: O2a [40%] – O1b [33%] – Q1 [7%] – O1a [6%] – C [4%] – D1 [3%] – N [3%] – [O2b1]

Vietnam’s haplogroups and the percentages for each. Vietnam is quite dissimilar from Myanmar and Thailand, lacking a high percentage for C, D and K, while possessing Q. Myanmar and Thailand both have the key Oriental haplogroups of O, C, D and K included as their first main haplogroups. Of the three, Thailand is the closest match with Cambodia and Laos. 

All five nations include the core Y-DNA haplogroups of O, C and D. Cambodia and Laos share an equalisation of eight haplogroups. The primary significance, is that these five nations ultimately comprise the collective body of Gomer’s two eldest sons Ashkenaz and Riphath, with the additional offspring from Diphath, Ararat and Minni.

“These are the people I am pleased with: those who are not proud or stubborn and who fear my word.”

Isaiah 66:2 New Century Version

“I would remind you to notice where the claim of consensus is invoked. Consensus is invoked only in situations where the science is not solid enough. Nobody says the consensus of scientists agrees that E=mc2. Nobody says the consensus is that the sun is 93 million miles away. It would never occur to anyone to speak that way.” 

Michael Crichton

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Central Asia – Madai & the Medes

Chapter IV

Japheth’s third son Madai, is mentioned more frequently in the Bible than most of his brothers. This is due to a close relationship with a certain cousin from Shem.

Herman Hoeh discusses Madai in his 1957 article, Origin of the Nations – capitalisation  his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Herodotus mentions that the “Matienians” from the land of Rosh were associated with the people of Meshech and Tubal! (Thalia, 94.) And Pliny the Roman natural historian speaks of the “Matiani” as moving into Russia through the Caucasus (BooK VI, section xviii of NATURAL HISTORY). Not all Russians are Great Russians and White Russians. Some are called “Little Russians”. They live – in the Ukraine and the eastern parts of Romania and Poland. They are often called Ukrainians or Ruthenians. There are about 50 million of them! Who are these people? The MEDES! The sons of Madai! Here is the proof!

In Genesis 10:2 we have Madai, the son of Japheth listed. Now check in an exhaustive concordance. You will find the original Hebrew word translated into English as “Mede” or “Median” is always Madai. Madai is the father of the Medes. The Medes used to be associated with the Persians. You will read about them especially in the book of Daniel. But by the time of Nehemiah the Persians were much more prominent. Today there are no Medes left in Persia [Iran]. The Medes are gone. Certainly a great branch of the human family could not suddenly vanish from the earth!

Indeed they did not. Throughout South Russia – in the Ukraine – four centuries before Christ the Medes were beginning to settle. Here is what the historian Herodotus wrote of these people: “They say that they are a colony of the Medes. How they can have been a colony of the Medes I cannot comprehend; but anything may happen in course of time” (Terpsichore, 9). Herodotus, like many moderns, was prone to believe that the people who inhabited Mesopotamia and the “Bible lands” must be living there today. But they are not. The Arabs have taken their place! The fact that the Medes are the Little Russians today is further amplified by Pliny in his NATURAL HISTORY, Book VI, section xi. He mentions “the river Don, where the inhabitants are… said to be descended from the Medes”!’

Though Hoeh enthusiastically concludes the northeastern Slavic nations, lead by Ukraine are descended from Madai, we will learn that the sons of Madai, the Medes are of an Asian line of descent – albeit with some European admixture – and not eastern European. 

A H Sayce states on page 45:

‘Madai are the Medes, the Mada of the Assyrians. We first hear of them in the cuneiform records under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840, when their country was invaded by the Assyrian monarch. They were at that time settled in the Kurdish mountains, considerably to the east of Lake Urumiyeh. Some fifty years later, however, we find them in Media Rhagiana, where they are called no longer Amada but Mada. It was from the latter form of the name that the Greeks took the familiar Mede.’

Amazing Bible Time Line – bold mine: 

‘According to the Book of Jubilees [10:35-36], [Madai] married the daughter of Shem and pleaded with the three brothers of his wife [Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad] to let him live on their land instead [of] occupying an area in Japheth’s land[!] They gave him a spot to dwell on with his family and it was later… named Media. The capital city of Media was Ecbatana [Ezra 6:2]… Media flourished in the trade industry and was… blessed in the field of agriculture. Its lands were fertile…’ 

Recall Genesis 9:27 [refer Chapter II Japheth Orientalium] – the promise of Japheth dwelling with Shem – Madai has intermingled with Shem in extraordinary fashion and has also been blessed with fertile soil and mineral wealth in its modern location

The Book of Jubilees 8:5 states that a daughter of Madai named Milcah [Aramaic: Melkâ] married Canaan, Ham’s youngest son. Though mtDNA Haplogroups do not provide support for this proposition.

The Book of Jasher 7:5 

And the children of Madai were Achon, Zeelo, Chazoni and Lot. We will meet another, well-known Lot, later [refer Chapter XXVI The French & Swiss: Moab, Ammon & Haran].

A selection of verses – in chronological order – regarding the Medes of Media in the Bible and revealing their intricate relationship with not only Elam of Persia, but also Asshur of Assyria.

2 kings 17.6

English Standard Version

[Shalmaneser V]… the king of Assyria captured Samaria, and he carried the Israelites away to Assyria and placed them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

This occurred in 721 to 718 BCE [2 Kings 18:11]. Media though a powerful people, found themselves in the shadow of the Babylonian Empire and subject to the Assyrian Empire. The Persian Cyrus or Darius the Great, became King of Persia in 559 BCE. His father was King Astyages of Media, against whom he rebelled and desiring to remove Media’s dominance over Persia, annexed Media to the Persian Empire in 549 BCE. He was the first ruler of the Achaemenid Empire, which lasted over two hundred years. The Medes, though conquered, continued to be honoured in the new empire and were invariably referenced together with the Persians [Acts 2:9].

Isaiah 21:2

New Century Version

… Elam, attack the people! Media, surround the city and attack it! I will bring an end to the pain the city [of Babylon] causes. 

Cyrus conquered the Chaldean Empire in 539 BCE. This event was foretold long before by the prophets Isaiah [13:17] and Jeremiah [25:25, 51:11,28] and it occurred one year before Cyrus/Darius issued the decree that allowed remnants of the Kingdom of Judah to return to Jerusalem [Ezra 1:1-4].

Daniel 5:28

English Standard Version

Peres, your kingdom [the Chaldeans] is divided and given to the Medes and Persians.”

Daniel 5:31

New Century Version

So Darius the Mede became the new king when he was sixty-two years old.

Cyrus ruled until 530 BCE. There were two interim kings and then Darius came to the throne of the Medes and Persians in 522 BCE and ruled to 486 BCE. Darius was not a son of Cyrus, being a Mede not a Persian. 

Daniel 6:15

New Century Version

Then those men went as a group to the king. They said, “Remember, O king, the law of the Medes and Persians says that no law or command given by the king can be changed.”

Daniel 6:28

New Century Version

So Daniel was successful during the time Darius [the Mede] was king and when Cyrus the Persian was king.

Daniel had found favour and was a key figure in the Court of both kings for half a century or more. In 485 BCE Xerxes I, the son of Darius the Mede became king, ruling to 465 BC. His son Artaxerxes I or Ahasuerus, ascended to the throne, when his father was murdered, at the age of twenty-six in 465/464 BCE. This was the apex of the empire, inherited from his father and when we are introduced to the biblical character Esther. The second chapter of the Book of Esther reveals Esther’s rags to riches story. She was part of the returned captives originally from the Kingdom of Judah in 458/457 BCE. Esther descended from the Tribe of Benjamin and was beautiful in countenance and spirit [Esther 2:7]. She was placed in the King’s palace… 

Esther 1:1-4

New Century Version

This is what happened during the time of King Xerxes, the king who ruled the one hundred twenty-seven states from India to Cush. 

Literally from present day India all the way west, to the nation in east Africa now known as Ethiopia.

In those days King Xerxes ruled from his capital city of Susa [or Susan]. In the third year of his rule [482 BCE], he gave a banquet for all his important men and royal officers. The army leaders from the countries of Persia and Media and the important men from all Xerxes’ empire were there. The banquet lasted one hundred eighty days. All during that time King Xerxes was showing off the great wealth of his kingdom and his own great riches and glory.

Esther 2:16-18

English Standard Version

And when Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus, into his royal palace… in the seventh year of his reign [458/457 BCE], the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she won grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins, so that he set the royal crown on her head and made her queen instead of Vashti. 

Esther 1:19

English Standard Version

If it please the king, let a royal order go out from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes so that it may not be repealed, that Vashti is never again to come before King Ahasuerus. And let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she [Daniel 6:12].

Then the king gave a great feast for all his officials and servants; it was Esther’s feast. He also granted a remission of taxes to the provinces [including Jerusalem] and gave gifts with royal generosity.

About a third of the references to the name Madai, including Media and the Medes in the Bible, occur in the Book of Esther. 

The Medo-Persian Empire contained 44% [about 50 million people] of the world’s population within its borders, says Ehsan Yarshater in The Cambridge History of Iran – the highest such percentage for any empire in history.

To fully appreciate Madai’s identity, we will briefly touch upon Shem’s sons Elam and Asshur – with one defining biblical identification verse each – before returning to them in detail in their own sections.

The modern day descendants of Elam or ancient Persia are the Turks – the nation of Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. 

Jeremiah 49:36

New English Translation

I will cause enemies to blow through Elam from every direction like the winds blowing in from the four quarters of heaven. I will scatter the people of Elam to the four winds. There will not be any nation where the refugees of Elam will not go.

Footnote: Or more simply, “I will bring enemies against Elam from every direction. / And I will scatter the people of Elam to the four winds.” Or more literally, “I will bring the four winds against Elam / from the four quarters of heaven. / I will scatter….” However, the winds are not to be understood literally here. God isn’t going to “blow the Elamites” out of Elam with natural forces. The winds must figuratively represent enemy forces that God will use to drive them out.

We are provided an intriguing clue with regard to Elam’s location. It is vulnerable to attack from all sides: north, south, east and west. There are four points or directions on a compass and four winds, northerly, easterly and so forth. Turkey is literally at the crossroads of the earth. It sits, between the continents of Europe, Asia and the region of the Middle East geographically, politically and culturally – not quite a full member of either.

Cyrus the Persian, the Elamite King, was known as: ‘The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World.’

Elam or Persia historically was geographically near Madai or Media. Following points one, three and four in the introduction, we should expect to find a European and Asian peoples not only in geographic proximity today but also connected through history, language and inter-marriage, revealed by their respective Haplogroups.

Meanwhile, the modern day descendants of Asshur and Assyria dwell in Russia [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia].

Zephaniah 2:13

English Standard Version

And he will stretch out his hand against the north [H6828 – tsaphown, meaning: northward, northern, (direction of), north side, north wind] and destroy Assyria, and he will make Nineveh [the capital] a desolation, a dry waste like the desert.

If you study a world map, Russia is as far north as you can travel. There it is; exactly where the Bible says. The Assyrians historically used their neighbour Media, as a foot stool. We will find a similar relationship has continued in modern times.

One can hear those readers with more than a cursory knowledge, gasping incredulously. Edward Hine, first proposed Germany was Assyria in the 1870s – with people guided by its adversarial relationship with Great Britain in following decades – the idea proceeded to cement firmly in people’s minds like reinforced steel concrete. When Edom was first linked with Turkey, is not exactly clear; though the reasons given hang by tenuous threads for both identities, with Haplogroups providing the knock out blow, as we shall discover.

Many will be thinking: then who are the Germans and where is Edom? We will look more closely at these two influential peoples in later chapters – including the intricate relationship between Madai and Elam. It would be very convenient if Madai and or Elam still lived in present day Iran… since Iranians call themselves Persian – but this does not mean they are Madai or Elam. Please refer to point number one and two in the introduction.

The cumulative evidence leads to Madai being the Turko-Mongol peoples of the Central Asian Republics and also the Tartars of Russia. Namely, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partially Tajikistan. Possibly including the Sami and Lapps of Russia, Finland and Scandinavia.

Madai from the verb madad, means: ‘measure, sufficient, enough’ or ‘judging’ and ‘as often as’, ‘middle land’, and ‘out of the abundance of.’ It could also be interpreted as: ‘My Measure[ment].’

For now, we will introduce the relationship Madai has with Elam; detailing a comprehensive study later when we discuss Elam [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. We will see support for the subservient relationship of Madai towards Asshur, present day Russia and the abundance Madai has been given in fulfilment of their name. If one looks at a map of the world, it is evident just how in the middle of the world, Madai truly is.

The five nations comprising Central Asia are former Soviet Republics, from the modern incarnation of the Assyrian Empire. They are referred to as ‘the stans’ – the Persian [Iranian] suffix meaning: land of.

The region historically connected the Silk Road, standing as the intersection for the movement of people, trade and philosophies between all parts of Asia and Europe. The population of the four principle nations is approximately 67 million people; not far off the Amerindian population of the Americas [refer Chapter III Tiras the Amerindian].

The people of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmen or Turkmen Turks. Turkmen also live in Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, Iran and Afghanistan. They speak the Turkmen language; classified as part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. 

Examples of other Oghuz languages include Turkish and Azerbaijani. In the early Middle Ages, Turkmen originally called themselves Oghuz and then later as Turkmen.

Flag of Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan – the nation with the largest population of the four – mines 80 tons of gold yearly; 7th highest in the world. Uzbekistan’s copper deposits rank 10th in the world, its uranium deposits 12th and the country’s uranium production ranks 7th globally. The Uzbek national gas company, Uzbekneftegas ranks 11th in the world in natural gas production and the country has significant untapped reserves of oil and gas.

The transcontinental Republic of Kazakhstan, the nation with the biggest land area of the four within Central Asia, has an additional smaller portion west of the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. It is the world’s largest landlocked country and the 9th largest country in the world, with an area of 1,052,100 square miles.Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region’s GDP, mainly through its oil and gas industries. It also possesses vast mineral resources.

The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, with Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uyghur, modern Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen and many other languages spoken in Eastern Europe, as well as Central and Eastern Asia. 

CountryPopulationArea (km²)GDP (nominal)
 Kazakhstan19,312,1652,724,900$196.4 billion
 Kyrgyzstan6,782,627199,900$6.4 billion
 Uzbekistan34,629,727447,400$52.0 billion
Turkmenistan6,242,581488,100$29.9 billion

Kazakhstan has the 2nd largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves; the 3rd largest manganese reserves; the 5th largest copper reserves; and ranks in the top ten in the world for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. 

Flag of Kazakhstan

Most significantly for its economic future, Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas in the world. There are three refineries in the country and not being capable of processing the total crude output, much of it is exported to Russia. Kazakhstan, while part of the Soviet Union was instrumental in the Russian Space Program; providing the launch sites for CCCP rockets.

Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan since 1997 and renamed from Aqmola in 1998

The Tatars are a collective of Turkic-speaking groups – nearly 7 million people – living in the Russian Federation. The Chinese referred to these nomadic tribes as ‘Ta-Ta or Da-Da’ – meaning dirty or barbarian. During the early thirteenth century, Ghenghis Khan united the nomadic tribes then living in Mongolia. One of his grandsons Batu Khan, led the Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey].

Web source – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The…Tatars were conquered by imperial Russian forces during the reign of Tsar Ivan IV in 1552… When the Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, the Tatars… formed their own home-land, the Idil-Ural State. The Soviet government… instead formed the Bashkir Autonomous Republic (Bashkortostan) and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tatarstan) on the same soil. When the Soviet government took over these regions, it redrew the boundaries and gave neighboring Russian provinces the best lands. By changing the boundaries, about 75 percent of the Tatar population found itself living outside the borders of Tatarstan.

Tatar culture was… affected… through the policy of Russification, where the Russian language and culture were legally forced on the Tatars and other ethnic groups… Tatars, of whom about 26 percent live in Tatarstan… is about the size of Ireland or Portugal. 

About 15 percent of all Tatars live in Bashkortostan, another ethnic homeland in the Russian Federation that lies just east of Tatarstan. There are also smaller Tatar populations in Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan… In 922, the Tatars’ predecessors, the Bulgars, converted to Islam, and the old Turkic script was replaced by the Arabic alphabet. 

A famous old Tatar… proverb is Tuzga yazmagannï soiläme, which means, roughly, “If it’s not written on salt, it’s wrong to even mention it.” The proverb refers to the ancient method of keeping records on plaques made of wood and salt, and commends the practicality of keeping written records.’

Recall ‘the Law of the Medes and Persians’, where a proclamation stood fast and could not be altered as discussed in the Books of Esther and Daniel.

The Analysis of the Genetic Structure of the Kazakh Population as estimated from mitochondrial Dnapolymorphism, Scientific Centre of Obstetrics, Genecology and Perinatology, Galina Berezina, Gulnara Svyatova & Zhanar Makhmutova, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The most closely related populations are the Kazakhs and Uighurs, they are accompanied by the Uzbeks and the nation(s) of the southern Altai on one level. The Kyrgyz and Bashkir [Tatar] nations formed an independent taxonomic group in this cluster. The contribution of [European]and[Asian] components in the formation of the anthropological type of the Kazakhs was proved… by Ismagulov (1970) on the basis of a comprehensive study of paleoantropological and craniological materials.’

The land of Kazakhstan has been a place of interaction of many ethnic layers during a historically long period. Mongolian tribes, Turkic-speaking populations from Siberia and Altai, Indo-Iranians from the Near East, as well as Slavs from Eastern Europe took part in the formation of the Kazakhs. Thus, it is possible to explain a high level of genetic variability of mtDNA, with a complicated ethnic history.

Khazaria, Kazakh Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

Kazakhs (Qazaqs, Kazaks) are a Turkic-speaking people living in several modern countries including (but not limited to) Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia. They are approximately 70% [Asian] and 30% [European]and this admixture explains why some Kazakhs have light European physical features in contrast to the majority who have black hair, brown eyes, and epicanthic eyefolds. 

The Kazakhstan DNA Project‘s Y-chromosome records show that among its male members are the Y-DNA haplogroups C3, C3*, C3c, G… O2, Q1a3, E1b1b1, N1c1, R1a1, R1b1b1, R2, J2a1, J2a, and J2. C3 [C2] (M217, P44) is not only common among Kazakhs but also frequent in Mongolia [and the Kyrgyz].

The analysis shows that Western Europe… and Eastern Europe… mtDNA lineages exist in the Kazakhs population. A high genetic diversity was observed in the Kazakhs population (h=0.996). “We have studied the relation between East Eurasian and West Eurasian lines in the gene pool of the Kazakhs using the data on polymorphism HVSI of mtDNA (frequencies of haplogroups). It was found out that the main contribution of East Eurasian lines (55% of the total gene pool) to the modern gene pool of mtDNA of the Kazakhs make haplogroups D, C, G and Z (36.2%), A and F (6.9%) and other haplogroups of Asian origin (11.9%).’ 

The complexity of the Kazakh genetic make up is due to their Haplogroups being split between Asian [64-70%] and European lineages [30-35%]; with their European genealogy being split further, between western [41%] and eastern European [55%] gene pools.  

‘West Eurasian lines (41% of the total gene pool) in the Kazakh gene pool are most frequently represented by the haplogroups H (14.1%), K (2.6%), J (3.6%), T (5.5%), U5 (3%) and others (12.2%).” We found that more than 64% of mtDNA lineages belong to Asian-specific haplogroups (M, C, Z, D, G, A, B, F, N9). Supercluster M was found with most high frequency (45%).’ 

Japheth’s son Tiras possesses the mtDNA Haplogroups in common with Madai of C, D, A & B [refer Chapter III Tiras the Amerindian]. Haplogroups C and D derive from super sub-Haplogroup M – itself from L3 – while Haplogroup A derives from super sub Haplogroup N and B from super sub-Haplogroup R.

Western-Eurasian specific haplogroups were observed in 35%(H, V, HV, J, T, U1, U2, U4, U5, U7, K, W, X)… the lineage of Hg U7, typical for all Levant, including Iran, was revealed in Kazakhs… East Asian hgs – A, B, F, N9 – make up about 18% in Kasakhs, like in all Central Asian populations, Altaics, Tuvinians and Bashkirs…

While those Kazak people who reside in China are mostly [Asian], just like Kazakhs in Kazakhstan, this study showed that 30.2% of their ancestry is western Eurasian. “In this study, we also find that all Turkic and Mongolic groups possess a common set of maternal haplogroups (C, D, G2a, H)…*

Kyrgyz (Kirghiz, Kirgiz) are a Turkic-speaking people living mostly in Kyrgyzstan but also in neighboring Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and China. They are descended from multiple different ancient peoples. Mongoloid (East Eurasian) ancestry represents between half and two-thirds of Kyrgyz ancestry. 

Kyrgyz living in Tajikistan and western areas of Kyrgyzstan have less Mongoloid ancestry and more Caucasoid ancestry than other Kyrgyz. Central and South Asian ancestry is the next most important element representing about one-fourth. West Eurasian (including European) represents about one-eighth. Ancestry from West Asia [Arab, Persian] is not significant in any Kyrgyz person and many have none of it.

