finalis verbum

The most damaging aspect of the Biblical identity doctrine has been the element of whatever someone new to the subject first hears, reads or learns of any given identity, it is this knowledge that becomes firmly entrenched and invariably never shifted. As Proverbs 18:17 ESV says, the first case heard always has the advantage, whether right or wrong by virtue of being first. 

‘The one who states his case first seems right, until the other comes and examines him.’

Any secondary information has an uphill battle to gain attention, let alone replace the previously incorrect knowledge if such is the case. 

Yet, the accurate definition and explanation of the nations’ identities in the Bible in our modern age is crucial in understanding prophecy and by extension history. The credibility of the Bible has been at stake and those who have taught erroneous identities have been unwittingly holding the Eternal’s word to ransom. Now is the time for the truth to go out to those who truly seek wisdom and understanding – for the latter days are upon us. J H Allen understood the foundational basis of this knowledge in proving the veracity of the Bible, as written under inspiration by holy men and not the ramblings of eccentric or fanatical prophets. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

We have been moved by the Holy Spirit to thus write concerning the earthly history of God’s chosen race, because so very little of it is known by the masses of our people, and yet it is the foundation upon which the entire structure of Christianity must rest. A knowledge of these earthly things not only renders the claims of Christianity impregnable, but they are also the basis upon which we must rest our faith for better things. For Jesus has said, “If I have told you of earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?” The truth… as set forth in this book – that is, the realization of the promises made to ISRAEL… has… [brought] more skeptics to the light of his truth, than in all our previous ministry… [and]… We are… sure… that the faith of those who have made shipwreck could not have failed, if they had known these things.’ 

‘Genetic evidence has undermined the idea of racial divisions of the human species and rendered race obsolete as a biological system of classification. Race therefore should no longer be considered as an objective category… There are times when it is still accurate to talk about race in society. Though race has lost its biological basis, the sociological consequences of historical racial categories persist. While the scientific foundation for race is now disputed, racial factors in sociological and historical contexts continue to be relevant. First recorded in 1490–1500; from Middle French race “group of people of common descent,” from Italian razza “kind, species”…’

We can say, Scottish people or the English nation rather than calling them what they are. The scientific community has imposed a politically correct use, or rather less use of the word race. It would make sense if the word was banned outright, yet it is still allowable for social or historical definitions, just not for the actual aspect it is defining – our biological inheritance. Whether we use other words such as ethnicity or ancestry, it does not make the physical, biological differences between peoples less obvious or disappear. 

Following are synonyms: tribe, clan, family, stock, line, breed, blood, colour, culture, nation, people, offspring, progeny, seed, stock, strain, ethnicity. Some of these words could have a more inflammatory impact than the word race in my opinion. There is an agenda to attack the White race. The expression, Black lives matter, could be better expressed as ‘all lives matter.’ There is pressure to make white people uncomfortable and to do away with a concept of white people. It is blatant discrimination. Will black, brown, red and yellow people also come under fire? 

The term race is unhelpful in relation to all humanity. I prefer mankind, or if you will, humankind; not the human race. We are a kind, as there are animal kinds. The races are like species within the kind. It is very hard to do away with genetic lines of people that make them common to each other and different to other racial lines. They are  simply, different races. 

With this in mind, Greg Doudna reflects the frustration and division this issue causes, in the questions he poses. The division, confusion and strength of emotion it arouses exist in part, because people do not appreciate the differences in people. This is heightened due to the fact people do not know who they are. Yet, I observe online, mammoth interest in tracing family ancestry and forming a sense of self-identity; particularly with the breakthrough with Haplogroups. People want to understand their own race or racial heritage. Ironically, Haplogroups have also contributed to people becoming even more scathing, condemning and incorrect in their summations. 

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna, 1989, 2006, pages 143-144 – Italics his:

‘…consider three questions. Think:

(1) Is there any biblical basis to such a notion of classification as a “white race” in history? 

Are Italians part of the “white race”? Why? Are Russians? What about Assyrian Christian Iraqis who descend from the Assyrians of old [not correct – refer Chapter XIV Mizra & Chapter XX Asshur]? What about Jordanians? Are Arab tribes who claim descent from Ishmael? Are Spaniards part of the white race? Are Portuguese? Are Greeks? Are Poles? How about Muslim Shi’ite Azerbaijanis from the Caucasus? How about Armenians and Georgians and Chechens from the Caucasus area, otherwise known as Caucasians, or in Russia known negatively as blacks (because their skin is typically darker and more “ethnic” looking than that of Russians)? Are these Caucasians, who are Russia’s blacks, members of the “white race”? (Remember, historically Armenians and Georgians from the Caucasus started out defining the so-called Caucasian/white race). Are Hungarians part of “the white race”? Rumanians? Czechs? Gypsies (Roma)? Albanians? Serbs? How about the Persians of Iran, Iran’s largest ethnic group, who descend from the ancient Aryan Persians [not correct – refer Chapter XVII Lud]?’

A resounding Yes to nearly all. Yes, they are white. They do descend from Shem. In the main, the author has selected the descendants from Shem’s sons Lud, Elam in part, Asshur and Aram in part, as well as a handful from Arphaxad in Eastern Europe. The exception above is the true Arab who descends from Mizra and Ham. It was white peoples living in the Caucasus Mountain area that were classified as Caucasian; not the Armenians or Georgians specifically, who came to dwell later. The Iranian Persians are Lud and not the original Persians from Elam, as we have studied [refer Chapter XVIII, Elam].

‘(2) What is the actual basis for such a notion of a “white race” in history?’

Again, a resounding yes. Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support the Bible record – of a major three way split as evidenced by Noah’s sons and the sixteen lines of variation represented by Noah’s grandsons – and provide the scientific data, for all those with a stubborn, ‘prove it to me with scientific facts only, and not all this Bible nonsense.’ [refer Chapter I Noah] 

The author’s use of the word notion three times is insightful as notion means: a general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something, an opinion, view, or belief, a fanciful or foolish idea; whim. The reality of the peoples of the earth being all one blood and from one source, yet each possessing a variety of physical, mental and emotional characteristics, is so much more than a notion.

1 Corinthians 3:18-20

New Century Version

18 Do not fool yourselves. If you think you are wise in this world, you should become a fool so that you can become truly wise, 19 because the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God

It is written in the Scriptures, “He catches those who are wise in their own clever traps.” 20 It is also written in the Scriptures, “The Lord knows what wise people think. He knows their thoughts are just a puff of wind.”

‘ Same questions as above, repeated. How did some of these groups get to be members of “the white race.” while others did not? Who decided, and why? And finally,

(3) Has this notion done more good or harm?

I leave these questions open, to encourage reflection. ‘

The constant reader knows the supreme Creator in His wisdom separated the races for His purpose. The powers that be, have separated peoples according to their self-serving agenda and yes, created more harm than good.

The Creator planned the different races. The Creator must be racist? The Creator chose to work more closely with one family. The Creator must be playing favourites? If both are true… deal with it. Or, if both are not true, then why do people think they are wiser than the Creator? 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, pages 224-225, emphasis his, bold mine:

‘… Benjamin Disraeli… [British] prime minister… was a Christianised Jew whose writings on race are so profound that they are today largely ignored by politically correct present-day historians. In his book Tancred… 1868, Disraeli wrote: “All is race – there is no other truth”… and in his book Endymion… he wrote: “No man will treat with indifference the principle of race. It is the key to history and why history is so often confused is that it has been written by men who were ignorant of this principle and all the knowledge it involves… Language and religion do not make a race – there is only one thing which makes a race, and that is blood”…’

In academic and scientific fields of research whether private or public, the key for support is monetary funding, sponsorship and donations. Hence, in the main there is pressure to only research, publish findings and to teach that which follows a curriculum or agenda as per the ones holding the purse strings. Independent research is thus few or far between or most often non-existent. 

Ellis Silver, pages 258-259 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Scientists [Anthropologists, ethnologists, geneticists, theologians, ministers] joining an organization have to follow their managers’ orders. Those managers will have been through the same school of indoctrination, and probably additional levels of it too. So they know what’s at stake [if] they try to investigate something that’s even slightly outside the mainstream. The penalties include:

  • loss of credibility
  • loss of funding
  • loss of tenure
  • ridicule from their peers
  • refusal by their peers to review their work
  • refusal by mainstream publications to review or publish their work

As a result, mainstream scientists refuse to have anything to do with these things, even if you provide them with irrefutable evidence. They don’t want to be associated with it. They see it as potentially career-damaging, and, as we’ve seen, they label it “pseudoscience” or “yet another stupid hoax” to emphasize their dismissal of it, usually without even looking at it. Another problem with scientific teaching [doctrinal belief] is that it follows a single, rigid pathway [creed]. Anything that isn’t on that pathway “can’t possibly be true.”’

The reason this work and its findings, has been collated together and why many could and would, not. Though in so doing, this writer has unintentionally and reluctantly, become a contrarian and an iconoclast. 

‘Contrarian: a person who takes an opposing view, especially one who rejects the majority opinion.

Iconoclast: a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition. A breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration.’

Lloyd Pye, pages 64-65 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘[There is] resistance to change within any status quo of the mainstream scientific [and scholarly] community. Truth has nothing to do with it; proof has even less to do with it than truth; and forget logic – logic is wasted on people with a sharp axe to grind. 

What counts in such disputes is usually about 50 years, two generations, which have to retire before any controversial new reality will be fully accepted. First is the status quo crowd at the time of discovery [or proposal]. They reject it because to them it means three very bad things:

  1. being wrong on a major issue;
  2. having to rewrite a large portion of their purview; and
  3. a ripple effect of doubt cast on everything else they have achieved or profess to know.

The next generation spawns two groups: those who cling to the old status quo, and those who accept the new reality. As a whole they never fully embrace it, but they produce enough converts to grant it limited acceptance, allowing it to be openly supported without committing career suicide. 

The converts then teach their views to the next generation, and when they take over they see to it that what had been a “heresy” is accepted wisdom. It always requires time, but time and the truth invariably win out. 

For as harsh as criticism is toward dissent from outside the scientific [or the historic research] establishment, dissent from within [identity adherents] is often worse.’

Why it may take decades for this work to be even remotely valued or viewed as credible. And, how long for any would be detractors or academic intelligentsia in desisting from impugning or assailing the material contained herein. It is of little consequence; they will not inherit the last word, but ultimately the truth and those precious souls that embrace it will. If this work impacts only a handful of people, or even just finds one – you; it will have been worth every hour of the thousands invested over the past thirty years. 

1 Kings 19:18 

Complete Jewish Bible

“… Still, I will spare seven thousand in Israel, every knee that hasn’t bent down before Ba’al…” 

Luke 12:32 

Common English Bible

“[and] little flock… your Father delights in giving you the kingdom.” 

Treasured reader, you have in your hands a seminal work. Not because of its author or writing; rather for its profound revelation, submitted humbly and solemnly. When we read to the end of the book that is called the Holy Bible; right through to the last chapter and on the very final page, it is the aspirants of truth and the followers of Him who declares it, that win…

Revelation 22:14-15

New Century Version

“Blessed are those who wash their robes so that they will receive the right to eat the fruit from the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Outside the city are the evil people, those who… love lies and tell lies.

Dedicated with heartfelt encouragement and admiration to those faithful and true sojourners some three centuries hence; who will complete the good work of the way to the One who gives life eternal and whom will value what is yet concealed herein, for today’s generation will not; for they look, but do not see, read, but do not comprehend, listen, but do not hear.

… “Go, and say to this people:

“‘Keep on hearing, but do not understand; keep on seeing, but do not perceive.’ Make the heart of this people dull, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed.”

Isaiah 6:9–10 ESV

“The dogmas of the quiet past, are inadequate to the stormy present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must rise – with the occasion. As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.”

Abraham Lincoln [1809-1865]

“About the times of the End, a body of men will be raised up who will turn their attention to the prophecies, and insist upon their literal interpretation, in the midst of much clamor and opposition.”

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

“… To the righteous and the wise shall be given books of joy, of integrity, and of great wisdom. To them shall books be given, in which they shall believe… and all the righteous shall be rewarded, who from these shall acquire the knowledge of every upright path.”

Book of Enoch 104:10-11

© Orion Gold 2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

The True Identity & Origin of Germany & Austria – Ishmael & Hagar

Chapter XXVIII

The identity of Ishmael became complicated by the subterfuge of an incorrect ancestral claim addressed previously [refer Chapter XIV Mizra: North Africa & Arabia]. When Mohammed captured Arabia in 620 CE, he used passages from the Book of Genesis to claim the Arabs were ‘God’s people’ Ishmael; while establishing the Islamic religion. Added to this, Ishmael’s position as firstborn son to Abraham, yet to his wife’s handmaiden – for Hagar was not a concubine – meant that he would not be the recipient of the firstborn blessings. We can make a strong assumption that Hagar and Keturah were from similar stock, though probably not of Nahor; possibly Haran; quite likely from a line of Peleg; or most probably, from another son of Arphaxad, Anar or Ashcol [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. The evidence for this, is that Ishmael not only lived to the east in the Arabian wilderness, between Keturah’s sons and Joktan’s sons; but crucially, is more closely related to Keturah’s than Isaac’s children, as supported by Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups and autosomal DNA. 

Today, the true descendants of Ishmael comprise the modern nation of Germany. Just as in the ancient past, Germany is sandwiched between the countries today in the west descended from Keturah and to the east by the nations descended from Joktan. The close geographic relationship between the Dutch of the Netherlands and the Germans of Deutsch-land was evident anciently when they were known as Hivites and Hittites. The original people of Hatti were in the main, descendants of Nahor – living principally in Northern and Central Italy today. The Hatti migrated from Anatolia southeastwards when Ishmael’s people grew larger and pressed into their land. The Ishmaelites appropriated their territory and name and it is they, who are the later Hittites, that people are most familiar. The mighty kingdom and formidable military machine which dwelt to the west of the other historic imperialist state of the time – Assyria. 

The geographic, cultural and ethnic closeness shared between the two, explains the interplay between the names Midianite and Ishmaelite; sharing the family name of Midian. Today, both peoples can be called Germanic, as can a number of other nations – ranging from Austria in the east to England in the west, all part of the same family tree. The peoples of Ishmael and Keturah dwelt together in the wilderness – or the Arabian Peninsula – and are the original Arabians in the Bible. They did not become Arabs as we have investigated. Continuing with Herman Hoeh’s article, he addresses Ishmael and shows the prevalent view which has so erroneously taken hold:

‘Abraham’s firstborn son was Ishmael (Genesis 16:15). His descendants are called Arabs today. They still remember that they are descended from Abram’s son Ishmael. Ask any Arab. He’ll tell you so! Whenever you see the name “Ishmael,” or any name of Ishmael’s sons (Genesis 25:12-18), you will know that the prophecy is referring to the Arabs today. The Arabs have spread from Arabia throughout North Africa and eastward into the Far East. There is trouble in the Near East between Jordan and the Jews. Here is why.’

The Book of Jubilees describes the geographic proximity of the Ishmaelites and of the Sons of Keturah in chapter 20:12-13, “And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites.”

Later, the mighty entity we call Rome, evolved and slowly enveloped the Etruscan state as it outgrew its boundaries – as it had done with the Hatti in Asia Minor. In modern times, the German states which formed modern Germany in 1870 and 1871 were also a sprawling borderless geographic area. The German concept of greater living space or lebensraum, particularly from 1871 to 1940 meant German boundaries were continually expanding and changing. Adolf Hitler: “It is eastwards, only and always eastwards, that the veins of our race must expand. It is the direction which Nature herself has decreed fro the expansion of the German peoples.”

Our study of Haran and his descendants, which include the Swiss means they are not as German as we might have assumed [refer Chapter XXVI The French & Swiss: Moab, Ammon & Haran]. The Swiss resolutely do not identify with a ‘German’ tag. 

The Austrians on the other hand, are a different proposition than the Swiss. A survey once revealed that sixty percent of Austrians viewed themselves as German – in other words, the same as Germans living in Germany. 

This is revealing, for the Austrians share Hagar as a mother with Germany. The two peoples are half brothers by their mother; as Germany-Ishmael is a half brother by his father Abraham with Keturah’s descendants, which include Denmark, the Netherlands and the other northwestern European nations comprising Scandinavia and the Low countries [Chapter XXVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. We first read of Hagar and Ishmael in Genesis chapter Sixteen. We will concentrate on Hagar initially. It is alleged by Arab tradition that Pharaoh – Djer, the 3rd King of the 1st Dynasty, ruling from 1922 to 1875 BCEaccording to an unconventional chronology – had given Hagar to Sarai from his royal household in recompense for his transgression.  There is reason to consider that Hagar was not a mere servant or concubine but rather, a daughter of the Pharaoh and a royal princess.

Genesis 16:1-15

English Standard Version

Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. She had a female Egyptian servant whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said to Abram, “Behold now, the Lord has prevented me from bearing children. Go in to my servant; it may be that I shall obtain children by her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. 3 So, after Abram had lived ten years [1902-1892 BCE] in the land of Canaan, Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her servant, and gave her to Abram her husband as a wife [not literally, but sexually as a wife]. 4 And he went in to Hagar, and she conceived. And when she saw that she had conceived, she looked with contempt on her mistress. 5 And Sarai said to Abram, “May the wrong done to me be on you! I gave my servant to your embrace, and when she saw that she had conceived, she looked on me with contempt. May the Lord judge between you and me!” 6 But Abram said to Sarai, “Behold, your servant is in your power; do to her as you please.” Then Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her. 7 The angel of the Lord found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring on the way to Shur. 8 And he said, “Hagar, servant of Sarai, where have you come from and where are you going?” She said, “I am fleeing from my mistress Sarai.” 9 The angel of the Lord said to her, “Return to your mistress and submit to her.” 

It is clear that there is no love lost between Sarai and Hagar, Why the animosity, one can only speculate. It certainly intensified after Hagar conceived. The Angel of the Lord did not speak with anyone whom the Creator was not working with or had regard for. Hagar was wrong to be joyful over conceiving by gloating, thinking she had one over Sarai. Though we do not know what she had gone through to display that reaction.

Hagar was probably younger and possibly thought it would obtain her favour with Abram and lead to her and their son achieving a greater status in Abram’s family. One does not have to read long though, to appreciate that Abram only had eyes for Sarai. Later, when Hagar and Ishmael are cast out, the Creator again intervenes to spare their lives and ensure that their futures are safe and prosperous. The Book of Jasher contains a parallel account of Hagar’s first banishment in chapter Sixteen:

Jasher 16:25-36

25 For Hagar learned all the ways of Sarai as Sarai taught her, she was not in any way deficient in following her good ways. 26 And Sarai said to Abram, Behold here is my handmaid Hagar, go to her that she may bring forth upon my knees, that I may also obtain children through her… 29 And when Hagar saw that she had conceived she rejoiced greatly, and her mistress wasdespised in her eyes, and she said within herself, This can only be that I am better before God than Sarai my mistress, for all the days that my mistress has been with my lord, she did not conceive, but me the Lord has caused in so short a time to conceive by him. 30 And when Sarai saw that Hagar had conceived by Abram,Sarai was jealous of her handmaid, and Sarai said within herself, This is surely nothing else but that she must be better than I am. 33… and Sarai afflicted her, and Hagar fled from her to the wilderness. 34 And an angel of the Lord found her in the place where she had fled, by a well, and he said to her, Do not fear… now then return to Sarai thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 35 And Hagar called the place of that well Beer-lahai-roi, it is between Kadesh and the wilderness of Bered. 36 And Hagar at that time returned to her master’s house…

Genesis 21:14 

English Standard Version

So Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a skin of water and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, along with the child, and sent her away. And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. 

This incident came under the umbrella of, ‘it seemed a good idea at the time.’ The ultimate sending Hagar and Ishmael away, left them in a story state, ‘wandering in the wilderness.’ As mentioned previously in our discourse, if a people are mentioned more than once in the Bible, they are more than a territory or region, they have become an identifiable people or nation in their own right. This is what happened to Hagar. Reading between the lines, she obviously continued raising Ishmael who was a young teen. At a certain point she would have met a man who took her as a wife and had at least one child, a son with her. This son’s name is not given, though his descendants are named in the Bible as Hagrites or Hagarenes. The only nation today that is smaller than Ishmael, yet easily identifiable as related to Hagar, is the nation of Austria.

Christian Churches of God in their article No. 212C, 2007 state: ‘The question as to whether Hagar remarried and had other children is considered by some to be a matter of conjecture. 

The question as to whether the Hagarites are the descendants of Ishmael, Hagar’s first-born or only son, or the sons of another tribe altogether is still to be solved. Perhaps the advances in DNA will tell us the definite solution once the tribes are properly identified and tested.’ Well, we can know now by studying the Austrian and German Haplogroups.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Hagar meaning: ‘flight, to be dragged off, pressed into service’ from a verb (hagar), to flee… the verb (garar), ‘sojourner, to drag out or away.’ From the Persian/ Greek verb (aggareuo), ‘to press into service…’ meaning mounted messenger (a royal courier who could requisite or press into service whatever he needed to deliver his message faster), which in turn is thought to be the source of the familiar noun (aggelos), meaning ‘messenger’ or ‘angel.

Hagar travels south, possibly to go home to Egypt, but loses her way. The verb used to describe her “wandering” about in the wilderness of Beersheba is (ta’a), to err, go astray. A derivation of this verb is (to’a), error. Hagar wanders the desert until her supplies run out. Desponded and exhausted, Hagar abandons her son so that she won’t have to watch him die, and sits down a bow shot away from the boy to cry. Curiously, not her cries but the cries of the boy reach heaven, and God shows up. For the second time the Angel of YHWH speaks to Hagar, and promises her that Ishmael will be a great nation. 

God opens her eyes and she sees the well of Beersheba. This is fortunate for two reasons. First of all she and Ishmael now have water, but they also know again where they are. Quickened Hagar and Ishmael resume their journey. 

Ishmael becomes an archer and lives in the wilderness of Paran (in the Sinai desert between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba) with his Egyptian wife whom Hagar has obtained for him. Hagar becomes the grandmother of twelve princes, who form the great nation that God promised. That nation is not really named in Scriptures…[Ishmaelites, Hittites, ‘Midianites’, Arabians] Ishmael’s sons do not become the rivals of Israel as one may expect [they take a back seat to Moab, Ammon, the Midianites and Edom because geographically they are separated]. His son Kedar gets mentioned for their signature black tents, once positive in the Song of Solomon (1:5), and once negative by king David in Psalm 120:5. The prophet Isaiah mentions Ishmael’s first born son Nebaioth and his brother Kedar among the nations that will be gathered up into the Kingdom of God (Isaiah 60:7).

Although Hagar is anEgyptian, her name appears to be Semetic [correct, as descended from Arphaxad (the ruling class of Egypt) not Mizra (the actual Egyptians)]. If indeed so… the verb… is not used in the Bible and its meaning is subsequently unknown. NOBSE Study Bible… insist that the verb means to flee. BDB Theological Dictionary refers to the Arabic equivalent, meaning forsake or retire. An Arabic noun derived of this root serves as the name for Mohammed’s famous flight, the Hegira.’

1 Chronicles 5:18-20

English Standard Version

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh had valiant men who carried shield and sword, and drew the bow, expert in war, 44,760, able to go to war. 19 They waged war against the Hagrites, Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and he granted their urgent plea because they trusted in him.

1 Chronicles 5:10

English Standard Version

And in the days of Saul they waged war against the Hagrites, who fell into their hand. And they lived in their tents throughout all the region east of Gilead.

1 Chronicles 27:30-31

English Standard Version

30 Over the camels was Obil the Ishmaelite [German]; and over the donkeys was Jehdeiah the Meronothite[?]. Over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagrite [Austrian]. 31 All these were stewards of King David’s property.

Psalm 83:6-8

English Standard Version

6… the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites [Germany], Moab [France] and the Hagrites [Austria], 7 Gebal and Ammon [French Quebec] and Amalek, Philistia [Spanish Latin America] with the inhabitants of Tyre [Brazil]; 8 Asshur [Russia] also has joined them; they [Russia] are the strong arm of the children of Lot [Moab & Ammon].

Psalm 83:6

Young’s Literal Translation

… Tents of Edom, and Ishmaelites, Moab, and the Hagarenes…

The Hagrites are mentioned as separate people distinct from Ishmael. Jetur and Naphish were sons of Ishmael. Jaziz the Hagrite oversaw the flocks – goats, sheep and cattle – of King David. Though Psalm 83:6-8 is non-prophetical and a listing of the chief enemies of Israel at the time of king David, they are indicative of the future global alliance against the sons of Jacob; including the Europeans as represented by Eber in Numbers 24:24.

Austria is a mountainous landlocked country and with Switzerland, forms what has been characterised as the neutral core of Europe, gaining permanent neutrality in 1955. Austria has a population of 9,142,185 people; less than Sweden and more than Switzerland. Part of Austria’s prominence can be attributed to its geographic position at the centre of European traffic between east and west along the Danubian trade route, as well as north and south, through the Alpine passes. The capital of Austria is the historic Vienna or Wien, the former seat of the Holy Roman Empire. 

Austria was first a prefecture, a margraviate formed from former territory in Bavaria; developing into a duchy and then an archduchy. In the sixteenth century, Austria rose to prominence via the Hapsburg or Habsbur Monarchy. The House of Hapsburg being one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. ‘Not only did the house occupy the throne of the Holy Roman Empire continuously between 1438 and 1740, it also occupied the thrones of the Kingdoms of Bohemia, England and Ireland (as a result of the marriage between King Philippe II of Spain and Mary I of England), Germany, Croatia, Hungary, Portugal, Spain as well as the second Mexican Empire and several Dutch and Italian principalities.’

Early in the nineteenth century, Austria established its own empire, becoming a great power and the driving force of the German Confederation. After its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 for hegemony of the German states, it sought its own course. In 1867, Austria formed an Austria-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Following WWI, a Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed. A union with Germany, but the victorious allied powers did not recognise the new state. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the Third German Reich, annexed Austria by the Anschluss – union. 

The German name for Austria, Osterreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrichi, which means ‘eastern realm.’ The word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name; first recorded in the twelfth century. At the time, Upper and Lower Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria. German is the country’s official language, though many Austrians also speak a variety of Bavarian dialects. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Austrian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$33.9 billion
  2. Electrical machinery, equipment: $21.5 billion 
  3. Vehicles: $18.8 billion 
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $14.4 billion 
  5. Plastics, plastic articles: $9.9 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $8.5 billion 
  7. Wood: $7.5 billion 
  8. Articles of iron or steel: $6.8 billion 
  9. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $5.6 billion 
  10. Paper, paper items: $5.3 billion 

Wood was the fastest grower among the top 10 Austrian export categories, up by 54.5% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales were the metals iron and steel via a 46.3% advance.’

Austrian man and woman

Continuing with the Book of Genesis and the story of Ishmael.

Genesis 16:1-15

English Standard Version

10 The angel of the Lord also said to [Hagar], “I will surely multiply your offspring so that they cannot be numbered for multitude.” 11 And the angel of the Lord said to her, “Behold, you are pregnant and shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, because the Lord has listened to your affliction

12 He shall be a wild [H6501* – pere: running wild, wild ass] donkey of a man, his hand against everyone and everyone’s hand against him, and he shall dwell over against [H6440 – paniym: before, amongst, toward, in the presence of] all his kinsmen.” 13 So she called the name of the Lord who spoke to her, You are a God of seeing,”for she said, Truly here I have seen him who looks after me.” 14 Therefore the well was called Beer-lahai-roi; it lies between Kadesh and Bered. 15 And Hagar bore Abram a son, and Abram called the name of his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael [1891 BCE].

We learn of Ishmael’s key traits in identifying him. His posterity were to become large in number. We are not looking for a small nation in western Europe, related to the Dutch, French and Italians. The interlinear does not include the word donkey. It is added because the Hebrew word for wild* is used elsewhere in connection with a wild ass or donkey. In this context it is mis-leading as Ishmael is not an out-of-control individual. He is energetic, forceful, his own man, with a ‘fiercely independent spirit’  from his family; and he is stubborn, a hunter and predatory. Other translations assist in the meaning of these verses.

New English Translation

He will be hostile to everyone, and everyone will be hostile to him…

New Century Version

“Ishmael… will be against everyone, and everyone will be against him. He will attack all his brothers.”

Common English Bible

“… he will fight everyone, and they will fight him. He will live at odds with all his relatives.”

The Message

“He’ll be a… real fighter, fighting and being fought, Always stirring up trouble, always at odds with his family.”

The Germans have fought wars against the major powers in Europe, past and present: Russia, Austria, France and England, in evidence of their hostility. Germany has also invaded or attacked: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria – all his half-brothers. The more distant cousins of Poland, Czechoslovakia and so forth have not escaped Ishmael’s aggression. Germany dwells in the presence or amongst his brethren and borders: Denmark, the Netherlands, Flanders, Wallonia, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland. 

Verse twelve of Genesis chapter sixteen has been used by commentators to describe the Arab nations and on the surface it is a convincing fit. There are two, sizeable flaws in this argument. Firstly, Ishmael was not predicted to be more than one nation in the past or the future – East and West Germany not withstanding. The twelve sons of Ishmael are similar to Nahor’s twelve sons, in that Germany like Italy was a region, then a confederation of multiple states for centuries before forming one distinct nation in 1871, following Italy in 1861 [Chapter XXV Italy: Nahor & the Chaldeans]. 

Secondly, the constant reader who has resisted skimming or skipping ahead, will know with a good measure of surety, that we are searching for a nation which is kith and kin to those in western Europe and cannot, repeat cannot, be those people dwelling in north Africa or the Middle East [refer Chapter XIV Mizra: north Africa & Arabia]. 

Spot the difference. Compared with France and England, Germany has been at war with just about everyone.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Ishmael Meaning: God Hears from (1) the verb (shama’), to hear, and (2) the word (‘el), God.

There are a surprising six men named Ishmael in the Bible:

  • The most famous Ishmael is the son of Abraham with Hagar.
  • A descendant of Jonathan (1 Chronicles 8:38).
  • The father of Zebadiah (2 Chronicles 19:11).
  • An officer under Joash (2 Chronicles 23:3).
  • The murderer of Gedaliah the Babylonian governor over the remnant in Judah (2 Kings 25:25).
  • A priest who divorced his foreign wife (Ezra 10:22).

Note that the proper ethnonym (Ishmaelite) occurs only once (1 Chronicles 2:17), and comes with a shorter version, which occurs just once… (1 Chronicles 27:30). The collective plural occurs six times (Genesis 37:25, 37:27, 37:28, 39:1, Judges 8:24 and Psalm 83:6). The name Ishmael consists of two elements. The first part comes from the verb (shama’), meaning to hear: The verb (shama’) means to hear and may also mean to understand or obey. The second part of the name Ishmael is (El)… that is Elohim, or God… The name Ishmael means He Will Hear God (Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names)…’

Genesis 17:15-25

English Standard Version

15 And God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name. 16 I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall come from her.” 17 Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said to himself, “Shall a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?” 18 And Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before you!”19 God said, “No, but Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac [named by the Eternal]. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring after him. 20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and multiply him greatly. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great [H1419 – gadowl: in ‘magnitude, extent’ and ‘importance’] nation. 21 But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this time next year.” 22 When he had finished talking with him, God went up from Abraham. 23 Then Abraham took Ishmael his son and all those born in his house or bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins that very day, as God had said to him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin [1878 BCE]. 

Abraham laughed an incredulous laugh. He did not have a disrespectful or disbelieving laugh; otherwise the Creator would have hauled him up for it. We learn that Abraham not only believed Ishmael had been provided as the son of promise, we also learn that his relationship with Ishmael was a close bond, so much so that Abraham was not desperate for another son and would have gladly had the birthright promises given to Ishmael. This is important to understand, as it impacts the events which follow. 

As Abraham’s intimate relationship with the Creator as his very friend was remarkable, it lent itself to the Creator listening to Abraham and granting his wish as best as could be fulfilled, without impinging on the promises too Isaac.

The Creator says He will make Ishmael fruitful, multiply him greatly and make him a great nation. The word ‘fruitful’ means materially blessed. True to His word, the Creator has kept his promise to Abraham. The German nation is the fourth biggest economy in the world and up until recently the third largest. ‘Multiply greatly’ is reflected in that Germany has the second highest population in Europe behind Russia and the third highest European descended population after the United States and Russia. Germany’s status as a great nation is beyond question. Germany’s scientific, industrial, commercial and cultural impact on western civilisation has been considerable. 

There are currently three ‘superpower’ regions in the world, North America, China and a German led Europe. What is interesting in this equation, is that we have read the verse in the Book of Numbers revealing the ships from Kittim-Indonesia going against Asshur and Eber. Eber represents western Europe. A German led, united Europe in league with Russia, will for a time, be the preeminent superpower of our far future. 

Ishmael was included as part of Abraham’s household in the requisite to be circumcised. He was included in the covenant blessing to all those that chose to follow ‘the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.’ Should Ishmael have chosen to follow a path closer to the one intended for Isaac – which Isaac’s descendants have not been overly successful in walking – Ishmael’s descendants would have been the recipients of yet even greater blessings.

German men

Genesis 21:1-21

English Standard Version

The Lord visited Sarah as he had said, and the Lord did to Sarah as he had promised. 2 And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age at the time of which God had spoken to him. 3 Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah bore him, Isaac. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old [the blood coagulates the most effectively on this day, as it the peak of vitamin K production], as God had commanded him. 5 Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him [in 1877 BCE]. 6 And Sarah said, “God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh over me.” 7 And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.” 

8 And the child grew and was weaned. And Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned. 9 But Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, laughing. 10 So she said to Abraham, “Cast out this slave woman with her son, for the son of this slave woman shall not be heir with my son Isaac.” 11 And the thing was very displeasing to Abraham on account of his son. 12 But God said to Abraham, “Be not displeased because of the boy and because of your slave woman. Whatever Sarah says to you, do as she tells you, for through Isaac shall your offspring be named. 13 And I will make a nation of the son of the slave woman also, because he is your offspring.” 

The Book of Jubilees also records the account:

17:4 And Sarah saw Ishmael playing and dancing, and Abraham rejoicing with great joy, and she became jealous of Ishmael and said to Abraham, ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman will not be heir with my son, Isaac.’ 

14  So Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a skin of water and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, along with the [boy], and sent her away. And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. 15 When the water in the skin was gone, she put the [boy] under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went and sat down opposite him a good way off, about the distance of a bowshot, for she said, “Let me not look on the death of the child.” And as she sat opposite him, she lifted up her voice and wept. 

17 And God heard the voice of the boy, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, “What troubles you, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is. 18 Up! Lift up the boy, and hold him fast with your hand, for I will make him into a great nation.” 19 Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. And she went and filled the skin with water and gave the boy a drink. 20 And God was with the boy, andhe grew up. He lived in the wilderness andbecame an expert with the bow. 21 He lived in the wilderness of Paran,and his mother took a [royal] wife for him from the land of Egypt.

We learn much from this chapter but are left scratching our head a little too. The word laughing can be more correctly translated as scoffing or mocking. Ishmael was sixteen or seventeen or so if Isaac was about two or three. For whatever reason, Sarah perceived it as sinister and a perceived threat towards Isaac. Possibly, it went beyond a one time joke and may have shown a reoccurring pattern that had become a concern. Either Ishmael was bullying Isaac, unfairly using his age as an advantage; or he was merely playing with Isaac as if on an equal footing and it was mis-understood by Sarah because of her attitude towards Hagar. 

The Apostle Paul mentions the incident, expanding it further in Galatians 4:28-31, ESV: “Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of promise. But just as at that time [Ishmael] who was born according to the flesh persecuted [Isaac] who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. But what does the Scripture say? “Cast out the slave woman and her son, for the son of the slave woman shall not inherit with the son of the free woman.” So, brothers, we are not children of the slave but of the free woman.” The Greek word persecuted can mean ‘to put to flight; to chase away; to pursue.’

Abraham’s fondness for Ishmael meant he did not take the news well. The Creator  explains to Abraham that Sarah is reading the situation correctly and to send Hagar and Ishmael away. Not just Hagar, but Ishmael also had a relationship with the Creator, for his prayers are heard and answered and ‘God was with the boy.’ Ishmael became an expert hunter-soldier, though not in the vein of Nimrod. His wife from Egypt again, was most likely similarly related to Hagar and her pedigree in standing with Abraham’s royal ancestry [refer Chapter XXVI Abrham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia].

Galatians 4:22-26

English Standard Version

22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, [Ishmael] by a slave woman and [Isaac] by a free woman. 23 But the son of the slave was born according to the flesh, while the son of the free woman was born through promise. 24 Now this may be interpreted allegorically: these women are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery; she is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia; she corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother.

Genesis 28:8-9

English Standard Version

8 So when Esau saw that the Canaanite women did not please Isaac his father, 9 Esau went to Ishmael and took as his wife, besides the wives he had, Mahalath thedaughterof Ishmael, Abraham’s son, thesisterof Nebaioth.

Genesis 36:3

English Standard Version

 … and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, the sister of Nebaioth.

Esau, eldest son of Isaac and elder brother of Jacob, married Canaanite women and so to appease his father and mother, married a daughter of Ishmael, to keep it in the family so-to-speak. She has two different names in two separate records in Genesis which we will address when studying Esau [Chapter XXIX Esau: The Thirteenth Tribe]. Ishmael’s twelve sons are listed in Genesis and the prominent are mentioned in the Old Testament. Those in italics are mentioned once outside of this listing; those in bold, more than once. 

Genesis 25:12-18

English Standard Version

12 These are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s servant, bore to Abraham. 

13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, named in the order of their birth: Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael; and Kedar, Adbeel [grief of God], Mibsam [sweet smell], 14 Mishma [rumour], Dumah, Massa, 15 Hadad [thunder], Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah [eastward]. 

16 These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names, by their villages and by their encampments, twelve princes according to their tribes. 17 (These are the years of the life of Ishmael: 137 years. He breathed his last and died [in 1754 BCE], and was gathered to his people.) 18 They settled from Havilah [Poland] to Shur [the area between Mizra and Shem, Mediterranean Sea today], which is opposite Egypt [North Africa] in the direction of Assyria [Russia]. He settled over against all his kinsmen [Keturah: Scandinavia and the Low countries].

Germany has sixteen states or federated Lander, though three of them are city-states. Berlin the Capital included with Brandenburg; Hamburg; and Bremen, which are included with Lower Saxony or Niedersachsen. As Saarland is the smallest state and has a lower population density, I am including it with Rhineland-Palatinate or Rheinland-Pfalz. This leaves a convenient twelve states. There are three dominant sons, then four quite prominent sons who match with the current German States, plus the remaining five. 

1 Chronicles 5:18-20

English Standard Version

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites… 19 … waged war against the Hagrites [Austria], Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands…

Jetur’s definition means, ‘defence, to border, succession’ and ‘mountainous’.* Naphish means ‘revival, expansion’ from the noun nepesh, ‘breath of life.’ It can also mean ‘numerous, increase’ and ‘refreshment.’ Two states fit the profile for Jetur and Naphish, as they have relative economic wealth, higher populations and are linguistically and culturally similar with Austria-Hagar; with much in common and a high probability of ethnic admixture. Firstly, Bavaria or Bayern and its principal cities of Munich and Nuremberg. Bavaria has the second highest population, with nearly thirteen million people coupled with being the second wealthiest state in Germany. Bavaria is the largest state by area and is also mountainous* in the south. Baden-Wurttemberg and its principal city, Stuttgart is a high population state of nearly eleven million people – the third highest – and is also the third wealthiest state in Germany.

Isaiah 21:11

English Standard Version

The oracle concerning Dumah. One is calling to me from Seir [Edom], “Watchman, what time of the night? Watchman, what time of the night?”

Dumah means ‘[deadly] silence’ derived from the noun duma, ‘silence of death’.

Proverbs 31:1

English Standard Version

The words of King Lemuel. An oracle that his mother taught him:

As with Agur in Proverbs chapter Thirty, we do not know who King Lemuel is as he is not recorded in the list of the kings of Judah or Israel. He is a king though who put his trust in the Creator, the Covenant God of Israel and through the fear of the Lord learned wisdom. The name Lemuel means ‘belonging to God.’ With a minor punctuation change, it can be translated as CEB: “The words of King Lemuel of Massa, which his mother taught him…”

Massa was the seventh son of Ishmael and his name means ‘to lift up’ from the verb,  nasa. It can also mean ‘load’ and in this translation ‘burden’ or ‘oracle.’ King Lemuel is believed by some commentators to have been a king of Massa from Ishmael. 

Two states that may fit Dumah and Massa include Hesse or Hessen – the fifth richest state and containing the wealthiest city in Germany, the financial hub of Frankfurt am Main and the Rhineland-Palatinate with Saarland. Tema, the ninth born son is mentioned three times in the Bible. Tema means ‘south country’ from the root ymn, meaning ‘the right hand side, the southern direction’ also ‘admiration, perfection’ and ‘consummation.’

Job 6:19

English Standard Version

The caravans ofTema look, the travellers of Sheba [Flanders] hope.

Jeremiah 25:23-24

English Standard Version

23 Dedan [Wallonia, Brussels, Luxembourg], Tema, Buz [Northern Italy], and all who cut the corners of their hair; 24 all the kings of Arabia [northwestern Europe] and all the kings of the mixed tribes [Joktan] who dwell in the desert [eastern Europe]…

These verses link Tema with Belgium and northern Italy in trade and wealth. Coincidently, it was Roman soldiers who had their hair cut short, in contrast to other warring ‘barbaric’ nations who had longer hair. Tema equates with Lower Saxony and the principal city states of Hamburg, Bremen and the city of Hanover. Lower Saxony is the second largest state by area and has the fourth highest population, with approximately eight million people. 

Hamburg has 1,787,408 people and Bremen has 557,464 people. Lower Saxony borders the Netherlands – Midian. The biggest farms are located in this state and Hamburg is the second biggest city in Germany after Berlin. Hamburg is the biggest port in Germany and the third busiest in all of Europe. Bremen is the fourth busiest port behind Hamburg; with Antwerp in Belgium second and Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the busiest. These cities represent the ancestor traders oft mentioned in the Bible; from Ishmael, Midian, Sheba and Dedan. 

Isaiah 21:13-17

English Standard Version

13 The oracle concerning Arabia. In the thickets in Arabia you will lodge, O caravans of Dedanites [southern Belgium].14 To the thirsty bring water; meet the fugitive with bread, O inhabitants of the landof Tema. 

Notice the mention of water and the link with the city-ports of Hamburg and Bremen.

15 For they have fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, from the bent bow, and from the press of battle. 16 For thus the Lord said to me, “Within a year, according to the years of a hired worker, all the glory ofKedar will come to an end. 17 And the remainder of the archers of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar will be few, for the Lord, the God of Israel, has spoken.”

Kedar means ‘dark, turbid’ from the verb qadar, ‘to become dark’ also ‘blackness, sorrow.’ Turbid means, ‘cloudy, murky, opaque.’ Kedar is the second son of Ishmael and is mentioned the most frequently. He was a leader, warlike, military proficient and driven. It is a hint of and a precursor to, the militaristic capabilities of the Prussians. Kedar and Tema are linked in these verses as the two most dominant families and we find that Kedar and Tema are in fact neighbouring states.

Isaiah 60:6-7

English Standard Version

6  A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian [Netherlands] and Ephah [Holland]; all those from Sheba [northern Belgium]shall come. They shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall bring good news, the praises of the Lord. 7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to you; the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; they shall come up with acceptance on my altar, and I will beautify my beautiful house.

The wealth of second born son, Kedar and his influence is expressed with the firstborn son Nebaioth. Nebaioth is linked with Kedar – as Kedar is with Tema – and each are very likely located in northern Germany today, as speakers of Low German and the descendants of the Prussians. Nebaioth equates with the Capital Berlin; coupled with the state of Brandenburg. Ishmael has historically maintained a geographic and military closeness with Asshur, and so it is no coincidence that they lived adjacent to each other in the Baltic region, respectively becoming known as Prussians and Russians.

Ezekiel 27:20-21

English Standard Version

20 Dedan [southern Belgium] traded with you in saddlecloths for riding. 21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your favored dealers in lambs, rams, and goats; in these they did business with you.

Kedar equates with North Rhine-Westphalia or Nordrhein-Westfalen; which is the richest state in Germany and has the highest population with nearly eighteen million people. Bonn was the capital of the old West Germany and four of the biggest cities in Germany are located there: Cologne, Dusseldorf, Dortmund and Essen. The total population of Germany is 84,497,518 people, the second highest in Europe and nineteenth highest in the world.

Psalm 120:5-6

English Standard Version

5 Woe to me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar! 6 Too long have I had my dwelling among those who hate peace.

Kedar in the past is compared with Meshech, as peoples of war and not for the faint-hearted traveller or immigrant. 

Song of Solomon 1:5

English Standard Version

I am very dark, but lovely, O daughters of Jerusalem, like the tents of Kedar, like the curtains of Solomon.

Kedar means dark and the history of modern Germany has been dark. The state flags of Germany have a colour of black theme running through six of them, the current national flag contains black, as did the older flags of Imperial Germany and Prussia.

Isaiah 42:10-12

English Standard Version

10 Sing to the Lord a new song, his praise from the end of the earth… 11 Let the desert  [eastern Europe] and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits; let the habitants of Sela sing for joy, let them shout from the top of the mountains. 12 Let them give glory to the Lord…

A future, peaceful and happier time for the peoples of Kedar is predicted.

Jeremiah 2:10

English Standard Version

For cross to the coasts of Cyprus [Kitt-im – Indonesia] and see, or send to Kedar and examine with care; see if there has been such a thing.

Kedar is again associated with war, as ships will come from the Kittim in Indonesia against Asshur of Russia and Eber of Western Europe, led by Ishmael Germany. 

Jeremiah 49:28-33

English Standard Version

28 Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon struck down. Thus says the Lord: “Rise up, advance against Kedar! Destroy the people of the east! 29 Their tents and their flocks shall be taken, their curtains and all their goods; their camels shall be led away from them, and men shall cry to them: ‘Terror on every side!’ 30 Flee, wander far away, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Hazor! declares the Lord. For Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has made a plan against you and formed a purpose against you. 31 “Rise up, advance against a nation at ease, that dwells securely, declares the Lord, that has no gates or bars, that dwells alone [H910 – badad: securely, in safety, in ‘freedom from attack’].32 Their camels shall become plunder, their herds of livestock a spoil. I will scatter to every wind those who cut the corners of their hair, and I will bring their calamity from every side of them, declares the Lord. 33 Hazor shall become a haunt of jackals, an everlasting waste; no man shall dwell there; no man shall sojourn in her.”

It is not clear where Hazor is though they are linked with Kedar. The name Hazor means ‘Village, Trumpet, Enclosure’ from the verb hasar, ‘to begin to cluster or gather.’ The word can also mean ‘fence’ or ‘castle.’ The verses indicate that they are close to the sea, with the nearest being the Wadden Sea or North Sea.

German women

The idea that the modern nation of Germany descend from ancient Assyria can be traced to Edward Hine in 1870, an early proponent of British Israelism. Edward Hine compared ancient Assyria and Israel to nineteenth century Britain and Germany. John Wilson in 1840, ‘the intellectual founder of British Israelism’ considered that all Germanic people – including the Dutch and Scandinavians – descended from the tribes of Israel. British Israelites did not necessarily welcome Hine’s solution – instead of maintaining that other northwestern European nations were also descended from Israel – who believed all the tribes of Israel were located in Britain, with Manasseh migrating to America. ‘Hine had identified the Ten Tribes as being together in Britain in that Ephraim were the drunkards and ritualists, Reuben the farmers, Dan the mariners, [Zebulun] the lawyers and writers, Asher the soldiers’ and so forth and ‘that these tribes were regional or local people in Britain.’

All the theories have merit in that Wilson recognised the familial similarities between the northwestern European nations as did British Israelites, even though they mis-identified the continental people. Hine as it turns out was the most correct regarding Israel; then he went out on a tangent in identifying Germany as Assyria. Hine rightly believed that the ancient peoples recorded in the Bible must also be identifiable in our modern age, if the Bible is true and prophecy is to be fulfilled. Hine postulated that if a people were ‘lost’ then it meant that they had migrated to new regions, relevant exonyms and autonyms had evolved or changed and their histories long forgotten. 

Unfortunately, as with Anglo-Israelism itself, any proposed German-Assyrian connections do not gain any support amongst mainstream historians, anthropologists, ethnologists, archaeologists or linguists. I would have to agree with the mainstream experts, as the theories presented are all wrong to some degree and have not done the discipline any favours. The hope is that a gradual sea-change can occur. The ever increasing fascination developing amongst the public regarding their individual genetic identity and Haplogroup ancestry is hopefully just the tip, of a very big ice-berg of people beginning to understand and appreciate the compelling data now available. A new generation can learn in detail about the incredible diversity and similarity amongst ethnicities; not only specific to them but on a national scale, as addressed in this work.

Apart from Assyria, a growing teaching amongst knowledgeable identity adherents, is that Germany or at least in part, is descended from either Jacob’s son, Judah or Gad. Though these teaching are inaccurate, it is encouraging to see that people are beginning to shake off the longstanding, mis-leading German-Asshur paradigm. On one author’s internet site, – who still teaches Germany is Assyria – there is a list provided of postulated ancestors for the Germans of which all apart from Judah and Gad, I was not aware and of course the one listed at number seven, caught my eye immediately.

Asher: a son of Jacob

Ashkenaz: a son of Gomer

Canaan: a son of Ham

Edom: Esau, a son of Isaac

Gad: a son of Jacob

Gomer: a son of Japheth

Ishmael: a son of Abraham

Judah: a son of Jacob

Simeon: a son of Jacob

We have already addressed Ashkenaz, Canaan and Gomer in previous chapters. The four sons of Jacob we will study in depth and identify as not being viable ancestors for Germany. We will also investigate Esau and his grandson Amalek; convincingly ruling them out of contention, which leaves only… Ishmael. It is intriguing that this author has heard Ishmael offered as an identity for modern Germany. Regrettably, the author has chosen to concentrate on providing evidence only about Assyria for his research. I would have been extremely interested to learn his views on Ishmael; particularly as he has devoted over thirty years to the subject, publishing a three hundred page work on the German identity.

An example of the damage caused by a mis-identification of a Biblical nation is highlighted by Greg Doudna. This author came to understand a profound truth in his early twenties – during the early 1970s – regarding who the United States of America really was in the Bible. Identity believers and British-Israelites have unanimously and incorrectly deduced that the United States is descended from Manasseh, the eldest son of Joseph. His precious gift of insight, has since been rejected by the author and he has gone even further, to dis-believe the whole identity teaching. His insight was a major part of my research beginning in the 1990s, confirming my own evolving conclusions. It is a great sadness to learn that Greg Doudna has rejected so clear a plain truth. I would like to understand how he now perceives the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament; for it is swept away almost in its entirety if one does not believe the past, present and future application of the historical and prophetic texts. We will return to his comments on the United States in a later chapter, though for now, his deduction regarding Germany clearly shows the pickle which identity adherents find themselves and why credibility with anyone outside of their small bubble-like community is next to zero.

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna, 1989 & 2006, pages 242-243 – emphasis his, bold mine:

‘… [supposedly] the Anglo-Saxons and most other major peoples in Europe are Israelites – with one gigantic exception. One people right in the heart of Europe which were not claimed to be Israel were the Germanic tribes of Germany which produced the Anglo-Saxon tribes. In this… universe Germany today is Assyria, not symbolically or metaphorically but through genetic descent, in the same way that the Germanic tribes who settled elsewhere than Germany are Israelites through genetic descent. (Is that clear?)… Anglo-Saxons and Germans are of the same origins. They are the same peoples. The Saxons came from Germany. In the Finnish and Estonian languages the very word for “Germany” is Saksa, “Saxon.” Therefore if Germans came from Assyrians, it follows that the predominant ethnic components of Britain and the United States also are Assyrian. By this reasoning the United States would be Assyrians, not Israel.’