The Kirgiz DNA-Project’s Y-chromosome records show that among its male members who are Kyrgyz from Kyrgyzstan are the Y-DNA haplogroups C-M217 (C3) [C2], I-M253 (I1), J-M172, N-M232, O-P201, R-M198 (R1a1a), R-M269 (R1b1a2), and R-M343 (R1b1a1). R1a1 (and its subtypes) is also found among Kazakhs, eastern Siberians, South Asians, East Slavs, and West Slavs.’

‘This study of Y-DNA includes Kyrgyz samples as well as samples from other Central Asian peoples like Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Karakalpaks, plus many other populations from elsewhere. M17 [R1a1] is suggested to be “a diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker”… “The exceptionally high frequencies** [63%] of this marker in the Kyrgyz, Tajik/Khojant, and Ishkashim populations are likely to be due to drift, as these populations are less diverse, and are characterized by relatively small numbers of individuals living in isolated mountain valleys.”’

The most prevalent mtDNA Haplogroups for the Kyrgyz, in order are: D, H and C.* D, C and G are indicative of Asian ancestry and H is reflective of European admixture in the maternal line. The main Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups for the seven million Kyrgyz are in descending percentage order: 

R1a [63.5%] – C2 [13.5%] – O [5.8%] – K [1.9%] – O2 [1.9%] – N1c1 [1.9%] – 

P [1.9%] – R1b [1.9%] – I1 [1.9%] – J2 [1.9%]

The Haplogroups, R1a, J2, R1b and I1 are indicative of European admixture. The Haplogroups C2, O, K, O2 and in this instance N1c1, are the core Asian lineage of the Kyrgyz. The very high frequency of R1a** is somewhat of an anomaly and reveals considerable admixture; for R1a is mainly associated with either the Eastern European peoples of Slavic descent, in eastern Siberia or southern Asia. 

J2 is typically a southern European Haplogroup and particularly associated with Turkey and Iran. R1b is the main identifying Haplogroup for western Europeans and both N1c1 and I1 Haplogroups originate with northern Europeans. What is important, is that Haplogroups O, C and K are key Asian Haplogroups. 

The main Amerindian mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C and D. The Kyrgyz and the Kazakhs have the same Haplogroups, though with different variations and percentages. Similarly, the American Indian has Y-DNA Haplogroups Q and C. They share C with the Kyrgyz and both C and Q with the Kazakhs.

Kazakhstan Soldiers

The following prevalent Asian mtDNA Haplogroups are found in the Kazakh population of nearly twenty million people: D, C, G, Z, followed by A, F and also B and N9. The supercluster M is found with the highest frequency of 45%. The main European mtDNA Haplogroups include, H at 14%, K, J, T and U5. These two sets are very similar to the Kyrgyz people. The main Y-DNA Haplogroups include:

C2 [40%] – K [10%] – O2 [8%] – J2 [8%] – R1a [7%] – N1c1 [7%] –

R1b [6%] – P – [3.3%] – Q1a3 [2%] – R2 [1%] – I1 [1%] 

This is where they differ, with the Kazakh’s showing less European admixture as shown by the predominant and distinct C, K and O Asian Haplogroups. It also highlights the main admixture has come from the maternal^ line, with Madai males taking Elamite wives, or in other words, Turko-Mongol males marrying primarily Turkish women. J2 is the main Y-DNA Haplogroup of the Turkish people with R1b and a lesser extent Ria and so the Kazakh and Kyrgyz possessing it is not a coincidence.

Decoding a Highly Mixed Kazakh Genome, multiple authors, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘We present the whole genome sequence and thorough genetic variant and admixture analysis of a Central Asian, Kazakh MJS. We found several SNVs associated with drug toxicity, metabolism, diseases, phenotypic features and identified recent and ancient admixtures. Both PCA and phylogenetic analyses confirm closer MJS and other Kazakh similarity to modern East Asians than Europeans and showed the overall closest genetic affinities are with other Central Asian populations, namely, Kalmyk, Uzbek and Kyrgyz. All populations with significant similarity to MJS genome could be backed up by historic migration events involving the Kazakh population and the major fraction of genomic variation could be attributed to fairly recent admixture with geographically close populations. However, MJS’s mitochondrial^ DNA [maternal] haplogroup is of European  [Turkish] or Near Eastern (West Asian) [Iranian] ancestry. It corresponds to the heterozygous SNPs associated with European phenotypic features and confirmed by admixture f3 statistics and all other Kazakh autosomal data showed very similar ancestral compositions to MJS’s. This highly heterozygous and admixed Kazakh genome provides insights into complex admixtures and can serve as a reference for mapping complex heterogeneity in Central Asian populations.’

The eight million Tajiks exhibit these main Y-DNA Haplogroups:

R1a [44.7%] – J2 [18.4%] – R2 [7.9%] – C2 [2.6%] 

Tajikistan shows little Oriental link with their near neighbours and could have mixed heavily or more likely, have more in common with their southern Asian neighbours of Afghanistan and Pakistan [refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut]. 

The six million people of Turkmenistan carry these Y-DNA Haplogroups: 

R1b [37%] – J2 [17%] – K [13%] – P [10%] – R1a [7%] – R2 [3%]

The Haplogroup R2a [M124] is typically associated with the southern Asian states of particularly India with 10%, Pakistan with 8%, western Asia, plus the Central Asian nations. 

The Turkmen on the other hand show strong admixture with the Turks as revealed by their R1b and J2 Haplogroup levels. The K and P Haplogroups are indicative of their Oriental ancestry. Haplogroup P derives from K and Q descends from P. Even though Y-DNA Haplogroups P and Q can be associated with Europeans in trace quantities, they are more consistently found in Asians.

The Y-DNA Haplogroups for the thirty million plus people of Uzbekistan: 

R1a [25.1%] – J2 [13.4%] – C2 [11.5%] – R1b [9.8%] – K [6.8%] – P [5.5%] – 

O2 [4.1%] – R2 [2.2%] – I1 [2.2%] – N1c1 [1.4%]

Uzbekistan like the smaller Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan has obviously mixed with a people not descended from Japheth but rather from Shem, though not as heavily and thus retains more of their core Oriental Haplogroups such as C, K and O. Their R1a, J2 and R1b Haplogroups again link them, as we will learn, with Turkey.                            

Seen together, their respective Y-DNA Haplogroups look like this: 

Tajikistan:           R1a – J2 – R2 – C2 

Turkmenistan:   R1b – J2 – K – P – R1a – R2

Kyrgyzstan:         R1a – C2 – O – K – O2 – J2 – N1c1 – P – R1b – I1 

Uzbekistan:         R1a – J2 – C2 – R1b – K – P – O2 – R2 – I1 – N1c1

Kazakhstan:        C2 – K – O2 – J2 – R1a – N1c1 – P – R1b – Q1a3 – R2 – I1

On the one hand they are all similar and on the other, there are differences highlighting the extent of the admixture experienced by Madai with essentially Elam, such as J2 and R1b.  Kazakhstan, the furthest north remains the closest to its genetic roots of C2, K, O2 and P. It is the nations of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan tucked underneath Kazakhstan to the south who are more mixed and it is Kyrgyzstan further east which remains purer than Uzbekistan in its core Haplogroups of C2, K, O2 and P. 

Meanwhile it should be no surprise that the nation the most southwards – Turkmenistan which is the closet to Turkey – exhibits the most genetic influence with Haplogroups J2 and R1b. Tajikistan is the most distant and has more in common with southern Asia than Central or East Asia. Of the two bigger populated nations, Uzbekistan reveals intermarriage levels similar to the others and only Kazakhstan is the nation that has mixed the least, thus retaining a truer Central Asian identity. 

Within the Haplogroup sequencing, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are more eastern orientated and Turkmenistan the most western oriented. Turkmenistan is geographically, linguistically and culturally more connected to Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. Uzbekistan bridges the gap between the other three. 

The Haplogroups C2, O2 and major sub-Haplogroups K and P are all indicative of these nations descending from Japheth and their close genetic relationship with northern and eastern Asians. 

A comparison of the principle Y-DNA defining marker Haplogroups for the North American Amerindian and Central Asia.

      C        O       K       P      Q

NA Amerindian     6                                    77

Kazakhstan           40        8      10       3      2

Kyrgyzstan            14         8       2        2

Uzbekistan            12         4       7        6    

Turkmenistan                           13      10

What does this table tell us? Noah would have carried Y-DNA Haplogroup B which mutated to C, DE and F and these were passed to all three siblings, including his eldest son Japheth. 

Japheth in receiving C and F from Noah, gave his seven sons the mutated Haplogroups deriving from C, DE and F. In this instance, Japheth gave K and P to his third son Madai, as well as group C. From major sub-Haplogroup K, NO derives and therefore Haplogroup O. Overall, the predominant Oriental Haplogroups for Central Asia being C, followed by K, P and finally O. 

Meanwhile, Japheth may also have passed Haplogroup C to his seventh son Tiras. It is not clear whether the Amerindian has received C from purely admixture or inherited  it. Some Indians possess none and others varying levels of Haplogroup C. More importantly, what we do know is that Japheth passed on the mutation deriving from P in the form of Haplogroup Q. In this, Tiras and his descendants stand out with their unique Y-DNA Haplogroup marker. 

For other Asian peoples only carry Q in small quantities. Those Europeans who carry it, also possess it in small percentages, hinting at admixture. 

The table [from Decoding a Highly Mixed Kazakh Genome] shows the genetic markers for comparing Asian populations. AM = America, CA = Central Asia, EA = East Asia, EUR = Europe, NA = North Asia, OC = Oceania, SA = South Asia, SEA = Southeast Asia and WA = West Asia. 

Interestingly, as expected, Tajikistan is not represented. The closeness between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan is confirmed as is between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and their westernisation; particularly Turkmenistan’s proximity to West Asia [Turkey and Iran]. Both Tiras the Amerindian, and Madai Central and North Asia, have had varying degrees of admixture as confirmed by the table. 

We will confirm that Japheth’s remaining five sons are all grouped in the bottom right hand corner of the table, incorporated within East Asia and Southeast Asia.

These findings correlate to what we should expect to find if the Turko-Mongol peoples are descended from Madai; an Asian people descended from Japheth, which have absorbed European DNA from Shem’s line. The variety of admixture may be accounted for by the following: 

  1. The historical alliance with the children of Elam, ancient Persia and the intermarriage of the two. 
  1. The Assyrian removal of captive Israelites to Media. There may have been relationships formed between the two peoples – with the possible subsequent introduction of R1b, I1 and R1a Y-DNA Haplogroups. 
  1. The Medes are in a unique position of migrating across the vast Asiatic continent, yet they did not remain and become far removed from their original homeland. The circuitous route via East Asia and Mongolia, meant the bulk of Madai ultimately returned to the middle of the world, merely settling a little northwards from their ancestral home in ancient Persia or modern Iran [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey].

This central position meant they were also exposed to travellers travelling east and west and therefore the recipients of the resultant impact on their racial diversity and identity. We have only scratched the surface regarding Madai, their place in the world and their historical impact. We will revisit Madai, when we study Elam.

Words come again and again to our ears, but we never hear enough, nor can we ever really see all we want to see.

Ecclesiastes 1:8 New Century Version

“… being wrong can be dangerous, but being right, when society regards the majority’s falsehood as truth, could be fatal.” 

Thomas Szasz

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Tiras the Amerindian

Chapter III

Tiras is the seventh and youngest son born to Japheth. I had read Herman Hoeh’s article, Origin of the Nations, July 1957, in the 1980s while at University. When looking at the identities more closely in the 1990s, I did not know who Tiras was definitively, until I had studied Japheth’s other sons, for Tiras is next to impossible to identify solely from the Bible, as he is listed just twice in the genealogies of Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One.

It was therefore a process of elimination, and once the other six sons of Japheth were identified, it cemented Tiras as the Indigenous Amerindians of North, Central and South America.

I ultimately agreed with Dr Hoeh’s findings on the Native American Indians – though not with the Polynesians being identified as Tiras. The descendants of Tiras are unusual, in that they are uniquely scattered throughout two vast continents and not identifiable in just one nation.

Tiras is mentioned in the Book of Jubilees 9:16

And For Tiras there came forth the seventh portion, four great islands in the midst of the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham…

The islands at the time of writing would have been the Greek Isles in the Mediterranean Sea [refer Chapter II Japheth Orientalium]. Other sons of Japheth also migrated to the Grecian Archipelago before moving further into Southern Europe and then migrating in a wide arc eastward towards central Asia [refer Chapter VII Javan: Archipelago South East Asia & Polynesia]. The portion of Ham mentioned would have been North Africa.

A H Sayce confirms the difficulty in tracing Tiras, for he says on page 48: 

‘Tiras is the only son of Japhet whose name continues to be obscure…’

Herman Hoeh’s research regarding Tiras – capitalisation & emphasis his, bold mine:

‘The word “Tyrus” used for the city of Tyre in Palestine has no relationship with Tiras, the son of Japheth. 

Tiras journeyed to Asia Minor… there is more historical evidence concerning the migrations of Tiras than of any other son of Japheth. Yet the world has never guessed to what land the descendants of Tiras finally migrated!’

Tyre was southward, on the coast of present day Israel and in the opposite direction from that travelled by Tiras.

‘The river Dniester, which flows into the Black Sea near the border of Romania was anciently called Tiras. That was the main seat of the people of Tiras for many centuries [known as Tyragetae]. These people migrated along the shores of the Black Sea, the Aegaean and the Mediterranean Seas – before the coming of the Greeks. The Greeks finally displaced them. Where were the people of Tiras driven to?

Before we can answer these questions we must first learn the tribal names into which the family of Tiras subdivided. Here are some of their names: Dyras, Teres, Tauri, Carians, Calybes, Thyni, Amazons, Maias, Milyaes, Mauri, Gasgars… (See SMITH’s CLASSICAL GREEK AND ROMAN DICTIONARY for most of these names.) Where, today, do we find these same people located among the nations? In the NEW WORLD: where the American Indians are!’

Regarding the Milyaes, Mauri and Gasgars. We will find that they are Malays and Polynesians and not the same as Amerindians, or descended from Tiras. 

Additional interesting Indian tribal names include: Teyas in Texas; Tiwa in New Mexico; Tarahumara, Terocodane and Teroodane in Mexico; Terraba in Central America; Tairona in Colombia; Taruma in Guiana; Tariano, Tariana and Terena in Brazil.
‘The Amazons… in South America who gave their names to the Amazon River. The Mayas live in Mexico and Guatemala. The Tinne’ Indians – the Greeks called them Thyni… live… in Canada. The Tarascan Indians of Mexico are called after “Taras, the name of a tribal god”, wrote Daniel G. Brinton in THE AMERICAN RACE… In South America live the Dures Indians, the Doraqsques, and the Turas, the Tauri and the Dauri; the Trios and Atures. In the Caribbean live Calybes – the same tribe that once lived by the Black Sea.

The people of Tiras are painted on the earliest monuments of the Mediterranean. The (colour) of their skin? – “of … reddish-brown complexion… with… their long black hair done up into a crest!” (quoted from THE SEA-KINGS OF CRETE, by James Baikie, page 74). From page 212 we read: “Judging from the surviving pictures, the Minoan men [the Island of Crete where the people of Tiras early settled prior to the actual Minoans – refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America] were bronzed, with dark hair and beardless faces.”’

‘The Mexicans called their temple Teocallis. This word is directly related to the Greek, meaning “place of worship of God”. The Greeks called the sons of Tiras, “sea people”. 

The native Indian name Anahuac. which the Indians of Mexico apply to the Valley of Mexico, means “around the water”.

An analysis of the ancient Indian traditions points universally to “an eastern origin” – across the Atlantic, not the Pacific. (See THE AMERICAN RACE, pages 98-99.) 

In fact, the word Atlantic was used 2000 years before Columbus discovered America… it is an American Indian word. Its root is atlan meaning “water”. Only a slight migration may have taken place across the Pacific from Asia to America. The overwhelming movement has been out of the Mediterranean to the new world!’

Hoeh raises a significant point regarding the migratory direction of Tiras’ descendants. Japheth’s remaining six sons all travelled eastwards, across the vast Eurasian land mass. There were exceptions. The Polynesians travelled eastwards, though via the sea. Japheth’s Grandson Tarshish, also sailed but travelling westward; establishing trade routes and ports along the Mediterranean Sea all the way to the Iberian Peninsula, before doubling back eastwards.

There has been considerable conjecture and discussion by historians and scientists alike, regarding the Indians in the Americas; most maintain they approached via Russia across the Bering Strait – just 50 miles across – while others maintain a direction from Europe over the Atlantic Ocean as Herman Hoeh proposed.

Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews, held with other ancients that Tiras was the founder of the Thracians. The very original Thracians may have been from Tiras. Whereas, later Thracians included red headed people who had the same name ascribed to them. Please refer to point number two in the introduction. While other scholars consider Tiras as the founder of an ancient race of Pelasgian pirates and sea peoples called the Tursenich or Tursenioi, who once roamed the islands and coasts of the Aegean Sea. The name Thrusa or Turusha has been seen among Egyptian records, showing that they terrorised and invaded Syria and Egypt about 1250 BCE. They are referred to as Tursha in an inscription of Ramesses III and as Teresh of the Sea on the Merneptah Stele. Though Tiras would have well departed from the Mediterranean Sea by 1250 BCE, as would have all the sons of Japheth. Others have connected Tiras with the cities of Tarsus, Tarshish and even Troas, the city of Troy. 

Some researchers link Tiras to the Etruscans or Truscans of Italy – who had been living in Lydia as the Tyrsenoi, before emigrating to Italy in the Eighth century BCE. We will learn the Etruscans are not descended from Tiras [refer Chapter XVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. 

Tiras in Hebrew means: ‘desire, desirable’ or ‘moisturiser’ The verb rasas means ‘to moisten’ and the noun rasis means a ‘drop (of dew)’ or ‘fragment.’

A Chickasaw Woman

The Bible does not mention any sons of Tiras, though The Book of Jasher 7:9 and 10:14 records the sons of Tiras as Benib, Gera, Lupirion and Gilak asserting that Rushash, Cushni, and Ongolis are also among his descendants. An earlier rabbinic compilation, the Yosippon claims Tiras’ descendants to be the Rossi of Kiv or the Kievan Rus, listing them together with his brother Meshech’s supposed descendants as ‘the Rossi; the Saqsni and the Iglesusi.’ The name Cushni is interesting as it is similar to Cush, a son of Ham. We will refer back to this when investigating Cush [Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut]. The linking of Tiras with Meshech – a son of Japheth – and the Russians is an incorrect tangent, though an understandable one as we will find when studying Meshech [refer Chapter X China: Magog, Tubal & Meshech].

A mediaeval Hebrew compilation, the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, provides an alternative tradition of Tiras’ sons, naming them as Maakh, Tabel, Bal’anah, Shampla, Meah, and Elash. These names were based on Pseudo-Philo [circa 75 CE], which lists Tiras’ sons as Maac, Tabel, Ballana, Samplameac, and Elaz. 

The Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari [circa 915 CE], states a tradition that Tiras had a son named Batawil and his daughters Qarnabil, Bakht, and Arsal, became the wives of sons of Ham: Cush, Phut, and Canaan respectively.

Cush is mentioned again and we will return to this relationship. It is interesting Tiras may have had four to six sons, for though his descendants are not prolific, they are scattered over a vast section of the earth with a variety of racial characteristics; as the Native American Indians, stretching from Canada all the way to Argentina. If Tiras had three grand daughters, who married Cush, Put and Canaan, then his descendants in part, are innumerable. This is certainly plausible, as Noah’s grandsons would have had to take wives from their cousins when repopulating the earth.

Genesis 9:1,7

New Century Version

1 Then God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Have many children; grow in number and fill the earth. 7 “As for you, Noah, I want you and your family to have many children, to grow in number on the earth, and to become many.”

The nation with the most Amerindians is Mexico. We will look at Mexico and its combination of people in more depth, though for now concentrating on its Indian population. They are known as Mexican Native Americans, Native Mexicans or the Indigenous peoples of Mexico. These peoples trace their communities back to the population existing in Central America prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Interestingly, The 2nd article of the Mexican constitution classifies and numbers Indians not according to racial-ethnicity but rather cultural-ethnicity of ‘indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures.’

The INEGI [official census institute], reported in 2015 that 25,694,928 people in Mexico self-identified as being indigenousof many different ethnic groups;which constitute 21.5% of Mexico’s population. 

At the time of the Spanish conquest in the late fifteenth century, the indigenous population of Mexico had been estimated at about twenty-five million people and has only reached this figure again, over five hundred years later. A remarkable statistic and a tragic indictment of one peoples actions against another family member of Tiras [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America].

The Amerindian population of other nations in the Americas include 9.8 million in Bolivia the second highest; 5.2 million in the United States; 2.13 million in Canada;  997,000 in Brazil and 955,000 in Argentina; with a total of approximately Seventy million people.

Historically, the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints has taught that the American Indian are the descendants of one of the lost tribes of Israel. 