First, the author hits upon the problem with thinking that northwestern Europeans are descended from Jacob, rather than being from Abraham. Regardless of which, observing Germany – so obviously related to these other countries – but saying they are from a different son of Shem is glaringly contradictory as he rightly points out. Second, ‘Anglo-Saxons’ and Germans are of similar, but not the same origins. Remember the early points in the introduction; peoples migrate and their name is appropriated but this does not mean the new peoples are the same bloodline as the ones who have departed. The Saxon tribes, comprising Angles, Jutes and Frisians left their names in Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, but these three nations are not ‘Anglo-Saxon’ peoples. They are related, all descending from Abraham. 

The author showing Anglo-Saxon equals Assyria, equals America is accidentally showing the inaccuracy of Germany actually being Asshur. Alternatively, we will learn that the peoples who migrated to America from Britain, though similar kindred stock, are not the exact same tribe or extended family. We will also discover, that the ‘Germans’ who migrated to the United states are not the same people as the Germans who remained behind and presently live in Germany. 

Germany in Prophecy, Herman Hoeh, 1963 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine: 

Now what does the word “Hatti” or “Chatti” mean in the Hebrew language? Its closest derivation is the root “chathath” (Strongs – 2865). It means “to terrorize, or break down, as in war, hence a warrior or MAN OF WAR.” The Chatti were therefore Men of War… the ancient Chatti were… migrants who early settled in Asia Minor. Did these Chatti or Hatti later also migrate into Western Europe… Indeed! The Chatti were the chief people who settled in… [ancient] Germany. Their descendants [left] the [HESSIAN name]… In fact, the Old High German spelling of Hesse was Hatti! THE ANCIENT KINGS OF [western Anatolia] called themselves Khatti-sars – meaning the Kaisers of Hatti,”or “Kings of Hatti.” 

The Empire of Hatti and the Empire of Assyria were… not two empires existing five centuries apart as historians assume. Excavated records from Bible times PROVE that the great rulers of the land of Hatti were not only contemporary with the famous kings of Assyria, but were also federated with them.All ancient Greek writers agreed that Assyria and Anatolia (the land of Hatti) were allies. All historians recognize that there were at least two distinct peoples in Asia Minor who came to be known by the same name – Chatti or Hittite.

The… Hatti claimed to be “the Master Race.” So have the modern Germans! The Hatti lorded it over other peoples who lived in Asia Minor. They were the inventors of the DOUBLE-HEADED EAGLE which has always been A SYMBOL OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE!’

The double headed eagle is in fact an Assyrian symbol, perpetuated by the Byzantines, the Russians and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as admittedly the Austrians. The Hittites, Romans and Germans have all used a single headed eagle.  

‘Ritual [standards of the Hatti have been] recovered through excavation in ancient Anatolia… [notice] swastikas… [a] Hattic ritual standard in disk form… the Iron Cross… The descendants of the ancient Hatti – the modern Hessians of Germany – perpetuate these same symbols.’

Three Hittite artefacts highlighting the iron cross and swastika emblems also used in Germany’s recent past.  The symbol below, is a third century Roman swastika

It is apparent from Hoeh’s article that he believes the Hatti and Assyrians are one and the same, or that the Hessian Assyrians as he calls them, are a branch of Asshur. We have studied the original Hatti or Chatti when discussing Nahor and his descendants who were later called Chaldees after the Chatti [Chapter XXV Italy: Nahor & the Chaldeans]. 

The descendants of Ishmael became known as both Hatti and Hittites. We have discussed the confusing scenario of the original Hittites being the son of Canaan, Heth. The addition of the Nephilim as ‘Hittites’ too with the original Heth-ites and now, Ishmael as a completely different, separate and second group of Hittites

Thus, not only were there two Hittite peoples – descended from Canaan and Ishmael – as scholars have begrudgingly recognised; there were also two peoples of Hatti – from Nahor and Ishmael – as well. Which has not been recognised, and so the Hatti and Hittites have been viewed as either the same civilisation or more recently as two peoples when technically, there are in fact three involved. Only Ishmael has been known by both names. 

The close political ties of the later Hatti or Hittites, with Asshur is correct and was repeated again at the end of Rome’s supremacy, when it split in two and Asshur was the eastern arm and Ishmael the west. In recent times, when Germany was split into West Germany and East Germany, Russia based its control of the eastern block of nations and its head quarters operations in East Germany; within its’ ‘half of Berlin.’ We have touched upon the future alliance between Russia and Germany which will see them take the political and economic lead in the world, shaking up the world order, while depriving the United States in particular as well as China, of the leadership they currently take for granted.

Hoeh raises a fascinating point on the Hittite kings being known as Khatti-sars. As the Prussians did later have Kai-sers and the Russians had C-zars or Tzars as titles for their kings and of course to tie up the compelling link, these two words have derived from the original title of Cae-sar, used by both capitols of Rome and Constantinople. Following are a selection of verses in the Bible which speak of the Ishmaelite Hittites and not the Canaanite or Nephilim Hittites.

1 Kings 11:1

English Standard Version

11 Now King Solomon loved many foreign women, along with the daughter of Pharaoh: Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Sidonian, and Hittite women, 2 from the nations concerning which the Lord had said to the people of Israel, “You shall not enter into marriage with them, neither shall they with you, for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods.” Solomon clung to these in love.

Judges 1:23-26 

English Standard Version

23 And the house of Joseph scouted out Bethel. (Now the name of the city was formerly Luz.) 24 And the spies saw a man coming out of the city, and they said to him, “Please show us the way into the city, and we will deal kindly with you.” 25 And he showed them the way into the city. And they struck the city with the edge of the sword, but they let the man and all his family go. 26 And the man went to the ‘land of the Hittites’and built a city and called its name Luz. That is its name to this day. [Joshua 16:1-3]. 

Ishmael died in 1754 BCE and the period of the Judges began circa 1342 BCE with the first Judge, Othniel until 1015 BCE and the death of Samuel, the fifteenth Judge. During this lengthy period, the Ishmaelites migrated from Arabia via Canaan to Central Anatolia. We have discussed how the descendants of Lot and Jacob had travelled to the Aegean Sea and mainland Greece establishing city states [refer Chapter XXVI The French & Swiss: Moab, Ammon & Haran]. The descendants of Nahor had migrated from northern Mesopotamia to Western Anatolia. The reason for all this movement is usually always attributable to the onward pressure of migrating peoples. For instance in northern Africa and southern Arabia, Cush and Phut were on the move as they would eventually dwell in south Asia, with Mizra filling the vacuum and expanding their territory from North Africa to dwelling in Arabia and the Middle East. 

2 Chronicles 1:17

English Standard Version

They imported a chariot from Egypt for 600 shekels of silver, and a horse for 150. Likewise through them these were exported to all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Syria. [1 Kings 10:29, 2 Kings 7:6]

1 Kings 15:5

English Standard Version

… because David did what was right in the eyes of the Lord and did not turn aside from anything that he commanded him all the days of his life, except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite.

The Hittite women who King Solomon loved were the same as the Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite and Sidonian women, that is, they were from Shem and not Ham’s line. 

Notice the man from the original Canaanite city of Luz, went to the land inhabited by the Hittites in Anatolia and built a new city called Luz. The Hittites dwelt further north than the Aramaean Syrians, who lived just to the south of eastern Asia Minor. In the conquest of Canaan, the Hittites were said to dwell ‘in the mountains’ and ‘towards the north’ of Canaan – a description that matches the general direction and geography of the Anatolian Hittite empire. Uriah the Hittite was the husband of Bathsheba, who King David conspired to kill so that he could take his wife Bathsheba. Uriah was a high ranking soldier in David’s army; a commanding officer, perhaps a General. 

It is of note, as the Ishmaelites were and are, proficient military leaders and soldiers as evidenced by the Hittite Kingdom, the Roman Empire, Imperial Prussia and in our time, Nazi Germany. Hittite kings, as royal princes were trained from childhood in the art of war and combat; they possessed a wealth of experience from being on the battlefield, where they were expected to lead from the front.

The New World Encyclopaedia addresses the pertinent points we have raised on the Hittities, with additional facts which are interesting in light of their identity as Ishmael, the ancestors of Rome and as modern Germans. Other supporting quotes follow and all emphasis and bold are mine.

‘”Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa… The Hittite kingdom, which at its height controlled central Anatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, and Mesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680 B.C.E. to about 1180 B.C.E. After 1180 B.C.E., the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived until as late as around 700 B.C.E.

The Hittite kingdom, or at least its core region, was apparently called Hatti in the reconstructed Hittite language. However, the Hittites should be distinguished from the “Hattians,” an earlier people who inhabited the same region until the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E., and spoke a non-Indo-European language conventionally called Hattic. Hittites or more recently, Hethites is also the common English name of a Biblical people… who are also called Children of Heth… These people are mentioned several times in the Old Testament, from the time of the Patriarchs up to Ezra’s return from Babylonian captivity of Judah. The archaeologists who discovered the Anatolian Hittites in the nineteenth century initially believed the two peoples to be the same, but this identification remains disputed.

The Hittites were famous for their skill in building and using chariots [as were the Romans and as are the Germans].Some consider the Hittites to be thefirst civilization to have discovered how to work iron, andthus the first to enter the Iron Age. The Hittite rulers enjoyed diplomatic relations with Ancient Egypt but also fought them. The Battle of Kadesh (1275 B.C.E.) is said to have been the greatest chariot battle of all time. Rameses II claimed victory but the result was really a draw and 16 years later the two empires signed a peace treaty. The tablet concluding the treaty hangs in the United Nations headquarters.’

The Hittite king, Muwatallis II had at his disposal 3,000 chariots and 40,000 foot soldiers. It was certainly the biggest chariot battle known to history. The Hittites ambushed their enemy; had a greater force of men; and their chariots were made of iron; had lighter wheels; and carried three men instead of the standard two – an extra man as a shield bearer and to weight the chariot during tight turn manoeuvres.

‘Hittite kings and queens shared power, and gender equality is clearly evident in records of marriage, property and probate transactions and also of criminal law. At one time, a matrilineal system may have been practiced… certain “queens involved themselves in the kingdom’s political and judicial activities, as well as in external political affairs”… The mother goddess was venerated. After their husband’s death, several Queens ruled in their own rights. Correspondence survives between Rameses II of Egypt and Queen Puduhepa of the Hittites as early as the thirteenth century B.C.E. He addressed her as the “great queen,” as his sister and as “beloved of the God Amon.” She co-signed treaties with her husband, King Hattusilis III, including the famous treaty with Egypt. Some correspondence was signed with her own seal, indicating that she had “full authority” to make decisions on her husband’s behalf… This ancient civilization appears to have evolved over the centuries from a harsher into a more humane, life-affirming culture, evidenced by tablets of two hundred laws from different periods that have survived. Earlier punishments required mutilation; later ones demanded fines or some form of compensation except for serious crimes, such as rape and murder – which were punishable by death.

The Hittite civilization was one of the cradles of human culture… [their culture was among the first to have codified laws, literature and libraries]. Their development of trade links did much to generate awareness of living in the same world as other peoples, and of inter-dependence between peoples and had “a profound influence on the course of Anatolian history for the next two millennia”… They often used treaties to secure safe trade and to establish its terms. These terms ensured fairness and profit on both sides. The Hittites were aware that they belonged to a common humanity, something that sometimes seems forgotten in the modern world [for example the European Union]. They also made efforts to integrate conquered people by adapting some of their religious customs.

During sporadic excavations at Bogazkoy (Hattusa) that began in 1905, the archaeologist Hugo Winckler found a royal archive with ten thousand tablets, inscribed in cuneiform Akkadian… He also proved that the ruins at Bogazkoy were the remains of the capital of a mighty empire that at one point controlled northern Syria. [The Hittite capital city Hattusha was the most advanced and powerful city of the ancient world]. The language of the Hattusa tablets was eventually deciphered by a Czech linguist, Bedrich Hrozny (1879–1952), who on November 24, 1915, announced his results in a lecture at the Near Eastern Society of Berlin [no less]. His book about his discovery was printed in Leipzig in 1917 with the title ‘The Language of the Hittites: Its Structure and Its Membership in the Indo-European Linguistic Family.’ The preface of the book begins with: The present work undertakes to establish the nature and structure of the hitherto mysterious language of the Hittites, and to decipher this language […] It will be shown that Hittite is in the main an Indo-European language. 

For this reason, the language came to be known as the Hittite language, even though that was not what its speakers had called it… Under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, excavations at Hattusa have been underway since 1932, with wartime interruptions. Bryce (2006) describes the capital as one of the most impressive of its time, comprising “165 hectares”…

The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their empire, and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East. Around 2000 B.C.E., the region centered in Hattusa that would later become the core of the Hittite kingdom was inhabited by people with a distinct culture who spoke a non-Indo-European language. The name “Hattic”is used by Anatolianists to distinguish this language from the Indo-European Hittite language, that appeared on the scene at the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E.and became the administrative language of the Hittite kingdom over the next six or seven centuries.As noted above, “Hittite” is a modern convention for referring to this language. The native term [for their language] was Nesili, i.e. “in the language of Nesa” [and for themselves, Neshites or Nessites]. The early Hittites, whose prior whereabouts are unknown, borrowed heavily from the pre-existing Hattian culture, and also from that of the Assyrian traders – in particular, the cuneiform writing and the use of cylindrical seals. Since Hattic continued to be used in the Hittite kingdom for religious purposes, and there is substantial continuity between the two cultures, it is not known whether the Hattic speakers – the Hattians – were displaced by the speakers of Hittite, were absorbed by them, or just adopted their language.

The kingdom developed into the greatest and richest power at the time in the region. Bryce (2006) argues that early use of tin to make bronze helped to stimulate a stable political system and also to develop trade-links with surrounding peoples. The earliest known Hittite king, Pithana, was based at Kussara. In the eighteenth century B.C.E., Anitta conquered Nesa, where the Hittite kings had their capital for about a century, until [Labarnas II] conquered Hattusa and took the throne name of [Hattusilis I c. 1650-1620 BCE] ”man of Hattusa.” The Old Kingdom, centered at Hattusa, peaked during the sixteenth century and even managed to sack Babylon at one point [ending the Amorite Dynasty], but made no attempt to govern there, choosing instead to turn it over to the domination of their Kassite allies who were to rule it for over four hundred years. Bryce describes the conquest of Babylon under King [Mursilis I Hattusilis’ grandson] (1620-1590) as the “peak of Hittite military achievement” that also marked the “end of the illustrious era of Babylonian history”…’    

The Hittite kingdom finally dissolved after defeats and loss of territory to the strengthening Assyrians. The Hittite legacy was influential on both the legendary city-state of Troy descended in the main from Lot, todays French and the Etruscan civilisation from Midian, todays Dutch; who in turn, ironically, were a foundation for the later Roman Republic… the very reincarnation of the Hittite peoples who had migrated from western Anatolia to central Italy. 

‘The success of the Hittite economy was based on fair trade. In return for tin, they sold gold, silver, and copper, as well as wool and woolen clothes. A banking system made credit available. This, however, was run humanely, so that if for example a farmer, due to a bad harvest, could not repay the loan, it was sometimes canceled by the king… Macqueen (1975) argues that what made Anatolia much more than a “land-bridge” between Europe and Asia was its abundant mineral resources. It was no more or no less fertile than other regions, but its resources “… made it a land of rich possibilities (that made it) a primary center rather than a backwater which served only to link more favored areas”…’

The Lion Gate at the entrance of the former city Hattusa

Amazing Bible Timeline – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Hittite Empire is mentioned… in the Bible as one of the most powerful empires in… ancient times. Scholars used to question the accuracy of the Bible saying that such [an impressive] Hittite Empire was only hearsay since it was nowhere to be found. They considered the Hittites a small group of people living in the hills of Canaan together with Abraham. This was until the discovery… [of] important proofs… [including] tablets, documents, and successful excavations… [revealing] the truth about the existence of this great empire. It is a matter of considerable scholarly debate whether the biblical “Hittites” signified any or all of: 1) the original Hattites of Hatti; 2) their Indo-European conquerors (Nesili), who retained the name “Hatti” for Central Anatolia, and are today referred to as the “Hittites”… or 3) a Canaanite group who may or may not have been related to either or both of the Anatolian groups, and who also may or may not be identical with the later Neo-Hittite, Luwian polities.’

Sarah wife of Abraham. Fairy tale or Real History? Gerard Gertoux – italics his, bold mine:

‘The Hittites met by Abraham were not quite the same as those of Joshua 37 since they are identified as sons of Heth, not Hittites. In the biblical narrative (Genesis 23:2-10), Ephron (“of a calf”), son of Zohar (“tawny”), was not a Hittite in the usual manner because his birth name and that of his father are not Hittite but Canaanite, implying that they had been settled in this region for a long time. Consequently the history of Hittites is complex…’

We read most of the quote by writer D H Lawrence regarding the Etruscan civilisation in Chapter XXVII. The additional information is of note, now we know the identity of the Roman people who were steadily rising in power next to their Etruscan neighbours: ‘… Etruscan things are put down as a feeble Greco-Roman imitation. And a great scientific historian like Mommsen hardly allows that the Etruscans existed at all. Their existence was antipathetic to him. The Prussian in him was enthralled by the Prussian in the all-conquering Romans.’

An interesting coincidence of comparison, for who were the original Romans but none other than the Ishmaelite Hittites who had migrated to the Italian Peninsula as had the Midianite Grecians becoming Etruscans. These ‘western’ Romans when Rome fell, migrated through central eastern Europe to the Scandinavian-Baltic region and after being part of the ‘Swedish Viking’ wave of traders and raiders, came to be known as Prussians. The Prussians eventually led the drive for unification of all the German States and principalities and were synonymous with militarism and authoritarianism. 

According to legend, Rome was founded as a city state by Romulus II and his brother Remus on April 21, 753 BCE. After completing the construction of his city, Romulus divided ‘his warriors into regiments numbering three thousand infantry and three hundred cavalry’ which he called legions. Romulus proceeded to form the city’s system of government in selecting a hundred of the most noble and richest elders, the patricians and these men became the first senators; who ruled the complex republican government when the last king was expelled.

Romulus was the city’s first king, though after his death in 716 BCE, the city was in reality under Etruscan rule even as the Kingdom of Rome. The Etruscans governed great swathes of Italy north of Rome; including Rome which was the southern tip of a chain of semi-independent city states. By 509 BCE the power of the Etruscans had weakened sufficiently for the Romans to eject them and establish the Roman Republic, ending a period of Monarchy comprising seven kings, including Romulus [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. 

The most famous ruler of the Republic was Julius Caesar who became the first dictator of Rome in 45 BCE after defeating Pompey in a civil war and thereby igniting the ending of the Republic. It was Julius Caesar who hired Sosigenes an Egyptian astronomer, to calculate a new twelve month calendar. In 44 BCE he was assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. Hopes of a return to a Republic were dashed by civil war breaking out again. In 27 BCE, Octavius appointed himself Augustus, the first emperor. The Roman Empire steadily grew in greatness; becoming the greatest the world had ever known. In 64 CE, Emperor Nero set fire to Rome, blaming the Christians. Yet, in 306 CE Rome became a ‘Christian’ empire, made official by Theodosius I in 380 CE, confirming Christianity the sole religion of the empire.

The Roman Empire contributed major achievements and left many legacies. The most notable being arches, grid based cities, sewers, sanitation, roads and highways – note Germany’s autobahns of the 1930s and much of the major road systems in Britain, are based on those originally built by the Romans – aqueducts [considered engineering marvels], central heating [hypocaust: circulation of hot air], surgery tools and techniques, medical corps on the battlefield, the Julian calendar, newspapers [Acta Diurna: ‘daily acts’], concrete, construction and architecture [The Colosseum (built in  80 CE), the Pantheon and Hadrian’s Wall in 122 CE], Latin from which the Romance languages sprung and Roman numerals. Their numbering system is still used today, as well as Latin in scientific circles and academia. 

Arguably, the greatest achievement of the Roman Empire, was its system of government. Though tainted with intrigue and political violence which a modern democratic political system could not survive today, the Romans established a legal code that served as a future model for political systems, including the United States. The emperor Justinian from 492 to 565 CE, was integral in the development of the Corpus Juris Civilis, undoubtedly the earliest modern expression of civil law in history and it provided the foundation for the legal systems that define democracy in our era. The relevance of the Roman Empire to the future of western civilisation, cannot be overstated. 

In 117 CE with the death of Trajan, the empire covered territory of up to five million square kilometres; comparable to the Greco-Macedonian empire of Alexander the Great of some 5.2 million square km and the Achaemenid Empire of Darius I comprising 5.5 to 5.8 million square km. The Roman Empire grew so large that it was an unwieldy task governing from the city of Rome. Emperor Diocletician divided the administrative rule into a western and eastern tetrarchy, ’the rule of two’ in 285 CE. By 330 CE, Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople, formally known as Byzantium. This decision plus his favouring the east by building new infrastructure only there, yet raising taxes in the west, led to the considerable weakening of the western empire; leaving it vulnerable to invaders. 

In 395 CE, the Roman empire splitting was reinforced upon the death of Theodosius I, emperor of Constantinople. The provinces were divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius. Fifteen years later the Visigoths sacked Rome; the first time in eight hundred years. Finally, in 476 CE the Western Roman Empire ended and ancient Rome fell with the defeat of the final emperor, Romulus Augustus at the hands of the Goth ruler Odoacer. Heralding the beginning of the Dark Ages in Europe. The eastern Empire of Byzantium lasted until 1453 CE when it fell to the Ottoman Turks.

This transference of power from west to east was a switch from Ishmael to Asshur. This relationship had occurred previously in Anatolia as the neighbouring Hittites and Assyrians. As Rome faded, Byzantium rose to prominence. We have studied Nebuchadnezzar’s statue in the Book of Daniel chapter Two, with the head of Gold symbolising the Chaldeans; the chest and arms of silver the Medo-Persians; the torso and thighs of bronze, Greco-Macedonia; and the one lower leg of iron representing Byzantium. The other lower leg… is Rome. The major European nations or powers have all been represented respectively in Nebuchadnezzar’s statue: Italy, Turkey, France, Germany and Russia. Quite an amazing coincidence or set by a predetermined purpose? 

The Roman Empire powerful like the Byzantine Empire, were both constituted of iron. We have previously discussed the feet and toes of iron and clay and the possible physical-spiritual intent, at the time of the end. We also now know, that this sixth future empire – whether it includes a human-angel admixture or not – does arise from the ashes of the Roman and Byzantine empires. The uneasy mix of iron and clay might just as easily be a reference to the short and difficult amalgamation of the Russian and German political, economic and military apparatuses. This future relationship between Ishmael and Asshur, Germany and Russia will one final time, in a cycle of three, be instrumental in ushering in the time of the end, the very period of Jacob’s Trouble, the Great Tribulation and the return of the Son of Man.

Daniel 2:33-35

English Standard Version

33 … its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. 34 As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold, all together were broken in pieces, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, so that not a trace of them could be found. But the stone [the returning Messiah] that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth [the millennial rule of the Kingdom of God].

This seventh kingdom is the Son of Man’s rule on earth; for a thousand years. Many Bible scholars, Christians and ad infinitum seem to have difficulty accepting a millennial one thousand year period after Christ’s return. Yet the Roman and Byzantine empires were each over a thousand years long. Rome from its foundation in 753 BCE to either its fall in 476 BCE, or the divisions of 285 and 395 CE are all over a thousand years. The fall of the Byzantine empire in 1453 is again over a thousand years, from the official division in 395 CE. It is a curious coincidence that both ‘lower leg’ empires founded by Ishmael and Asshur should have each lasted a thousand years or longer. 

Added to this curiosity, is the fact that the Holy Roman Empire began with Charlemagne’s crowning on Christmas day in 800, and which incorporated much of Central Europe or East Francia and particularly the lands that would ultimately encompass present day Germany. 

By 936, Otto I was crowned King of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire was fir the first time fully centred in Germany. By the end of the fifteenth century the Empire was still composed of three major regions comprising Italy, Germany and Burgundy; though really, only the Kingdom of Germany counted as the Burgundian territories were lost to France and the Italian territories splintered into independent territories. The dissolution of the Empire occurred a thousand years later at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. At this time most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation, with the exception of the Italian states.

A decree in 1512, changed the name to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, though this term was hardly ever applied. The political philosopher Voltaire remarked: “This body which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire.” The Empire was often called the German Empire, Deutsches Reich or the Roman-German Empire: Romisch-Deutsches Reich.After its dissolution, it was simply called ‘the old Empire’ – das alte Reich

Beginning in 1923, Nazi propaganda would identify the Holy Roman Empire as the First Reich – Reich meaning realm or hegemony, loosely, ‘empire’ – with the German Empire as the Second Reich from 1871 to 1918 and either a future German nationalist state or as it turned out, Nazi Germany as the Third Reich.

It is a further curiosity that Adolf Hitler should wish to impose a thousand year German rule. It cannot be coincidence and very possibly demonically inspired to remark on in essence, an ante-Christ and anti-Christ millennial rule. Adolf Hitler in 1931: “I intend to set up a thousand-year Reich and anyone who supports me in this battle is a fellow-fighter for a unique spiritual – I would say divine – creation… Rudolf Hess, my assistant of many years standing, would tell you: If we have such a leader, God is with us.” Quoted by Richard Breiting in Secret Conversations with Hitler, 1970.

The similarities between the Roman Empire and Germany are numerous and palpable; replicated by the Nazi regime, whether from design or coincidence. The Nazi salute and greeting, Sieg Heil meaning Hail to Victory and Heil Hitler, resonates with the original Hail Caesar. The Nuremberg rallies with their layout, flags and standards were deliberately reminiscent of the Roman army legions which prefigured them.

The eastern third of the Frankish empire eventually evolved into modern Germany, after Louis the Pious, the only one remaining of Charlemagne’s three sons died in 840 CE, leaving East Francia to his son, Louis the German as discussed in Chapter XXVI. His territory included Alemannia, Bavaria, Khorushka, Saxony, Franconia and Thuringia. 

Interestingly, a province or Gau of East Francia, is first mentioned in the Treaty of Meerssen in 870. Known as the Hattuarian Gau, on the west bank of the Rhine. Some think this was a surviving relic of the Germanic tribe, the Chattuarii. Note the striking resemblance to Hattusa the capital of the Hittite Empire and before them, the Chatti. 