Following are the opening remarks in an article by William Lobdell, a Times staff writer, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From the time he was a child in Peru, the Mormon Church instilled in Jose A. Loayza the conviction that he and millions of other Native Americans were descended from a lost tribe of Israel that reached the New World more than 2,000 years ago.

“We were taught all the blessings of that Hebrew lineage belonged to us and that we were special people,” said Loayza, now a Salt Lake City attorney. “It not only made me feel special, but it gave me a sense of transcendental identity, an identity with God.”

A few years ago, Loayza said, his faith was shakenandhis identity stripped awayby DNA evidence showing that the ancestors of American natives came from Asia, not the Middle East.’

We will study the unique lineage of the apparent ‘lost tribes of Israel’. They are not related directly with the Amerindian descended from Tiras. The DNA evidence highlights the American Indians’ origin in common with the people of East Asia, but is not accurate regarding their origin of location. 

The Diego antigen [blood group] system, composed of 21 blood factors or antigens are inherited through alleles. The Diego antigen is common in Indigenous peoples of the Americas [North and South America] and East Asians, but very rare or absent in most other populations, reflecting that the two groups share common ancestry [refer Homo neanderthalensis I, II & III and Chapter X China: Magog, Tubal & Meshech]. The Amerindians from Tiras are a line of the East Asian family of peoples that have sprung from Japheth. The Diego antigen discovered in 1953, is in all the peoples of East Asia in varying percentages. 

The Dia antigen is very rare in African and European populations and the Dia antigen is either very rare or absent in Aboriginal Australians, Papuans, natives of New Britain and Polynesians. 

Whereas, the incidence of Diegoa+, relatively high in Siberian Eskimos and Aleut people [the levels of Diegoa+ in Aleuts is comparable to South American Indians], occurs at a much lower frequency [less than 0.5%] among Alaskan Eskimos and has not been found in the Inuit of Canada.

Retina, Fifth Edition, M Cristina Kenney & Nitin Udar, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Haplogroups are mtDNA sequence polymorphism variations that have occurred over [thousands of] years and correlate with the… origins of populations traced through the maternal lineages. The oldest haplogroups [originate] from [African peoples]… [of which]… European, Asian, and Native American haplogroups have evolved. 

Each haplogroup has related patterns of mtDNA sequences (haplotypes) that represent that population. [Y-DNA] Haplogroup Q is found in Asia, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East. One of its sub-clades, group Q3 is almost exclusively associated with the Native Americans…’

The mtDNA Haplogroups for the Indigenous Amerindians of North, Central and South America.

Regarding the genetic history of the Indigenous peoples of America, the occurrence of the mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups A, B, C and D among the eastern Asian and Amerindian populations has been recognised for some time. Unlike haplogroup X, that is not strongly associated with east Asia, yet is the fifth most frequent mtDNA Haplogroup in the Indigenous Amerindian peoples. Rather, Haplogroup X is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus region and Mediterranean Europe. 

Ninety-five percent of all Native Americans possess the sub-Haplogroups A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, and D1. Haplogroup A being the predominant group overall in North and Central America and B, C and D are predominantly split in South America. 

A study in 2009, A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population, found that in Mexico the ‘frequency of the Amerindian haplogroups A2, B2, C1 and D1 was 51.1, 17.8, 18.5 and 5.9%, respectively.’ The remaining five percent possess the sub-Haplogroups X2a, D2a, C4c, and D4h3a. As these four sub-Haplogroups are rare, studies tend to exclude them. 

Whenever the results for any particular Amerindian population do not equal one hundred percent, it is because the remaining percent belongs to these rare sub-Haplogroups. This means that all Native Americans are descended from a small group of people, exhibiting a low genetic diversity, because they possessed only five mtDNA Haplogroups. A 2005 study conducted by Rutgers University, ‘concluded that the entire [Native American Indian] population of North America descended from just 70 individuals who arrived there about 14,000 years ago [after the global flood cataclysm]…’

In other words, these five mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups of the Indigenous Amerindian, are part of a single founding east Asian population. The link with East Asians, means scientists have assumed that migration had to be eastwards across the Bering Strait, based on the geography of similar related peoples. 

It does not seem to have occurred to the same scientists, that just because the Native American Indians are related genetically to east Asians, that it means they traveled together, or in the same direction – or even that it was the only migratory path.

Scientists base their theory heavily on the X2a and C4c lineages having a parallel genetic history, using this as proof that an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America is untenable – as C4c is a key Haplogroup in the east Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny.

There is support for Indian peoples in the British Isles, who were the original Picts. They painted and tattooed their bodies, which was copied later by the fair-skinned Caledonian peoples, also known as Picts by the Romans. 

Everything You Know Is Still Wrong, Lloyd Pye, 1997 & 2017, page 68 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Folsom points were supplanted in the 1930’s by an earlier, very distinctive type that came to be called “Clovis” points because the first were found near Clovis, New Mexico. These presented another unwanted mystery because they had no precedent in either Alaska or anywhere in Asia. The only precedent anyone could find was the Solutrean point culture of southwestern Europe. [The Solutrean hypothesis is the alternative theory, that the Amerindians approached the Americas from Europe]. By then every scientist in the world was wedded to the idea that the indigenous populations of the Americas came by the land bridge connecting Russian and Alaska (Beringia) during the tail end of the last Ice Age, so this was another one of those inconvenient facts that had to be swept under the rug and kept there.’

The base or core Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups for the Native American Indians are Q and C. There are a number of Indian tribes that also have R1. This is somewhat of a mystery and thought to be the result of European colonisation at different stages of their history. Haplogroup C is a key Haplogroup for east Asians, yet for the American Indian, Haplogroup C is secondary to Q and can be rare. Therefore, Y-DNA Haplogroup Q, is the defining marker Haplogroup for Amerindians. 

Added to this, is the fact that only some branches of both Haplogroup Q and C are Native American. Specifically, subgroups Q1a3a and C3b alone, are found among the Native peoples of North and South America. Other subgroups of Haplogroup Q and C are found elsewhere in the world, such as Europe and Asia. This makes it very easy to determine if your direct paternal ancestor was, or was not, Native American. 

The Algonquian of northeastern North America possess the following Haplogroup sequence: R1 [38%] – Q [34%] – C [8%]. The Apache of the southwestern United States: Q [78%] – C [15%] – R1 [5%]. 

The Cherokee of the eastern United States: Q [50%] – R1 [47% ] – C [2%]. The Navajo of the southwestern United States: Q [92%] – R1 [3%] – C [1%]; and the Sioux of central North America: R1 [50%] – Q [25%] – C [11%]. 

Native North Americans overall, have the following sequence: Q [77%] – R1 [13% ] – C [6%]; and in the United States specifically: Q [58%] – R1 [22%] – C [9%]. 

In contrast, the Inuit of the Artic have: Q [80%] – R1 [11%]; while the Canadian Inuit have: Q [55%] – R1 [34%] – C [2%]. The Mixe of Mexico are untouched by western influence with remarkably: Q [100%]; whereas the Mixtec have: Q [93%] – R1 [7%]; and the Zapotec: Q [75%] – R1 [6%].

As the research and understanding of the relatively new field of Haplogroups advances, refinements in the myriads of clades continues to evolve. Subsequent studies have highlighted that Q1a3a now includes both Native American and European members. Q1a3a1 is now a Native American only Haplogroup. There is also another recently discovered Haplogroup of Q1a3a4, that has also been designated purely a Native American group.

Prior to 1952 and the use of DNA in hereditary research, scientists used blood proteins to study human genetic variation.The ABO blood group system is credited to the Austrian Karl Landsteiner, who found three different blood types in 1900.Blood groups are inherited from both parents and the ABO blood type is controlled by a single gene – the ABO gene – with three alleles: i, IA and IB.

Research by Ludwick and Hanka Herschfeld during World War I, found that the frequencies of blood groups A, B and O differed markedly around the world.The O blood type – resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles – is very common, with a rate of sixty-three percent in all human populations. 

Type O happens to be the primary blood type among the indigenous populations of the Americas, in particular within Central and South American populations, with a frequency of nearly one hundred percent. In contrast, in indigenous North American populations the frequency of type A ranges from sixteen to eighty-two percent.This data supports the initial Amerindians descended from an isolated population with a minimal number of individuals.

Map showing the dominance of blood type O amongst the Native American Indians

There are two main hypotheses for the exceptionally high rate of type O blood amongst the Amerindians. One is Genetic drift, in which the small number of Native American populations meant the almost complete absence of any other blood gene or type being passed down through the generations. The other theory is the Bottleneck explanation, which proposes that there were high frequencies of blood type A and B among Native Americans but severe population decline during the sixteenth and seventeen centuries, caused by the introduction of disease from Europe resulted in a massive death toll of those with blood types A and B; leaving a large amount of type O survivors.

The mind of a person with understanding gets knowledge; the wise person listens to learn more.

Proverbs 18:15 New Century Version

“Rejecting God’s truth because of mankind’s hypocrisy is like rejecting mathematical truth because of mankind’s incompetence.” 

Orrin Woodward

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Japheth Orientalium

Chapter II

Japheth is the eldest son of Noah and we learn important aspects about him, in Genesis 9:27, English Standard Version:

May God enlarge [H6601 – pathah] Japheth, and let him dwell [H7931 – shakan] in the tents [H168 – ‘ohel] of Shem…”

 Israel a History of – emphasis theirs: 

‘The word “enlarge” is an unusual translation of the Hebrew word Pathah. Pathah is not the word normally used for “enlarge”, and in this instance, “enlarge” does not signify a geographical enlargement. Rachab would be the word used to convey a geographical enlargement. Instead, Pathah typically is translated as “entice”, or “persuade”. It is derived from the Hebrew word Pathach, which means “to make open”. However, this verse is the only instance in the Bible where the form Pathah occurs, and it has been agreed upon by linguists and scholars to be translated as “enlarge”.’

The Hebrew word Pathah means: ‘to entice, deceive, persuade’ or ‘seduce.’ The wider application includes: ‘to be spacious, open, be wide.’ The King James Version mainly translates the word as entice [10 times], deceive [8] and enlarge, only once.

The New English Translation:

May God enlarge Japheth’s territory and numbers! May he live in the tents of Shem…

‘Footnotes: The words “territory and numbers” are supplied in the translation for clarity. There is a wordplay (paronomasia) on the name Japheth. The verb (yaft, “may he enlarge”) sounds like the name (yefet, “Japheth”). The name itself suggested the idea. The blessing for Japheth extends beyond the son to the descendants. Their numbers and their territories will be enlarged, so much so that they will share in Shem’s territories… it is not clear what it would mean for Japheth to live in Shem’s tents… there is no reason in this context to expect Japheth to be blessed at the expense of Shem and occupy his territory… it would make more sense for it to mean that Japheth would participate in the blessings of Shem, but that is not clear for this phrase.’

The root of Yepheth orJapheth is pathah, ‘to make wide.’ Thus the verse could read: ‘May God enlarge enlarged and let him dwell…’

Abarim Publications explain Japheth’s meaning in Hebrew as: ‘formless expansion, enlarged, magnified, may he expand.’ It derives from the verb pata, ‘to grow bigger…’ and ‘appears to describe the process of slowly but surely growing wider… Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names proposes Enlargement [and the] NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Wide Spreading.’

The Hebrew word for dwell is shakan, meaning: ‘to settle down, abide, reside, establish’ – the idea of lodging. The KJV uses the word dwell the most [92 times]. The word for tents is ‘ohel, translated as: ‘tabernacles [198], tents [141], dwelling [2].’

A selection of Bible translations state the verse as follows:

Amplified Bible: ‘May God enlarge [the land of] Japheth…’

Easy to read version: ‘May God give more land to Japheth…’

International Standard Version: ‘May God make room for Japheth…’

The Message: ‘God prosper Japheth, living spaciously in the tents of Shem.’

New Life Version: ‘May God make Japheth great…’

The Voice: ‘May God make plenty of room for Japheth’s family and give them homes among Shem’s tents.’

My choice for best describing the intent, is the Good News Translation: “May God cause Japheth to increase! May his descendants live with the people of Shem!”

As pathah is used in a unique context in this verse, it is difficult not to ascribe a geographical aspect to its intention, as it is associated with the second part of the verse, of dwelling within Shem. It would seem that the word is conveying more than just an enlargement and hinting at the method of that growth, through some form of deception or stealth.

This verse references Japheth’s posterity enlarging in population and though not intimating geography specifically it is indirectly, as Japheth is to encroach on Shem’s descendants territories via immigration. Japheth is increasing in prosperity, giving them the opportunity to share the economic benefits afforded, in dwelling in the prosperous nations descended from Shem [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech].

Thus Genesis 9:27 is a remarkable prophecy, as it succinctly describes Japheth’s descendants accurately, in our very age. They are enlarging within the borders of Shem’s descendants at a phenomenal rate. So much so, that the demographic status of certain nations is changing rapidly before our very eyes. We will look at figures to support this trend when we study Shem and certain of his sons.

Noah’s eldest son Japheth, represents the vast array of peoples of eastern and Oriental descent; the Asiatics of Central, East and South East Asia, Polynesia, as well as the Indigenous Amerindians of the Americas.

The Book of Jubilees provides information on the early settlement of Southern Europe, West Asia, the Middle East and North Africa.

Book of Jubilees chapter eight:

10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And [Noah] called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father… 25 And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north-easterly to the whole region of Gog, and to all the country east thereof.

26 And it extends northerly to the north, and it extends to the mountains of Qelt towards the north, and towards the sea of Ma’uk, and it goes forth to the east of Gadir as far as the region of the waters of the sea. 

27 And it extends until it approaches the west of Fara and it returns towards ‘Aferag, and it extends easterly to the waters of the sea of Me’at. 28 And it extends to the region of the river Tina in a north-easterly direction until it approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain Rafa, and it turns round towards the north. 29 This is the land which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the portion of his inheritance which he should possess for himself and his sons, for their generations forever [as in a very long time]; five great islands [the Mediterranean Sea], and a great land in the north [West Asia and Southern Europe].  

30 But it is cold, and the land of Ham is hot [North Africa and land of Canaan], and the land of Shem [Mesopotamia and Arabia] is neither hot nor cold, but it is of blended cold and heat.

The sons of Japheth and particularly those descended from his son Javan – Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Dodan – migrated to the Mediterranean Sea and dwelt on the major islands of Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and [Rhodes]. Today, these same peoples dwell on the great island chains comprising Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia & Singapore, Indonesia, Polynesia, [Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand].

The principal mtDNA [mitochondria] maternal Haplogroups associated with Japheth’s descendants include:

Haplogroup A – found in Indigenous Americans as well as Asians.

Haplogroup B – one of the principal East Asian lineages and one of five mitochondrial lineages identified among Indigenous Americans.

Haplogroup C – a descendant of super Haplogroup M, one of the two major lineages – with Haplogroup N – that derive from L3 [refer Chapter I Noah Antecessor Nulla]. It is currently found in northeast Asia and it is considered one of the founding lineages of the Indigenous American population.

Haplogroup D – the principal East Asian lineage. Notable subgroups include D4, which is prevalent amongst Central Asian peoples; and D1, which is one of the five Haplogroups represented among Indigenous Americans.

Haplogroup E – located throughout the islands of Southeast Asia.

Haplogroup F – one of the primary mitochondrial lineages in East and Southeast Asia. Its greatest frequency and sequence diversity is found among coastal Asian populations.

Haplogroup K – certain lineages are found in Central Asia.

Haplogroup L3 – a daughter of mitochondrial Eve. Asian and European Haplogroups trace their ancestry to L3.

Haplogroup M – members were among the first humans to migrate east along the southern coasts of Asia.

Haplogroup R – ancient and complex; today its members can be found all over the world, including Central and South Asia.

Haplogroup X – worldwide with a subgroup X2, one of the founding lineages of Indigenous Americans.

Haplogroup Y – associated with Siberian populations. Also found in the Japanese, Koreans and certain Southeast Asian populations.

Haplogroup Z – located throughout Asia, with higher levels found in Tibet and Siberia and lower levels in Japan. A subgroup Z1, is also found among the Finnish Saami, who have both European and Asian ancestry.

The global distribution of Y-DNA [Y chromosome] paternal Haplogroups associated with Japheth’s descendants are summarised in Retina, Fifth Edition, 2013:

‘Clade C [is] found in Central Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. C1 lineage is found exclusively in Japan. C2 is found in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. C3 lineage is … [found] in Southeast [and] Central Asia… [as well as] northern Asia, the Americas and Central Europe. C4 appears to be restricted among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5 has a significant presence in India.

Haplogroup D appears in Central Asia [D1a1b], Southeast Asia [D1], and in Japan, showing the highest frequencies in Tibet [D1a1a] and Japan [D1a2a] (50% and 35%, respectively).

Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup M are shown in Melanesia, being restricted to the geographical distribution of Papuan languages.

Lineage O [M175] represents nearly 60% of chromosomes in East Asia. The O3 [O2a1 M122] haplogroup has the highest frequency, being absent outside East Asia. The O1 [O1a M119] and O2 [O1b M268] haplogroups appear in Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, South China, Japan, and Korea.

Haplogroup Q is found in Asia, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East. One of its sub-clades, group[s Q1a3a1 and Q1a3a4 are] exclusively associated with the Native Americans.’

It is interesting to note concerning mtDNA Haplogroups, that some of the ones highly indicative of Japheth’s descendants are considerably older in the phylogenetic tree and not shared with Ham or Shem’s descendants, such as C, Z, D and E. Similarly, those more recent – though not the most recent – are also unique to his sons, such as Haplogroups A, Y and B. 

With regard to Y-DNA Haplogroups, early original Haplogroups unique to Japheth’s descendants include C and in large degree, D. Quite more recent Haplogroups, including N and Q are shared with descendants from Shem and between these two is the Haplogroup most common and indicative of Japheth’s descendants, Haplogroup O-M175.

And the man said to me, “Son of man, look with your eyes, and hear with your ears, and set your heart upon all that I shall show you, for you were brought here in order that I might show it to you…”

Ezekiel 40:4 English Standard Version

“No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.” 

“If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been due more to patient attention, than to any other talent.” 

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Noah Antecessor Nulla

Chapter I

For the purpose of this work, we will begin with Noah and his family as our starting point and the family tree or Table of Nations, listed in Genesis 10:1-32 and 1 Chronicles 1:1-20.

Professor Aaron Demsky comments in Reading Biblical Genealogies, The Table of Nations, Humanity as an extended Family:

‘Genesis 10, known as the “Table of Nations,” describes mankind after the Flood; it is a veritable storehouse of ethnographic and geographical information regarding the biblical period. The chapter divides humanity into the descendants of the three sons of Noah: Japheth, Ham and Shem in that order according to their increasing numbers and according to their ethnic closeness to the unmentioned Israel, whose Patriarch Abraham was not yet born. This chapter expresses the ideal brotherhood of humanity, implying an innate equality and collective responsibility. This ideal is expressed in the use of segmented genealogies creating a world of one big family: the Sons of Noah.’

Continuing in Genesis, English Standard Version:

These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2 The sons of Japheth: 

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.

6 The sons of Ham: 

Cush, Egypt [Mizra], Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan… 13 Egypt [Mizra] fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim. 

15 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the  Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed… 20 These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber… children were born. 

22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. 25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan… 31 These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Dr Herman Hoeh’s Introduction in Origin of the Nations – capitalisation his:

‘Let us first turn to Genesis 10 and 1 Chronicles 1. Here is the place to start. Yet here is the place from which almost no one begins. To begin here is looked upon as “unscientific.” 

These two chapters hold THE KEY NAMES… The whole human family sprang from the three sons of Noah. But their descendants turn up today in the least expected places! Now read Genesis 10:32: “These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and OF THESE were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.” Did you notice the wording of this verse! “of these” were the nations divided – not after some other families, but OF THESE VERY FAMILIES MENTIONED IN GENESIS 10. The nations today are descendants of these family names.

All nations and races sprang from Japheth, Ham and Shem, the three sons of Noah. From the three sons sprang 16 grandsons of Noah. These 16 family names illustrate all the general types of people extant today. All these sons had children, but their names are not recorded in Scripture. We did not need to know their names in order to understand the Bible.

Let us now begin the most thrilling story of adventure ever written, yet a story with real meaning for today!’

Historian Arthur Kemp explains race versus ethnicity and the importance of understanding the second point raised in the introduction, discussing migration.

March of the Titans, 1999 & 2016, pages 1 & 8:

‘A race is defined as a group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes which determine that group’s physical appearance and, more controversially, their cognitive abilities. Ethnicity is defined as the creation of groups by individuals (most often within racial groups but also possible across racial divides) of certain common traditions, languages, art forms, attitudes, and other means of expression. A culture is the name given to the physical manifestations created by ethnic groups – the actual… religion, social order, and achievements of a particular group… ethnicity and culture – are directly dependent upon each other, and flow from each other in a symbiotic relationship.

… If all [of a specific nation of] people on earth had to disappear tomorrow, then fairly obviously, [their] civilization and culture would disappear with them. It is this startlingly obvious principle which determines the creation and dissolution of civilizations – once the people who create a certain society or civilization disappear, then that society or civilization will disappear with them. If the vanished population is replaced by different peoples, then a new society or culture is created which reflects the culture and civilization of the new inhabitants of that region… That this should happen is perfectly logical. It has nothing to do with which culture is more advanced, or any notions of superiority or inferiority. It is merely a reflection of the fact that a civilization is a product of the nature of the people making up the population in the territory.’ 