Louis the German died in 876 and he in turn left East Francia to his three sons: Carloman, king of Bavaria and lower Pannonia from 876 to 880; Louis III, the younger of Franconia, Hesse, Saxony and Thuringia from 876 to 882; and Charles II, the Fat from 876 to 887, of Rhaetia and Alemannia or Swabia, with the addition of Italy in 879 and France in 884. In 882, East Francia was re-united after its division in 876 with the death of Charle’s brother Louis III.

Between 1648 and 1815 Prussia or Preussen in German, rose remarkably in stature. The margraves, or marcher lords of Brandenburg became Electors of the Holy Roman Empire. Brandenburg and East Prussia fell under the control of the Hohenzollern family, who mastered the Brandenburg hereditary nobility the Junkers and ignited the centuries long march to power, which ended with the First World War and the abdication of the Kaiser in 1918. In 1640, Frederick William or Wilhelm of Brandenburg,also called the Great Elector, became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia; throwing off vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and re-organising his loosely knit and scattered territories. By the time he died in 1688, Frederick William had made Brandenburg-Prussia the strongest of the northern German states; created an efficient army and fortified Berlin.

The Kingdom of Prussia is Founded, Richard Cavendish, History Today, Volume 51, Issue January 1, 2001 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘His son, the Elector Frederick III (1657-1713), was not a chip off the old block. Known in Berlin as ‘crooked Fritz’, because a childhood accident had left him with a twisted spine and a humped back, he was besotted with all things French and looked for a crown as a reward for aiding the Emperor Leopold I. There could not be a king of Brandenburg, which was part of the Empire, and there could not be a king of Prussia, because part of it was in Poland. By an ingenious formula, however, Frederick was permitted to call himself king in Poland. He put the crown on his head with great ceremony at Königsberg as Frederick I and so created the Prussian kingdom, with its capital at Berlin. Brandenburg from then on, though still theoretically part of Germany owing allegiance to the Emperor, was treated in practice as part of the Prussian kingdom.’ 

Prussia became a European power from 1763 and in turn, Austria’s greatest rival for hegemony of Germany. Instrumental in this growth was Frederick II the Great, who reigned from 1740 to 1786. In 1857, the Prussian king was Frederick William IV. He suffered a stroke and while incapacitated, his brother William served as regent until 1861 when he then officially became King William I.

From an early age he received private tuition and as the second son of the King, was not expected to take the throne. According to Royal traditions, he was initially destined to a military life. He was an officer in the Prussian Army when he was only twelve and later on in his adolescence was commissioned as a Captain; joining the Allied monarchs fight against France and Napoleon I when he was sixteen years of age. Wilhelm I was devoted to military service and was determined to perfect the capabilities of the Prussian Army. Wilhelm helped quench several uprisings and hence consolidated the power of his brother, King Frederick William IV. He took part in setting up the Vereinigter Landtag, the Prussian Parliament with a seat for himself in the Herrenhaus or upper chamber. 

Wilhelm’s most significant accomplishment was naming Otto von Bismarck as Prussian Foreign Minister in 1862; who became known as the ‘blood and iron chancellor.’ Bismarck was born in 1815 in a noble family estate west of Berlin in Prussian Saxony. He was a Prince, Count and Duke all-in-one. He died at the age of eighty-three in 1898. With the formidable assistance of Bismarck, King Wilhelm impressively modernised Germany, accelerating its journey into one of the dominant military and economic powers of Europe. ‘Wilhelm centralised power, built a strong military, and improved Germany’s international status. It was also under his reign that Germany became one of the first modern welfare states.’ 

There had been growing disputes between Prussia and Denmark over the territory of Schleswig and these escalated in 1863. It was not part of the German Confederation, while Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate Schleswig into the Danish kingdom. By astutely placing Denmark in the aggressors role, Bismarck was able to spark the Second war of Schleswig in 1864. Prussia, cleverly getting Austria involved, easily defeated Denmark and occupied Jutland. The Danes were forced to cede both the Duchy of Schleswig and the Duchy of Holstein to Austria and Prussia. 

The subsequent governing of the two duchies, inevitably led to tensions between Austria and Prussia. Austria wanted the duchies to become independent within the German Confederation; Prussia intended to annex them. This disagreement served as the intended and perfect pretext for the Seven Weeks War between Austria of Hagar and Prussia from Ishmael, breaking out in June 1866. The two powerful armies clashed at Sadowa-Koniggratz in Bohemia, in an enormous battle in July, involving half a million soldiers. Superior Prussian troop manoeuvres, with the modern breech-loading needle guns over the slow muzzle loading rifles of the Austrians were decisive in giving Prussia victory. The battle importantly, had decided the question of hegemony in Germany. Bismarck was deliberately lenient with the spent force that was Austria; who after their defeat, played a subordinate role in German affairs.

The world-renowned Neuschwanstein castle was built for King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and served as his private refuge. Construction began in 1869 and was finished in 1892, though it was not technically completed. The Castle became the dream world that the Bavarian king escaped, after he ceded his power to the Prussians in 1866.

Following the War with Austria, the German Confederation was dissolved and the North German Federation or Norddeutscher Bund, was established under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was excluded and its longstanding immense influence over Germany abruptly came to an end. The North German Federation was a temporary organisation, existing between 1867 and 1871. Due to revolution in Spain, the exile of Queen Isabella II to France began a fortuitous and remarkable chain of events on the surface, yet cleverly contrived behind the scenes. Her abdication in June 1870 lead to the Franco-Prussian war when France refused the possibility of the Prussian Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen taking the vacant Spanish throne. 

French troops were humiliated by Prussia’s ‘ultra-modern’ army and being driven back to the gates of Paris, quickly swept away the exposed myth of France’s military prowess, bringing about its downfall. In the process, Prussia had not only displaced Austria as the preeminent German power it was now the dominant state of central Europe. In 1871 Wilhelm was proclaimed Emperor or Kaiser, of a united German State, with Bismarck its first Chancellor.

On 18 January 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles – Bismarck is in the centre, dressed in white with a gold sash

The Prussian led German Empire’s massive military build up, coupled with phenomenal economic growth, meant war with Great Britain was inevitable, as it it sought to be the principal power of all Western Europe.

The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World before the War, 1890-1914, Barbara Tuchman – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Germans knew themselves to be the strongest military power on earth, the most efficient merchants, the busiest bankers, penetrating every continent, financing the Turks, flinging out a railway from Berlin to Baghdad, gaining the trade of Latin America, challenging the sea power of Great Britain, and in the realm of the intellect systematically organising… every branch of human knowledge. They were deserving and capable of mastery of the world. Rule by the best must be fulfilled… What they lacked and hungered for was the world’s acknowledgement of their mastery. So long as it was denied, frustration grew and with it the desire to compel acknowledgement by the sword.’

Flags of the North German Confederation 1866–71 and the German Empire 1871–1918

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, pages 175-177 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… in 1890… Germany and Prussia were the richest and most powerful nations in the world at that time, even greater than the United States and on a par with England… Tuchman says that in… [1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II] astounded everyone by “publicly  ascribing the genesis of his Navy to his childhood admiration of the British Fleet”… He was the oldest grandchild of Queen Victoria and the son of Princess Victoria, the oldest daughter of the queen and Prince Albert. His father was Prince Frederick William of Prussia, the heir to the Prussian crown who eventually became King Frederick III. [Wilhelm] was closely related to all the royalty of Europe and Russia. He was a first cousin to King George V of England; Queen Marie of Romania; Queen Maud of Norway; Victoria Eugenie, the queen consort of Spain; and Empress Alexandra of Russia, the wife of Czar [Nicholas II].’

Once Germany was unified, an effective system of alliances designed and managed by Chancellor Bismarck, had maintained peace and good relations across Europe. This was necessary because the recently unified Germany in its central location in Europe bordering a host of nations was brilliantly situated for trade, yet in the case of war, extremely vulnerable to attack on a variety of fronts. In 1888, the ‘Year of Three German Emperors’ Wilhelm I died at the age of 90 in March, followed shortly by his son – Wilhelm II’s father – Frederick III, who died of cancer in June. 

The new Kaiser or King, Wilhelm II was eager to be seen as the one who could competently manage foreign relations, without the need of someone else and thus Bismarck was unceremoniously and unwisely, fired. Bismarck’s clever diplomatic ‘system of complex alliances, with their give-and-take features, encouraging moderation, were deliberately’ severed. Kaiser Wilhelm II ignored renewing a treaty of friendship with Russia, rather seeking ‘alliances with the traditional opponents of German expansionism, Great Britain and France, with momentous consequences.’

The following quote is not intended to single out Germany, Germans or the Japanese. Tragically, it is indicative of all aggressor waring nations, when under the influence of dark forces. Humankind all too readily falls under the spell of depravity at times like these; thus taking leave off their otherwise moral code of decency, to replace it with evil insanity.

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, pages 182-183 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Germany attacked Belgium on August 2, 1914, as part of their plan to quickly encircle the French forces. They needed to go through Belgium, using it as a corridor. In doing this, they were violating Belgian neutrality, which had been declared in the Treaty of 1839. The brutality with which the German Army treated the defenceless Belgian citizenry was not equaled again until 1937, by the Japanese in their infamous invasion… of Nanking. The German soldiers looted, pillaged, raped and murdered civilians with cold, drunken abandon…. crimes… were brutally cruel and sadistic… but were committed with a detached lack of restraint, sometimes while singing! All of the acts were meticulously catalogued in the impartial report of the British Bryce Committee… in May 1915… the German atrocities were in violation of the Hague Convention of 1907, which dealt with the conduct of war on land, to which Germany was a signatory. The offences enumerated… are divided into the following categories:

  1. The Killing of noncombatants
  2. The treatment of women and children
  3. The use of noncombatants as shields during military operations
  4. Looting, burning, and wanton destruction of property
  5. Killing the wounded and prisoners
  6. Firing on hospitals, Red Cross ambulances, and stretcher bearers
  7. Abuses of the Red Cross and the White [surrender] Flag

About one hundred thousand Belgians were killed, of which sixty thousand were civilians, six thousand by execution. About 1.5 million Belgians were displaced by the invasion… An estimated 120,000 Belgian civilians of both genders were used as forced labor, roughly half of which were deported to Germany. They toiled in prison factories and camps, some just behind the front lines, digging trenches while artillery shells burst all around them. In this can be seen the same [cold-blooded] indifference to human suffering that became even more pronounced in World War II. It is clear evidence of the massive mind control… and the violent dispositions that were programmed into the young German males.’

As if once wasn’t enough, the same dark, controlling influence polluted the leadership of Germany again a short twenty years later in World War II. Adolf Hitler’slast nameis a possible variation of Hiedler, a surname applied to those who reside near a Hiedl or ‘subterranean river.’ Other theories derive the surname from Huttler, also spelled Huettler meaning ‘one who lives in a hut’ from Hutte, or from huten, meaning to guard, look after.’ Adolf derives from Adal, which means noble or majestic and Wulf, meaning wolf. A ‘majestic wolf guarding, looking after’ Germany. Hitler certainly lived up to his name, as the predatory ruler who hijacked control by dictatorship. Notice the similarity between the name Hit-ler and the word Hit-tite. The irony, is Hitler’s ancestors were not German; that is, descended from Ishmael, yet it was he who lead the German, Ishmaelite nation down its darkest path; for Hitler was half Austrian and purportedly half Jewish.

Alien World Order, Len Kasten, 2017, Page 196 – emphasis his, bold mine:

‘In his book, The Biggest Secret, David Icke has made a persuasive case for the theory that Adolf Hitler was the grandson of a Rothschild, and that the Rothschild family was responsible for his rise to power. Icke informs us that according to the book The Mind of Hitler, psychoanalyst/author Walter Langer says that Hitler’s grandmother, Maria Anna Schicklgruber became pregnant with the childof Salomon Mayer Rothschild while working as a domestic servant at his mansion in Vienna

Her illegitimate son Alois later became Hitler’s father. Icke says, “The Rothschilds and the Illuminati produce many offspring out of wedlock… and these children are brought up under other names with other parents.”’

After World War II, in 1949, Germany was divided into two countries; East Germany and West Germany. East Germany was a communist state under control of the Soviet Union. The Berlin Wall was built between the two states and ideologies to prevent people from escaping from East Germany to the West. It became a central point and focus of the Cold War. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism, the wall was torn down in 1989. Nearly a year later on October 3, 1990, East and West Germany were reunited into one country.

Notable dates in German history include, 1455 when Johannes Gutenberg first printed the Gutenberg Bible. His printing press incomparably influenced the future of the written word. In 1517, Martin Luther published his Thesis which marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation and the huge schism from the Universal Church. In 1756, famous composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in present day Austria. In 1806, the French Empire under Napoleon I conquered many of the German states. In 1808, Ludwig van Beethoven’s famous Fifth Symphony was first performed. In 1812, German writers the Brothers Grimm, published their first collection of tales.

Prussian flag and German flag during World war I – notice the Prussian one headed eagle, the Hittite iron cross, the Nordic cross and the pan-German colours of red, white and especially black.

After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world, with the majority of migrants living in the western regions of Germany. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, used by Julius Caesar ironically, to describe the peoples east of the Rhine River. The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land or the ‘German lands’, was derived from the word deutsch and is similar to the word Dutch, descending from the Old High German diutisc, meaning ‘of the people’ from diot or diota – ‘people.’

The Nazi flag from 1933 till 1945 and the flag of the Holy Roman Empire

Western Germany received considerable support from the United States – as did Japan – in rebuilding its economy after WWII. For decades, Germany was the third biggest economy in the world. With China’s ascent, Germany is now the fourth largest world economy behind Japan and ahead of India in fifth place, with a GDP of $3.86 trillion in 2019. Germany is Europe’s largest economy and is a top exporter of vehicles, machinery, chemicals and other manufactured goods, with a highly skilled workforce. Germany is well known for its pharmaceuticals and is the home of one of the world’s top drug makers, Bayer. Germany also has a low fertility rate, with an ageing population and workforce. Coupled with this is its high levels of net immigration, both of which are putting a strain on Germany’s social welfare system.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in German global shipments during 2021. 

  1. Machinery including computers: US$268.6 billion
  2. Vehicles: $246 billion 
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $176.4 billion 
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $118 billion 
  5. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $83.8 billion 
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $76.3 billion 
  7. Mineral fuels including oil: $43.3 billion 
  8. Articles of iron or steel: $33.9 billion 
  9. Other chemical goods: $32.9 billion 
  10. Iron, steel: $32.7 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 65.4% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales were the materials iron and steel via a 48.3% gain. Germany’s shipments of plastics plus articles made from plastic posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 27%.’

The German flag during the Weimar Republic between WWI and Nazi Germany and since reunification in 1989 and the German Coat of Arms

Germany is in the top ten nations in the world for technological innovation, at number five, one ahead of Russia at six. Germany has always found its name in this list and is consistently regarded as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. German research scientists contribute to numerous fields of endeavour including space exploration and biotechnology. The German automotive industry produces some of the most high-tech engines and automobiles, with pioneering brands like Mercedes Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche. 

Germany has the second largest gold reserves in the world, ahead of Italy, France and Russia at 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Germany has 3,362.4 tonnes of gold which represents 74.5% of its foreign reserves. In 2017 Germany completed a four year repatriation operation to move back a total of 674 tonnes of gold from the Banque de France and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to its own vaults.

Germany is included in the influential G7 group of nations, where apart from Japan, two of the remaining six nations descended from Abraham’s two brothers, Nahor and Haran, corresponding with Italy and France respectively. Abraham’s children within the G7 include Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States of America. 

Some global analysts predict a weakening of China’s economy over the next decade, regardless of this, a strong Germany aligning itself with a mending Russia – after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 – would have enormous repercussions on the future of global foreign policy, world trade, arms development, military expansion and political control.

Geopolitical strategist Peter Zeihan in an article on Russia, actual Asshur from ancient Assyria, comments on Germany’s pivotal role in central Europe – emphasis & bold mine:

‘European history is a chronicle of the rise and fall of its geographic center. As Germany rises, the powers on its periphery buckle under its strength and are forced to pool resources in order to beat back Berlin. As Germany falters, the power vacuum at the middle of the Continent allows the countries on Germany’s borders to rise in strength and become major powers themselves. Since the formation of the first “Germany” in 800, this cycle has set the tempo and tenor of European affairs. A strong Germany means consolidation followed by a catastrophic war; a weak Germany creates a multilateral concert of powers and [multi-state] competition (often involving war, but not on nearly as large a scale). For Europe this cycle of German rise and fall has run its course three times – the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Germany, Nazi Germany – and is only now entering its fourth iteration with the reunified Germany.’

The top eight main mtDNA Haplogroups for Austria and Germany.

Austria: H [44.9%] – J [8.8%] – U5 [8.6%] – K [8.6%] – 

T2 [8%] – U4 [4.6%] – T1 [4%] – HV0+V [1.9%] 

Germany: H [44.8%] – J [9%] – U5 [8.8%] – T2 [7.8%] – 

K [6.6%] – HV0+V [4%] – U4 [2.9%] – T1 [2.8%] 

                          H    HVO+V     J       K      T2     U4    U5     T1

Austria        45          2           9        9       8        5       9        4    

Germany        45         4            9        7       8        3       9        3

It is instantly recognisable the almost exact similitude between the two German nations in their mitochondrial DNA percentage sequence. The maternal Haplogroups leave little doubt as to the shared lineage and mutual ancestry from their mother Hagar; as evidenced in the key Haplogroups H, J, T2 and U5.

                             H       HV0+V       J          K       T2       U4       U5                 

Germany          45              4            9            7         8         3          9

Austria              45              2            9           9         8         5          9

Netherlands     45             8           11          10       12         7          8            

Norway             46             4            11           5         8         3         11          

Sweden             46             5             8           6         4         3         12          

Denmark          47             4            13          9         6          2          6          

Bel-Lux             47             3             6         12         9          3          3          

Adding Austria and Germany to the table from Chapter XXVII and comparing the key mtDNA Haplogroups, highlights the unquestionable family link between Abraham and Keturah’s children with the two sons born from Hagar; Ishmael, with Abraham and the Hagarites with her second, unnamed husband.

                                H        J      T2     U5       K    HV0+V   HV     U4    

Switzerland          48     12        9        7        5          5        0.5         3      

France                   44       8        6        8       9          5            3         3 

Germany               45       9        8        9       7          4         0.5         3

Austria                  45       9         8        9       9         2         0.8         5              

Comparing Ishmael and the Hagarites with Abraham’s brother Haran’s children, highlights the re-occurring genetic relationship amongst cousins, which can sometimes be as close as those shared between siblings. The Germans and Austrians are closely aligned in mtDNA with the French from Moab and Ammon. The table below is a continuation of the table of nations descended from Shem studied to date, with the addition of Hagar’s descendants.

                           H       HV   HV0+V    J        T2        U        U5       K

Switzerland     48     0.4          5          12         9      0.4         7         5

Bel-Lux            47      0.7          3           6          9         5         3       12

Denmark         47                      4         13          6         1          6        9

Norway            46      0.2          4         11          8         2        11         5

Sweden            46      0.5          5           8          4         3        12        6

Netherlands   45                      8          11        12      0.5         8       10

Austria            45       0.8         2           9          8      1 .4         9         9      

Germany         45      0.5         4            9          8      0.8         9         7

France             44         2           5           8          6         1          8         9

Brazil                44        2                       11 

Portugal           44     0.1          5            7         6          3          7         6

Spain                44     0.7          8            7         6          2         8         6

Poland             44         1          5            8         7       1.4        10        4

Russia              41         2          4            8         7          2        10        4

Greece              41        3        1.8          10         7          3          5        5

Italy                  40       3           3            8          8         3          5        8            

Ukraine            39       4           4            8         8      0.6        10        5

Iceland             38       4           2          14        10     0.2          8       10

Romania          37       2           4           11          5         2          7        8

Finland            36                     7            6          2     0.8        21        5

Turkey             31         5       0.7            9          4         6         3         6

Iran                  17         7       0.6          14           5       12         3         7

‘Switzerland remains as one bookend of the European descended peoples, with Iran remaining at the other end as per the dominant mtDNA Haplogroup H.’ The addition of  the Austrians and Germans, sees them unsurprisingly, nestled amongst near relatives and neighbours, the Scandinavian, Benelux and French descended peoples. Recall from previous chapters that ‘[a] pattern has emerged showing the percentage levels of the main European mt-DNA Haplogroup H, increasing as one heads west across Europe. Switzerland though, has not fitted into this genetic type as it sits firmly in central Europe. What we will notice as we progress, is that the nations of northwestern Europe in the main, exhibit higher levels of mtDNA Haplogroup H.’ 

We have learned regarding Y-DNA Haplogroups that: ‘Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b which is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b. R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland, it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared [with] Wales at 92.3%. It is carried by over 110 million European men. 

Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. This time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE, according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup of R1b, U106 or S21, is frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula.’ 

‘R-U152 is more frequent in France and Italy; R-U198 in England; and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, the levels of R1b vary and gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels for the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups – M269 and U106 – for some of the nations we will study.’ Italy was the first nation with their main Y-DNA Haplogroup being R1b and it showed a marked difference with eastern Europe. 

‘It is worth mentioning that the north to south axis is as important as the east to west and so this explains why for instance Poland has slightly higher percentages of both clades of R1b than Russia as it is further west. Comparably, the Czech Republic displays a higher level of R-U106 than Italy which is further south; yet less R-M269 overall as it is the descendants of Peleg, Aram and the mixed line of Casluh and Caphtor which have the highest levels of R1b [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America and Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil].’

Turkey            R-M269    14%   –  R-U106   0.4%

Russia             R-M269    21%   –  R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269    17%    –  R-U106      4%

Czech               R-M269   28%    –  R-U106    14% 

Poland             R-M269   23%    –  R-U106      8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25%    –  R-U106      9%

Italy                 R-M269    53%   –  R-U106      6%

France             R-M269    52%   –  R-U106      7%

Swiss               R-M269    58%   –  R-U106     13%

Netherlands   R-M269    54%   –  R-U106     35%

Denmark        R-M269    34%   –  R-U106      17%

Austria            R-M269    27%   –  R-U106      23%

Germany         R-M269   43%   –  R-U106      19%

With the addition of Austria and Germany, we see that Germany has similar percentages as their neighbouring cousins in Denmark; while Austria possesses levels similar to their neighbours the Czechs. Though the mtDNA Haplogroups for Austria and Germany were very similar, we find more variance with the Y-DNA Haplogroups and a marked difference in the percentage of the key R1b group R-M269. The lower R-M269 level immediately stands out for Austria. A realistic explanation is that though Hagar was the mother of Ishmael and the mother of the Austrian Germans, her husband, who gave her a child or children, could likely have been from either Joktan or his great grandfather Arphaxad, rather than a direct lineal descendant of Peleg. As Austria has a similar percentage of R-M269 as its eastern European neighbours, coupled with its close geographic, cultural, political and historical ties with Hungary, this lends support for the proposition.

Principal component analysis graphs show that some Austrians are genetically related with Slovenians and Hungarians, while most are closer to Germans, particularly from Southern and Eastern Germany.

As heading west highlights an increase in R1b, travelling eastwards shows the decreasing percentages for both R1b groups. 

Pakistan             R-M269     3%  –  R-U106  0%

Palestine            R-M269     0%  –  R-U106  0%

Middle East       R-M269     0%  –  R-U106  0%

C & S America   R-M269    0%   –  R-U106  0%

The absence of both of the R1b sub-Haplogroups in the Arab peoples and their related kin in Latin America shows how they are not European, western, ‘white’ or descended from Shem. Pakistan also proves that like India, they are not the same as Europeans and are incorrectly classified as Aryan.

The Y-DNA Haplogroups found in Germany and Austria. 

Austria: R1b [32%] – R1a [19%] – I1 [12%] – J2 [9%] – 

E1b1b [8%] – G2a [7.5%] – I2a1 [7%] – I2a2 [2.5%] –

J1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Germany: R1b [44.5%] – R1a [16%] – I1 [16%] –

E1b1b [5.5%] – G2a [5%] – I2a2 [4.5%] – J2 [4.5%] –

I2a1 [1.5%] – N1c1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – Q [0.5%]

                                 R1b      R1a     I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2       J1      G2a    

Austria                     32        19      12        7           3           8         9         1          8          

Germany                 45        16      16        2           5           6         5                     5           

Unlike the striking similarity with mtDNA Haplogroups, reflecting shared ancestry from the same mother, the difference in Y-DNA Haplogroups shows a different paternal ancestor for the Germans and Austrians. The higher level of Haplogroup I and especially I1, in Germany is similar with the Nordic and Germanic nations on or near its borders.

The family connection, yet distinctiveness of the German peoples was discussed by Raymond McNair in a thesis entitled: 

Key to Northwest European Origins, Raymond F McNair, 1963 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Here are some interesting excerpts from an article entitled Are We Cousin to the German? by Sir Arthur Keith. 

In the standard Atlases and school geographies the Germans colour Great Britain, Holland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden with the same tint as their own empire, to indicate that all those lands are inhabited by branches of the great Teutonic family… It is an historical fact that the Anglo-Saxons came into lands lying on the western shores of the present German Empire. In the same issue of The Graphic, Sir Arthur Keith illustrated prevalent British and German forms of skulls. He pointed out the marked difference between the typical British skulls when contrasted with that of the average German. Speaking of the typical British and German skull form, he says: 

“The radical difference in the two forms leaps to the eye. In the majority of BRITON – English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish – the hinder part of the head, the occiput, projects predominately backwards behind the line of the neck; the British head is long in comparison with its width (ibid., page 720).” 

Sir Arthur Keith says that “in the vast majority of Germans” the hinder part of the head is “flattened.” He mentions, however, that this “peculiarity of the German skull” is not due to “artificial means.” 

We know that the prominent occiput and flattened occiput are characters that breed true over thousands of years, and that they are characters which indicate a profound racial difference. Even in the sixteenth century, Vesalius, who is universally regarded as the ‘father of Anatomy,’ regarded the flat occiput as a German characteristic… He came, rather unwillingly, to the conclusion that the vast majority of modern German people differed from the British, Dutch, Dane and Scandinavian in head form (ibid., p. 720) 

Some of the North Germans are closely allied to the Danes, Dutch and other Northwestern Europeans. The exact racial affinity of the northern Germanic type to certain other Nordics of North-west Europe yet remains to be clearly demonstrated. But many North Germans have mixed to some extent with their neighbors, thus producing a people closely related to the racial type of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and the Low Countries.’ 

Germany having a large and varied population, means it is helpful to break down their  Y-DNA Haplogroups into four quadrants – not far removed from the four divisions created after World War II, which were administered by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States and France.

N Germany: R1b [36%] – R1a [22%] – I1 [18.5%] –

I2a2 [7.5%] – J2 [4%] – G2a [3.5%] – E1b1b [2.5%] –

Q [2%] – N1c1 [1.5%] – T1a [1%] – I2a1 [0.5%] – J1 [0.5%] 

E Germany: R1b [ 36%] – R1a [24%] – I1 [16.5%] –

E1b1b [7.5%] – I2a2 [5%] – G2a [4%] – J2 [2%] –

I2a1 [1.5%] – N1c1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – Q [1%] 

W Germany: R1b [47%] – I1 [12.5%] – R1a [9%] –

E1b1b [8%] – I2a2 [6.5%] – G2a [5%] – J2 [5%] –

I2a1 [2.5%] – N1c1 [2%] – T1a [1.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

S Germany: R1b [48.5%] – I1 [10.5%] – R1a [9.5%] –

E1b1b [8%] – G2a [8%] – J2 [5%] – I2a1 [4.5%] – I2a2 [3%] –

T1a [1.5%] – J1 [1%] – N1c1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

What is immediately noticeable is the strong similarity between northern and eastern Germany and the same similarity between western and southern Germany. 

                      R1b      R1a      I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2      N1C1

East               36         24      17        2           5           8         2          1                

North            36         22      19    0.5           8           3         4          2

West              47           9      13        3           7           8         5          2

South            49         10       11        5           3           8         5       0.5

Germany      45        16      16        2           5           6          5          1

Notice the strong east to west divide between R1a and R1b; as we have encountered in previous chapters on our journey across Europe. 

Haplogroup I1 is associated with northern Europe and the figures for Germany reflect this gradient. The higher overall percentage for Germany’s R1b at 45% is influenced by the higher population of the southern and western German states with 49% and 47% respectively.

Comparing Germany and Austria’s Y-DNA R1b led Haplogroups, with their Nordic and Benelux cousins, places them interestingly between the two.

                             R1b     R1a       I1      I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b      J2      J1      G2a

Iceland               42        23        29                      4          

Norway              32        26        32                       5            1       0.5                    1

Sweden              22        16         37         2           4            3          3                     1

Denmark           33        15         34         2           6            3          3                    3

Austria               32        19         12         7            3            8          9          1        8

Germany           45         16        16          2           5            6           5                    5

Frisians              55         7        [34]                                    2        [1]  

Netherlands      49         4          17         1            7            4          4       0.5        5 

Flanders            61          4          12         3           5            5          4           1        4   

Wallonia            60         7          11         2            5            6          2                    6

Luxembourg     61          3           3          3           6            5          8          3        6

Continuing our Y-DNA comparison table from previous chapters with the addition of Abraham’s son Ishmael and Hagar’s ‘son’.

                          J        J1      J2     E1b1b    G      R1a     R1b      R1    

Georgia          43      16       27         2        30        9        10       19 

Armenia         33      11       22        6         12         5        30      35  

Turkey            33       9       24       11         11         8        16       24 

Iran                 32       9       23         7        10       16        10       26

Greece            26       3       23       21          6       12        16       28

Italy                19       3        16       14          9         4        39       43

Romania        15        1       14        14          3       18        16       34

Portugal         13        3       10       14          7         2        56       58

Luxembourg  11        3         8         5          6         3        61       64

Brazil              10                 10        11          5         4        54      58

Spain              10        2         8         7          3         2        69       71     

Austria           10        1         9         8          8        19       32       51

France             8         2        6         8          6         3        59       62

Ukraine           5         1         5         7          3       44         8        52

Germany         5                   5         6           5       16       45       61

Flanders          5         1        4         5           4         4       61       65

Netherlands   4         1        3          4          5         4       49       53

Switzerland    4     0.5        3          8          8        4        50       54

Poland             3                   3          4          2       58       13        71

Russia              3                   3         3           1       46         6       52

Denmark         3                   3         3           3       15       33       48

Sweden            3                   3         3           1       16       22       38

Wallonia         2                    2        6           6         7       60       67

Frisians         1.4                              2                     7        55       62

Norway         0.5               0.5         1           1        26      32       58

Iceland                                                                    23      42       65

Finland                                         0.5                      5         4         9

Adding Austria and Germany to the continuing table of main Y-DNA Haplogroups for European nations, places them both centrally as indicative of their respective R1b percentages. ‘Georgia remains as one bookend with the highest Haplogroup J2, J1 and G2a percentages. Finland is the opposite bookend, with no Haplogroup J or G2a and the lowest R1 levels. Poland… exhibits the highest percentage of R1a, while Greece has the most E1b1b. Spain’s total R1 is equalled by Poland, though in opposite percentages for R1a and R1b.’ 

Neither Germany or Austria are remarkable or particularly stand out with any of their Haplogroups; confirming their location in central Europe. It tends to be the countries on the periphery of Europe and its extreme outer edges such as Finland, Spain, Greece or even Georgia which possess the most or least amounts of specific paternal Haplogroups.

The core Y-DNA Haplogroups associated with the majority of the European nations in the north of Europe, include R1, I1 and I2; which segment Europe roughly into quarters. ‘Haplogroup R1b is prominent in the west; R1a in the east; I1 and I2a2 in the north and west; with I2a1 in the south and east. Haplogroup N1c1 is prominent in the north, in counter balance to J2, J1, E1b1b and G2a which are more commonly found in southern Europe.’ 

                       R1a      R1b       I1     I2a1      I2a2    N1c

Portugal        1.5         56         2      1.5           5          

Spain                2         69      1.5         5           1

Luxembourg   3         61         3         3           6              

France              3         59        9          3          4            

Switzerland     4         50      14          2          8          1

Netherlands    4         49      17          1           7               

Flanders          4          61      12          3          5

Brazil                4         54                  [9]            

Italy                  4         39        5          3           3         

Finland            5           4       28                   0.5      62

Frisians            7         55     [34]           

Wallonia          7         60       11         2           5

Turkey             8         16         1         4         0.5        4  

Greece            12         16         4       10         1.5      

Denmark        15         33      34        2            6         1

Sweden           16         22      37        2            4         7

Germany        16         45      16         2            5         1

Iran                 16         10                 0.5                      1           

Romania        18         16         4       28           3        2

Austria           19         32       12         7            3    0.5

Iceland           23        42       29                      4         1

Norway          26        32       32                       5        3

Ukraine          44          8         5        21       0.5         6

Russia             46          6         5        11                    23

Poland            58         13        9          6          2         4

‘The comparison table shifts in emphasis when northern European Y-DNA Haplogroups comprising I1, I2a2 and N1c1 are included.’ Finland possess the highest levels of N1c1, while the highest percentage of I1 is found in Sweden. Switzerland retains the highest levels of I2a2. Germany and Austria have R1a percentages similar with Denmark and Sweden, while the I1 percentages for the Germans and Austrians resemble those of the Swiss, Dutch and the Flemish.

From everyone to whom much has been given, much will be required; and to whom they entrusted much, of him they will ask all the more.

Luke 12:48 Amplified Bible

True scholarship involves the sincere wish to weed out the errors that we are all plagued with and to accept new understandings with humility of thankfulness. In this spirit I am submitting this research to those who are interested. My best critics will be those who show me, and the rest of the world, just where the truth lies.”

Ernest L Martin [1932 – 2002]

“The truth is incontrovertible. Malice may attack it, ignorance may deride it, but in the end, there it is.”

Winston Churchill

“The surest barrier to advancing truth is the conviction one already has it” 

Kerrie L French

© Orion Gold 2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Italy: Nahor & the Chaldeans

Chapter XXV

Peleg, the brother of Joktan, is not only synonymous with a split in Arphaxad’s line, but more famously with the division of all the peoples and races from Japheth, Ham and Shem who had congregated in the Mesopotamian region [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans]. The failed Tower of Babel venture circa 6755 BCE, had ended with the Son of Man – by some means unexplained – confounding the universal language spoken [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, origin & Destiny of Nimrod]. Now, eleven of the main lines of people began to spread abroad; the seven from Japheth and the four from Ham. Cush, Phut and Mizra to northeast Africa and Egypt; Canaan to the land of Palestine. Gomer and Javan heading towards the Mediterranean and Magog, Tubal, Meschech and Madai northward to Anatolia or Asia Minor. The majority of Tiras’s descendants heading west into south eastern Europe as Gomer and Javan; but unlike them, continuing westwards via Scotland, Iceland, Greenland and onto North America [refer Chapter III Tiras the Amerindian].

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Peleg meaning Division, Dividing Canal from the verb (palag), to split or divide. Noun (peleg) means channel or canal and noun (pelagga) means stream or division. Nouns (pelugga) and noun (miplagga) mean division.

NOBSE Study Bible Name List and Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names agree: the name Peleg means Division or Divider, although the word is commonly used to denote a channel or canal. Note that this “division of the earth” follows the pattern of the second creation day, in which Joktan represents the waters under the dividing firmament, which eventually produced dry land and all its creatures, while Peleg represents the dividing firmament, which eventually came to house the celestial lights that would lead the living on earth (Genesis 15:5, Daniel 12:3).’

The genealogy of Arphaxad to Abraham is listed in Genesis chapter eleven. Peleg had a son called Reu, born 6827 BCE, according to an unconventional chronology. Reu’s name in Hebrew means, a ‘friend, associate.’ In the Book of Jubilees we read further in chapter 10:18-27.

… Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lomna the daughter of Sina’ar, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Reu; for he said: ‘Behold the children of men have become evil through the wicked purpose of building for themselves a city and a tower in the land of Shinar’ 

…for in his days they built the city and the tower, saying, ‘Go to, let us ascend thereby into heaven.’… And the Lord sent a mighty wind against the tower* and overthrew it upon the earth, and behold it was between Asshur and Babylon in the land of Shinar, and they called its name ‘Overthrow’.

Two points of interest are the dating of the tower of Babel during the time of Peleg and the meaning of Peleg’s name to include a division associated with water. In an unconventional chronology, Peleg was born in 7727 BCE and died 4737 BCE; during the precessional Age of Cancer, from 8810 to 6650 BCE. Human life spans were considerably reduced post-flood though still enormously long compared to the dramatic decrease, which occurred in Abraham’s lifetime some five generations later. Peleg lived for 2,990 years. During this time frame, Nimrod challenges the Eternal and gathered the nations in support of his rebellion; with the Tower of Babel being a literal and symbolic statement of their united defiance. Nimrod had been alive for about a thousand years or longer when Peleg was born. An early date for the confusion of the languages and the dividing of the earth is circa 7275 BCE and a later date is 6232 BCE. Dividing in two gives 6755 BCE. This appears plausible as Nimrod would be still ‘young’ and Peleg about a third of the way through his life. 

This approximate dating supports a gap in history between this event and the sudden ‘[re]appearance’ of the early – but more accurately intermediate – Sumerian Civilisation circa 6000 BCE. It also ties in with the three hundred year transitional period – from 6976 to 6676 BCE – between the Treta Yuga Silver Age and the Dwapara Yuga Bronze Age; the epoch before our current Kali Yuga Iron Age, running from 3676 BCE to 2025 CE. Four short years from the time of writing until we enter another three hundred year transitional period, that also coincides with the Age of Aquarius. Though Aquarius is an air sign, it has a strong connection with water. Cancer, the Age at the time of the earth’s division is a water sign and is a startling coincidence. 

The end of the Kali Yuga in 2015: Unravelling the mysteries of the Yuga Cycle, Bibhu Dev Misra, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The 300 year transitional period between the Treta Yuga (Silver Age) and the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) from 6976 BC – 6676 BC also coincides with a significant environmental event –the Black Sea Catastrophe which has recently been dated to 6700 BC. The Black Sea once used to be a freshwater lake. That is, until the Mediterranean Sea, swollen with melted glacial waters, breached a natural dam, and cut through the narrow Bosphorous Strait, catastrophically flooding the Black Sea. This raised the water levels of the Black Sea by several hundred feet, flooded more than 60,000 square miles of land, and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline (by around 30%). This event fundamentally changed the course of civilization in Southeastern Europe and western Anatolia. Geologists Bill Ryan and Walter Pitman of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York, who had first proposed the Black Sea Catastrophe hypothesis, have gone to the extent of comparing it to Noah’s Flood.

Similar major flooding events were taking place in many parts of the world, as massive glacial lakes, swelled by the waters of the melting ice, breached their ice barriers, and rushed into the surrounding areas. In the book Underworld, Graham Hancock has described some of the terrible events that ravaged the planet during that time. Sometime between 6900 BC – 6200 BC the Laurentide ice-sheet disintegrated in the Hudson Bay and an enormous quantity of glacial waters from the inland Lake Agassiz/Ojibway discharged into the Labrador Sea. This was possibly the “single largest flood of the Quarternary Period”, which may have single-handedly raised global sea-level by half a metre. The period between 7000 BC – 6000 BC was also characterized by the occurrences of gigantic earthquakes in Europe. In northern Sweden, some of these earthquakes caused “waves on the ground”, 10 metres high, referred to as “rock tsunamis”. It is possible that the global chain of cataclysmic events during this transitional period may have been triggered by a single underlying cause, which we are yet to find out.’

The ‘mighty wind’ which the Lord sent against the tower* would most likely have been a detonation of some kind. We will run into a similar scenario in the next chapter when we investigate the life of Lot and the destruction of Sodom with its neighbouring cities some five thousand years after the tower of Babel’s obliteration. A blast of this magnitude may have set off considerable seismic activity, leading to earthquakes and localised flooding throughout the Middle East and well beyond. 

Reu also had a son, called Serug, born 5867 BCE. Serug’s name in Hebrew means, ‘branch’ from the verb sarag to be ‘intertwined.’ Between Serug’s birth and his son Nahor [I], Shem died in 5717 BCE, age 6,120 years and Arphaxad died in 5617 BCE, age 5,100 years [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

Book of Jubilees 11:1-6

… Reu took to himself a wife, and her name was ‘Ora, the daughter of Ur, the son of Kesed, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seroh… And the sons of Noah began to war on each other, to take captive and to slay each other, and to shed the blood of men on the earth, and to eat blood, and to build strong cities, and walls, and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms, and to go to war people against people, and nation against nation, and city against city, and all (began) to do evil, and to acquire arms, and to teach their sons war, and they began to capture cities, and to sell male and female slaves. And Ur, the son of Kesed, built the city of ‘Ara of theChaldees, and called its name after his own name and the name of his father. 

And they made for themselves molten images, and they worshipped each the idol… and they began to make graven images and unclean simulacra, and malignant spirits assisted and seduced (them) into committing transgression and uncleanness. And the prince Mastema [Chief of Spirits]… sent forth other spirits, those which were put under his hand, to do all manner of wrong and sin… to corrupt and destroy, and to shed blood upon the earth. 

For this reason he called the name of Seroh, Serug, for every one turned to do all manner of sin and transgression. And he grew up, and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, near to the father of his wife’s mother, and he worshipped idols, and he took to himself a wife… and her name was Melka, the daughter of Kaber, the daughter of his father’s brother.

Kesed is a family name, as Nahor [II] had a grandson called Chesed. We will return to the people called Chaldees or Chaldeans. Nahor I, Abraham’s grandfather was born in 4967 BCE, while Peleg later died in 4737 BCE. Nahor I died in 2887 BCE, though his son Terah of purported Nimrod fame, was born in 4077 BCE. Terah in Hebrew derives from the verb tarah, meaning: ‘wanderer’ or ‘turn’ and the noun ruah, means, ‘wind, breath’ or ‘spirit.’ 

Book of Jubilees 11:7-14

And she [Melka] bare him Nahor [I]… and he grew and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, and his father taught him the researches of the Chaldeestodivine and augur, according to the signs of heaven. And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was ‘Ijaska, the daughter of Nestag of the Chaldees. And she bare him Terah… And the prince Mastema sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. And the years began to be barren… it was only with great effort that they could save a little of all the fruit of the earth in their days… Terah took to himself a wife, and her name was ‘Edna, the daughter of ‘Abram, the daughter of his father’s sister. And…she bare him a son, and he called his name Abram, by the name of the father of his mother; for he had died before his daughter had conceived a son.

Abram is a family name along with Kesed and Nahor. There are two Nahors. Nahor I the grandfather of Abraham and Nahor II the brother of Abraham. It is Abraham’s brother we are studying and will refer to him simply, as Nahor. In Genesis 11:26, we learn of Terah’s three sons, Abram, later known as Abraham, Nahor and Haran. 

It is similar to Genesis 10:1, where Shem, Ham and Japheth were listed, but in fact Japheth is the eldest and Shem the youngest. Abram is stated first as his descendant would fulfil the Genesis 3:15 prophecy. Though Haran is the eldest and Nahor is in the middle as the second born son of Terah. We will discover that Haran died prematurely and it was territory named after him, where Abraham later dwelt. More importantly, in support for Haran being the eldest is that Nahor married a niece from Haran’s family. Haran had children first and they were marriageable age, for Nahor. Similarly, Abraham also married family. What is not clear superficially, is whose exactly.

Haran was born in 2009 BCE and Abraham was born in 1977 BCE. Nahor was born perhaps circa 1993 BCE. Nahor in Hebrew means: ‘snort’ or ‘scorched’ from the verb nhr, ‘to snort vigorously’ and the root harar, ‘to be a central hub of heat.’ 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The root (harar) describes a society’s central and enclosed source of heat. It thus may express a geographical depression, but more so a being hot and ultimately a being a ruler (whether by might, political clout or wisdom).

Verb (harar I) means to be hot, burned or charred. Noun (harer) denotes a parched place and noun (harhur) describes a violent heat or fever. The unused verb (harar II) means to be free… which is the opposite of being a slave. Noun (hor) means noble or nobleman. The unused verb (harar III) appears to refer to the enclosure of kilns and ovens, as the first ones were most likely built in natural hollows. The noun… (hor)… mean[s] hole or cavern, but obviously relate to the previous word in that freemen surround themselves with walls and armies.

Verb (hara) means to burn or ignite (in the Bible solely in an emotional way: to get angry). Noun (haron) describes the burning of anger. Verb (hawar) means to be or grow white (like ash or baked bricks). Verb (nahar) looks very much like a passive or reflexive version of (harar) or its participle. This verb isn’t used in the Bible but nouns (nahar) and (naharah) describe the vigorous snorting of a horse, and noun (nahir) means nostril (which in turn reminds of a cavern).

Whatever the true etymology and original meaning, to any Hebrew audience the name Nahor would mean both A Snort or A Snorting, and Charred or Scorched, or even Noble or Freeman. For a meaning of the name Nahor… Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads… Breathing Hard.

Joshua 24:2

English Standard Version

And Joshua said to all the people, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Long ago, your fatherslived beyond the Euphrates [Ur of the Chaldees], Terah, the father of Abraham and of Nahor; and they served other gods [Genesis 31:53].

Book of Jasher 9:7-8

7 And the king [of Ur] and all his servants, and Terah with all his household were then the first of those that served gods of wood and stone. 8 And Terah had twelve gods of large size, made of wood and stone, after the twelve months of the year, and he served each one monthly, and every month Terah would bring his meat offering and drink offering to his gods; thus did Terah all the days.

Jubilees 12:1-15

And it came to pass… that Abram said to Terah his father, saying, ‘Father!’ 

And he said, ‘Behold, here am I, my son.’ And he said, ‘What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship,  And before which thou dost bow thyself? For there is no spirit in them, For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart. Worship them not: Worship the God of heaven, Who causes the rain and the dew to descend on the earth And does everything upon the earth, Andhas created everything by His word, And all life is from before His face. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in them? For they are the work of (men’s) hands, And on your shoulders do ye bear them, And ye have no help from them, But they are a great cause of shame to those who make them, And a misleading of the heart to those who worship them: Worship them not.’

And his father said unto him, ‘I also know it, my son, but what shall I do with a people who have made me to serve before them?And if I tell them the truth, they will slay me; for their soul cleaves to them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest they slay thee.’ And these words he spake to his two brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent.

Recall, Terah is recorded as originally serving Nimrod directly at his command, administering the Babylonian religious system resurrected by Nimrod after the Flood with his mother-wife Semiramis – the evil Angel Lilith [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The entanglement of that situation clung to Terah as if he were shrink-wrapped in plastic. This alignment to the mystery religion is beyond coincidental, as Terah’s descendants through Nahor, have continued their unrivalled involvement and allegiance, to the present day. After Nimrod’s demise, Terah maintained an exalted position in Ur with huge strings attached.

To give this up was a monumental request from Abraham. To defy the people who viewed Terah as synonymous with Nimrod’s legacy, was tantamount to death. 

Book of Jasher 7:41, 49-51

41 And he [the king] placed Terah the son of Nahor the prince of his host, and he dignified him and elevated him above all his princes… 49 And Terah the son of Nahor, prince of Nimrod’s host, was in those daysvery great in the sight of the king andhis subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated him very high. 50 And Terah took a wife and her name was Amthelo [Edna in the Book of Jubilees] the daughter of Cornebo; and the wife of Terah [later] conceived and bare him a son… 51 … and Terah called the name of his son that was born to him Abram, because the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his princes that were with him. 

Different sources include Shem, Abraham or Esau as the eventual slayer of Nimrod. If Nimrod was born circa 8700 BCE, it is dubious whether he would still be alive some 7,000 years later when Abram was born in 1977 BCE. Shem died in 5717 BCE and is the only candidate of the the three that makes sense. Nimrod’s days after the failed tower were numbered and his demise in this era would appear logical. We will look at two different versions of the events that transpired surrounding the death of Abram’s eldest brother Haran and his family’s rather hasty departure from Ur in Sumer. The two accounts may be inaccurate or contain elements of what happened. Either way, Abram’s family fled; most likely driven by their dissatisfaction with a religious-political system they no longer could support.  

The Book of Jasher in chapter 8:1-36, enumerates an apparent history between Nimrod and Abraham, which began at his birth. I would propose that it was actually the second king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Shulgi. Shulgi is to Ur as Hammurabi was to Babylon and Chedorlaomer was to Elam [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings]. King Shulgi preceded them both by a few years and was a prominent ruler of his time and the most famous monarch to have reigned from Ur – after his father the renowned Ur-Nammu – and reigned forty-six years from 1970 to 1924 BCE. 

It was in 1927 BCE that Abram’s family departed Ur for Haran – when Abram was fifty years old. Therefore, I have substituted the name of Nimrod with either Ur-Nammu – who reigned from 1988 to 1970 BCE – or Shulgi as applicable, to give the account an element of veracity that it lacks with Nimrod as a king of Ur. Besides, Nimrod had been the king of ancient Babylon, yet the king of Babylon at the time of Abram’s birth in 1977 BCE was the second king of the Amorite, Dynasty I of Babylon Sumu-la-El who began his thirty-five year reign three years earlier in 1980 BCE.

1 And it was in the night that Abram was born, that all the servants of Terah, and all the wise men of [Ur-Nammu], and his conjurors came and ate and drank in the house of Terah, and they rejoiced with him on that night. 

2 And when all the wise men and conjurors went out from the house of Terah, they lifted up their eyes toward heaven that night to look at the stars, and they saw, and behold one very large star came from the east and ran in the heavens, and he swallowed up the four stars from the four sides of the heavens. 

4 And they said to each other, This only betokens the child that has been born to Terah this night, who will grow up and be fruitful, and multiply, and possess all the earth, he and his children for ever, and he and his seed will slay great kings, and inherit their lands. 6 And they spoke and said to each other, Behold the sight that we saw last night is hidden from the king, it has not been made known to him. 7 And should this thing get known to the king in the latter days, he will say to us, Why have you concealed this matter from me, andthen we shall all suffer death; therefore, now let us go and tell the king the sight which we saw, and the interpretation thereof, and we shall then remain clear. 

8 And they did so… and we saw a great star coming from the east, and the same star ran with great speed, and swallowed up four great stars, from the four sides of the heavens. 11 … this thing applies to the child that is born to Terah, who will grow up and multiply greatly, and become powerful, and kill all the kings of the earth, and inherit all their lands, he and his seed forever. 14 And the king heard their words and they seemed good in his sight, and he sent and called for Terah… 15 And the king said to Terah… 16 And now therefore give me the child, that we may slay him before his evil springs up against us, and I will give you for his value, your house full of silver and gold. 28 And Terah saw that the anger of the king was kindled against him, and he answered the king, saying, All that I have is in the king’s power; whatever the king desires to do to his servant, that let him do, yea, even my son, he is in the king’s power, without value in exchange, he and his two brothers that are older than he [Haran and Nahor]. 29 And the king said to Terah, No, but I will purchase your younger son for a price… 

Terah said, Let my king give me three days’ time [3 is the number of decision and finality] till I consider this matter within myself, and consult with my family concerning the words of my king; and he pressed the king greatly to agree to this. 31 And the king hearkened to Terah, and he did so and he gave him three days’ time, and Terah went out from the king’s presence, and he came home to his family and spoke to them all the words of the king; and the people were greatly afraid. 32 And it was in the third day that the king sent to Terah, saying, Send me your son for a price as I spoke to you; and shouldst you not do this, I will send and slay all you hast in your house, so that you shall not even have a dog remaining. 33 And Terah hastened, (as the thing was urgent from the king), and he took a child from one of his servants, which his handmaid had born to him that day, and Terah brought the child to the king and received value for him. 

34 And Yahweh was with Terah in this matter, that [Ur-Nammu] might not cause Abram’s death, and the king took the child from Terah and with all his might dashed his head to the ground, for he thought it had been Abram; and this was concealed from him from that day, and it was forgotten by the king, as it was the will of Providence not to suffer Abram’s death. 35 And Terah took Abram his son secretly, together with his mother and nurse, and he concealed them in a cave, and he brought them their provisions monthly. 36 And Yahweh was with Abram in the cave and he grew up, and Abram was in the cave ten years, and the king [Shulgi] andhis princes, soothsayers andsages, thought that the king [Ur-Nammu] had killed Abram. 