Regarding Haplogroups – the fourth point mentioned in the introduction – Eupedia explains:

‘Mitochondrial DNA is found outside the cell’s nucleus, inside the mitochondria – organelles that provide energy to the cell. It consists of only 16,569 base pairs, or 0.000005% of the human genome. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited only through one’s mother. As it does not recombine like chromosomes, it can be used in population genetics to trace back ancestry on the matrilineal side and to divide populations into haplogroups. The same can be done on the patrilineal side using the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), which is inherited exclusively from father to son and does not recombine with the X chromosome. Only a few mutations distinguish the Y chromosome of a man and his father. These mutations are cumulative from generation to generation, so it is easy to trace the family tree of humanity by analyzing these mutations (SNPs) [single nucleotide polymorphism] on the Y chromosome and mtDNA.’

Humanity have two lineages, the Y-DNA Haplogroups traceable via their fathers and mtDNA Haplogroups traceable from their mothers. Maternal Haplogroups are determined from mitochondrial DNA information passed down from mothers to all of her offspring; whereas paternal Haplogroups are determined from the Y chromosome passed down only from fathers to sons. Every single human being belongs to or has, a Haplogroup sequence. However, males have input from two sets of Haplogroups and females only have one. Thus males inherit a number of maternal Haplogroups from their mother and a selection of paternal Haplogroups from their father; while females only inherit a series of maternal Haplogroups.

A brief summary of Mitochondrial DNA analysis by John M Butler, Defining mtDNA Haplogroups in Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology, 2012:

‘Over the course of typing mtDNA samples from various populations, researchers have observed that individuals often cluster into haplogroups that can be defined by particular polymorphic nucleotides… These haplogroups were originally defined in the late 1980s and 1990s by grouping samples possessing the same or similar patterns when subjected to a series of restriction enzymes that were used to separate various mtDNA types from diverse populations around the world… 

Haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and M are typically associated with Asians while most Native Americans fall into haplogroups A, B, C, and D. Haplogroups L1, L2, and L3 are African, and haplogroups [N], H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, and X are typically associated with European populations…’

Scientific discovery in the decade beginning the late 1980s has corroborated the table of nations in Genesis Ten. We can be confident as we progress, that Noah’s three sons and their wives represent the three main racial strands on the earth today – Asian, African and European. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 3:

‘Research carried out by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza and two colleagues, P. Menozzi and A. Piazzia, in their work The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994), has revealed an astonishing 2,288 genetic point difference between whites and black Africans… the English differ from the Danes, Germans, and French by a mere 21-25 points of genetic difference, whereas they differ from North American Indians by 947 points…’

During the course of this research it became imperative that an improved chronology was devised. It is impossible to have a wholly complete or ‘accurate’ chronology for the very distant past. Conversely, it is possible to form a reasonably accurate time frame much further back than one would first anticipate.  It has involved considerable effort to create a reliable timeline from before Adam through to the present day. A whole different jig-saw puzzle and a significant challenge in its own right. A chronology based on a re-interpretation of the Old Testament Bible chronology prior to the Great Flood, combined with the Sumerian sexagesimal numerical counting system for the postdiluvian age to Abraham, has contributed to a pragmatic timeline of Earth’s ancient history. As there are already conventional and revised chronologies, it is an unconventional chronology

Everything You Know Is Still Wrong, Lloyd Pye, 2009 & 2017, pages 375-376: 

‘Sumerians… created an efficient system of mathematics based on the number 60 (called sexagesimal). It enabled them to easily divide into tiny fractions and to multiply with equal ease into the millions, to calculate roots and raise numbers by any power. The 60-second minute and the 60-minute hour are two vestiges that remain from their original system. 

So are the 360-degree circle, the 12-inch foot, and the dozen. 

They had accurate calendars fashioned around the mind-boggling timeframe of 25,920 years, the “Great Year” based on a sophisticated celestial phenomenon known as precession (the time Earth’s polar axis needs to circle the sky and point again at the same North star) [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].’

There is considerable support in dating the biblical flood to coincide with when the last ice age ended approximately 13,000 years ago – or precisely, 10,837 BCE. A growing number of scientists and historians – outside of the mainstream institutions that deliberately support an erroneous agenda of either no flood at all, a localised Middle Eastern flood or that it occurred about 2400 BCE – concur with the dating of circa 11,000 BCE.

For instance, though humans were eating cereal-based foods well before the flood, wheat was only domesticated since the last ice age; created from a still-living ancestor plant known as emmer. Wheat is a grain crop with some 25,000 different cultivars in the world today and most of these 25,000 different forms of modern wheat are varieties of two broad groups, called common wheat and durum wheat. Common or bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, accounts for some 95 percent of all the consumed wheat in the world today – the other 5 percent is made up of durum or hard wheat, Turgidum durum, used in pasta and semolina products.

Lloyd Pye, pages 517-519, 523 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In The Twelfth Planet Zecharia Sitchin calls Sumeria “The Sudden Civilisation”… it blossomed out of nowhere nearly 6,000 years ago… its roots extend back twice that farThe first official traces of domesticated plants and animals appear… around 12,000 ya, which scientists acknowledge was the time and point of origin for virtually all the domesticated agriculture and animal husbandry that has subsequently spread around the world.

… the first farmers… chose to begin cultivation in highlands… a terrible choice because they are subject to extreme variations in weather, they possess thin, less-than optimally-fertile soil, and they require construction of labour-intensive terraces to hold the poor soil in place… After the Flood, the plains were covered with soggy mud and silt that could not dry out or be washed away until new riverbeds provided drainage by carving their way down from the mountains above, which would have required many centuries.

In the Wars of Gods and Men, Zecharia Sitchin points out: 

“Scholars are agreed that agriculture began… with the harvesting of ‘wild ancestors’ of wheat and barley some 12,000 ya (10,000 BCE), but (they) are baffled by the genetic uniformity of those early grains grasses; and they are totally at a loss to explain the botano-genetic feat whereby within a mere 2,000 years(8,000 BCE)such wild emmers doubled, trebled, and quadrupled their chromosome pairs to become the cultivable wheat and barley of outstanding nutritional value (and) with the incredible ability to grow almost anywhere, and with the unusual twice-a-year crops.”

We first read of the patriarch Noah in Genesis 5:28-29, English Standard Version:

28 … Lamech… fathered a son 29 and called his name Noah [H5146 – Noach: ‘rest’], saying, “Out of the ground that the Lord has cursed, this one shall bring us relief [comfort] from our work and from the painful toil of our hands.” [Genesis 3:17-18]

Noah is referred to in Sumerian texts as ZI.UD.SUD.DRA and in separate Akkadian accounts as Atra-hais, meaning ‘exceedingly wise’ and in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as Ut-napishtim. The Greco-Roman account, records the name Duecalion for Noah. Noah means rest or quiet. Noah being saved from the impending doom of a worldwide flood meant mankind could continue and therefore we are alive today; a testament to the Creator’s promise to spare Noah.

Ezekiel 14:14

English Standard Version

… even if these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness, declares the Lord God.

Noah was one of the three most righteous men to live, listed with Daniel and Job. When this was written, Daniel was still alive. Even though Noah’s righteousness didn’t save humanity; it was in part because of his very righteousness, that ultimately mankind was spared. 

2 Peter 2:5

King James Version

And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;

Book of Enoch Chapter Ten:

“1. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel [Ariel an Archangel – refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega] to the son of Lamech, and said to him: 2. ‘and tell him in my name “Hide thyself!” and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. 3. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.’

The world in Noah’s day had grown evil beyond measure. Corrupted by fallen Angels who had interfered with the creation on Earth and humankind in particular. The Creator planned to cleanse the earth and start anew. 

The account is explained in Genesis 6:1-22, New Century Version:

The number of people on earth began to grow, and daughters were born to them. 2 When the sons of God saw that these girls were beautiful, they married any of them they chose. 3 The Lord said, “My Spirit will not remain in human beings forever, because they are flesh. They will live only 120 years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days and also later.* That was when the sons of God [Angels] had sexual relations with the daughters of human beings. These women gave birth to children, who became famous and were the mighty warriors [giants] of long ago. 5 The Lord saw that the human beings on the earth were very wicked and that everything they thought about was evil.He was sorry he had made human beings on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain. 7 So the Lord said, “I will destroy all human beings that I made on the earth. And I will destroy every animal and everything that crawls on the earth and the birds of the air, because I am sorry I have made them [note: marine life not included].” 

8 But Noah pleased the Lord. 9 This is the family history of Noah. Noah was a good [H6662 – tsaddiyq: ‘just, lawful, righteous’ – spiritual] man, the most innocent [H8549 – tamiym: ‘complete, healthful, without blemish, undefiled’ – physically] man of his time, and he walked with God. 10 He had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11 People on earth did what God said was evil, and violence was everywhere. 12 When God saw that everyone on the earth did only evil, 13 he said to Noah, “Because people have made the earth full of violence, I will destroy all of them from the earth. 14 Build a boat of cypress [H1613 – Gopher: meaning ‘to house in’] wood [H6086 – ets: meaning ‘tree’ from H6095 – atsah: meaning ‘firmness, shut’] for yourself. Make rooms in it and cover it inside and outside with tar [H3722 – kaphaph: meaning ‘to cover over’ (with bitumen [pitch]) or ‘to make an atonement, to cleanse’]…

17 I will bring a flood of water on the earth to destroy all living things that live under the sky, including everything that has the breath of life. Everything on the earth will die. 18 But I will make an agreement with you [Genesis 9:8-17] – you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives will all go into the boat. 19 Also, you must bring into the boat two of every living thing, male and female. Keep them alive with you. 20 Two of every kind of bird, animal, and crawling thing will come to you to be kept alive. 21 Also gather some of every kind of food and store it on the boat as food for you and the animals.”

22 Noah did everything that God commanded him.

We will repeatedly encounter the Nephilim during our journey and we will discuss them in more detail [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin and Destiny of Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Various sources that recount a global flood, mention other survivors apart from Noah’s family; consequently, Nephilim presence in the post-flood world is mentioned repeatedly in the Old Testament.*

Not only does Noah receive high praise for his character from his Maker, these verses also describe the physical purity of his genealogy. An unarguable reason why Noah was the ideal candidate to continue the human race. Noah’s ancestors going back to Adam and his son Seth, are listed in Genesis chapter five.

Author Alan Alford says the following regarding Noah in his first book, Gods of the New Millennium, 1996 – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘Noah’s birth was far from normal. According to the Book of Enoch, when Noah was born, his father Lamech was extremely perturbed to find that, “his body was white as snow and red as the blooming of a rose”. Lamech was so shocked that he asked his father Methuselah to make enquiries of Enoch who was staying among the sons of the Gods (the Nephilim), because: “I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the God of Heaven and his nature is quite different, and he is not like us… And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but from the angels.” Enoch’s response was to assure Lamech that Noah was indeed his son, but his unusual disposition was part of a plan to save Noah and his family in a coming deluge. It would seem that Noah’s father may have become known as Lamech, meaning “He who was Humbled”, as a result of this rather embarrassing accusation against his wife. Lamech’s hope for better times was not to come true, for mankind’s problems were only just beginning. According to the Atra-Hasis, some time before the Flood… God… decided to punish… man with infectious diseases and a series of droughts… and the Biblical reference to the ground which had been cursed by the Lord may well refer to the beginning of the last ice age…’

This description is not necessarily saying Noah was an albino, though this is a plausible scenario. It could be referring to Noah being fair, with very pale skin. We find a remarkably similar description, of the Son of Man in Revelation 1:14-15, New Century Version:

His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like flames [G5395 – phlox: ‘a flash or blaze’] of fire. His feet were like bronze [G5474 – chalkolibanon: superficially ‘fine brass’, though could be a ‘metal like gold if not more precious’] that glows in a hot furnace…

The description is not necessarily saying the Son of Man has red or orange eyes. He could have blue eyes which are radiant and piercing. The colour of a pure, high temperature flame is blue-white. People can be described as having flaming eyes or smouldering blue eyes. Similarly, it is not necessarily correct to assume bronze or brass means brown or coppery, as the Greek word chalkolibanon derives from a compound of 5475 and 3030, which mean ‘whiteness’ or ‘brilliancy.’ When fine brass is burnt in a furnace it becomes white hot. When it cools, it remains white with a golden hint to it.

In Daniel 7:9-10, New English Translation: 

“While I was watching, thrones were set up, andthe Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lamb’s wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. 10  A river of fire [the Holy Spirit] was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence.

The Ancient of Days and source of all life is similarly described. Some translations say the Ancient One. The CEV translates as, the Eternal God and the TEV as, One who had been living for ever. 

The Book of Enoch corroborates the biblical description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days.

Book of Enoch 46:1-4

1 At that place,I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor like that of one among the kodesh [holy] malakim [angels]. 2 And I asked… “Who is this, and from whence is he who is going as the prototype of the Before-Time?” 3 … “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells… for Yahweh [Lord] of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts… 4 “This Son of Man whom you have seen is the One who would remove the kings and the mighty ones [rulers of this world] from their comfortable seats and the strong ones [the unseen rulers of this world] from their thrones…”

The Bible states that Noah was ‘perfect’ in his ‘generations’. The word generations, is the Hebrew word Toledah, and means ‘descent.’ The Hebrew word Tamim means ‘without blemish’ in his generations and is the technical word for bodily and physical perfection; not a reference to Noah’s righteousness. It is the same word used for the purity of sacrificial animals. Noah was without blemish physically because – in his pedigree from Adam and Seth – his lineage had not mixed with any other human line or more crucially, been tainted by the Nephilim. 

The Genesis Apocryphon parallels the birth of Noah in the Book of Enoch: 

‘… behold I thought then without my heart that conception was due to the watchers and the holy ones and to the giants, and my heart was troubled within me because of this trial. Then I, Lamech approached Bathenosh my wife in haste and said to her, ‘… by the Most High, the Great Lord, the King of all the world and Ruler of the Sons of Heaven, until you tell me all things truthfully… Tell me… and not falsely… Then Bathenosh my wife spoke to me with much heat [and mastered her anger]… said ‘O my brother, oh my lord, remember my pleasure … the lying together and my soul within its body. [And I tell you] all things truthfully… I swear to you by the Holy Great One the King of the heavens, that this seed is yours and this conception is from you, whose spirit was planted by you and by no stranger or watcher or son of heaven.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 31 – emphasis authors, bold mine:

Lamech mistook the holy nature of Noah as possessing the startling physical characteristics of [a] baby Nephilim… the first book of Enoch: 

“… Methuselah, took a wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him and bore him a son. And his body was white as snow and as red as a rose; the hair of his head as white as wool and his demdema (long curly hair) beautiful; and as for his eyes, when he opened them the whole house glowed like the sun… And his father, Lamech, was afraid of him and fled and went to Methuselah his father; and he said to him, “I have begotten a strange son. He is not like a[n ordinary] human being, but [he] looks like the children of the angels of heaven to me, his form is different and [he is] not like us… It does not seem to me that he is of me, but of angels.”

‘So too, did Atlantean giants, according to Frank Joseph, author of the Destruction of Atlantis, possess ruddy, white skin, with blond and red hair and glowing eyes… other ancient giants… also possessed fair skin and were known as lucent, or “shining gods”…’

Something was strikingly evident immediately upon Noah’s birth, reflected in his unique physical appearance. The description again, could refer to albinism, with a white, pinkish skin and white hair; or pale skin with platinum blond hair. If the Nephilim, being angelic-human hybrids had white skin, with blond or red hair, and Noah stood out like one of them, this would imply that humans possessed darker shades of skin tone rather than lighter up to this point. Lamech’s reaction signifies that he saw something special in Noah’s miraculous birth. One chosen by the Creator before birth, as were Jeremiah, John the Baptist and Melchizedek.

Jeremiah 1:5

English Standard Version

“Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations.”

Lamech is afraid of Noah, and runs to his father Methusaleh with his concern. Methusaleh contacts his own father Enoch, who responds in calming their fears; revealing to them Noah’s role as the saviour of humanity in the upcoming Flood, as well as actually giving Noah his name. 

Book of Enoch 106:6-8, 10, 12, 16, 18-19

“… and [Lamech feared] that a wondrous phenomenon may take place upon the earth in  [Noah’s day]. So I am beseeching you now, begging you in order that you may go to his grandfather Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling place is among the [angels].” When Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to us at the ends of the earth; for he had heard that I [Enoch] was there… [Methuselah says:] 

“my father, hear me: For unto my son Lamech a son has been born, one whose image and form are not like unto the characteristics of human beings; and his color is whiter than snow and redder than a rose, the hair of his head is whiter than white wool, and his eyes are like the rays of the sun…” … Lamech, became afraid and fled, and he did not believe that he the child was of him but of the image of the [angels] of heaven… 

“There shall be a great… deluge and a great destruction for one year… Now, make known to your son Lamech that the son who has been born is indeed righteous; and call his name Noah, for he shall be the remnant for you, and he and his sons shall be saved from the corruption, which shall come upon the earth on account of all the sin and oppression that existed, and it will be fulfilled upon the earth in his days. After that there shall occur still greater oppression than that which was fulfilled upon the earth the first time [yet future]; for I do know the mysteries of the [holy] ones; for He, Yahweh, has revealed them to me and made me know; and I have read them in the heavenly tablets.”

By having Enoch name his great-grandson, it intensifies a connection that is already found in the Bible; in their typological location in the primeval genealogy, seventh [number symbolising perfection and applicable to Enoch] and tenth [number symbolising completion or judgement and very applicable to Noah] from Adam.

Enoch and Noah are kindred spirits, as the same phrase is applied to both of them and to them alone: they walked with God – contrast with Abraham in Genesis 17:1, Genesis 6:9 and 5:24 ESV.

When Abram was ninety-nine years old the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.

Noah was a righteous man; he was blameless in his age; Noah walked with God.

Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, for God took him.

It would appear that the Nephilim – and likely their fallen angelic fathers, based on the description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days – were not white as in a European, but rather they were white like an albino. For those who have seen the Matrix trilogy, the second film features dreadlocked characters who exhibit exactly the kind of white we are speaking of. Serious consideration must be given to Noah being the first truly light skinned human. His father’s description of him in the Book of Enoch, would explain Noah’s seemingly other-worldliness. It may well be more than coincidental that Albinism affects the production of the pigment melanin, that colours skin, hair and eyes. 

It is a lifelong condition from birth, though it does not worsen with age. People with albinism have a reduced amount of melanin, or no melanin at all. This affects albinos colouring and eyesight. Albinism is caused by for the want of a better word, ’faulty’ genes a child inherits from their parents. 

One in 17,000 babies in Europe and the USA are born with either Oculocutaneous albinism [OCA], which involves the eyes, hair and skin, or Ocular albinism [OA], which is much less common and affects only the eyes.

Dr Mary Lowth clarifies – capitalisation theirs:

‘People presume that all people with albinism have white hair and white skin; however, this is not usually the case. A common myth is that they have red eyes; however, this is also not true. Most people with albinism have blue eyes and some have hazel or brown eyes. However, in certain light conditions there is a reddish tint reflected through the iris and pupil from the retina and the eyes appear red (similar to the ‘red eye’ in flash photography). Albinism results from inheriting an albinism gene from both the mother and the father (who often have normal pigmentation themselves, as their OTHER gene is normal). When both parents carry the albinism gene (and neither parent has albinism) there is a one in four chance at each pregnancy that the baby will be born with albinism. If a parent has albinism then they will pass on one affected gene to their child. The child will still only develop albinism if they also inherit an albinism gene from the other parent.’

There are seven types of Oculocutaneous albinism. We will look at the main condition. 

‘OCA1 results from a genetic defect in an enzyme called tyrosinase. This enzyme helps the body to make melanin pigment. There are two subtypes of OCA1. In OCA1A, the enzyme is completely inactive and absolutely no melanin is produced, leading to white hair and very light skin. In OCA1B, the enzyme is minimally active and a small amount of melanin is produced. This leads to hair that may darken to blond, yellow/orange or even light brown, as well as slightly more pigment in the skin.’

Noah’s whiteness may or may not have been a ‘faulty’ gene or defect, but he does seem to be the melanin absent or reduced, Ancestor Zero and fulcrum of the equation on either the actual origination of the different races or the increased diversity of races after the flood, their characteristics and the varying amount of melanin skin pigmentation with the broad range of skin tones – that would ultimately differentiate his three sons and sixteen grandsons from one another [refer Chapter XVI Shem Occidentalis]. 

Alan Alford’s comments on this question, in Gods of the New Millennium – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘The Flood thus acted as a gateway or bottleneck through which the genes of man were transmitted to the post-Flood generations. According to the Bible, the three sons of Noah – Shem, Ham and Japheth – took separate territories and fathered everyone in the world alive today. Did these three sons represent three distinct races? Modern studies of human racial diversity are unfortunately few and far between. As Jared Diamond notes:

“The subject of human races is so explosive that Darwin excised all discussion of it from his famous 1859 book On the Origin of species. Even today, few scientists dare to study racial origins, lest they be branded racists simply for being interested in the problem.”

‘Genetic scientists, however, have projected backwards from all of the human racial diversity which exists today and found a common point, known as mtDNA Eve (Mitochondrial Eve)… These findings suggest that racial diversity must have been preserved on Noah’s Ark if the Flood occurred only 13,000 years ago. Biblical scholars would (agree) with this conclusion. 

A major clue lies in the names of Noah’s sons, particularly the name Ham which literally means “He who is Hot”, implying a dark coloured skin. Furthermore, the location of the Hamitic tribes in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10) has been clearly identified by Biblical scholars as the African lands. The Koran, too, is explicit in referring to separate nations on board Noah’s Ark, when it states “blessings upon thee and on the nations with thee”. The scenario of preserving mankind’s racial diversity on Noah’s Ark is entirely consistent with the Biblical record that all living creatures were saved. 

Unfortunately, most people have regarded the tale of the Ark as a myth, due to the logistical problems of confining so many types of animals and birds in such close proximity, added to the practical difficulties of gathering together so many different species. 

However, if we were to be forewarned of a Flood tomorrow, we would, with the benefit of modern scientific knowledge, not round up the animals themselves but their genes. And there are two clues which suggest that this is exactly what happened 13,000 years ago. The Utnapishtim legend of Noah states that Utnapishtim loaded aboard whatever he had of “the seed of all living creatures”. And in the Atra-Hasis (Fragment III)… God… (says) “game of the field and beasts of the field, as many as eat herbs, I will send unto thee”. An echo of this is found in Genesis 6:20 which states that “two of every kind… will come to you”. If the seed or genes of all living animals were kept alive in the Ark, why not also the genes representing human diversity? However, the problem of human races goes much further back in time, prior to Noah’s Ark, for no-one can explain how the races evolved. As Jared Diamond points out, all of the current theories on the origin of racial characteristics have fundamental weaknesses. In my view, the key to the mystery is genetic science. Here is my theory on how (it was done).

The unusual birth of Noah, discussed earlier, was the first step in (a) far-sighted strategy… (before) selecting… three women from three diverse races of mankind… the eggs of each of these women were fertilized by Noah’s sperm, and implanted into three surrogate mothers. Nine months later, Noah became the father of three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, as recorded in the Bible… the three ethnic mothers of Shem, Ham and Japheth were to marry their own sons. 

These, then, were the three women who accompanied Noah, his unnamed wife and his three sons onto the Ark. Using this strategy… caused a further significant dilution of Noah’s “pure” genes and a significant increase in the proportion of “ethnic” genes in the next generation. Whilst Shem, Ham and Japheth had retained 50 per cent of the pure seed. Their sons and daughters became 25 per cent pure seed and 75 per cent ethnic… three separate races emerged…

There are several further factors which tend to corroborate the above theory… the independent account in the Book of Enoch of Noah’s unusual white/red pigmentation describes a deliberate step… for obtaining a greater range of colour variation in the three new lines of mankind. Without Noah’s whiteness… could only have blended three shades of black. Is it possible that Lamech’s fathering of Noah was really subject to genetic intervention?

A fragment from the Book of Noah, discovered at Qumran, records an ambiguous response from Lamech’s wife, when questioned about the conception of Noah. She implored her husband to “remember my delicate feelings” – perhaps a sign that she was keeping a secret of the Gods. (Another) corroborating factor is the apparent birth of all Noah’s three sons in the same year. The King James Version of the Bible (KJV) translates the original Hebrew literally: And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham and Japheth.

The New International Version of the Bible (NIV), on the other hand, has attempted to conceal the impression of three sons in the same year by altering the translation: After Noah was 500 years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth. The deliberate vagueness of the word “after” suggests a fudge. However, in order to make the illusion succeed, it is also necessary to disguise the fact that all three sons were 100 years old when the Flood occurred 100 years later. Therefore the NIV states: Two years after the Flood, when Shem was 100 years old, he became the father of Arphaxad. However, the KJV retains the original and literal meaning of the Hebrew: Shem was a hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the Flood. 

Whilst the NIV fudge conveniently allows 24 months for the birth of three separate children, the reality is that all of Noah’s sons were born in the same year. Why did the NIV Biblical revisionists find this idea so offensive that they tried to hide it? Could it have implied to them that Noah’s three sons came from three different wives within the same year?’

A thought provoking hypothesis that certainly gives pause for consideration. The origin of the races is a complete mystery to researchers and theologians alike. Alan Alford’s theory offers an original and plausible solution. As the introduction of the variety of racial branches from sixteen grandsons strongly appears to have been new, how many races before the flood were there? Just the one from Adam and Eve’s sons Cain and Seth, or two or more?

It is has been entertained that the mark of Cain introduced in Genesis 4:15, relates to  Cain’s skin changing from white too black. An alternative explanation would be required, if Cain was already dark skinned. Regarding Adam, it states in Genesis 2:7, English Standard Version:

… then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.

There is an anomaly in that we will learn that Adam was not Cain’s biological father [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Nor did Adam start as ‘dust from the ground’ but became dust from the ground; this was not his beginning. The incident in the Garden of Eden led to his and Eve losing their spiritual status in exchange for a composition that was physical. This was the core of the Serpents’s trick played on Eve. 

The name Adam in Hebrew from the root, dmm means ‘to begin, to produce.’ Adam had a beginning, as one from the soil. The name Adam is the same as the noun, ‘adam, which means man[kind] in [the] sense of ‘a creature made from earth,’ or likeness-made-from-soil. The verb dama, describes making an ‘image’ and the noun dimyon means ‘likeness.’ Adama means ‘arable soil’ or ‘clay-red earth’. Adam does not mean red as in colour or complexion. Verbs adom and adem mean red, as do the adjectives adom and admoni, as well as the noun edom [used for Abraham’s Grandson, Esau]. The ubiquitous noun, dam means ‘blood, the seat of life.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Adam… means Acre Man, but since the word for acre is distilled from the action of producing agricultural crops, the name Adam really means Produce… But that root that covers the action of producing is also the same as the root that covers redness. That means that Adam is also Red Man. Since red is the color of blood (2 Kings 3:22) and also since the name Adam is the word (dom), meaning blood, with an aleph in front of it, and alephs sometimes appear in front of words without essentially altering the meaning, Adam also means Blood Man. And since blood is the seat of the breath (or life), Adam is also Life Man. All in all, the name Adam is probably best interpreted as Living Creature or rather the corporeal part of a living creature. The name Adam simply means Corporeal One or Dustling; prior to receiving breath, Adam was quite literally a corpse (Genesis 2:7).’

Some have incorrectly surmised that Adam’s redness – from red-clay earth – meant he was white with a ruddy complexion. One commentator says: “Adam means ruddy complexioned, to show blood (in the face), flush or turn rosy.” Later, we will learn that King David of Judah and Jacob’s brother Esau are described in this manner. Adam is not. For Adam, it is accentuating his coming alive and beginning as the first of his kind – with different genetic DNA, symbolised by his blood – for indeed, their were other humans created prior to Adam [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

The line of Cain in Genesis chapter four is fascinating, because we learn that another Lamech, different from the father of Noah is the progenitor of polygamy, having two wives. They are only the second and third women after Eve to be recorded in the old Testament, implying significance. Adah means ‘ornament’ and has the connotation of beauty. Zillah means ‘dark’ or ‘to be dark’. So some have conjectured that Adah was light skinned and Zillah dark skinned; or, it could be referring to Zillah possessing a proclivity towards the dark side.

Intriguing, are the two sons born of Adah and especially the son from Zillah and their very Japheth-like names. There is the progenitor of Cain’s line, Cain and on Seth’s family tree, a Cainan – a later Hamitic name. The Book of Jasher in chapter two says that Cainan, the Grandson of Seth was the father of three sons and two daughters, who are none other than Adah and Zillah. The book also says that Zillah was barren when she was old, until towards the end of her life.

In Genesis chapter four, we learn there were other humans – not descended from Adam and Eve – in the Land of Nod, where Cain went to dwell. 

Genesis 4:16-17

New Century Version

16 So Cain went away [not just physically but also spiritually] from the Lord and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden. 17 He had sexual relations with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. At that time Cain was building a city, which he named after his son Enoch.

Cain already had a wife – a sister according to some sources, a fallen Angel in others – before sojourning to Nod and building a city. 

Book of Jubilees 4:9

And Cain took Awan his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch… And… houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch.

Cain would not build a city, if it were not for an already large population of people living in Nod. Genesis 1:27 reveals man was created on the Sixth Day or era, whereas, Genesis 2:7 shows Adam was created on the ‘Eighth Day’, the day or era after the Seventh Day rest. If there were inhabitants prior to Cain’s arrival, they were not descended from Adam and Eve. We will return to this question in a later chapter. Cain didn’t waste any time, in becoming the first person in endeavouring to establish and consolidate centralised power – a precursor for a one world government. The Way of Cain has survived many millennia right through to our present day and age.

When Adam’s son Seth is born, we learn in Genesis 5:3 NCV:

When Adam was 130 years old, he became the father ofanother son in his likeness [H1823 – dmuwth: ‘similitude’]and image [H6754 – tselem: ‘resemblance’], and Adam named him Seth.

Seth was in other words, the spitting image of his biological father. The line of Seth, his sons and their wives is amplified in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 4:11-28

11 … Seth took Azura his sister to be his wife, and… she bare him Enos. 13 … Enos took Noam his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… [calling] his name Kenan. 14 And… Kenan took Mualeleth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Mahalalel. 15 … Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dinah, the daughter of Barakiel the daughter of his father’s brother, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Jared, for in his days the malakim of Yahweh descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 

16 And… Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Baraka, the daughter of Rasujal, a daughter of his father’s brother… and she bare him a son… and he called his name Enoch. 20 And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Edna, the daughter of Danel, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 27 And… Methuselah took unto himself a wife, Edna the daughter of Azrial, the daughter of his father’s brother… and he begat a son and called his name Lamech. 28 And… Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was Betenos the daughter of Baraki’il, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Noah, saying, ‘This one will comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for the ground which Yahweh has cursed.’ 

Let’s ask the question: was the consternation exhibited by Lamech toward his son Noah due to everyone – Cain, Seth and the inhabitants of Nod, the people of Day Six – in the antediluvian world, having darker shades of skin, black or brunette hair and brown eyes. The earth then – the antediluvian epoch – whether it be human beings, flora and fauna or the climate, was not exactly the same as today. This is partly why the conundrum of the origin of the races exists. If there were only one, two or three races and they ranged from possibly black to dark or medium brown skin, with dark hair and brown eyes, then Lamech’s shock of seeing Noah so completely and utterly white skinned and fair, with platinum blond hair and blue eyes would not be surprising at all. It would have been very disturbing.

The names of Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives are not stated in the bible, though they are mentioned in the Book of Jubilees [circa 160-150 BCE] as ‘Adataneses the wife of Japheth, Na’eltama’uk the wife of Ham and Sedeqetelebab, Shem’s wife. The Syriac Targum, a similar work, states the wives names as Arathka for Japheth’s wife, Zedkat Nabu for Ham’s wife and Nahalath Mahnuk as Shem’s wife.

Noah’s wife is mentioned five times in Genesis, without her name being revealed. Some believe she could be Naamah, the sister of Tubal-Cain in Genesis 4.22. As she is from the already imperfect line of Cain, it would seem to be a contradiction for Noah to marry Naamah, mixing the two genetic lines. With that said, if there is any merit in Alan Alford’s theory or a version of it, Noah may have had three wives from which three sons were born; taking only one wife on board the Ark.

The Book of Jubilees 4:46-47, supports the Bible and states Noah had one wife and that she bore all three sons:

Noah took to himself a wife,and her name was Emzara,the daughter of Rakeel, the daughter of his father’s brother [a brother of Lamech]… And in the third year thereof she bore him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she bore him Ham, and in the first year… she bore him Japheth.

Genesis 11:10 states Shem is two years younger than Japheth, yet Genesis 10:21 says Shem is the eldest. Comparing all the Bible verses where the three sons are mentioned, it would seem that their order of birth was Japheth, Ham and then Shem. Shem is then sometimes placed first in order because from him, the patriarch Abraham would later be born. If Noah had only one wife and Alford’s theory is not applied, then Japheth, Ham and Shem very likely had wives with different genetic characteristics. 

The Book of Tobit [ circa 225-175 BCE] does not name Noah’s wife, though does say she was one of his ‘own kindred’. An Arabic source and Islamic tradition links Noah’s wife from either his own family bloodline from Methuselah or less accurately, Mehujael from Cain’s line, giving her name as Haykel or Amzurah respectively – Amzurah being similar to Emzara.

Unknown source: 

‘[Noah’s] family were probably mid-brown, with genes for both dark and light skin, because a medium skin colour would seem to be the most generally suitable (dark enough to protect against skin damage and folate destruction, yet light enough to allow vitamin D production). Adam and Eve would most likely have been mid-brown as well, with brown eyes and brown (or black) hair. In fact, most of the world’s population today is mid-brown.’ 

There is genetic evidence supporting the world’s inhabitants before the flood being darker skinned and medium brown in tone. We will investigate this question in a later section, as Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support such a conclusion. Noah appears to be the carrier of those genes that were passed on to his three sons that with their wives produced sixteen grandsons now ranging from dark to light and black to white, that had not existed previously. For Noah too have this DNA mutation or variation that introduced variety and produced more races, he must have either inherited recessive genes, passed down from Adam, Eve and Seth, or his genetic code was manipulated prior to his birth.

Albinism seems to be a throwback to when humans were dark and the mutated gene* that causes reduced melanin or white skin appeared. Research supports the introduction of light skin in our more recent past – an acknowledgment that earlier humans did possess brown skin.

White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists, Liz Lea Floor, 2015 – emphasis and bold mine:

The myriad of skin tones and eye colors that humans express around the world are interesting and wonderful in their variety. Research continues on how humans acquired the traits they now have and when, in order to complete the puzzle that is our ancient human history. Now, a recent analysis by anthropologists suggests that the light skin color and the tallness associated with European genetics are relatively recent traits to the continent.

An international team of researchers as headed by Harvard University’s Dr. Iain Mathieson put forth a study at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists recently. Based on 83 human samples from Holocene Europe as analyzed under the 1000 Genomes Project, it is now found that for the majority of the time that humans have lived in Europe, the people had dark skin, andthe genes signifying light skin only appear within the past 8,000 years.This recent and relatively quick process of natural selection suggests to researchers that the traits which spread rapidly were advantageous within that environment, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 

This dramatic evidence suggests modern Europeans do not appear as their long ancient ancestors did.Previous research published in 2008 found that the earliest mutations in the eye-color genes that led to the evolution of blue eyes probably occurred about 10,000 years ago in individuals living in around the Black Sea. The surprising aspect of the findings is that while it is fundamental to natural selection that advantageous genetic attributes spread, it is not often a speedy process. The study shows that these genetic pale skin traits swept across Europe speedily, and that phenomenon is of particular interest to researchers.’

Humans are not from Earth – A Scientific Evaluation of the Evidence, Ellis Silver, 2017, pages 27, 42 and 278 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Until about 7,700 years ago, all humans had brown eyes… Since blue eyes offer more protection against cataracts, it’s surprising that they didn’t evolve much sooner. And it’s bizarre that they’re rarely found in climates where the sunlight is strongest… Everyone with blue eyes has a single, common ancestor who lived about 7,700 years agoand had a genetic mutation – a single switch that turns off or limits the eye’s ability to produce melanin. Researchers have found that if this gene is completely destroyed it leads to albinism.* Around the time that blue eyes first appeared, so did white skin…

… light skinned people appeared on Earth more recently than most of us realize… when the allele associated with light skin first originated in the SLC24A5 gene… lighter skin, like blue eyes, might simply have been a genetic anomaly rather than a necessity. The Caucasian did first appear around 7,700 years [ago], and we don’t know why. We’d been living in temperate regions including Scandinavia for tens of thousands of years before that time, yet we retained our dark skin, hair, and eyes. And it seems we hadn’t succumbed to vitamin D deficiency. So the sudden switch to white skin, blond hair, and blue eyes is both unexpected and unexplainable. Most mainstream biologists say it was a simple genetic mutation that people found attractive. But another explanation is that the Caucasians were hybrids…’

White skin, blond and red hair with blue and green eyes, suddenly came out of nowhere, springing out of the genetic gene pool, much like Noah. A recent study has offered more accurate dating for this genetic mutation, between 11,000 to 19,000 years ago. We will learn that this dating is especially accurate. 

The dating of 8,000 years ago is still highly relevant, as that takes us back to the time of Peleg and the Tower of Babel, at which time one of Shem’s sons had a pronounced divisional split in his descendants line. This was represented by the major Y-DNA paternal mutations of the European R1a and R1b Haplogroup strains. R1a being one of the principle Haplogroups of Eastern Europeans – aside from Central and South Asia – and R1b the main Haplogroup of Western Europeans – apart from the Latino-Hispano peoples of the Americas. 

The Genetic Origin of the Nations, 2006 & 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The scientific evidence indicates that there were seven so-called “Eves” to the genetic mtDNA pool in the Caucasian [line] but thatthere are 26 female lines overall. 

Noah was understood to be pure in his generations. The Bible also maintains that the people in the Ark were all the family of Noah. Thus, to properly account for the genetic diversity, Noah must have maintained the capacity to throw genetically distinct offspring, and this offspring had the characteristics of the line from which it came, but not the entire sequence that Noah had originally. For Noah to be the father of the human structure he is held to have had the capacity for the… YDNA substructure, as all humans are descended from him. Any male on the planet will have only the mutations that signify his branch and path. Noah held the base YDNA that was able to mutate into… other subgroups.

… when we examine the tree of mtDNA we find some interesting group derivatives. The so-called “supergroups” are really only in three basic groups. In other words, they came from three main female lines. That is what we would expect to find if we assume there were only three females that bred on from the Ark, namely the wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth. These Haplogroups are all descended from a single female supergroup, namely Haplogroup L. So in reality, all females are descended from one female line, Hg L. That is super L [L0]. This line then split into L1, and then L2 and L3. The line L3 diverged and from L3 came the other mtDNA mutations. Thus, all females came from one Eve whose mtDNA line was L.

The supergroups M and N were next to diverge or mutate. From a biblical point of view we can argue easily that L was formed with Eve and the other groups were pre-Flood divisions that came on to the Ark. Thus, we could correctly argue that L, M, and N came on to the Ark within the accepted biblical account. All mtDNA Haplogroups are subdivisions of L, then M and N and subsequently R, which itself is a mutation of Hg N. 

Thus, we can assume that Eve produced the line L and the three wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth are at least the three groups L, M and N. There may have been further divisions given the fact that Noah may have had daughters not mentioned and their mtDNA line may have been L, or M or N. It may have even been R, if we assume that the entire L line came in through the wife of Ham, as the L line is almost confined to the sub-Saharan tribes. We also have to address the fact that Eve was dark skinned and the fact that Adam means the one who was red. Thus the capacity for the development of skin colour was an original trait [even if recessive] of the human creation. 

M produced three subdivisions… including C [and Z, which split from each other], and D and G… [with subdivisions] E and Q… [all associated with East Asian peoples].

We might thus also deduce that the wives of the sons of Noah were taken from the one family lineage, maintaining purity in the generations in the female line also. The L2 and L3 split may have come from the family structure before the Flood. [Any] daughters of Noah and the wives of the sons could have carried all three of the L subdivisions and the basic core sub-groups of M, N and perhaps R. It is therefore possible that the women of the Ark… could easily have contained the basis for the modern mtDNA diversity. 

The supergroup N… split… [including] Haplogroups I and W… The R supergroup split into the following: B; F; HV, which split into H and V; P; The J and T subdivision; and U, from which came K… [all associated with European peoples].’

According to the author, the mtDNA super Haplogroup L originated with Eve and split into L1, L2 and L3. All mtDNA L haplogroups from L0 to L6 are primarily associated with Black African people and to a lesser extent, Arabs. The remainder of the mtDNA Haplogroups then derived or mutated from L3. L3 gave rise to the super subgroups M and N. Broadly speaking, L3 relating to African peoples, M with East Asian and N to European. The author states that Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives would have carried these new mutations. For the three wives of Noah’s sons to each represent these three core racial strands, the connecting dots not suggested by the author are that these wives could have also been daughters of Noah by his wife Emzara. 

Noah would have passed on to each son the paternal genetic sequencing [Y chromosome DNA] for Japheth and his subsequent seven sons, Ham and his four sons and Shem and his five sons. Noah’s wife would have received the maternal recessive genes [Mitochondria DNA] originating in the L3 line from Eve, which included Haplogroups M and N. 

Thus, L3, M and N were new mutations that had not existed during the antediluvian epoch. The new Haplogroups had lain dormant until being activated or awakened by congress with Noah. 

The new racial characteristics now exhibited in Noah’s daughters, ‘Adataneses, Na’eltama’uk and Sedeqetelbab who then married their brothers; Japheth, Ham and Shem – who also exhibited the new mutations – revealing two new racial strands – of bluntly, yellow [M] in Japheth and ‘Adataneses; white [N] in Shem and Sedeqetebab; to add to an original brown skin tone, that now carried a new mutation too, creating extra diversity [L4-L6] in Ham and Na’eltama’uk.