Book of Jubilees 12:1-15:

And in the [fiftieth] year [1927 BCE] of the life of Abram… Abram arose by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in the house and no man knew it. And they arose in the night and sought to save their gods from the midst of the fire. And Haran hasted to save them, but the fire flamed over him, and he was burnt in the fire, and he died [at 82 years of age] in Ur of the Chaldees before Terah his father [who died in 1842 BCE], and they buried [Haran] in Ur of the Chaldees [Sumer]. 

Stalled with the palpable reticence of Terah, Abraham took matters into his own hands. Abraham would later when rescuing Lot, attack and ambush King Chedorlaomer the Elamite and his coalition army by cover of night. This Ur of Chaldea was located south of Babylon, in the area known as Sumer – the southern portion of the Land of Shinar. The descendants of Joktan had primarily dwelt in Sumer and the descendants of Peleg, to the north in Akkadia where the city of Babylon was located.

And Terah went forth from Ur of the Chaldees, he and his sons, to go into the land of [northern] Lebanon… and he dwelt in the land of Haran, and Abram dwelt with Terah his father in Haran [for 25 years, from 1927 to 1902 BCE].

At this point, after the devastating loss of his eldest son Haran, Terah – his name meaning, wanderer – decides to leave Ur and his privileged life behind. They leave to begin a new life, to soften the blow of Haran’s loss as well as possibly concern about retribution from Shulgi the king. Terah may have acted differently if he had known Haran had died at the hands of Abraham. Saying that, the Book of Jasher claims a very different version of events surrounding Haran’s death.

Book of Jasher 11:33-61, 12:1-70

33 And when Abram saw all these things his anger was kindled against his father, and he hastened and took a hatchet in his hand, and came unto the chamber of the gods, and he broke all his father’s gods. 34 And when he had done breaking the images, he placed the hatchet in the hand of the great god which was there before them, and he went out; and Terah his father came home, for he had heard at the door the sound of the striking of the hatchet; so Terah came into the house to know what this was about. 

35 And Terah, having heard the noise of the hatchet in the room of images, ran to the room to the images, and he met Abram going out. 36 And Terah entered the room and found all the idols fallen down and broken… 37 And when Terah saw this his anger was greatly kindled… 38 And he found Abram his son still sitting in the house; and he said to him, What is this work you hast done to my gods? 

… 42 Is there in these gods spirit, soul or powerto do all you hast told me? Are they not wood and stone, and have I not myself made them, and canst you speak such lies, saying that the large god that was with them smote them? It is you that didst place the hatchet in his hands, and then say he smote them all. 43 And Abram answered his father and said to him, And how canst you then serve these idols in whom there is no power to do any thing? Can those idols in which you trust deliver you? can they hear your prayers when you call upon them? Can they deliver you from the hands of your enemies, or will they fight your battles for you against your enemies, that you shouldst serve wood and stone which can neither speak nor hear? 46 Did not our fathers in days of old sin in this matter, and Yahweh the Almighty of the universe brought the waters of the flood upon them and destroyed the whole earth?

52 … and they went and brought Abram before the king. And [Shulgi] and all his princes and servants were that day sitting before him, and Terah sat also before them. 53 And the king said to Abram, What is this that you hast done to your father and to his gods? And Abram answered the king in the words that he spoke to his father… The large god that was with them in the house did to them what you hast heard. 

Abram exhibits a black sense of humour and a level of audaciousness before Shulgi, the son of renowned King Ur-Nammu.

54 And the king said to Abram, Had they power to speak and eat and do as you hast said? And Abram answered the king, saying, And if there be no power in them why dost you serve them and cause the sons of men to err through your follies? 56 O foolish, simple, and ignorant king, woe unto you forever. 60 And if your wicked heart will not hearken to my words to cause you to forsake your evil ways, and to serve the eternal Yahweh, then wilt you die in shame in the latter days, you, your people and all who are connected with you, hearing your words or walking in your evil ways.

1 And when the king heard the words of Abram he ordered him to be put into prison; and Abram was ten days in prison. 3 And the king said to the princes and sages, Have you heard what Abram, the son of Terah, has done to his father? 5 And they all answered the king saying, The man who reviles the king should be hanged upon a tree [a reference to crucifixion]; but having done all the things that he said, and having despised our gods, he must therefore be burned to death, for this is the law in this matter. 6 … And the king did so, and he commanded his servants that they should prepare a fire for three days and three nights in the king’s furnace… and the king ordered them to take Abram from prison and bring him out to be burned [a shadow of Shadrach, Meshach & Abednego: Daniel 3:12-30]. 

7 And all the king’s servants, princes, lords, governors, and judges, and all the inhabitants of the land, about nine hundred thousand men, stood opposite the furnace to see Abram. 8 And all the women and little ones crowded upon the roofs and towers to see what was doing with Abram, and they all stood together at a distance; and there was not a man left that did not come on that day to behold the scene. 9 And when Abram was come, the conjurors of the king and the sages saw Abram, and they cried out to the king, saying, Our sovereign lord, surely this is the man whom we know to have been the child at whose birth the great star swallowed the four stars, which we declared to the king…

10 And behold now his father has also transgressed your commands, and mocked you by bringing you another child, which you didst kill. 11 And when the king heard their words, he was exceedingly wroth, and he ordered Terah to be brought before him. 15 And the king said Who advised you to this? Tell me, do not hide aught from me, and then you shall not die. 16 And Terah was greatly terrified in the king’s presence, and he said to the king, It was Haran my eldest son who advised me to this; and Haran was in those days that Abram was born, two and thirty years old. 17 But Haran did not advise his father to anything, for Terah said this to the king in order to deliver his soul from the king, for he feared greatly; and the king said to Terah, Haran your son who advised you to this shall die through fire with Abram; for the sentence of death is upon him for having rebelled against the king’s desire in doing this thing. 

18 And Haran at that time felt inclined to follow the ways of Abram, but he kept it within himself. 19 And Haran said in his heart, Behold now the king has seized Abram on account of these things which Abram did, and it shall come to pass, that if Abram prevail over the king I will follow him, but if the king prevail I will go after the king. 20 And when Terah had spoken this to the king concerning Haran his son, the king ordered Haran to be seized with Abram. 22 And the king’s servants took Abram and his brother, and they stripped them of all their clothes excepting their lower garments which were upon them. 23 And they bound their hands and feet with linen cords, and the servants of the king lifted them up and cast them both into the furnace.

24And Yahweh loved Abram and he had compassion over him, and Yahweh [the Son of Man] came down and delivered Abram from the fire and he was not burned [just as the Son of God had saved Shadrach and his friends: Daniel 3:25]. 25 But all the cords with which they bound him were burned, while Abram remained and walked about in the fire. 26 And Haran died when they had cast him into the fire, and he was burned to ashes, for his heart was not perfect with Yahweh; and those men who cast him into the fire, the flame of the fire spread over them, and they were burned, and twelve men of them died.

27 And Abram walked in the midst of the fire three days and three nights, and all the servants of the king saw him walking in the fire, and they came and told the king, saying, Behold we have seen Abram walking about in the midst of the fire, and even the lower garments which are upon him are not burned, but the cord with which he was bound is burned. 28 And when the king heard their words his heart fainted and he would not believe them; so he sent other faithful princes to see this matter, and they went and saw it and told it to the king; and the king rose to go and see it, and he saw Abram walking to and fro in the midst of the fire, and he saw Haran’s body burned, andthe king wondered greatly. 

29 And the king ordered Abram to be taken out from the fire; and his servants approached to take him out and they could not, for the fire was round about and the flame ascending toward them from the furnace. 30 And the king’s servants fled from it, and the king rebuked them, saying, Make haste and bring Abram out of the fire that you shall not die. 31 And the servants of the king again approached to bring Abram out, and the flames came upon them and burned their faces so that eight of them died.

32 And when the king saw that his servants could not approach the fire lest they should be burned, the king called to Abram, O servant of Yahweh who is in heaven, go forth from amidst the fire and come hither before me; and Abram hearkened to the voice of the king, and he went forth from the fire and came and stood before the king. 34 And the king said to Abram, How is it that you wast not burned in the fire? 35 And Abram said to the king, Yahweh of heaven and earth in whom I trust and who has all in his power, He delivered me from the fire into which you didst cast me.

36 … And the king, princes, and inhabitants of the land, seeing that Abram was delivered from the fire, they came and bowed down to Abram. 38 And Abram said to them, Do not bow down to me, but bow down to Yahweh of the world who made you, and serve him, and go in his ways for it is he who delivered me from out of this fire, and it is he who created the souls and spirits of all men, and formed man in his mother’s womb, and brought him forth into the world, and it is he who will deliver those who trust in him from all pain. 39 And this thing seemed very wonderful in the eyes of the king and princes, that Abram was saved from the fire and that Haran was burned; and the king gave Abram many presents and he gave him his two head servants from the king’s house; the name of one was Oni and the name of the other was Eliezer. 

40 And all the kings, princes and servants gave Abram many gifts of silver and gold and pearl, and the king and his princes sent him away, and he went in peace. 41 And Abram went forth from the king in peace, and many of the king’s servants followed him, and about three hundred men joined him. 42 And Abram returned on that day and went to his father’s house, he and the men that followed him, and Abram served Yahweh his Almighty all the days of his life, and he walked in his ways and followed his law. 43 And from that day forward Abram inclined the hearts of the sons of men to serve Yahweh. 

57 Now therefore my king, surely you know… since your sages saw this at the birth of Abram, and if my king will suffer Abram to live in the earth it will be to the injury of my lord and king, for all the days that Abram lives neither you nor your kingdom will be established, for this was known formerly at his birth; and why will not my king slay him, that his evil may be kept from you in latter days? 58 And [Shulgi] hearkened to the voice of Anuki, and he sent some of his servants in secret to go and seize Abram, and bring him before the king to suffer death. 59 And Eliezer, Abram’s servant whom the king had given him, was at that time in the presence of the king, and he heard what Anuki had advised the king, and what the king had said to cause Abram’s death. 

60 And Eliezer said to Abram, Hasten, rise up and save your soul, that you may not die through the hands of the king, for thus did he see in a dream concerning you, and thus did Anuki interpret it, and thus also did Anuki advise the king concerning you. 61 And Abram hearkened to the voice of Eliezer, and Abram hastened and ran for safety… and the king’s servants… searched through out the country and he was not to be found, and… the king’s anger against Abram was stilled, as they did not find him, and the king drove from his mind this matter concerning Abram. 63 And Abram… was still afraid of the king; and Terah came to see Abram his son secretly… 64 And Abram said to his father, Dost you not know that the king thinks to slay me, and to annihilate my name from the earth by the advice of his wicked counsellors? 

65 Now whom hast you here and what hast you in this land? Arise, let us go together to the land of Canaan, that we may be delivered from his hand, lest you perish also… 66 Dost you not know or hast you not heard, that it is not through love that [Shulgi] gives you all this honor, but it is only for his benefit that he bestows all this good upon you? 67 And if he do unto you greater good than this, surely these are only vanities of the world, for wealth and riches cannot avail in the day of wrath and anger. 68 Now therefore hearken to my voice, and let us arise and go to the land of Canaan, out of the reach of injury from [Shulgi]; and serve you Yahweh who created you in the earth and it will be well with you; and cast away all the vain things which you pursuest. 70 And Terah hearkened to the voice of his son Abram, and Terah did all that Abram said, for this was from Yahweh, that the king should not cause Abram’s death. 

In this version, it wasn’t Abraham who accidentally killed his brother. Terah had his own firstborn son murdered. It was Terah with the grisly secret to hide. Nor did Terah altogether need Abraham to convince him to leave Ur, for how long before Shulgi’s mind returned to Terah’s betrayal, by hiding Abram after his birth. In each account, the common denominators are a. the death of Haran because he did not have the same relationship with the Eternal as Abram, b. Abram’s dissatisfaction with his fathers’s religious beliefs and allegiance to Ur’s king and his persuading Terah to repent and c. motives for Terah and or Abram to leave Ur behind. This was no mean decision, as Terah’s family were counted as aristocracy; royalty even, as we shall learn about Abraham. It was a complete uprooting and sacrifice to abandon the privileged yet complicated life, titles, standing and influence in Ur. 

The land of Haran, named after Terah’s eldest son Haran, was in a direct line northwest from Ur. Ur was fifty miles south of Babylon. From Ur of the Chaldees to the region of Haran is approximately 600 miles. Haran was located on the edge of southeastern Asia Minor, halfway along the Fertile Crescent between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean and just beyond the northern reaches of the land that became known as Lebanon – the ‘land of Laban’ a grandson of Nahor. Terah and his family did not make it to the final destination of Canaan, deciding to stay in Haran. 

Genesis 11:31

English Standard Version

Terah took Abram his son and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, andSaraihis daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife, and they went forth together from Ur of the Chaldeans to go into the land of Canaan, but when they came to Haran, they settled there.

Book of Jasher 13:1-2 

1 … And when they came as far as the land of Haran they remained there,for it was exceedingly good land for pasture, and of sufficient extent for those who accompanied them. 2 And the people of the land of Haran saw that Abram was good and upright with Yahweh and men, and that Yahweh his Almighty was with him, and some of the people of the land of Haran came and joined Abram, and he taught them the instruction of Yahweh and his ways; and these men remained with Abram in his house and they adhered to him. 

Terah died in Haran – Genesis 11:32. Apart from Haran, there was another city called Ur; though not to be confused with Ur located six hundred miles southeast.

Genesis 11:27-29

English Standard Version

27 Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran fathered Lot. 28 Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his kindred, in Ur of the Chaldeans. 29 And Abram and Nahor took wives. The name of Abram’s wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran the father of Milcah andIscah.30Now Sarai was barren; she had no child.

Nahor married his niece – the daughter of his deceased brother Haran. Haran has three children mentioned in the Bible, Lot, Milcah and the mysterious Iscah. They were all born and raised in the city of Ur in Sumer. Before we turn to Milcah and Nahor, let’s look at Iscah and Sarai.

Genesis 20:9-13

English Standard Version

9 Then Abimelech [the Philistine king] called Abraham [c. 1878 BCE] and said to him, “What have you done to us? And how have I sinned against you, that you have brought on me and my kingdom a great sin? You have done to me things that ought not to be done.” 10 And Abimelech said to Abraham, “What did you see, that you did this thing?” 11 Abraham said, “I did it because I thought,‘There is no fear of God at all in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.’ 12 Besides, she is indeed my [half] sister, the daughter of my father though not the daughter of my mother, and she became my wife. 13 And when God caused me to wander from my father’s house, I said to her,‘This is the kindness you must do me: at every place to which we come, say of me, He is my brother.

Abraham feared he would be murdered for his beautiful wife Sarai – her name was later changed to Sarah. Sarai in Hebrew means, my princess and Sarah, similarly, means princess. He says to Abimelech that she is his half-sister. Yet, we read above in Genesis 11:31, that Sarai was Terah’s daughter-in-law. It does not say that Sarah is Terah’s daughter. Abraham also claims that she has a different mother. We learned in the Book of Jasher that Terah had a wife named Amthelo. The Bible always delineates if a man has more than one wife. It doesn’t say this for Terah. The Book of Jasher states that Terah married again, though later in his old age. Two clear falsifications from Abraham, to add to the original one, of Sarah not being his wife. This situation had already occurred previously when Abraham and Sarah had travelled to Egypt.

Genesis 12:10-20

English Standard Version

10 Now there was a famine in the land. So Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there, for the famine was severe in the land. 11 When he was about to enter Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, “I know that you are a woman beautiful in appearance,12and when the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘This is his wife.’Then they will kill me, but they will let you live. 

13 Say you are my sister, that it may go well with me because of you, and that my life may be spared for your sake.” 14 When Abram entered Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful. 15 And when the princes of Pharaoh saw her, they praised her to Pharaoh. And the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house. 16 And for her sake he dealt well with Abram; and he had sheep, oxen, male donkeys, male servants, female servants, female donkeys, and camels.17 But the Lord afflicted Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. 18 So Pharaoh called Abram and said, “What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife? 19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her for my wife? Now then, here is your wife; take her, and go.” 20 And Pharaoh gave men orders concerning him, and they sent him away with his wife and all that he had.

These two accounts are often highlighted by commentators to show that the highly obedient patriarch to the Creator, lied – twice. Technically, the lie to Abimelech was a half-truth if the story were true. It would be more constructive, if the time spent on critiquing Abraham’s behaviour had been used to question the discrepancy in Abraham and Sarah’s cover story. For Sarah was accomplice in saying that Abraham was her brother. The Pharaoh in question – according to an unconventional chronology and a synchronisation of the Egyptian dynasties – was the third Pharaoh of the I Dynasty, Djer. The meeting took place in 1902 BCE, when Sarah was sixty-five years old and just after Abraham had moved from Haran to Canaan. Djer ruled a united Egypt from 1922 to 1875 BCE.

The only plausible answer, if Sarah was not Terah’s daughter and therefore not Abraham’s sister, is that she is Iscah; the sister of Milcah and the daughter of Haran. In the Talmud, Rabbi Isaac states that Iscah is synonymous with Sarai. Thus, the two sisters, Milcah and Sarai, married the two younger brothers of Haran: Nahor and Abraham. The uncles, married their nieces. In the Book of Leviticus, marriages between aunt and nephew would be later outlawed [Leviticus 18:14, 20:19], though it did not forbid marriage between an uncle and niece, nor deem it incestuous. 

The name Iscah in Hebrew means, one who looks forth. This is interesting, as Sarah was barren, and so ‘one who looks forth’ for a baby, is an apt name.

The Book of Jasher 12:44 & 9:1-6

And at that time Nahor and Abram took unto themselves wives, the daughters of their brother Haran; the wife of Nahor was Milca and the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai. And Sarai, wife of Abram, was barren; she had no offspring in those days. And Haran, the son of Terah, Abram’s oldest brother, took a wife in those days. 2 Haran was thirty-nine years old when he took her; and the wife of Haran conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Lot [born 1970 BCE, seven years after Abraham]. 3 And she conceived again and bare a daughter, and she called her name Milca; and she again conceived and bare a daughter, and she called her name Sarai. 

4 Haran was forty-two years old when he begat Sarai [1967 BCE],which was in the tenth year of the life of Abram; and in those days Abram and his mother and nurse went out from the cave, as the king [Shulgi] and his subjects had forgotten the affair of Abram… and Abram knew Yahweh from three years old, and he went in the ways of Yahweh until the day of his death…

It is interesting to note that Abraham’s nephew was of a similar age. My interpretation of their relationship, their closeness as evidenced with Abraham following Lot when he had been captured, securing his life in a dare devil night time raid; had incorrectly been that they were like father and son. Rather, their ages show that they must have had a relationship akin to brothers. This presumably would have been strengthened with the loss of Lot’s father – when he was forty-three – and Abraham’s eldest brother, Haran. Also, if accurate, Abraham’s tender age highlights that the Eternal was working with Abraham from very young, showing that Abraham was precocious, open minded and humble. Quite often, though not always, it is a reoccurring theme that the Creator works with His true servants either very rarely from before birth; sometimes rarely, from birth; or still infrequently, from when still a child. 

Genesis 22:20-24

English Standard Version

20 Now after these things it was told to Abraham, “Behold, Milcah also has borne children to your brother Nahor: 

21 Uz his firstborn, Buz his brother, Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel.” 23 (Bethuel fathered Rebekah.) [Genesis 24:24] These eight Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother. 

24 Moreover, his concubine, whose name was Reumah, bore Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.

Nahor and Milcah had eight sons. Uz the firstborn, or Huz in some translations and the interlinear version. Buz means ‘to despise’ or ‘hold as insignificant’ and ‘my contempt.’ Huz is similar to Uz and means ‘wood, counsel’ and ‘fastened.’ We briefly covered Uz, the son of Aram and their fastened location in Italy [refer Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil]. The peoples of Italy, are the principal descendants of Nahor. Early in their northern Mesopotamian history, they settled in the same region as sons of Aram – specifically Uz – and that relationship is evident in modernItaly. To reinforce this, Kemuel, the third son is the only one stated with a son, or grandson of Nahor and his name is… Aram.

Nahor also had a concubine called Reumah and she bare four sons to Nahor and so we have a third gene pool to add to Milcah’s sons and the descendants of Uz from Aram. DNA and Haplogroup evidence point to Reumah’s ancestry as being possibly from Arphaxad’s great grandson Joktan. 

Whereas Milcah, as her husband Nahor, were descended from Joktan’s brother Peleg – Genesis 10:25. What is significant, is that the southern Italians and Sicilians are more closely related to Greeks than they are to other Italians. The Greeks themselves are descended from Joktan’s sixth son, Uzal [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans]. It is more than a passing coincidence that variations of Uz, Huz, Buz and Aram from Nahor; Uz from Aram; and Uzal from Joktan, should all be found in the modern Italian nation. 

Therefore the three sections of Italy: North, Central and Southern are represented by Aram, Milcah and Reumah. That said, the descendants of Nahor and Uz from Aram have in part blended, so that northern and central Italy are a mix of the two. Still, PCA graphs reveal that northern Italians are genetically closer to the related peoples from Aram in Spain and Portugal. And while the central Italians sit between the northern and southern Italians; it is the Italians in the north of Italy with which they share more in common.

Apart from Aram, many additional grandson’s of Nahor are listed in the Book of Jasher 22:15-39:

15 And Abraham’s brother Nahor and his father and all belonging to them dwelt in Haran, for they did not come with Abraham to the land of Canaan. 16 And children were born to Nahor which Milca the daughter of Haran, and sister to Sarah, Abraham’s wife, bare to him. 

17 And these are the names of those that were born to him, Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Kesed, Chazo, Pildash, Tidlaf, and Bethuel, being eight sons, these are the children of Milca which she bare to Nahor, Abraham’s brother… 19 And the children that were born to Nahor were twelve sons besides his daughters, and they also had children born to them in Haran.

20 And the children of Uz the first born of Nahor were Abi, Cheref, Gadin, Melus, and Deborahtheir sister. 21 And the sons of Buz were Berachel, Naamath, Sheva, and Madonu. 22 And the sons of Kemuel were Aram and Rechob. 23 And the sons of Kesed were Anamlech, Meshai, Benon and Yifi; and the sons of Chazo were Pildash, Mechiand Opher. 24 And the sons of Pildash were Arud, Chamum, Meredand Moloch. 25 And the sons of Tidlaf [Jidlaph] were Mushan, Cushan and Mutzi.

26 And the children of Bethuel were Sechar, Laban and their sister Rebecca.

27 These are the families of the children of Nahor, that were born to them in Haran; and Aram the son of Kemuel and Rechob his brother went away from Haran, and they found a valley in the land by the river Euphrates. 28 And they built a city there, and they called the name of the city after the name of Pethor the son of Aram, that is Aram Naherayim [near Padan-Aram] unto this day.

29 And the children of Kesed also went to dwell where they could find a place, and they went and they found a valley opposite to the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 30 And they there built themselves a city, and they called the name at the city Kesed after the name of their father, that is the land Kasdim* unto this day, and the Kasdim [Chaldeans] dwelt in that land and they were fruitful and multiplied** exceedingly.

A simplified map of the three main waves of people who entered the Italian Peninsula after the departure of the Romans. They constituted the Heruli, Ostrogoths or eastern Goths and the Lombards; who broadly represent descendants of Joktan, Aram and the branches of Nahor’s family. Anciently, Nahor’s tribes were known as the Chaldees who overthrew Babylon and made it their capital; just as in Italy today and the appropriating of Rome – modern Babylon – as the capital of the Italians.

31 And Terah, father of Nahor and Abraham, went and took another wife in his old age, and her name was Pelilah, and she conceived and bare him a son and he called his name Zoba [1867 BCE]. 32 And Terah lived twenty-five years after he begat Zoba. 33 And Terah died in that year, that is in the thirty-fifth year [1842 BCE] of the birth of Isaac [1877 BCE] son of Abraham… 35 And Zoba the son of Terah lived thirty years [1837 BCE] and he begat Aram, Achlis and Merik. 36 And Aram son of Zoba son of Terah, had three wives and he begat twelve sons and three daughters; and the Lord gave to Aram the son of Zoba, riches and possessions, and abundance of cattle, and flocks and herds, and the man increased** greatly.

And so today, the descendants of Terah and Nahor have been richly blessed as figures show for the economy, standard of living and quality of life of the Italian nation.

37 And Aram the son of Zoba and his brother[s] and all his household journeyed from Haran, and they went to dwell where they should find a place, for their property was too great to remain in Haran; for they could not stop in Haran together with their brethren the children of Nahor. 38 And Aram the son of Zoba went with his brethren [Achlis and Merik], and they found a valley at a distance toward the eastern country and they dwelt there. 39 And they also built a city there, and they called the name thereof Aram, after the name of their eldest brother; that is Aram Zoba to this day.

Aram, Achlis and Merik – sons of Zoba, son of Terah – went to dwell where the sons of Kesed the son of Nahor – Anamlech, Meshai, Benon and Yifi – had gone to dwell. Also, where Aram and Rechob – sons of Kemuel, son of Nahor – had travelled. All three groups dwelt south of Haran and in a vicinity west of Shinar. This region was adjacent to Uz, son of Aram the son of Shem, and is the Padan-Aram where Bethuel’s family also migrated. In essence, this means that the ‘Aramaean’ elements from Nahor and Terah merged with Uz from Aram and form the dual regions of northern and central Italy. 

Kemuel means, ‘congregation of God, God’s rising’ and ‘God’s grain.’ The ancient peoples of Nahor were instrumental in the Babylonian Mystery religion and today it is  continued by the Universal Roman Catholic Church in the smallest state in the world, the Vatican City. Nahor’s people also made the city of Babylon, their own and today that great capital is represented by the city of Rome. Just like the ancient capital of Assyria, Nineveh is replicated today in Moscow [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia]. The other parallel, is that as the sons of Joktan lived in ancient Sumer, the south eastern portion of the Land of Shinar, the descendants of Peleg – mainly comprised of Nahor’s children – lived adjacently to the northwest in Akkad. 