It is understandable why these eight people were saved and that not just Noah was genealogically pure, but so was his wife. They then had six children prior to the flood  who received the three new core racial strands, which then mutated into the sixteen new sub-racial strands through their children after the flood – Noah’s and Emzara’s grandchildren. This leaves the L1 and L2 pre-flood lines from Eve. The simple answer is that L1 was passed to Cain and his family line and L2 was passed to Seth and his family line that later included Noah and his wife. L3 [with M and N] being the mutation from Seth’s line L2. The L1 and L2 lines were thus darker skinned lines, with the lighter shades of skin and racial diversity – included in the L3 line – we presently have now, deriving from Noah and his family. The undeniable scientific support for this argument, is that a black couple can have white children, but a white couple cannot have a black child. 

Recent research has found incredible evidence to corroborate the Genesis account regarding humankind descending from three original fathers. 

Finding Ham, Shem, and Japheth via the Y-Chromosome, Genesis and Genetics, 2021 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… we have examined [paternal] Y-chromosome genomes searching for Noah and his three sons, Ham, Japheth, and Shem. They were easy to find.  According to our analysis, if you have the rs17306671 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Shem. If you have the rs9786139 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Ham. If you have the rs3900 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide G you are from Japheth. The following presents the easy-to-follow logic and analysis… [and] Our findings are consistent with the Bible and modern science raw data.

…Y-chromosome DNA is exclusively found in males; it is inherited from one’s father. The Y-chromosome has approximately 60 million base pairs, each of which is subject to mutations. Mutations develop in the Y-chromosome, typically at the rate of 2 mutations per generation. This is based on a mutation rate of 1.0*10^-9 mutations /nucleotide/year (Reference 1) and 30 years per generation. 

These mutations allow us to track ancestry. If one man populated all the earth, all males would have his Y-chromosome, and if this man had two sons, one would expect that roughly half of the world would have one son’s mutations and the other half would have the other son’s mutations. Furthermore, if our original ancestor had 10 grandsons, one would expect that each grandson would have mutations that would each exist in approximately 10 percent of the male population. Successive generations would continue to generate new mutations that would form a human family tree, known as a phylogenetic tree to geneticists.

In our research, we used the above principles in tracking our most ancient ancestors. We made no assumptions and shelved our preconceived ideas. We wanted to see where the data led us. Our strategy was simple; we gathered the Y-chromosome mutations, which are seen in more than 5 percent of human males, and entered them into a spreadsheet. We looked for patterns and color-coded the resulting groups. The data used in this research came from the 1000 genomes project and retrieved using the Ensembl browser. The data appeared to be correct with no errors. No data was eliminated due to suspect errors, and no data was “cherry-picked” to suit any preconceived ideas. Our thanks to the great effort of those who did the sequencing and publishing of the raw data. We also greatly appreciate that it was made available to the public.

We started by taking 57 Y-genomes of diverse people (Americas, East Asia, Europe, South Asia, and Africa). Next, we gathered mutations that were in at least 5 percent of the world’s male population. The technical term for this is those with a Mean Allele Frequency (MAF) greater than or equal to 0.05 (5 percent). These mutations are the most interesting; any smaller MAF mutation is a subset of those greater than 5%.

The spreadsheet… provides 57 rows (individual male humans) and 30 columns (mutations over 5 percent of the population). Each column element of the matrix was color-coded to show us whether the individual had the mutation or not. We noticed patterns beginning to form… Next, we switched columns and rows to form groups. The groups were obvious. We also took each group and moved the columns so that the columns for each group with the largest MAF were on the left. Now we can see a clear pattern in the figure below. We see that each individual fits into just one group and had no mutations in any other group. Also, we see that every individual in the group has the mutation with the greatest MAF; this is the mutation of the most ancient ancestor of that group. 

Looking at the matrix… we see that each group has one maximum MAF. The yellow is .38, the red is .52, and the green is .10. They add up to 100 percent. Now that we have shown that our most ancient ancestor had three sons, we can state that this finding is consistent with the Bible. The three groups are consistent with the three sons of Noah: Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Therefore, one could easily conclude that Ham is the yellow group, Shem is the green group, and Japheth is the red group.

Note: Noah’s Y-chromosome is also known since it would be that of the three sons with all mutations removed.’ 

‘Bible in Genesis 10, the Table of Nations, states that all humanity came from these three sons:

Genesis 10:1  Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

Genesis 10:32  These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

This means that roughly 1/3 of the earth’s male population came from each son, but, since Japheth had 7 sons, Ham had 4 sons, and Shem had 5 sons; therefore, the worldwide distribution should be closer to the following:

Patriarch    Number of sons     % Projected World Population        Observation

Japheth          7 sons                                        43.75                                      52

Ham                4 sons                                         25                                          38

Shem              5 sons                                         31.25                                     10

 The chart above shows that both the Ham and Japheth results were higher than expected, and Shem was lower than expected. However, this can be explained in at least two ways:

  1. The Ham and Japheth offspring are in the world’s heavily populated areas, namely South and East Asia.
  2. (2) The Thousand Genomes Project did not provide representatives of the Near East, the Mid-East, or Northern Africa, all of which would increase the Shem percentage, thereby decreasing Ham and Japheth’s percentages.

The above two issues are not meant as criticism but offered as an explanation.’

The percentage is lower for Shem, compared with Japheth and Ham because the descendants from Shem only include those people who are of European descent. Excluded from these people are the Latino-Hispano peoples of Central and South America who are either Hamitic or descend from Japheth, as well as – a surprise for many – the Arabic peoples of North Africa and the Middle East, who are also related to the equatorial people of Ham. Adding the White western populations of Europe with those in the New World equals approximately eight hundred million people, or a tenth of the approximate eight billion people on the planet.

‘Our findings are consistent with the Bible, secular ancient history, and genetic diversity:

  1. The Bible documents Noah and his family to be the only ones spared from the deluge which flooded the entire earth, and the earth was repopulated through Noah’s three sons.
  2. The historical period began when the Sumerians began writing cuneiform tablets. These early writings documented the kings before and after the flood. Also, the Sumerian legends are consistent with the world being populated by the three sons on the Ark.
  3. According to the Bible and Sumerian history, all humanity came from one family. As they migrated throughout the world, the genetic diversity would be lost from those who separated from the core population; therefore, the most genetic diversity should be where Noah’s family settled, the Near East. Those who migrated to the Americas, Australia, and southern Africa lost some genetic diversity. We can consider two levels of observing genetic diversity, first, what we see and, second, what DNA tells us. We can easily see eye color, skin color, and hair color. Looking at a globe, it is apparent that those with the most visual diversity meet in the Near East, the place of disembarkation from Noah’s Ark. From a DNA standpoint, one can look at the diversity of haplogroups, both Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial. The extremities are South Africa, Australia, and the Americas, which have only a few haplogroups. The location with the most haplogroups is, again, in the Near East.

To summarize our findings:

(1) From a Y-chromosome perspective, it appears that all humanity came from three male humans.

(2) Item (1) is not proof of the Biblical narrative concerning Noah’s three sons, but it is consistent with it. To prove it, one would have to sequence every human male ever born and analyze his genome. If anyone can trace an individual human Y Chromosome back to some basal mutation other than the three given, please let us know…

(3) We can now project Noah’s DNA; it is that of his three sons with no mutations.

(4) Our findings are consistent with the Bible, Sumerian history, and our current state of human diversity.

Future analysis: It is now possible to know the Y-chromosome DNA of each of Noah’s grandchildren. This is in our job jar.’

Noah’s epoch prior to the flood comprised major centres of civilisation and futuristic alien-like technology. Staggeringly further ahead than our current technology – though we ourselves are rapidly progressing to that point. We read in Matthew 24:37-38, English Standard Version:

37 For as were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 38 For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark…

These verses reveal that mankind will be living life as usual and acting as if the Son of Man is not coming. As the flood caught the world unawares in the past, so too will the return of the Son of Man, in the future. 

Alan Alford comments on the literal boarding of every animal species – presumably some plant species as well – on to the Ark, has left the credibility of the account vulnerable. The exception, would be the seven of each kind of clean [domesticated] animals taken on board and the birds stated; these would have been literal animals.

The world was an impressive, yet tragic dystopia, so for Noah to protect and continue each species primarily via DNA, may explain how an improbable event becomes a very plausible one. The word ark in Hebrew can mean a ‘box, basket or chest’. It has the connotation of a protective egg. A safe place; a nourishing environment. Given the superior technological capability, we can begin to appreciate the length of time it took to build the ark – in realty, either a submersible vessel [submarine], an aircraft [space ship] or combination of the two. For we learn in Genesis 6:14 that the Ark was hermetically sealed.

The cataclysm of the flood was so violent and severe a literal wooden [incorrectly translated gopher wood – as not a wood from timber, but an unknown substance] ship, would have been easily destroyed. Descending down very deep or possibly into earth’s orbit, would have been the only way to survive. 

If the ark had mainly DNA samples, seven pairs of clean animals, [see Leviticus 11:1-46 and Deuteronomy 14:3-21] birds and vegetation to eat, with just eight people, then it would have been a realistic, controllable size to manoeuvre. It corroborates the dimensions of the vessel in Genesis 6:15-16, New Century Version, that would have been too small for every animal species.

15 This is how big I want you to build the boat: four hundred fifty feet long, seventy-five feet wide, and forty-five feet high. 16 Make an opening around the top of the boat that is eighteen inches high from the edge of the roof down. Put a door in the side of the boat. Make an upper, middle, and lower deck in it.

Genesis and Genetics, delve deeper into the logistics of the Ark and its inhabitants and the actual housing of the earth’s primary species. 

The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls, and Doves, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The basic dilemma concerning the voyage of Noah’s Ark is: how did Noah keep so many kinds of animals alive on the Ark for a year? Since there are so many birds species presently living on earth (Sibley, Charles G., and Monroe, Burt L.), the tendency for creationists is to speculate that the Biblical kinds were only a portion of the present-day species, and that the Ark contained possibly only the “genus,” “family,” or “order.” The problem with this speculation is that it is in conflict with the Biblical, fossil, and DNA evidence. The Bible clearly states that every kind and sort of bird was taken on the Ark (Genesis 6:19, Genesis 7:14); and, the fossil record shows that before the flood there were multiple species of each genus, family, and order. Then, the most daunting task encountered by this speculation is explaining how the reduced number of kinds expanded into the numerous species living today. This dilemma has placed creationists in the position of having to decide between the Bible and evolution. Many have chosen a euphemistic version of evolution and used terms such as microevolution, natural selection, speciation, etc.. However, it is still evolution. This means that if evolution could produce these species in such a short time, there would be much available proof of evolution; however, this is not the case and evolution is not observable; the only reason evolutionary theory has survived is by expanding the time frame to millions of years and by adding the multiple, fictitious common ancestors. 

John Woodmorappe addressed these problems of lodging large numbers of animals in a book called “Noah’s Ark: a Feasibility Study” (Woodmorappe, John. 1996). He went into great detail in discussing the problems of space, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation, air quality and all the other problems associated with the Ark. 

His feasibility study resulted in the conclusion that if only a portion of the present-day species (fewer than 16,000) were onboard, it would be possible, although difficult, to keep them alive on the Ark for approximately one year. 

This book did a very good job of defining the problems involved with lodging so many animal[s] and keeping them alive; however, in all practicality, it would take a miracle to survive the work, the environment and the predator/prey instincts. 

Anyone who has kept one horse in a stall knows what a Herculean task it would be to keep thousands of animals on the Ark.’ 

Our conclusion would necessitate that on the order of 6000 amphibia, 10,000 bird, 6,000 mammals, and 8,000 reptile kinds/species were aboard the Ark. Accounting for pairs, sevens of clean animals, and those that have gone extinct since the flood, the total number aboard the Ark would be on the order of 100,000. This would be no problem for the very large Ark with all of the animals in Biblical “deep sleep”.

‘Genetic resets are documented in the Bible… 

The First Genetic Reset 

As a result of the original sin, God reset the creation genetics. The DNA was necessarily changed in humans in that they became mortal and women’s pain was multiplied in childbirth (Genesis 3:16). Other DNA changes included the serpent who lost his legs (Genesis 3:14); and, all of the livestock and beasts of the field were cursed (Genesis 3:14), “but not as much as the serpent.” This implies… DNA changed in all the livestock and beasts of the field. Concerning plants, the earth brought forth “thistles” and “thorns” (Genesis 3:18) implying new and different DNA and a new ecosystem to accommodate the new genetics. 

The Second Genetic Reset 

The second DNA reset occurred at the time of the flood. Man’s life span was greatly reduced from 900[0] plus years (Genesis chapter 11) implying a DNA change; the concept of clean and unclean animals appeared in the scriptures (Genesis 7:2) ; and, the authorization of eating meat was introduced (Genesis 9:3).The flood changed the entire ecosystem implying significant DNA changes to all life forms. The fossil record bears out that the ecosystem was very different before the flood, e.g. massive dinosaurs with small nostrils, dragonflies with 2 foot wingspans, and tropical vegetation near the poles.’

‘Twice, God gave the command to “be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth”. The first occasion was in the beginning on day six… (Genesis 1:28). The second occasion was after the departure from the Ark (Genesis 8:17,9:1). So, it is evident that His purpose did not change in the new ecosystem; He wanted the new world to be filled; this required man and animals to be equipped for survival and reproduction in the new world, including its new ecosystem. There was no time for natural processes (i.e., multiple accidents and accidental selection of accidents) to prepare the creation for the new world…

It is evident that God reduced lifespan immediately after the flood down to approximately 120 years at the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 34:7) and 70 years at the time of David (Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2: 10-12).

This is a transition that is probably coincident with the ice age which was initiated by the flood… And, the entire ecosystem was changing to what we have today. These facts render the question, “what mechanism did God use to accomplish this?” 

DNA is a language (Collins, 2006) and God possibly spoke the genetic reset… and it appears that mitochondrial heteroplasmy is a possible [tool] that he used for this task. 

In human reproduction, the mature oocyte contains 100,000 to 750,000 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies and is fertilized by the sperm which generates a blastocyst containing approximately 483,000 copies of the mtDNA in the Inner Cell Membrane (ICM); which in turn develops and harbors the Primodial Germ Cells (PGM) each of which contains approximately 200 copies of the mtDNA (St. John, Justin C., 2010); and each of the embryonic stem cells used in this construction contain approximately 20 copies of mtDNA (Rivolta MN, 2002). The processes involved with replication and inheritance of mtDNA are not well understood, but show what varied genetic information is available for transmission of mitochondrial DNA from generation to generation. 

This transmission of mtDNA is quite different than nuclear DNA in that with nuclear DNA, only one copy is transferred to the next generation. It is a shuffled mixture of ovum haploid and sperm haploid DNA, but once it is determined the resulting embryo is defined by only one nuclear DNA. This method of transmission of mtDNA is of great interest concerning the inheritance and possible prevention of mitochondrial diseases, but also of interest from a genealogy standpoint. It has been found that it is common to have mitochondria that are heteroplasmic, meaning that it contains more than one mitochondrial genome. From a creationist standpoint, this is very interesting in that this heteroplasmic mitchondria could explain why the genetic reset took several generations to establish as documented in Genesis chapter 11. If there are only a few copies of a certain variation of mtDNA in the oocyte, they can be latent for several, or even many generations. 

Mitochondrial heteroplasmy is somewhat common in humans. The American Journal of Human Genetics reported in 2010 that 37 heteroplasmies at 10% frequencies or higher at 34 sites were found in 32 individuals (Li, M., et. al. 2010). It would be tempting to use this heteroplasmic attribute coupled with a stocastic modeling to explain speciation after the flood; but, it wouldn’t fit the general theme of the Bible. There is a difference between natural variation which gives us our uniqueness and mutations which have developed due to the original sin. Mutations result in disease and shorter life span. Heteroplasmy, is most probably a result of sin. 

The subject species examined in this paper [Raven, Owl, Dove] are genetically distinct, meaning the species do not have a genetic overlap, but all demonstrated a genetic void between species. The data show that within species the natural variation, genetic distance, is approximately one percent of cytb [Great Owl to great Owl 1% or less] and between species the variation is much greater: between 4.1 percent and 25.3 percent. This means that if one species varies from another by 10 percent of cytb, there is a void of 9 percent (10-1/2-1/2). There is no known mechanism that can bridge this void to produce a new species, especially in the short, young earth, timeframe. This is true for all our subjects as shown by the data presented in section 3.0 of this paper [not shown]. 

Any variation of bird displaying this genetic void is assumed to be a unique kind and most probably was represented on the Ark. 

Tables 5a. and 5b. [not shown] show that even owls of the same genus have diversity commensurate with the human compared to chimpanzee variation [of] (11%) [Great Owl to Eagle Owl, 11% – Spotted Eagle Owl to Barn Owl, 25.3%]. So, considering that speciation was involved in generating these owls is tantamount to saying that the ark not need carry a chimpanzee since they could evolve from Noah, or worst yet that Noah was a chimpanzee and evolved to modern humanity. This is a severe logic problem.’

Other comparisons include Pig to Mouse, 20.3%; African Lion to Domestic Cat, 12.9%; Horse to Cow, 19.3% and Cow to Zebra Fish, 29%.

‘It appears from this owl analysis that it is not possible to decide which creatures were on the Ark without having DNA. 

Another tool God uses to control His creation is that of “deep sleep.” Here are three Biblically documented examples of God using “deep sleep”: 

To make physiological changes – When God created Eve, he put Adam into a “deep sleep” so Adam would not feel the pain of the surgery in which Adam’s rib was removed (Genesis 2:21).

To establish a new covenant – When God established the covenant with Abram (Abraham), he, Abraham, was put into a deep sleep. While Abraham was in this “deep sleep” the Lord dealt with him and prepared Abraham for a new covenant (Genesis 15:12).

To separate enemies – When Saul wanted to kill David and had the opportunity, God put Saul and his entire army of 3000 into a “deep sleep” (1 Samuel 26:2,12) so that David would be spared.

The tool of “deep sleep” may very well have been employed on the Ark providing the perfect solution to all the problems: it would provide the anesthetics for the physiological changes required to reset the DNA; it would give God an opportunity to establish His new covenant with all flesh; it would protect the prey from the predators; and, of course, it would solve all the problems of space, food, waste, and air quality. The design of the Ark is obviously not suited to keep the creatures alive in the full metabolic state, but well suited to the “deep sleep” state. The exact mechanism for “deep sleep” is not known, but it is logical to assume that it shares some similarities with the various mechanisms that we observe in nature: hibernation, comas, aestivation, brumation, and dormancy. Each of these mechanisms is different and serves the purpose for which it was designed. 

We know that God… masterfully designed the Ark to accommodate the safe and peaceful transportation of the creation from one eco-system to another. It is a point of interest that all mammals have the ability to hibernate and that mammalian metabolic rates can be reduced to as little as 1% of normal rates (Carey HV, et. al, 2003). 

The results of this investigation support the Biblical statement of Genesis 7:14 “… and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.” 

All of the birds in this investigation were distinct and differed from one another sufficiently to secure a birth on the Ark. Also, these results support the long held stance of creationists that the species are distinct with no intermediate forms (Morris, 1974). 

There is no known mechanism that could explain the genetic diversity of the post-flood birds; even evolution, if it did exist, could not function quickly enough to explain the genetic diversity in the Biblical time frame. Any attempt to explain this genetic diversification by natural processes, such as speciation, is indefensible faced with the DNA evidence. 

The following hypotheses are submitted which are in tune with the DNA evidence and the Bible, requiring no reliance on evolutionary principles. 

1. The DNA of the original creation was reset to accommodate the new ecosystem. 

This is in agreement with the fossil record, the cytochrome b genetics presented in this paper and the Bible. The fossil record is clear, many existing species lived before the flood, but they were somewhat different: usually in size or small differences in bone structure. The genetic reset hypothesis explains this and can be generalized as follows: the genetics of pre-flood creatures are different than the genetics of modern creatures; this was accomplished by God’s voice, speaking the required changes into the creation preparing it for the new covenant and the new eco-system. One of the best examples of this is in pre-flood [Homo neanderthalensis] man (Genesis and Genetics, 2011).

2. The occupants of the Ark were generally in a deep sleep. 

The Ark’s design is perfectly suited to the deep sleep scenario and in God’s own words the goal was to “keep them alive” ( Genesis 6:19). There are examples of God using deep sleep in the Bible… all of which apply to the state of affairs on the Ark. Contrary to common perception, life on the Ark may have been very peaceful with all of the animals asleep; this presents a comforting picture: all the reset animal DNA necessary to replenish the world with its new eco-system, in one peaceful… Ark. 

3. Divine wisdom and creativity 

God created all things in six days [epochs], it should not be difficult to accept that He had the perfect design for the Ark and made the perfect provisions for those on it; He is not only a divine creator, but He is also full of mercy (Psalm 100:5)… the Bible implies that not one animal was lost, during the voyage of Noah’s Ark (Genesis 8:19). Just looking at the Ark design should be enough to lead one to believe the animals, and [possibly] Noah, were in a deep, merciful sleep. 

4. Defining “Kinds” – Rule of Thumb 

From this very limited research, it appears that a kind will vary in cytochrome b from its own kind by generally one percent or less; if the variance is 4 percent of more, the subjects are different “kinds;” and any variance between 1 percent and 4 percent are in a gray area and would need more investigation using additional genes.’ 

Lloyd Pye discusses the incredible aspects and implications of the Great Flood, offering his theory on its cause, in Everything You Know Is Still Wrong 2009 & 2017, pages 495, 497-498, 501-503, 505-507 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘… a remarkable number of cultures past and present believe a worldwide inundation did occur within human history, though they tend to be hazy on its details. The Sumerians are not. They state emphatically that a Great Flood surged up from the south… a sudden, overwhelming event… They say it occurred around 11,000 BCE [10,837 BCE unconventional chronology], at the end of the last Ice Age. 

Ironically, their contention is strongly supported by conventional science, which has determined that the last interglacial warming trend began slowly, at around 13,000 BCE in the northern hemisphere, and gradually moved south until around 11,000 BCE, when something happened to accelerate full global warming to warp speed – in perhaps as little as twenty years.

Because so many sources around the world forcefully assert that a Great Flood did cause widespread death and destruction, we need to explore the kinds of actual events that might have created one. And guess what? There is a genuinely legitimate candidate in the Antarctic icecap. Today it covers 5.5 million square miles, it contains 7.0 million cubic miles of ice, and it has an average thickness of over a mile. A ridge of mountains under it divides it into two sections: the West Antarctic Ice Sheet [WAIS] (about 1/4 of the total), and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (3/4 of the total). 

The WAIS slants from the mountain range division toward the Pacific Ocean. The much larger East Sheet points opposite, toward the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. At the South Pole the ice is two miles thick and flows slowly toward Africa. All that was quite different… 11,000 BCE. Earth was coming out of the last ice age that had gripped Earth for the previous 90,000 years [probably closer to 7,000 years], and world sea levels were more than 300 feet lower than today. 

Today those 330-plus feet are covered by 3.5 million cubic miles of water, but during the ice age much of that water was trapped in ice swirled across the polar ice caps. Even today, the Antarctic continent at the South Pole holds over 60% of the fresh water on Earth, and if it were all to melt, sea levels would rise by over 190 foot (58 metres). 

… a strong earthquake could rattle the continent to its foundations… [caused by] a large celestial body passing in the vicinity… with enough gravitational force to create geophysical disturbances on any other planet it passes near. A planet like… Nibiru, for example? 

As it happens, Sumerian texts claim Nibiru did indeed pass through the solar system at around 11,000 BCE, which makes it a prime candidate to shake a badly cracked icecap off of its foundations on Antartica… [after] 90,000 [years of icecap build up and] 2,000 years of warming… [causing] huge cracks to develop along the shelf edges where the unstable water-supported ice adjoined the far more stable land-supported ice.

Now imagine the size of waves that would be kicked up by icebergs with volumes from hundreds of thousand to perhaps a million or more cubic miles! Walls of water as high as a mile (over 5,000 feet) or more might surge forward! Apart from disrupting worldwide weather patterns, the tsunamis would strike every ocean, sea, and coastal plain on earth. The planet would slosh for days (the text says six), until equilibrium was reached at some greatly elevated sea level… the new level… is where it would stay, because as any iceberg melts, it only changes its form, not its volume.

In 2010, researchers at the University of Sheffield in England announced that they had found evidence of a catastrophic flood at approximately 13,000 ya (exactly when the Sumerian tablets place the flood), which created such havoc that it temporarily shut down the Gulf Stream (the constantly circulating current of warm water that keeps global temperatures as steady as they are)… a sudden influx of cold water into the North Atlantic… temporarily impaired the current. 

An alternative theory was published… [by]… the National Academy of Sciences in May 2012, proposing that some sort of celestial body entered Earth’s atmosphere at roughly 12,900 ya [I propose 12,833 years ago – only 67 years difference], but broke up before it could make a large, easy-to-find impact crater (although thousands of smaller impact craters may have been produced by the debris). Nonetheless, the force of its passage through the atmosphere could have initiated tidal waves… new evidence collected from Greenland ice core samples in 2013, combined with evidence from soil samples in North America published in 2017, shows that right about 13,000 ya… there was suddenly an “abundance” of platinum at surface level in these areas. This precious metal is extremely rare on Earth, but it is common in asteroids. The new results fit perfectly with a large, platinum-laden asteroid crumbling on entry into Earth’s atmosphere and spraying fine debris over a huge area.’ 

Outside the Genesis account, the flood is mentioned in the following Bible verses: 

Psalm 29:10

English Standard Version 

The Lord sits enthroned over the flood…

Isaiah 54:9

English Standard Version

“This is like the days of Noah to me: as I swore that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth…

1 Peter 3:19-20

English Standard Version

… in which [the Son of Man] went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.

Added to the scenario presented by Lloyd Pye, there would have been the dramatic influence of the following.

Genesis 1:6-8

New English Translation

6 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters and let it separate water from water.” 7 So God made the expanse [H7549 – raqiya: ‘firmament, vault {arch} of heaven supporting waters above’] and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. It was so. 8 God called the expanse “sky.” There was evening, and there was morning, a second day [or epoch].


  • The Hebrew word refers to an expanse of air pressure between the surface of the sea and the clouds, separating water below from water above. It is called “sky.” An expanse. In the poetic texts the writers envision, among other things, something rather strong and shiny, no doubt influencing the traditional translation “firmament” (NRSV “dome”). Job 38:18 refers to the skies poured out like a molten mirror. Daniel 12:3 and Ezekiel 1:22 portray it as shiny. The sky or atmosphere may have seemed like a glass dome. Though the Hebrew word can mean “heaven,” it refers in this context to “the sky.”

The atmosphere was different on the antediluvian Earth. It may be an important component in the added longevity of humans before the flood, an explanation for the lengthy Ice age and an additional puzzle to the production of Vitamin D. 

The expanse or sky, divided the oceans, seas and land from a vault or canopy of water surrounding the earth above the sky, in the Earth’s atmosphere. A cloudier sky would have positively affected the climate, generating less distinction between seasons; levelling out both temperate and tropical regions so that the whole planet was highly habitable – until the Ice age hit. Another difference would have been the decreased rays of UV radiation from the Sun to safer levels than today.

Genesis and Genetics, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes, and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently. 

This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans… Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in a more protective ozone layer.’

Vitamin D is required for healthy bones, teeth and muscles. As it is contained in only a few seafoods, our bodies can produce it through certain cholesterols in other foods, which are converted into Vitamin D from exposure to the Sun’s radiation. The liver and kidneys then turn the vitamin into an active form we can use called D3. Dark skinned people can be prone from deficiency as the higher percentage of melanin in their skin, blocks the suns rays more effectively. This is a factor in our present climatic conditions. 

Reliance on the Sun may not have been the primary option; or human skin tone was dark enough to protect against skin cancer, yet light enough to receive the necessary UV rays. Did the inhabitants of the early Earth have an alternative way of procuring Vitamin D, or did they have different food? Genesis 3:18 reveals the world before the flood – specifically, the agrarian line of Seth – had a plant based diet and it was only later after the flood that enigmatically, meat – including Vitamin D rich seafood – was introduced into the diet [Genesis 9:3-4].

The passing of a celestial body, whether a rogue planet and or, an accompanying comet or asteroids would have undoubtedly impacted on this firmament dome of water. The plunging of this vast volume of water downwards to the earth would have been seismic and added with the huge tidal waves sweeping the earth, could have easily and literally covered the entire earth and left none alive, unless protected.

Genesis 7:4-24

New English Translation

For in seven days I will cause it to rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will wipe from the face of the ground every living thing that I have made.” 

Noah was 600 years old when the floodwaters engulfed the earth. Noah entered the ark along with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives because of the floodwaters. And after seven days the floodwaters engulfed the earth.

In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month [April/May, Hebrew calendar], on the seventeenth day of the month – on that day all the fountains [springs] of the great deep [underneath the ocean] burst open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And the rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights. The flood engulfed the earth for forty days. As the waters increased, they lifted the ark and raised it above the earth. 

The waters completely overwhelmed the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the waters. The waters completely inundated the earth so that even all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered. The waters rose more than 20 feet above the [tallest] mountains. And all living things that moved on the earth died, including the birds, domestic animals, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all humankind. The waters prevailed over the earth for 150 days.

The heavens were opened, in that the vast canopy of water dropped onto the earth – for forty days and nights – so that even the top of Mount Everest was covered. The verses are very specific even, of the level the waters reached; leaving no doubt that the Great Flood was a global catastrophic event, smothering the earth for five months.

Noah and the Deluge Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gérard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The sudden disappearance of many animal species as well as moving erratic blocks would fit better with the biblical explanation of the Flood. The flood story is presented as an authentic history in the Gospels (Matthew 24:37-39, Luke 17:26-27). 

According to the Bible there was at the origin some waters upon the earth (sea and ocean) and waters above the earth in the form of a vault of water (Genesis 1:7). At the time of the Flood… the vault of water fell to earth… 

The disappearance of the vault of water (2 Peter 3:5-6) resulted in a new climate (Genesis 8:22) and its collapsing on the earth’s crust led to the emergence of big mountains (Psalm 104:6-8),which is consistent with the model of Pangaea in the plate tectonics. 

In the past the oceans were smaller and the continents were larger than they are now, as is evidenced by river channels extending far out under the oceans. It should also be noted that scientists have stated that mountains were much lower than at present, and some mountains have even been pushed up from under the seas.’ 

Pangaea, a scientifically proved supercontinent which broke up and resulted in the seven continents we know today – North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica.

‘As to the present situation, it is said that: there is ten times as much water by volume in the ocean as there is land above sea level. Dump all this land evenly into the sea, and water would cover the entire earth, one and one-half miles [2,400 metres] deep (National Geographic, January 1945, page 105). With the sudden opening of the ‘springs of the watery deep’ and “the floodgates of the heavens,” untold billions of tons of water deluged the earth (Genesis 7:11). This may have caused tremendous changes in earth’s surface. 

The earth’s crust is relatively thin (estimated at between 30 km and 160 km thick), stretched over a rather plastic mass thousands of kilometres in diameter. Hence, under the added weight of the water, there was likely a great shifting in the crust. In time new mountains evidently were thrust upward, old mountains rose to new heights, shallow sea basins were deepened, and new shorelines were established, with the result that now about 70 per cent of the surface is covered with water. This shifting in the earth’s crust may account for many geologic phenomena, such as the raising of old coastlines to new heights. It has been estimated by some that water pressure alone was equal to “2 tons per square inch”, sufficient to fossilize fauna and flora quickly . 

The concentration of [Carbon-14] during the last glaciation was much lower than at present, this fact has been highlighted by dendrochronology (measure of age by the rings of a tree). Scientists suppose that the long-term variation correlates with fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field strength (the geomagnetic moment). The geomagnetic moment affects C-14 production because cosmic rays are charged particles and are therefore deflected by a magnetic field. If the magnetic moment is high, more cosmic rays are deflected away from the earth and production of Carbon will fall; if low, the production rises. According to the biblical account, the earth was surrounded by a vault of water before the Deluge (perhaps in the stratopause where the temperature is at present around 0°C). Now water has the remarkable property of stopping neutrons very effectively since a screen of 23 mm thick stops 90% of neutrons (and a screen of 46 mm thick stops 99%), as demonstrated by nuclear pools. If there was water, Carbon production could not take place, which would explain the decrease in C-14 before 1000 BCE…’ 

‘The Okotoks Erratic, [Alberta, Canada]. According to geologists, this enormous quartzite block, weighing about 16,500 tonnes and measuring about 41 x 18 x 9 metres, was carried here on the surface of a glacier. It came from the Rocky Mountains (Canada) in the Jasper area (a location 450 km away), probably between 18 and 10 thousand years ago. That means that Canada was completely under a sheet of ice 10,000 years ago (a deluge of ice).’

In Genesis chapter seven, all physical life ended that was not aboard the Ark. The Bible uses the word humankind, instead of humans or people. It does not include the Nephil-kind in being destroyed. We observed, that the Nephilim were on the earth after the flood. Any Nephilim post-flood, could be survivors. 

The flood was decreed to halt the corruption of humanity by rebellious dark angels and so these fallen Angels were put in restraint. Presumably, they did not produce further offspring this side of the deluge? As this matter has wider repercussions in explaining biblical identities, we will return to the topic in later sections. The Book of Jubilees also records the Flood narrative, with additional details.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Five:

22 And Noah made the ark in all respects as He commanded him, (on the new month [moon] of the first month) [1st of Abib/Nisan – March/April]… 23 And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof… in the second month [Iyar – April/May], on the new month [new moon] of the second month, till the sixteenth [first day of the week]; and he entered… and Yahweh closed it from without on the seventeenth evening [2nd day of the week]. 24 And Yahweh opened seven flood-gates of heaven, And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number. 25 And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven[s] forty days and forty nights, And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until the whole world was full of water. 26 And the waters increased upon the earth: Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the high mountains, And the ark was lift up above the earth, And it moved upon the face of the waters. 27 And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five months – one hundred and fifty days. 

28 And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar,* one of the mountains of Ararat. 29 And (on the new month [moon]) in the fourth month [Tammuz – June/July] the fountains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were restrained; and on the new month [1st day] of the seventh month [Tishri – September/October] all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. 30 And on the new month of the tenth month [Tevet – December/January] the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new month [new moon] of the first month [1st day of Abib/Nisan – March/April] the earth became visible [one year to the day]. 31 And the waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the seventh year… [seven years since Noah began to build the Ark] thereof, and on the seventeenth day [2nd day of the week] in the second month [Iyar – April/May] the earth was dry. 32 And on the twenty-seventh** [5th day of the week] thereof he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving thing.

As the worst of the flood effects dissipated, the ark would have risen to the oceans surface or descended down onto the surface as explained in Genesis 8:1-5, New Century Version:

But God remembered Noah and all the wild and tame animals with him in the boat. He made a wind blow over the earth, and the water went down. The underground springs stopped flowing, and the clouds in the sky stopped pouring down rain. The water that covered the earth began to go down. After one hundred fifty days it had gone down so much that the boat touched land again. It came to rest on one* of the mountains of Ararat on the seventeenth day of the seventh month. The water continued to go down so that by the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains could be seen.

A salient point is that when the early part of Genesis was compiled, many thousands of years had passed. It says ‘mountains’, not Mount Ararat so that the location is a mountain range not a specific peak [Book of Jubilees excepted]. There is reason to consider that the Ararat mountains in Asia Minor drew their name from a more ancient location and that is, the Himalayan mountain range to the east and north. Searchers of Noah’s Ark may well have been looking in entirely the wrong place, when heading to Mount Ararat in present day Turkey. Heading westward from Turkey leads to southern Europe, not Mesopotamia or Sumer [Genesis 11:2]. Please refer to point number two in the introduction. 

A persistent belief is that the Garden of Eden was located below the Hindu Kush in present day Kashmir. What is not considered, is that Kashmir may be the re-beginning of civilisation after the flood. 

When the Ark could safely navigate the surface of the oceans, it is credible that the first observed land to appear would be amongst the now highest mountains on the earth. If the Ark rested on one of these peaks in the original mountains of Ararat, it would explain how civilisation after the flood appeared first in the Indus Valley, present day Pakistan. There are numerous mountains – all plausible, including K2 – that are over 8,000 metres in height, like Mount Everest. 

It would be logical that after the passengers on the Ark eventually disembarked, they found a suitable region to live, right where they were. Kashmir is stunning with its majestic mountains and lakes and is located in one of the four Himalayan Mountain ranges, the Karakoram range in the north west. Below is the Western Himalayan range. To the east is the Great Himalayan range, where Everest is located and then the Eastern range – Brahmaputra. Its climate was likely quite different 13,000 years ago and would account for:

Genesis 9:20

New Century Version

Noah became a farmer and planted a vineyard.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Seven:

1 And in the seventh week** [late in the 4th month Tammuz – early July] in the first year [after the flood] thereof… Noah planted vines [today, ideal planting is from October to March] on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year [it takes a grapevine from rootstock, four to five years to mature]… and he guarded their fruit [prune in November; ensure roots are not damp through adequate drainage and that the soil is nutrient rich], and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [end of summer harvest, September/October – usually from August to October]. 2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it… 

Remember, the lower lands and plains were water soaked, soggy and boggy for many years. Legend holds that Noah was rather reclusive and dwelt near where the Ark came to rest; with the Book of Jubilees stating in 10:15: ‘And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat.’ Possibly, remaining in Kashmir was as far as Noah travelled after the flood. In the Epic of Gilgamesh – part of the plot summary repeated below from Spark Notes – The King of Urek, Gilgamesh [attributed to Nimrod – Noah’s great grandson] begins a quest and journeys very far to the solitary Utnapishtim or Noah. He seeks immortality and allegedly meets with Utnapishtim to learn his secret, as he has lived longer than any other man after the flood [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod].

‘… Gilgamesh, king of Uruk [south of Babylon]… was two-thirds god and one-third man. He built magnificent ziggurats, or temple towers [Tower of Babel], surrounded his city with high walls, and laid out its orchards and fields. He was physically beautiful, immensely strong, and very wise. Although Gilgamesh was godlike in body and mind, he began his kingship as a cruel despot. He lorded over his subjects, raping any woman who struck his fancy… He accomplished his building projects with forced labor, and his exhausted subjects groaned under his oppression… Gilgamesh… traveled to the edge of the world and learned about the days before the deluge and other secrets of the gods, and he recorded them on stone tablets.

… Gilgamesh hopes that Utnapishtim can tell him how he might avoid death… After a harrowing passage through total darkness, Gilgamesh emerges into a beautiful garden by the sea [Garden of Eden]… Gilgamesh journey[s] across the sea and through the Waters of Death to Utnapishtim. 

Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood – how the gods met in council and decided to destroy humankind. Ea, the god of wisdom, warned Utnapishtim about the gods’ plans and told him how to fashion a gigantic boat in which his family and the seed of every living creature might escape. When Gilgamesh insists that he be allowed to live forever, Utnapishtim gives him a test. If you think you can stay alive for eternity, he says, surely you can stay awake for a week. Gilgamesh tries and immediately fails. So Utnapishtim orders him to… return to Uruk where he belongs… When Gilgamesh returns to Uruk, he is empty-handed but reconciled at last to his mortality…’

Gilgamesh eventually found the reclusive Utnapishtim, though was left frustrated as access to the Tree of Life had been withdrawn and there was no way to cheat death. 

Noah’s family would have grown quickly and with sixteen grandsons all jockeying for position, they would later travel south along the Indus River, populating it as they travelled. Mankind continued migrating westward and civilisation eventually re-emerged in the fertile crescent of the Middle East. The family groups now substantially larger, stamped their names throughout the Middle East, North Africa, West Asia, Asia Minor [Turkey] and the Greek Archipelago, and it is from these records that Genesis Ten’s geography is derived. Well after the initial, early smaller groupings along the Indus River. 

A possible reason the bulk of Noah’s family travelled west and not east, is that either the grandchildren knew civilisation had once been important there pre-flood and were keen to re-visit so-to-speak, or – we do not know where Noah and his sons had dwelt previously, if not Atlantis, Lemuria, or an unfrozen Antartica even – the Middle East might have actually been their original homeland.

The Races of the Old Testament, A H Sayce, 1891, pages 39-42:

‘… the tenth chapter of Genesis is ethnographical rather than ethnological. It does not profess to give an account of the different races of the world and to separate them one from another according to their various characteristics. It is descriptive merely, and such races of men… are described from the point of view of the geographer and not of the ethnologist.’ 

Sayce’s stance is peculiar, for it would seem the converse would be more logical, since a genealogical family tree is being listed. I propose the account in Genesis Ten is both ethnological and ethnographical. That is, the family groups are listed in a certain order and described living next to each other in a particular fashion because they are family. Families stay together and the listing of Noah’s son’s grandchildren is to help us understand who is more related to who. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘… when it is said that Elam and Assur were the children of Shem, it is to geography, and not to ethnology, that we must look for an explanation. 

Assyria, Elam, and Babylonia, or Arphaxad as it seems to be called in the Ethnographical Table, all bordered, at one time, one upon the other. They constituted the three great monarchies of the eastern world, and their three capitals, Nineveh, Susa, and Babylon, were the three centres which regulated the politics of Western Asia. They were brethren not because the natives of them claimed descent from a common father, but because they occupied the same quarter of the world.’