Today, the sons of Joktan live – to the east – adjacent to the Italian Peninsula [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans].

Chesed means, ‘as if it were a; field, mountain, breast, protecting spirit.’ The Alfred Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads for Chesed: Increase. Though for the word Chaldean: ‘as it were demons’. The Hebrew word for Chaldeans is Kashedim* the plural of Chesed. Researchers state that Nahor named his son after the people he came from. That is, an earlier Kesed as mentioned in the Book of Jubilees. Similarly, others claim the word Chaldean or Chaldee does not derive from Chesed; because Chesed is stated in chapter twenty-two of Genesis, whereas the word Chaldean is used in Genesis chapter eleven to describe Abraham’s origination in ‘Ur of the Chaldeans.’ The second view is explained by either post-dated editing, or by the fact it is substantiating the first view raised. 

The line from Arphaxad to Peleg and then to Nahor is just one line of descent. It is recorded in the Bible, that other peoples came from that line. It goes without saying that other sons and daughters were born to all the different families. Family trees grow large very quickly and could not all be recorded in scripture. In the book of Jubilees we read of Peleg’s son Reu. Reu married Ora, the daughter of Ur, who was the son of the earlier Kesed. Both Ur and Kesed were family names. The name Ur first being used in southern Mesopotamia for a city and then again in Haran. The A-kkad-ians and Kashed-im were Arphaxad’s children and so Nahor using the name Kesed was not inexplicable, nor a deliberate attempt to name his son after the Kashedim. It would be like being an English person from England and having either word as your last name as people do today, for instance: John England.

Another point is that the word or prefix Kush, Kash and Kish that was common in the Babylonian region, is more reflective of the original Babylonians – and Assyrians – than that of Cush, descended from Ham as discussed in Chapters XX and XXI. Speaking of family names, the prime repeating name has the prefix Reu. Reu the son of Peleg, just mentioned; Reu-mah the concubine of Nahor and later we will see there is a Reu-el, in the family of Esau – also Jethro the father-in-law of Moses, the priest of Midian who’s name was Reu-el –  and a Reu-ben, the first born son in the family of Jacob.

Nahor’s fifth son’s name Hazo means, ‘seer, vision’ or ‘to see or have a vision.’ Pildash means, ‘steely, flashing steel, fiery iron.’ Jidlaph means, ‘he will weep, he weeps, he drips.’ Bethuel, the father of Rebekah means, ‘man of God, house of God’ and ‘virgin of God.’ There is a religious or pious theme reflected in the definitions of these names. Today, the Italian people are not just staunchly Catholic, it is the heart and headquarters of the Catholic faith. 

The mother of these eight sons, Milcah’s name means, ‘queen’ or ‘counsel.’ Milcah was an ancestor of the patriarch Jacob. Milcah’s son Bethuel moved to Padan-Aram and fathered Rebekah [Genesis 24:15]. 

Milcah’s granddaughter Rebekah, then married Milcah’s nephew Isaac [Genesis 24:67] and gave birth to Jacob [Genesis 25:21], who became Israel. Milcah and her sister Sarah are contrasted in that she conceived a bounty of sons and Sarah was barren. Eventually, Sarah also shared being as an ancestor of Jacob, in that she bore Isaac his father [Genesis 21:1-4]. 

The mother of Nahor’s remaining four sons was Reumah and her name means, ‘exalted’ or ‘wild ox.’ Reumah’s sons names are Tebah, which means, ‘confidence, slaughter’ or ‘butcher.’ Gaham means, ‘flame, burning.’ Tahash means, ‘to hurry’ or ‘hasten.’ Maacah means, ‘oppression, to press’ or ‘squeeze.’ It could be said that these names reflect the Latin temperament.

Nahor moved from Ur of the Chaldees with his father Terah and younger brother Abraham. While they settled in Haran, Nahor dwelt adjacent to Aramean territory, the land of Aram’s son Uz, which became known as Aram Naharaim, founding the city of Nahor.

Genesis 24:10

Young’s Literal Translation

And the servant taketh ten camels of the camels of his lord and goeth, also of all the goods of his lord in his hand, and he riseth, and goeth unto Aram-Naharaim, unto the city of Nahor…

The word Nahar-aimmeans ‘two rivers,’that is, the Euphrates and the Tigris. From Hebrew, it has been translated into Greek as the midst of [two] rivers.

Genesis 25:20

English Standard Version

and Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to be his wife.

The word paddan means ‘area’ in Aramean, thus the name Paddan-Aram could be translated as the region, area – or even field – of the Arameans. The descendants of Nahor are already interchangeably known as Arameans and Syrians. Bethuel had moved away from but still adjacent to the region of Aram-Naharaim.

Genesis 27:43

English Standard Version

Now therefore, my son, obey my voice. Arise, flee to Laban my brother in Haran

Rebekah is speaking to Jacob after he had deceived his father regarding the birthright blessing. Laban was her brother, the son of Bethuel, son of Nahor and was living in Haran. Haran was synonymous with the territory of Padan-Aram, near Aram-Naharaim.

Genesis 29:4-5

English Standard Version

4 Jacob said to them, “My brothers [or cousins], where do you come from?” They said, “We are from Haran.” 5 He said to them, “Do you know Laban the son of Nahor?” They said, “We know him.”

Laban is called the son of Nahor, though the Hebrew word for son can mean a descendant, as in a grandson. Abraham, Lot, the son of Haran and Nahor all dwelt near each other either in Haran which included the northern Ur, Aram-Naharaim or Padan-Aram. Nahor’s descendants in the Bible are collectively called Chaldeans from the word Chaldees, derived from Kashedim, linked to the Hebrew names Kesed and Chesed. They are not called Aramaeans or Syrians from an historical or prophetic viewpoint after the book of Genesis. 

Herman Hoeh in Origin of the Nations states – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Abraham lived among the Chaldeans. One whole book of the Bible – Habakkuk – is entirely devoted to a prophecy concerning the Chaldeans in these latter days! But where are the Chaldeans today? Certainly they are not at ancient Babylon. No one lives there! Notice first where the Chaldeans were. Abraham came from “Ur of the Chaldees”. Ancient Ur was in Mesopotamia. Ur is a shortened name for Urfa. There were once two cities by that name. 

Stephen, in his inspired sermon, makes plain that it was the northern Ur in Mesopotamia from which Abram came (Acts 7:2-3). That is where the Chaldeans first dwelt – over 400 miles northwest of ancient Babylon. Who are these Chaldeans so frequently mentioned in Bible prophecy? Here is the plain, simple explanation recognized by most Hebrew scholars. The word “Chaldean” comes from the Greek. The original Hebrew word is Chasdim, meaning “the people of Chesed”. Notice that Chesed was a common name in the family of Abraham (Genesis 22:22).

Next, consider the original Hebrew word translated in our Bibles as “Arphaxad”. Most biblical encyclopaedias will clearly show that the Hebrew form is Arfachesed MEANING ARFA OR URFA THE CHALDEAN! The Chaldeans come from Arphaxad. They are his children. Abraham was a branch of this stock! The city of Ur was named after Arfa or Urfa, the Chaldean. Chaldean probably means “capturer”, just as Jacob means “supplanter”. The reason that some Chaldeans were later associated with Babylon in Daniel’s time is that a small part of them was later settled by the Assyrians near Babylon. The original inspired Hebrew of Isaiah 23:13 explains this: “Behold, the land of the Chaldeans – this is the people that was not, when Asshur founded it for shipmen”. How clear.

The Chaldeans were divided, not an organized nation. A part of them was transplanted to Babylon. At Babylon they became the ruling class. But the remainder settled farther north around Lake Van, about halfway between the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean. Here they were called Chald[e]ans… Sometimes they were referred to as HURRI or Hurrians, after Haran (Genesis 11:29; 22:20-24). Sometimes they bore the name GUTI, probably meaning “people of God”.’

The Amorites and Kassites; the Guti and Gutium; the Goths and Visigoths; were all descended from Aram as studied in Chapter XXIII. The Ostrogoths or eastern Goths who swept into the Italian Peninsula and partially into the Balkans were related and possibly composed of a mix of the descendants of Nahor and Aram, or predominantly from Nahor. Dr Hoeh raises the point for two locations for the ancient Chaldeans. The fragmented nature of their structure mirrors modern day Italy, which did not form a single unified nation until 1861. The Chaldeans from Nahor are not the same as the Guti from Gether a son of Aram; nor with the Hurrians who descend from Nahor’s elder brother Haran. Similarly, the ancient Mitanni kingdom may have comprised a mixture of Nahor and Uz from Aram, or predominantly the ancestors of the Chaldeans. We will revisit this when we study Haran in the following chapter.

A H Sayce, pages 62-64 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘At a later date the tribe of Kassi obtained a permanent footing in Babylonia and established a dynasty there which lasted for several centuries [circa 1200-800 BCE]. Kassites and Babylonians intermingled together, and the long continuance of Kassite rule has been thought to explain the name of Kasdim given to the inhabitants of Babylonia in the Old Testament. 

Chesed, of which Kasdim is the Hebrew plural, has been explained as Kas-da the country of the Kassites… it is quite as easy to derive Kasdim from the Assyrian verb Kasddu to conquer so that the Kasidi or Kasdim would be the Kassite conquerors of the Chaldaean plain.In the Septuagint the Hebrew word Kasdim is translated… Chaldaeans… Chaldaean and Babylonian had become synonymous terms, and Babylonia had come to be known as Chaldaea…’

I am not convinced the Kassites were one and the same with the Chaldeans; rather I  consider them a division of Aram. The Kassites migrated from the east, from a similar location as the Guti. The Kassites, in direction of travel and time-frame, do not sit squarely enough to identify as the Chaldeans. The Kassites rose to prominence in the south of Mesopotamia at the same time as the Mitanni were rising in the north. The major accomplishment of the Kassites was to unify Mesopotamian culture, centred around Babylon, instead of continuing the separate independence of the surrounding city-states. This paved the way for the Chaldeans to rule a strong capital in Babylon and a unified region of neighbouring cities.

Dynasty X from 626 to 539 BCE was the most famous ruling dynasty of the Chaldeans and included Nebuchadnezzar II, who features prominently in the Old Testament. The first king Nabopolassar – who reigned from 626 to 605 BCE – was a native of Babylon, who drove out the Assyrians and re-established an independent Babylonian kingdom. His son, Nebuchadnezzar ruled from 605 to 562 BCE and it was he, who took the Kingdom of Judah into captivity. He was succeeded by his son, Amel-Marduk [565-560 BCE]. His reign was short-lived as the throne was usurped by Nebuchadnezzar’s son-in-law Neriglissar from 560 to 556 BCE. Then his son Labashi-Marduk, briefly reigned in 556 BCE, who in turn had the throne usurped by another possible son [Daniel 5:2,11,13,18] of Nebuchadnezzar, Nabonidus [556-539 BCE]. 

Nabonidus ruled until the fall of Babylon, at the hands of Cyrus the Great and the Medo-Persian empire [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes and Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. This tumultuous sequence of toppled regimes is reminiscent of modern day Italian government and its frequent changes of ruling political parties and prime minsters.  In 2019, Italy had sixty-nine governments since the end of World War II, with an average of nearly one every year, each lasting on average for merely thirteen months. It ‘is a revolving door like no other in Europe.’

The Chaldeans are mentioned in a large number of scriptures in the Bible.

Isaiah 23:13

New English Translation

Look at the land of the Chaldeans, these people who have lost their identity! The Assyrians have made it a home for wild animals. They erected their siege towers, demolished its fortresses, and turned it into a heap of ruins.

The Chaldeans had originally transformed Babylon and Babylonia into a wealthy, prosperous region. Assyrian rule left it impoverished and powerless.

Habakkuk 1:6

English Standard Version

For behold, I am raising up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation [Latin temperament], who march through the breadth of the earth to seize dwellings not their own.

Job 1:17

Amplified Bible

17 While he was still speaking, another [messenger] also came and said, “The Chaldeans formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and have taken them away and have killed the servants with the edge of the sword, and I alone have escaped to tell you.” 

Ezra 5:11-13

English Standard Version

11 And this was their reply to us: ‘We are the servants [tribes of Judah and Benjamin] of the God of heaven and earth, and we are rebuilding the house that was built many years ago, which a great king of Israel [Solomon] built and finished. 12 But because our fathers had angered the God of heaven, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house and carried away the people to Babylonia. 13 However, in the first year of Cyrus king of Babylon, Cyrus the king made a decree that this house of God should be rebuilt.’

Ezekiel 23:14-17, 23

English Standard Version

14 … She [Kingdom of Judah] saw men portrayed on the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed in vermilion, 15 wearing belts on their waists, with flowing turbans on their heads, all of them having the appearance of officers, a likeness of Babylonians whose native land was Chaldea. 16 When she saw them, she lusted after them and sent messengers to them in Chaldea. 17 And the Babylonians came to her into the bed of love, and they defiled her with their whoring lust. And after she was defiled by them, she turned from them in disgust. 23 the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod [visitation] and Shoa [rich] and Koa [cutting off]… 

The vermillion is reminiscent of the crimson worn by Cardinals in the Vatican. The next passage laments the fall of Babylon to the Medes. The Chaldeans were zealous, religious and deeply steeped in astrology, the occult and the mystery religion. Plus, the Chaldeans were renowned for their cultural influence and artistic talent. Just as modern Italy led the renaissance and is a global influencer in cuisine, fashion, art and film. This might explain the focus on the feminine aspect describing their empire in the Book of Isaiah. 

Isaiah chapter forty-seven, is similar to the verses we read regarding the Prince and the ‘King’ of Tyre in Ezekiel twenty-eight [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The description of the fall of ancient Babylon, runs in tandem with the descriptions in the Book of Revelation regarding future Babylon. 

Also, the Queen forevermore, I am, and there is no one besides me, is none other than the original Queen of Heaven, Asherah. Her wisdom – pride and knowledge – from which the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil derives, led her astray. This path was chosen by her desire to stay in the blended spirit and physical realm, where she was a god and pseudo-creator. This is what was offered by trickery to Eve – a descent wholly from spirit to the physical with no way back.

Isaiah 47:1-15

Amplified Bible

‘“Come down and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon; Sit on the ground [in abject humiliation]; there is no throne for you, O daughter of the Chaldeans, For you will no longer be called tender and delicate. 2 “Take millstones [as a female slave does]and grind meal; Remove your veil, strip off the skirt, Uncover the leg, cross the rivers [at the command of your captors]. 3 “Your nakedness will be uncovered, Your shame will also be exposed; I will take vengeance and will spare no man.” 4 Our Redeemer [will do all this], the Lord of hosts is His name, The Holy One of Israel. 5 “Sit in silence, and go into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; For you will no longer be called The queen of kingdoms. 

6 “I was angry with My people, I profaned [Judah] My inheritance And gave them into your hand [Babylon]. You showed them no mercy; You made your yoke very heavy on the aged. 7 “And you said, ‘I shall be a queen [H1404 – gbereth: ‘lady, mistress’ from root H1376 – gbiyr: ‘lord, ruler’] forevermore [H5769 – olam: ‘perpetual, continuous existence, unending’].’ You did not consider these things, Nor did you [seriously] remember the [ultimate] outcome of such conduct. 8 “Now, then, hear this, you who live a luxuriant life, You who dwell safely and securely, Who say in your heart (mind), ‘I am [the queen],and there is no one besides me. I shall not sit as a widow, Nor know the loss of children.’ 9 “But these two things shall come to you abruptly, in one day: Loss of children and widowhood. They will come on you in full measure In spite of your many [claims of power through your] sorceries, In spite of the great power of your enchantments. 

10 “For you [Babylon] have trusted and felt confident in your wickedness; you have said, No one sees me.’[as with Samael, ‘blinded of God’] Your wisdom [Matthew 10:16 ESV “… so be wise as serpents…] and your knowledge [Genesis 3:6 Amplified Bible “And when the woman saw that the tree was… to be desired in order to make one wise and insightful (knowledgable) ] have led you astray, And you have said in your heart (mind),‘I am, and there is no one besides me [H657 ‘ephec & H656 ‘aphec, meaning: ‘to cease, come to an end, be clean gone, fail, finality, end, at an end’].’ 

[Exodus 3:14 ESV “God [elohiym, a God, not the God] said to Moses, “I am [H1961 hayah & H1933 hava, meaning: ‘to fall, to become, to happen, to come about, to come to pass. to appear, to arise, to come into being, to be instituted, to be established, to be brought about, to be, to exist’] who I am. {or I will be what I will be}” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I am has sent me to you.’” Either an evasive, cryptic and somewhat derisive reply or just honest, blunt and to the point].

The Name of God as revealed in Exodus 3:14, An explanation of its meaning,K J Cronin – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Moses was quite understandably anticipating what the Israelites would say to him when he told them that their God had sent him to them. The first thing he anticipated them asking for was the name of their God, YHWH, which if Moses had not known would have proved that he was not sent by Him. 

It would, therefore, have been a perfectly reasonable and practical question for the Israelites to ask. As for Moses’ question of Exodus 3:13, “What should I say to them?”, we need only keep in mind one certainty to understand what Moses was asking for in these words. That certainty is that Moses already knew of the existence of a Divine name in Israelite tradition when he asked this question of God. We know this for certain because Moses refers to a Divine name in Israelite tradition immediately before he asks the question of God. It is very unlikely that he could have been aware of the existence of a Divine name without being aware of what it was and so I believe that we can say with certainty that Moses knew the name YHWH before he asked his question of Exodus 3:13. Moreover, we are informed that as a young man Moses regarded the Hebrews in his midst as his kinsfolk (Exodus 2:11). It is very unlikely that he would not have known the most important feature of his kinsfolk’s religion – the proper name of their God – and so our certainty is confirmed that Moses knew the name YHWH before asking the question of Exodus 3:13. Furthermore, his father-in-law in Midian was a priest (Exodus 2:16) and as such would surely have known the names of the most prominent regional deities amongst whom YHWH would have been counted, which also confirms our certainty that Moses would have known the name YHWH before he asked the question of Exodus 3:13. Bearing in mind these three points the question of Exodus 3:13 can perhaps best be understood as Moses saying to God “I know that You have a proper name, and I even know what that name is, but I still want direction from You as to how I should respond to the Israelites if they ask me for Your name”.

In response to his question Moses received what was no doubt more than he had expected when he asked the question of God, just as the Israelites received more than they could have expected when they asked Moses for the name of their God. Neither Moses nor the Israelites could have expected to receive two names in response to their respective questions but that is what they did receive.

For his part Moses received two answers to his question of Exodus 3:13, or two parts of the one answer, one of them in Exodus 3:14 and one in Exodus 3:15. He was told that when the Israelites ask him for the name of the God who sent him to them, he was first to say that ehyeh had sent him to them (3:14b) and he was then to say that YHWH had sent him to them (3:15). Both words are clearly intended to be understood as answers to the same question because the sentence structure in the two verses is identical, they have a shared vocabulary and there is only one question being answered.

Irrespective of the widespread opinion that these verses are attributable to the Elhoistic source, the entire passage is written with great care and deliberation and is clearly intended to be read and understood precisely as we find it. 

Considered in this way, and as the bold-type text makes clear, the most important difference between the two answers Moses receives to his question is that in the position where Exodus 3:14b has the word ehyeh, Exodus 3:15 has the name YHWH. Both are identified as sending Moses to the Israelites and because there is only one God doing the sending both must be names of the God of Israel. Moreover the word ehyeh is a first person singular of the verb, which means that as a name it can only be one by which God knows Himself; a Personal name. Therefore Ehyeh must be the Personal name of God and YHWH His proper name.It will be recalled that this conclusion is supported by the interpretations of Recanati, Rashbam, Ibn Ezra, Sarna and Buber among others.’

11 “Therefore disaster will come on you; You will not know how to make it disappear [with your magic]. And disaster will fall on you For which you cannot atone [with all your offerings to your gods]; And destruction about which you do not know Will come on you suddenly. 12 “Persist, then, [Babylon] in your enchantments And your many sorceries With which you have labored from your youth; Perhaps you will be able to profit [from them], Perhaps you may prevail and cause trembling. 

13  “You are wearied by your many counsels. Just let the astrologers, The stargazers, Those who predict by the new moons [each month]Stand up and save you from the things that will come upon you [Babylon]. 14 “In fact, they are like stubble; Fire burns them. They cannot save themselves from the power of the flame [much less save the nation], There is no blazing coal for warming Nor fire before which to sit! 15 “This is how they have become to you, those [astrologers and sorcerers] with whom you have labored, Those who have done business with you from your youth; Each has wandered in his own way. There is no one to save you.’

This passage in Isaiah chapter forty-seven is dual in intention and loaded with meaning. We have read regarding Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and the stature of gold, silver, brass, iron and clay in preceding chapters. The first five chapters of the Book of Daniel are dedicated to the Chaldean empire; with the first four relating to King Nebuchadnezzar himself. The king’s astrologers were not able to recount the dream, let alone explain it. Daniel had it revealed to him by the Creator through Gabriel [Daniel 9:21] and explains:

Daniel 2:1-2, 31-38 

English Standard Version

In the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar had dreams; his spirit was troubled, and his sleep left him. 2 Then the king commanded that the magicians, the enchanters, the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans be summoned to tell the king his dreams. 31 You saw, O king, and behold, a great image. This image, mighty and of exceeding brightness, stood before you, and its appearance was frightening. 32 The head of this image was of fine gold… 

37 You, O king, the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, and the might, and the glory, 38 and into whose hand he has given, wherever they dwell, the children of man, the beasts of the field, and the birds of the heavens, making you rule over them all – you are the head of gold

Recall, the Medo-Persian Empire [Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes and Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey] was the chest and arms of silver and one of the legs of iron was the Byzantine Empire, the eastern leg of the Roman Empire [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia]. The feet and toes of iron and clay are a spirit-human mix. Daniel 2:43 says: ‘As you saw the iron mixed with soft clay, so they will mix with one another in marriage – by the seed of men – but they will not hold together, just as iron does not mix with clay. The Chaldean empire was the most cultured, refined and resplendent of the six kingdoms described or predicted. It remained shorter than the ones that followed and was not as militarily dominant as evidenced by the softer, though more valuable element of gold.

Another description of Nebuchadnezzar’s empire is in the Book of Daniel in chapter seven. We have previously covered the Medo-Persian empire, the second kingdom being described as a bear and also in chapter eight as a ram; the fourth kingdom, of which the Byzantium empire constitutes half of, being described in chapter seven as a ‘terrible beast with ten horns.’

Daniel 7:1-4, 17

English Standard Version

In the first year of Belshazzar [Nabonidus 556 BCE] king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream and visions of his head as he lay in his bed. Then he wrote down the dream and told the sum of the matter. 2 Daniel declared, “I saw in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds of heaven were stirring up the great sea. 3 And four great beasts came up out of the sea, different from one another. The first was like a lion and had eagles’ wings. Then as I looked its wings were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the ground and made to stand on two feet like a man, and the mind of a man was given to it.  17 ‘These four great beasts are four kings who shall arise out of the earth.’

The lion – or a bull with a human head, known as a Lamassu – with eagles wings is a prevalent animal hybrid symbol in Chaldean history. It is also seen sometimes in Asshur’s  monuments as well Lud’s. Today, it is frequently seen in none other than Italy. The symbol of Saint Mark of Venice is a prime example.

In Daniel chapter four we read of Nebuchadnezzar’s greatness, his pride, his being humbled through madness and then his subsequent acknowledgment of the Creator for all that he had been given. The tree described, is a parallel analogy of the restraint of Asherah [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

… I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in you [Daniel] and that no mystery is too difficult for you, tell me the visions of my dream that I saw and their interpretation. 10 The visions of my head as I lay in bed were these… [Daniel] answered and said… The tree you saw, which grew and became strong, so that its top reached to heaven, and it was visible to the end of the whole earth, 21 whose leaves were beautiful and its fruit abundant, and in which was food for all, under which beasts of the field found shade, and in whose branches the birds of the heavens lived – 22 it is you, O king, who have grown and become strong. Your greatness has grown and reaches to heaven, and your dominion to the ends of the earth. 

23 And because the king saw a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven and saying, ‘Chop down the tree anddestroy it, but leave the stump of its roots in the earth, bound with a band of iron and bronze, in the tender grass of the field, and let him be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts of the field, till seven periods of time pass over him…’

27 Therefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you: break off your sins by practicing righteousness, and your iniquities by showing mercy to the oppressed, that there may perhaps be a lengthening of your prosperity.” 29 At the end of twelve months he was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon, 30 and the king answered and said, “Is not this great Babylon, whichI have built by my mighty power as a royal residenceand for the glory ofmy majesty?” 

31 While the words were still in the king’s mouth, there fell a voice from heaven, “O King Nebuchadnezzar, to you it is spoken: The kingdom has departed from you… until you know that the Most High rules the kingdom of men and gives it to whom he will.” 33 Immediately the word was fulfilled against Nebuchadnezzar. He was driven from among men and ate grass like an ox, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven till his hair grew as long as eagles’ feathers, and his nails were like birds’ claws.

34 At the end of the days [seven years] I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me, andI blessed the Most High,and praised and honored him who lives forever …35 all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, and he does according to his will among the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand or say to him, “What have you done?” 36 At the same time my reason returned to me, and for the glory of my kingdom, my majesty and splendor returned to me. My counselors and my lords sought me, and I was established in my kingdom, and still more greatness was added to me [like Job]. 37 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven, for all his works are right and his ways are just; andthose who walk in pride he is able to humble.

Prior to looking at the golden age of the Chaldeans, we will look at their ancient ancestors and clarify an important scholarly debate. We have noted the sons of Canaan; as the original inhabitants of the land of Canaan – with the Nephilim and Elioud giants. In time, other peoples came to be known by the names of some of the sons of Canaan. We have seen this with the Amorites and how that name became more well known for the blond Arameans, than it did for the darker-skinned Amor-ites from Canaan. 

A case in point is Heth. We have studied the original Heth, living in Hamath and now equating to modern Nigeria [refer Chapter XII Canaan & Africa]. In time there were a light-skinned people called Hittites. Where it becomes complex, is that these Hittites inherited the name of Hatti, not from the original Heth of Canaan, but rather from the Chaldeans, who were known as Chatti. To further complicate the issue, historians have associated Khatti and Kheta or Khetae with the Kittim, to then conclude that the Hatti and Hittites were tawny-skinned Asiatics descended from the Kittim of Javan. Kitti and present day Indonesia, is not the true identity of the Hatti or the Hittites.