Sayce is claiming geography is the key element in their positioning, yet the land they occupy is secondary and merely reflecting their relationship as brothers from the same father. Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad are three of the five sons of Shem. The remaining two sons, Aram and Lud, migrated further afield anciently. We will discover that Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad’s descendants today live in a similar pattern as in the past. They dwell closer to each other and their histories have been more entwined. Aram and Lud are located more on the periphery of Shem’s children today, again similar as in the past. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘Attempts have been made to explain the names of the three sons of Noah as referring to the colour of the skin. Japhet has been compared with the Assyrian ippatu white, Shem with the Assyrian samu olive-coloured/ while in Ham etymologists have seen the Hebrew kham to be hot. But all such attempts are of very doubtful value. It is, for instance, a long stride from the meaning of heat to that of blackness a meaning, indeed, which the Hebrew word never bears. Moreover, the sons of Ham were none of them black-skinned, with the possible exception of a part of the population of Cush. [Professor] Virchow has shown that the Egyptian, like the Canaanite, belongs to the white race, his red skin being merely the result of sunburn.’

I will endeavour to show that Japheth’s children can be light skinned, though others are not; that some of Shem’s children are olive-coloured and that Ham’s children do in fact live in the hot parts of the world, close to the equator. We will find, that all very dark skinned people have descended from Ham – though not all of Ham’s children are dark – and that the original children of Canaan were dark skinned, not red or sunburned – and that in time, white people became known as Canaanites because they lived in the same land after the original Canaanites had migrated south-west. Please refer to point number two in the introduction.

Races of People, William C. Boyd PhD [Geneticist], 1955, pages 43-45:

‘The color of normal human skin is due to the presence of three kinds of colored chemicals, or pigments. The most important of these pigments is melanin, a dark-brown substance… The second of the three pigments is carotene. This is a yellow substance which is present in carrots (from which it gets its name) and egg yokes as well as human skin… The third pigment is haemoglobin, which is the red coloring matter of blood… the haemoglobin occurs in the blood vessels beneath the skin, so that very little can show through. The presence of fair amounts of either melanin or carotene in the skin covers it up completely. Haemoglobin does show up however in the skin of white men, particularly in those of light complexion. It is the haemoglobin that accounts for pink cheeks and the ability [too] blush.’

A H Sayce says regarding our origin, page 38:

‘Great as may be the diversity between race and race under the microscope of the ethnologist, the unity which underlies it is greater still. God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth. Black or white, red or yellow, we are all bound together by a common nature ; we can all alike claim a common ancestry, and recognise that we have each been made in the image of the Creator.’

Sayce is quoting from the Apostle Paul in the book of Acts.

Acts 17:26

King James Version

26 And hath made of one blood [Adam] all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation…

In the English Standard Version it says in verses 24-25:

24 The God who made the world and everything in it… 25 nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything. 

New Century Version, verse 26:

26 God began by making one person, and from him came all the different people who live everywhere in the world. God decided exactly when and where they must live.

Daniel 7:13-14 

New English Transaltion

13 “I was watching in the night visions, And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him. 14 To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty. All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving him. His authority is eternal and will not pass away. His kingdom will not be destroyed.

We really are one, not as in ‘one human race’ [we are a variety of races], but rather one humankind; containing family groups grown large, now called peoples or nations. Most scientists now agree that all humans are genetically extremely similar – unexpectedly so, for evolutionists to adequately explain. 

The biological differences between races are small. The DNA differences are minute. The DNA of any two people in the world typically differs by just 0.2%. Of this, only 6% [a minuscule 0.012%] can be linked to racial categories – the rest is within race variation. Most evolutionists would concur that the various races did not have separate origins and evolve from different groups of animal primates. They would reluctantly agree with the biblical creationist, that all peoples have come from the same original ancestor.

There is a false perception that different racial characteristics like skin colour are due to  remarkably different genetic configurations. An understandable but incorrect premise. For example, it is easy to think that since different groups of people have yellow skin, red skin, black skin, white skin, and brown skin, there must be many different skin pigments and therefore different chemicals for colouring, involving numerous codes in the DNA for each race. 

Rather, we all have the same colouring pigment in our skin, melanin. It is a dark-brown pigment that is produced in varying amounts in unique cells in our skin. If we had none as previously discussed, then we would have a very white or pinkish skin colouring of an albino. If we produce small amounts of melanin, we are white. If our skin produces a lot of melanin, we are black and in between, all the shades of brown.

From an untitled article: 

‘Other substances can in minor ways affect skin shading, such as the coloured fibres of the protein elastin and the pigment carotene… we all share these same compounds… Factors other than pigment in the skin may influence the shade perceived by the observer in subtle ways, such as the thickness of the overlying (clear) skin layers, and the density and positioning of the blood capillary networks. 

In fact, ‘melanin’, which is produced by cells in the body called melanocytes, consists of two pigments, which also account for hair colour. Eumelanin is very dark brown, phaeomelanin is more reddish. People tan when sunlight stimulates eumelanin production. Redheads, who are often unable to… tan, have a high proportion of phaeomelanin.’  

We will encounter individuals on our journey who are red. An article on Eupedia elaborates – emphasis & bold mine:

Red hair is a recessive genetic trait caused by a series of mutations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a gene located on chromosome 16. As a recessive trait it must be inherited from both parents to cause the hair to become red. Consequently there are far more people carrying the mutation for red hair than people actually having red hair. In Scotland, approximately 13% of the population are redheads, although 40% carry at least one mutation. There are many kinds of red hair, some fairer, or mixed with blond (‘strawberry blond’), some darker, like auburn hair, which is brown hair with a reddish tint.

This is because some people only carry one or a few of the several possible MC1R mutations. The lightness of the hair ultimately depends on other mutations regulating the general pigmentation of both the skin and hair. Skin and hair pigmentation is caused by two different kinds of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. 

The most common is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer responsible for dark hair and skin, and the tanning of light skin. Pheomelanin has a pink to red hue and is present in lips, nipples, and genitals. 

The mutations in the MC1R gene imparts the hair and skin more pheomelanin than eumelanin, causing both red hair and freckles. Redheads have very fair skin, almost always lighter than non-redheads. 

This is an advantage in northern latitudes and very rainy countries, where sunlight is sparse, as lighter skin improves the absorption of sunlight, which is vital for the production of vitamin D by the body. The drawback is that it confers redheads a higher risk for both sunburns and skin cancer.

Studies have demonstrated that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain and also require greater amounts of anesthetic than people with other hair colours. The reason is that redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two different hormones: the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (for pigmentation) and endorphins (the pain relieving hormone).’

‘Folk wisdom has long described redheads as hot-tempered and short-tempered. Red hair has long been associated with Celtic people. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans described the Celts as redheads… red hair is an almost exclusively northern and central European phenomenon… these people share a common ancestry that can be traced back to a single Y-chromosomal haplogroup: R1b.

… the frequency of red hair is highest in Ireland (10 to 30%) and Scotland (10 to 25%), followed by Wales (10 to 15%), Cornwall and western England, Brittany, the Franco-Belgian border, then western Switzerland, Jutland [Denmark] and southwest Norway. The southern and eastern boundaries, beyond which red hair only occurs in less than 1% of the population, are northern Spain, central Italy, Austria, western Bohemia, western Poland, Baltic countries and Finland.

The question that inevitably comes to many people’s minds is: did red hair originate with the Celtic or the Germanic people? Southwest Norway may well be the clue to the origin of red hair. It has been discovered recently, thanks to genetic genealogy, that the higher incidence of both dark hair and red hair (as opposed to blond) in southwest Norway coincided with a higher percentage of the paternal lineage known as haplogroup R1b-L21, including its subclade R1b-M222, typical of northwestern Ireland and Scotland… It is now almost certain that native Irish and Scottish [Women] Celts were taken (probably as slaves) to southwest Norway by the Vikings, and that they increased the frequency of red hair there.

What is immediately apparent to genetic genealogists is that the map of red hair correlates with the frequency of haplogroup R1b in northern and western Europe. It doesn’t really correlate with the percentage of R1b in southern Europe, for the simple reason that red hair is more visible among people carrying various other genes involved in light skin and hair pigmentation.’

‘Mediterranean people have considerably darker pigmentations (higher eumelanin), especially as far as hair is considered, giving the red hair alleles little opportunity to express themselves. The reddish tinge is always concealed by black hair, and rarely visible in dark brown hair. Rufosity being recessive, it can easily stay hidden if the alleles are too dispersed in the gene pool, and that the chances of both parents carrying an allele becomes too low. Furthermore, natural selection also progressively pruned red hair from the Mediterranean populations, because the higher amount of sunlight and strong UV rays in the region was more likely to cause potentially fatal melanoma in fair-skinned redheads.

At equal latitude, the frequency of red hair correlates amazingly well with the percentage of R1b lineages. The 45th parallel north, running through central France, northern Italy and Croatia, appears to be a major natural boundary for red hair frequencies. Under the 45th parallel, the UV rays become so strong that it is no longer an advantage to have red hair and very fair skin. Under the 41th parallel, redheads become extremely rare, even in high R1b areas. 

The 45th parallel is also the traditional boundary between northern European cultures, where cuisine is butter-based, and southern European cultures, preferring olive oil for cooking. The natural boundary probably has a lot to do with the sun and climate in general, since the 45th parallel is exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole.’

We will investigate further the Celts, the British Isles, the significance of red hair and its correlation with the Y-DNA, R1b Haplogroup.

It is unimaginable how anyone, could hate, torture, or kill their fellow human being because of the colour of their skin. Skin is only skin deep – just seven layers of tissue, coloured by a pigment we all possess in varying degree. An African and a European could have two children. 

One has dark skin and straight hair, thin lips, a smaller nose and narrower, blue eyes. The skin may be dark, the features European. Whereas, the other child has light skin, curly hair, fuller lips, a broader nose and larger brown eyes. The skin may be light, the features African. The features are more racially characteristic than the skin tone. 

1 Samuel 16:7

New Century Version

God does not see the same way people see. People look at the outside of a person, but the Lord looks at the heart.”

The Bible laid bare, is a story about and to a family. That family has grown exceptionally large, comprising multiple billions. At the heart of that extended family, there is one particular family that was given certain responsibilities and had certain expectations of them. They were to be blessed regardless if they measured up or not, as a promise had been made by the Creator, bound by his word to an ancestor that had proved himself beyond faithful. The Bible is written in essence from this family’s perspective and the messages, warnings, events and circumstances in the bible, pertain to them. Other family members – people and nations – are mentioned either directly or indirectly in proportion to their interaction with this one central family. 

Acts 10:34-35

New Century Version

34 Peter began to speak: “I really understand now that to God every person is the same. 35 In every country God accepts anyone who worships him and does what is right.

There are a number of subjects we have touched upon in this chapter that deserve further consideration and so we will return to these topics in later sections. We shall now turn our attention to Genesis chapter ten and begin with the first son of Noah mentioned, Japheth and his seven sons.

“There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know”

Harry S Truman [1884 – 1972]

God gave the people a dull mind so they could not understand. He closed their eyes so they could not see and their ears so they could not hear. This continues until today.

Romans 11:8 New Century Version

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

The Noachian Legacy

A sensational Investigation into Ancient Peoples and Empires – revealing the hidden Identities of their Descendants – as our Modern Nations and Powers 

Primus Verba

My life long enthusiasm for the diversity of peoples and their cultures on our shared home, the singularly solitary and beautiful, watery blue orb we call Earth, was sparked around the age of ten when my father gave me a number of overflowing envelopes filled with postage stamps. He had kept every stamp from every letter from about the time I had been born. This included countless that he had received from his work. We had lived in Morocco for the first five years of my life and there were many from there as well as other exotic sounding nations – for me – including Persia [Iran] – Arabic writing I couldn’t understand, though fascinated with its artistry [Egypt] – and Hellas [Greece]. I spent hours over many weeks soaking them in the bath tub to remove their paper-backing and then diligently sorting them into countries and finally into albums.

This patient process led me to studying atlases and procuring a world map to see where exactly, all these new exciting countries were located. Little did I know, there were in fact some two hundred nations in the world. My eventual passion for [ancient] history, geography, and vexillology has combined over the years to include valuable research into heraldry, geo-politics, anthropology, ethnology, philology, etymology, legends and myth. All this through stamp collecting and my father unwittingly sending me on a journey I could not have imagined; following a trail that was more intriguing and dramatic the further along I ventured.

As a child, I had begun to question who really were the previous great nations and their empires of old and… thrillingly, who and where might they be now! Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, the Phoenicians, the Chaldeans, the Medes and Persians, the Greeks, Romans, Byzantium, the Goth and Frankish kingdoms, the Ottoman Empire. 

A crucial development was a certain teaching of the church that we had begun attending at about the same age of ten. I cannot recall when I became fully aware – though it was while I was young – of the belief that the family tree of nations listed in the Bible, as well as other other non-canonical books is in fact an account of the ancestors of the descended nations in existence today.

Though our church’s material was a valuable springboard, it fell short in answering my now all-consuming questions on the aforementioned great empires and peoples. I had been accepting of the identities as expounded and that they were accurate. It was years later, in my twenties when I challenged the teachings of our church one by one, that I came to look at the identity of nations much more closely to check their authenticity.

This began – in about 1991 – an in-depth study into the doctrine and thus a formerly casual acceptance and interest now began to evolve into a serious passion and probably more honestly an obsession. For when I looked at each identity one by one, I was struck aghast that only a small handful made sense and the vast majority did not. Either I was heading off in a tangent, or the foundational premise I had thought to be sound needed to be questioned and it-would-seem, rebuilt. A thirty year quest has ensued to fully understand the subject and endeavour to fit the pieces together more accurately.

A couple of serious points. Firstly, the subject of nations identities from the Bible divides like no other doctrinal teaching. Either one is enthusiastically receptive to the subject or vehemently opposed and sitting squarely in team scepticism. Those in opposition are themselves, likely in one of two camps. There are sincere believers in the Bible, yet see no sense, or place for this knowledge in their paradigm of beliefs. That is, it is not essential for salvation, nor does it have any relevance in their lives. Then there are others who do not believe the Bible is inspired and that it is rather just a collection of fables, platitudes, proverbs and the such that may be interesting, though not something to place serious value upon.

My purpose is not to try to win over either or to change their views. I would be surprised if they should even wish to read this work or sacrifice the time and energy on it. As Dale Carnegie said: “A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still”. 

There are readers whom hopefully are more receptive as they may have either a surface knowledge, or possibly considerable research after years of interest. The issue they may have with this work, is that it will fly contrary to the majority of teachings they are familiar with – from the preceding past one hundred and fifty years while it has gained popularity – and it might be asking too much to shift preconceived and pre-heard ideas that have become comfortable and well-intrenched. I am fascinated to find that people will often clutch onto the first explanation of a nation’s identity that they read or hear and it is then held close to their heart in a vice-like grip and woe to the person who try’s to loosen that clasp. 

To the constant and faithful readers who with me, share a reciprocal interest and desire to grow in knowledge and understanding… I trust that you will enjoy the journey we are about to embark on as much as I have. I would be very glad to hear from anyone that has a similar passion and desire to share, so that we can all further our understanding. I am continually learning and revising and open to teaching from others of like mind, welcoming helpful input.

I will aim to be non-dogmatic in my approach – be patient if I forget myself and am over zealous – I am not trying to prove emphatically necessarily, but rather, present my thoughts and submit my findings. A theory one could say and a springboard for further study and understanding. I have read numerous articles and books – especially on the Lost Tribes of Israel – and I believe there is a lot of confusion on the subject.

It is a colossal irony of enormous magnitude that those who dismiss the Bible outright, or those who place little value on the Old Testament verses that describe peoples and nations [past and future] – are using this teaching – as proof to satisfy in their own minds that either the Bible is not true or that vast sections of the Old Testament are of no value. Whereas the actual converse is applicable! The more one can identify peoples in the Bible that equate to modern nations today, the more compelling and incontrovertible the veracity of the Old Testament verses become, offering the most profound proof there is, that the Bible is actually inspired to reveal what is true.

The Bible has endured a sizeable proportion of editing and suffered censoring at the hands of those who compiled each Testament. Whether the scriptural verses that discuss peoples and nations have been or not, I am presently unaware. I do not believe there is any impediment to understanding them, as they are presented. There is helpful supplementary material in two books that did not make the biblical canon: the Book of Jasher and The Book of Jubilees. Many subjects that are Bible based or incorporate the Bible as part of their research can be supported by a variety of extra-biblical sources and secular material. The identity of nations is no different, though I trust as we progress, that the credibility of the written word of the Old Testament becomes overwhelmingly evident as the bedrock foundation in unlocking identities.

The second serious point is that it is next to impossible to cover this topic without a detractor crying racist or anti-Semite. One can speak of anthropology or ethnicity and little issue. Mention race and you are potentially in a hot seat. Anyone who knows me, can attest I am the least racist person. My interest in people and their origins and identity would make no sense otherwise. I sincerely mean no offence to anyone and apologise unreservedly if anything is inadvertently said that could be construed to be anything other than entirely respectful to all peoples included and discussed.

Some may be thinking: what are my credentials? Well, you may be disappointed if you value intellectual scholarship. I do not have a masters or a doctorate. I took Geography at High School and passed as well as History, achieving second place in my High School. I completed two semesters of History at University, gaining an Associate of Arts in Theology and the Fine Arts. I have been fortunate to have experienced a myriad of cultures and peoples, while visiting some forty countries and have been blessed to have lived in six different nations.

I believe what has held me in better stead, has been my willingness to accept what I have come to understand, yet be willing to be flexible enough to modify my view if I see the pieces are not smoothly interlacing. Also, through a thorough examination of every scripture in the Bible on the families and their subsequent descendants, many times over; while cross-referencing the verses, studying them word by word and checking definitions of key words and relevant people’s names. 

This process has been quite literally a gigantic jig-saw puzzle of thousands of pieces. With so many pieces it wasn’t easy, as I didn’t know which pieces were missing. I know I still don’t have them all. If others have missing pieces, I would be fascinated to continue learning. We are by our very nature prone and limited at times to perceiving ideas and even facts from our own individual perspective. I have endeavoured throughout to approach – what has been tantamount to – an investigation, with integrity and impartiality as much as possible.

Before we begin in earnest, I have noticed researchers have relied quite heavily on etymology, heraldry symbols and sometimes superficial connections. I think they are important and lend interesting support. It can be easy to place possibly, over credence on them that can then be mis-leading and less constructive rather than helpful.

I have taken a different approach in four main areas that I believe may have been invaluable in unlocking the enigma of the nations identities.

a. As the original nations of the world began as families grown large, they understandably lived in close proximity to other families that were closely related. A geographic proximity and closeness that I believe has been replicated today. In other words, nations generally migrated in similar lines or paths, whether parallel or in tandem from the Middle East region and have ended up in Europe, Asia and so forth living next to those exact same people who are more closely related to themselves.

b. An area that has tangled up many researchers is that of names used for peoples in one area and then those people migrate and move under a different name – because languages kept evolving and also friends or foes would use different names or labels for people. We will strike this phenomena repeatedly, but to use one quick example. The people of Ham’s son Cush moved into an area of land in East Africa – below and to the south of present day Egypt and the Sudan – and it became known as Ethiopia, a translation of Cush. Cush’s descendants have long gone from the area, now lived in by the modern nation of Africans with that name. The people that live there now are not Cush. We will find that Cush migrated to the Arabian peninsula and continued eastward. Therefore, in the Bible when it mentions Cush – past or future – or is translated as Ethiopia, being inter-changeable, it means the people of Cush and where they reside now. Not, the people currently living in the modern nation called Ethiopia. This is very important to understand and completely alters the meaning of certain verses that have been interpreted in error.

c. Relating to point two: language changes and evolves continually. Compare an English or American English dictionary from fifty years ago with one from the present day. The amount of new and changing words is vast. Hence how nations can have very different identifying names over the course of two hundred years, let alone two thousand years. Similar to point one: Languages spoken today are a major clue to who is related to whom and it is similarly linked to geographic location. Similar language does not stand alone but added with other evidence adds weighted support.

d. I happened on Haplogroups and my research was impacted from that day forward. To receive confirmation of humanities present locations worldwide was monumental; pivotal evidence in supporting the proposition that humankind is one family grown large and that distinct family groups are identifiable through our DNA. Certain peoples are clearly more related to some than others and therefore match the family groups listed in the Old Testament.

I am indebted to the following two men and their research. The Origin of the Nations, 1957, by Dr Herman Hoeh and Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, 1902, by J H Allen.

Most importantly, I wish to give grateful appreciation to my wife. Tirelessly she has listened to me go on and on, with my findings and theories. I ran everything on this subject past her for thirty years and still counting. On walks, sharing a drink in the garden, sitting on the sofa or last thing at night in bed as she struggles to stay awake and then can resist no more. Me still talking until I realise she is asleep. To have a sounding board, who countless times helped me refine a point or a new line of enquiry is of incalculable value. She is a sizeable part of this work – thank you.

“What we know is a drop, what we don’t know is an ocean.”

Isaac Newton [1643 – 1727]

“In a time of universal deceit – telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”

George Orwell [1903 – 1950]

“All iconoclasts have to swim upstream against a relentless tide of opposition… the fate of all rebels…”

Lloyd Pye [1946 – 2013]

“I challenge anyone to assert that they have done more than simply parrot the words of the official anonymous or generally accepted superficial sources. And I ask does that satisfy one who is truly looking for an answer?”

Nara [2009] 

“To whom will he teach knowledge, and to whom will he explain the message…

Isaiah 28:9 English Standard Version

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to