We will study the Hittites in detail, for their imprint and impact on the world has been monumental in successive re-incarnations throughout history. Regarding the Hatti and the Hittites, the New World Encyclopaedia states, emphasis and bold mine:

‘”Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Bogazkoy in north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium B.C.E. The Hittite kingdom, or at least its core region, was apparently called Hatti in the reconstructed Hittite language. 

However, the Hittites should be distinguished from the “Hattians,” an earlier people who inhabited the same region until the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E., and spoke a non-Indo-European language conventionally called Hattic.

Hittites or more recently, Hethites is also the common English name of a Biblical people, who are also called Children of Heth. These people are mentioned several times in the Old Testament, from the time of the Patriarchs up to Ezra’s return from Babylonian captivity of Judah. The archaeologists who discovered the Anatolian Hittites in the nineteenth century initially believed the two peoples to be the same, but this identification remains disputed.

Around 2000 B.C.E., the region centered in Hattusa that would later become the core of the Hittite kingdom was inhabited by people with a distinct culture who spoke a non-Indo-European language. The name “Hattic” is used by Anatolianists to distinguish this language from the Indo-European Hittite language, that appeared on the scene at the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. and became the administrative language of the Hittite kingdom over the next six or seven centuries. 

As noted above, “Hittite” is a modern convention for referring to this language. The native term was Nesili, i.e. “in the language of Nesa.” The early Hittites, whose prior whereabouts are unknown, borrowed heavily from the pre-existing Hattian culture, and also from that of the Assyrian traders – in particular, the cuneiform writing and the use of cylindrical seals. Since Hattic continued to be used in the Hittite kingdom for religious purposes [a trait of the Chaldeans], and there is substantial continuity between the two cultures, it is not known whether the Hattic speakers – the Hattians – were displaced by the speakers of Hittite, were absorbed by them, or just adopted their language.’

To summarise the aforementioned quote: Two different, successive peoples dwelt in ancient Anatolia, with different languages, the Hatti and Hattic, a non-Indo-European language and then the Hittites, speaking Hittite an Indo-European language. The Hittites are definitely not the same as the sons of Heth, or Hethites from Canaan. Identifying them as one and the same, is a false premise which is correct to remain disputed amongst scholars. We will learn definitively once we study the Hittites, that the Hatti – the future Chaldeans – did not adopt the Hittite language nor did they become absorbed into the Hittite civilisation. Rather, the Hatti were displaced by the encroaching Hittites.

Amazing Bible Time Line – emphasis & bold mine:

It is a matter of considerable scholarly debate whether the biblical “Hittites” signified any or all of: 1) the original Hattites of Hatti; [no they do not] 2) their Indo-European conquerors (Nesili), who retained the name “Hatti” for Central Anatolia, and are today referred to as the “Hittites” (the subject of this article); [yes, they are the same] or 3) a Canaanite group who may or may not have been related to either or both of the Anatolian groups, and who also may or may not be identical with the later Neo-Hittite, Luwian polities [redundant]

Other biblical scholars have argued that rather than being connected with Heth, son of Canaan, [Heth and the Hittites are different] instead the Anatolian land of Hatti was mentioned in Old Testament literature and apocrypha as “Kittim” (Chittim), [incorrect] a people said to be named for a son of Javan.’

Sarah wife of Abraham. Fairy tale or Real History? Gerard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Hittites who lived in Syria, and sometimes in Canaan, wanted to define themselves by their genealogical link “people from the land of Heth” as does the Bible (Genesis 26:34; 36:2), the original land being likely the region around Hat(ti)-tusa (Hattusa). According to the Bible, when Joshua entered the Promised Land (in 1493 BCE) [1407 BC] he expelled a number of nations, including the Hittites. These Hittites were located north of Syria. The few scattered references that we have to Hantili’s reign (1500-1495) indicate that he intended on maintaining Hittite influence on Syria. The Hittites, south of Euphrates, mentioned in the time of Joshua and Hantili I, are therefore the same. 

The Hittites met by Abraham were not quite the same as those of Joshua 37 since they are identified as sons of Heth, not Hittites. In the biblical narrative (Genesis 23:2-10), Ephron (“of a calf”), son of Zohar (“tawny”), was not a Hittite in the usual manner because his birth name and that of his father are not Hittite but Canaanite, implying that they had been settled in this region for a long time.’ 

Yes… Ephron was an original son of Heth, a son of Canaan, an African with dark skin.

Consequently the history of Hittites is complex, its official beginning is the period called Early Empire (c. 1530 BCE) but previously there was a period called Hattian period, with 3 ancestors kingdoms, those of Hattusa, Kanesh and Carchemish. Those ancient Hittites, called Hattians by scholars or sons of Heth, son of Canaan in Genesis 10:15, were [incorrectly called] the ancestors of the Hittites.’ 

The sons of Heth – black people – were not the ancestors of the Hittites; nor were the Hattians. The Hittites are related to the Hattians, but the Hattians are not the ancestors of the Hittites. Heth, Hatti and the Hittites are three separate, distinct peoples. Egyptian depictions of the Battle of Kadesh, show long-nosed Hattian soldiers, while the Hittite leaders look different; highlighting two different peoples.

Ancient history can be hazy for all cultures and empires with information largely based on king lists and inscriptions on tablets, steles and so forth. The Akkadian kingdom in central Mesopotamia, the northern half of the land of Shinar with Sumer, the older civilisation in the south, fascinates; yet their rise and fall are cloaked in shadows. After the Tower of Babel, all peoples dispersed eventually. The sons of Shem stayed closer to the main theatre of events, for longer. The Akkadians were the main body of Peleg’s side of Arphaxad’s family tree and later Sumer were from Joktan [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans]. 

The Amurru or Amorites from the northwest, circa 1994 BCE and the Gutians – both Aramaean peoples – from the east, circa 2067 BCE had invaded the region, with Terah and his family living further south, in northern Sumer at this time. Accad is listed in Genesis chapter ten with Babel, Erech and Calneh as the beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom. The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between 2224 and 2064 BCE, following the conquests of its founder the great Sargon during 2224 to 2169 BCE. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was imposed on the neighbouring conquered states of Elam, the Guti and the Martu – or Amurru. Sargon had also defeated Sumer, Canaan and the Assyrians. Akkad is regarded as the first empire in recent ‘ancient’ history. 

Sargon claimed he did not know his father and that his mother was a changeling. A changeling is believed to be a fairy which has been left in place of a human, who has been stolen by fairies. Other sources say his mother was La’ibum or Itti-Bel, either a humble gardener, a hierodule – ‘a slave-prostitute living in a temple and dedicated to the service of a god’ – or a priestess to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar – Inanna in Sumer. Sargon was originally a Rabshakeh, orcupbearer to a king of Kish, Ur-Zababa – Kish as in Khatti, not from Cush.

After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually split into two major Akkadian speaking nations; Assyria in the upper north, and a few centuries later, Babylonia to its south. The third Dynasty of Ur from 1988 to 1882 BCE was founded by Ur-Namma or Ur-Nammu. Ur-Nammu became king after serving as governor to his father and Ur-Nammu – notice family name of Ur – was the first king to use the title, King of Sumer and Akkad. Ur-Nammu is credited with building the ziggurats at Ur and Uruk. The Code of Ur-Nammu, parallels the later Code of Hammurabi [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings]. The phrase: There will come a king of the four quarters of the earth, originated from Akkadian soothsaying.

During the same time period of the preeminenceof Akkad- from 2224 to 2039 BCE the kingdom of the Hatti existed in western Asia Minor – as evidenced by Hittite and Assyrian records. The structure of archeological finds in sites like Hattush, reveal a highly developed culture, with distinct social classes. The Hattians were organised ‘in monarchial city-states. These states were ruled as theocratic kingdoms or principalities.’ A theocracy is ‘a system of government by priests claiming a divine commission’ and ‘a form of government in which a deity is recognised as the supreme civil ruler, the deity’s laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities.’ The Pope and Cardinals of the Vatican, bearing a more than coincidental similarity.

The pantheon of gods in Hatti, included the storm god Taru, represented by a bull and the sun goddess Furusemu, represented by a leopard, amongst other symbols. Certain reliefs show a female figure giving birth to a bull; as the the mother goddess Kattahha was mother to the storm god Taru [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America]. 

Ancient symbols are often replicated in modern insignias by businesses and sports teams. For instance, the famous Italian sports car marque, Lamborghini. 

The Hittites incorporated much of the Hattian pantheon into their own religious beliefs. James Mellaart proposed that the Hattian ‘religion revolved around a water-from-the-earth concept. Pictorial and written sources show that the deity of paramount importance to the inhabitants of Anatolia was the terrestrial water-god. The Hittite legends of Telipinu and the serpentine dragon Illuyanka found their origin in the Hattian civilization.’

World History Encyclopaedia, Hatti, Joshua J Mark 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Hatti… migrated to the area sometime prior to 2400 BCE. The region was known as ‘Land of the Hatti’ from c. 2350 BCE until 630 BCE, attesting to the influence of the Hattian culture there.  Controlling a significant number of city states and small kingdoms, they had established lucrative trade with the region of Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) by the year 2700 BCE. The historian Erdal Yavuz writes: ‘Besides the timber and stone essential for construction, but deficient in Mesopotamia, Anatolia had rich mines which provided copper, silver, iron, and gold.’ Their trade with the cities of Mesopotamia enriched the region and helped to develop their kingdom. The historian Marc Van De Mieroop includes the Hatti among the nations… in the diplomatic and trade consortium he refers to as The Club of the Great Powers… it, included Mitanni, Babylonia, Assyria, Hattiand Egypt…

In 2500 BCE the Hatti established their capital high on a hill at the city of Hattusa [Seven Hills of Rome]and held lands securely in the surrounding areas, administering laws and regulating trade in a number of neighboring states. Between c. 2334-2279 BCE the great Sargon of Akkad invaded the region after sacking the city of Ur in 2330 BCE. He then turned his attention to Hattusa but failed to gain an advantage over the city’s defences which were especially strong in that it was located high on a well-defended and fortified plateau. 

Following Sargon’s campaigns in the region, his grandson Naram-Sin (2261-2224 BCE) continued his policies, fighting against the Hattic King Pamba late in the 23rd century BCE with as little success as his grandfather had. In spite of the constant harassment from the Akkadians, Hattic art flourished around 2200 BCE and, by 2000 BCE, their civilization was at its height with prosperous trading colonies established between Hattusa and their other city of Kanesh and, of course, continuing trade relations with Mesopotamia.

In 1700 BCE, the Kingdom of the Hatti was again invaded, this time by the Hittites, and the great city of Hattusa was stormed and destroyed by a king named Anitta from the neighboring Kingdom of Kussara. Excavations at the site show that the city was burned to the ground. King Anitta had such contempt for the city he had vanquished that he cursed the ground and further cursed whoever should re-build Hattusa and try to rule there. Even so, not long after, the city was re-built and re-populated by a later king of Kussara who called himself Hattusili [I]. 

Whoever the Hatti originally were, or where they came from, remains a mystery in the modern day owing to the… the lack of ancient records. The actual nature of the relationship between the Hatti and the Hittites remains a mystery in the modern day and waits on the discovery of ancient documentation to be resolved.’

Joshua Mark confirms the distinction between the Hatti and Hittites; admitting the lack of historical information regarding their relationship. When we study the Hittites, the relationship will become clearly apparent. The dates he provides are all earlier than Nahor’s life, for he was not born until circa 1993 BCE. These Hatti were ante-descendants of Nahor, descending from Peleg.

Later, the Chaldeans dwelt near the coastal area of the Persian Gulf and had not been  entirely subjugated by the Assyrians. In 630 BCE Nabopolassar became king of the Chaldeans and by 626 BCE he had forced the Assyrians out of Uruk and crowned himself king of Babylonia. He endeavoured to destroy Assyria, while at the same time, to restore the dilapidated network of canals in the neighbouring cities of and including, Babylon. 

As the Babylonians had grown tired of Assyrian rule and weary of internal struggles, they were easily persuaded to submit to the new Chaldean king. The result was a rapid social and economic consolidation, assisted by the fact that after the fall of Assyria, no external enemy threatened Babylonia for decades. In the cities, the temples were an important part of the economy and the business class regained its strength in the trades, commerce, livestock breeding as well as in agriculture. The collapse of the Assyrian empire, had meant many trade arteries were rerouted through Babylonia with the city of Babylon emerging as a world centre.

Naboploassar had fought the Assyrian King Ashur-uballiṭ II and then turned his attention against Egypt; his successes alternating with defeats. In 605 BCE Nabopolassar died in Babylon. 

Nabopolassar had named his oldest son Nabu-kudurri-usur, after the famous king of the second dynasty of Isin. He was trained carefully for his future kingship and shared responsibilities with his father. When Nabopolassar died, Nebuchadnezzar II was with his army in Syria. He had just crushingly defeated the Egyptians near Carchemish in a bloody battle and was pursuing them toward the south. He returned immediately to Babylon on hearing the news of his father’s death. Nebuchadnezzar’s numerous building inscriptions enumerate his many wars, most of them interestingly, ending with prayers

Nebuchadnezzar continued to frequently campaign in Syria in the bid to drive out the Egyptians. In 604 BCE he took the Philistine city of Ashkelon and attacked Palestine at the end of 598 BCE. King Jehoiakim of Judah had rebelled and was relying on aid from Egypt. Even so, Jerusalem was won on March 16, 597 BCE. Jehoiakim died during the siege, and his son, King Johoiachin, together with at least 3,000 people from Judah, were led into exile in Babylonia. The captives were treated well, according to document records.

Judah rebelled again in 589 BCE and Jerusalem was placed under siege. The city finally fell during 587 and 586 BCE and was completely destroyed. Many thousands from Judah and Benjamin were forced into Babylonian exile. The former Kingdom of Judah, was reduced to a province of the Babylonian empire. The revolt had been caused by an Egyptian invasion which pushed as far north as Sidon. Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Tyre for thirteen years without taking the city, as he had no decisive winning fleet at his disposal. In 568 and 567 BCE he attacked Egypt, again without much success, but from that time on the Egyptians refrained from further attacks on Palestine. 

Nebuchadnezzar was at peace with Media throughout his reign and he was a mediator after the Median-Lydian war which lasted five years from 590 to 585 BCE. The Babylonian empire under Nebuchadnezzar grew, becoming one of the richest lands in western Asia – a remarkable transformation as it had been rather poor when it was ruled by the Assyrians. Babylon was the largest city of the civilised world. Nebuchadnezzar maintained the revitalised canal systems of his father and built many supplementary canals, making the land even more fertile; with trade and commerce booming during his reign.

Nebuchadnezzar’s building efforts easily surpassed those of most of the Assyrian kings before him. He fortified the old double walls of Babylon, adding a triple wall outside the old wall and erected a further wall, the Median Wall, north of the city between the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. According to Greek estimates, the Median Wall was about one hundred feet high. Nebuchadnezzar enlarged the original palace, ‘adding many wings, so that hundreds of rooms with large inner courts were now at the disposal of the central offices of the empire. Colourful glazed-tile bas-reliefs decorated the walls. Terrace gardens, called the Hanging Gardens in later accounts, were [built]. Hundreds of thousands of workers are thought to have been required for all his ambitious building  projects.’

Britannica- emphasis & bold mine:

The temples were objects of special concern. He devoted himself first and foremost to the completion of Etemenanki, the “Tower of babel.” Construction of this building began in the time of Nebuchadrezzar I about 1110 [BCE]. It stood as a “building ruin” until the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria, who resumed building about 680 but did not finish. [Nebuchadnezzar] II was able to complete the whole building. The mean dimensions of Etemenanki are to be found in the Esagila Tablet, which has been known since the late 19th century. Its base measured about 300 feet on each side, and it was 300 feet in height. There were five terrace like gradations surmounted by a temple, the whole tower being about twice the height of those of other temples. The wide street used for processions led along the eastern side by the inner city walls and crossed at the enormous Ishtar gate with its world-renowned bas-relief tiles. [Nebuchadnezzar] also built many smaller temples throughout the country.

The [last] king [of Dynasty X] was the Aramaean Nabonidus… [556–539 BCE] from Harran, one of the most interesting and enigmatic figures of ancient times. His mother, Addagoppe, was a priestess of the god Sin in Harran; she came to Babylon and managed to secure responsible offices for her son at court. The god of the moon rewarded her piety with a long life – she lived to be 103 – and she was buried in Harran with all the honours of a queen in 547 [BCE]. 

His viceroy in Babylonia was his son Bel-shar-usur, the Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel in the Bible. Cyrus… [annexed] Media in 550. Nabonidus, in turn, allied himself with Croesus of Lydia [Lud] in order to fight Cyrus. Yet, when Cyrus attacked Lydia and annexed it in 546, Nabonidus was not able to help Croesus. Cyrus bode his time. In 542 Nabonidus returned to Babylonia, where his son had been able to maintain good order in external matters but had not overcome a growing internal opposition to his father. He appointed his daughter to be high priestess of the god Sin in Ur, thus returning to the Sumerian-Old Babylonian religious tradition. 

The priests of Marduk looked to Cyrus, hoping to have better relations with him than with Nabonidus; they promised Cyrus the surrender of Babylon without a fight if he would grant them their privileges in return. In 539 [BCE] Cyrus [I] attacked northern Babylonia with a large army, defeating Nabonidus, and entered the city of Babylon without a battle. The other cities did not offer any resistance either. Nabonidus surrendered, receiving a small territory in eastern Iran. Babylonia’s peaceful submission to Cyrus saved it from the fate of Assyria. It became a territory under the Persian crown but kept its cultural autonomy. Even the racially mixed western part of the Babylonian empire submitted without resistance.’

King Nebuchadnezzar was reportedly a very short man, though he overshadowed his height with his personality and achievements.

Nebuchadnezzar II king of Babylonia, Henry W F Saggs – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Nebuchadnezzar II… is known from cuneiform inscriptions, the Bible and later Jewish sources, and classical authors. His name, from the Akkadian Nabu-kudurri-usur, means “O  Nabu, watch over my heir.” While his father disclaimed royal descent, Nebuchadnezzar claimed the third-millennium Akkadian ruler Naram-Sin as ancestor. The year of his birth is uncertain, but it is not likely to have been before 630 BCE, for according to tradition Nebuchadnezzar began his military career as a young man, appearing as a military administrator by 610. He is first mentioned by his father as working as a labourer in the restoration of the temple of Marduk, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia.

After his father’s death on August 16, 605, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon and ascended the throne within three weeks. This rapid consolidation of his accession and the fact that he could return to Syria shortly afterward reflected his strong grip on the empire. Much influenced by the Assyrian imperial tradition, Nebuchadnezzar consciously pursued a policy of expansion, claiming the grant of universal kingship by Marduk and praying to have “no opponent from horizon to sky.”

Nebuchadnezzar’s main activity, other than as military commander, was the rebuilding of Babylon. He completed and extended fortifications begun by his father, built a great moat and a new outer defense wall, paved the ceremonial Processional Way with limestone, rebuilt and embellished the principal temples, and cut canals. This he did not only for his own glorification but also in honour of the gods. He claimed to be “the one who set in the mouth of the people reverence for the great gods” and disparaged predecessors who had built palaces elsewhere than at Babylon and had only journeyed there for the New Year Feast. Little is known of his family life beyond the tradition that he married a Median princess, whose yearning for her native terrain he sought to ease by creating gardens simulating hills.

Despite the fateful part he played in Judah’s history, Nebuchadnezzar is seen in Jewish tradition in a predominantly favourable light. It was claimed that he gave orders for the protection of Jeremiah, who regarded him as God’s appointed instrument whom it was impiety to disobey, and the prophet Ezekiel expressed a similar view at the attack on Tyre. A corresponding attitude to Nebuchadnezzar, as God’s instrument against wrongdoers, occurs in the Apocrypha in 1 Esdras and, as protector to be prayed for, in Baruch. In Daniel (Old Testament) and in Bel and the Dragon (Apocrypha), Nebuchadnezzar appears as a man, initially deceived by bad advisers, who welcomes the situation in which truth is triumphant and God is vindicated.

In modern times Nebuchadnezzar has been treated as the type of godless conqueror; Napoleon was compared to him. The story of Nebuchadnezzar is the basis of Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Nabucco [the coincidence of a modern Italian (Chaldean) writing about an ancient Chaldean (Italian)], while his supposed madness is the theme of William Blake’s picture “Nebuchadnezzar.”’

Did King Nebuchadnezzar Really Go Mad and Eat Grass for 7 Years? David Roos, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II is one of the greatest villains of the Hebrew Bible… In… 2 Kings, Nebuchadnezzar and his army lay siege to Jerusalem, loot gold and other treasures from the temple, abduct the Judean king and his court, and carry off 10,000 officers, artisans and skilled workers into exile in Babylon. Ten years later, Nebuchadnezzar returns and razes Solomon’s temple to the ground. And in another unforgettable story in Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar is punished for his hubris and wanders the wilderness like a beast eating grass for seven years.

The question is: Did any of this really happen? For centuries, historians and biblical scholars have searched for clues about the real-life Nebuchadnezzar II… We know from the archaeological record that Nebuchadnezzar was a master builder, raising Babylon to a grandeur unmatched in the ancient Near East. But was Nebuchadnezzar really the tyrant who sacked Jerusalem and sent the Judeans into exile, and is there any truth to the Bible’s account of his “bestial” bout with madness?’

“Nebuchadnezzar is one of those characters in the Bible for whom we have an enormous amount of data from non-biblical sources,” says Eckart Frahm, a professor of Near Eastern languages and civilizations at Yale University. “There’s just a tremendous amount of material.”

‘Archaeologists have recovered tens of thousands of clay tablets and other inscribed objects from sites across the ancient Babylonian Empire, which stretched from the Mediterranean Sea (modern-day Egypt and Israel) to the Persian Gulf (Iraq, Iran and Kuwait). They were written in cuneiform and include everything from royal proclamations to accounting documents. “Among [these texts] are many, many inscriptions written in Nebuchadnezzar’s own name,” says Frahm, “and obviously in these texts he presents himself not as a villain, but as the ‘great builder.’ He’s very eager to indicate that he built these massive temples and palaces, and that he’s also very pious. He confesses that he’s constantly thinking of the gods when building temples to them.”

Nebuchadnezzar doesn’t write anything about his political or military exploits, but some important details were captured in a remarkable set of clay tablets known as the Babylonian Chronicles.’

Or, it may have been the measure of the man, why Nebuchadnezzar chose to leave these aspects of pride in his life in the background and reflect on those of higher altruistic value. Nebuchadnezzar as recoded in the Book of Daniel had a change of heart after his affliction with madness – Daniel 4:34-37. His self image was humbled to include a relationship with a Creator who had opened his mind to understand and appreciate the matters that carry important consequence. 

In 2 Kings, we learn that the Judean King Jehoiakim refused to pay tribute to Babylon, so Nebuchanezzar invaded Judah to quash the rebellion. The Babylonian Chronicles confirm this, and provide an exact date for the conquest of Jerusalem (597 B.C.E.)’

“There’s no reason to doubt that this really happened,” says Frahm of both the first Babylonian siege in 597 B.C.E. and the second in 587 B.C.E. “On both occasions, many people in Jerusalem were in fact taken into exile, including the royal family.”

‘King Jehoiakim died either before or during the siege, leaving his 18-year-old son Jehoiachin to taste Nebuchadnezzar’s wrath. Along with the young king and his extended royal family, thousands of Jerusalem’s elites – officials, priests, warriors, artisans – were all marched to Babylon. In the early 20th century, archaeologists excavating beneath the ruins of an ancient Babylonian palace found 14 vaulted rooms they first believed to be part of the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, but later figured out were part of a royal storehouse. In that storehouse were more clay tablets, mostly records of the day-to-day affairs of the palace. And among those tablets was a 3-inch tall fragment containing the name Jehoiakhin, king of Judah.” The fragment turned out to be part of a “ration list” indicating how much oil and foodstuffs were given to King Jehoiachin and his exiled Judean court in Babylon.”That was a remarkable find,” says Frahm. The ration list specifically mentions Jehoiachin, other Judean dignitaries and Jehoiachin’s five sons. The quantities of the rations were sizable…    

So where does this leave the famous story of Nebuchadnezzar losing his marbles and eating grass for seven years? [author allows his prejudice to spill over into derogatory sarcasm] Are there also hints in the historical record?… Nebuchadnezzar has a disturbing dream that none of his court magicians could interpret, so he asks Daniel, a young exiled Judean known as a visionary. To Daniel, the dream is clear: If Nebuchadnezzar doesn’t repent and praise the one true God, he will be stricken with a madness that will cause him to wander the wilderness like a beast. Incredibly, there is an independent record of a Babylonian king going mad and wandering in the wilderness for years. But it wasn’t Nebuchadnezzar, says Frahm. In Babylonian texts, the “mad king” was Nabonidus, a king who ruled two decades after Nebuchadnezzar and ended up losing the Babylonian Empire to the Persians.’

The author places too much confidence in the suppositions of Frahm; as well as reading the Babylonian text at face value. Why would an otherwise impressive record of Nebuchadnezzar’s achievements be tarnished with a the sensitive episode of a sustained mental breakdown, or the fact he converted to worship the ‘God’ of the tribe of Judah? Easy to pin the story on a later, lesser king, if such is the case?

‘According to the records, King Nabonidus replaced the Babylonian gods with a new moon god and then led his troops on a strange campaign into the Arabian Desert to attack some towns, including Yathrib, the later Medina. 

He then dwelled the next 10 years in the Arabian city of Tayma. “This sojourn of Nabonidus in Arabia for 10 years is clearly the background of the story of Nebuchadnezzar in the wilderness,”says Frahm. There’s even physical proof of the Nabonidus story also being tied to a Hebrew sage. Four fragments discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls contained what’s now known as the Prayer of Nabonidus: I was afflicted [with an evil ulcer] for seven years…and an exorcist pardoned my sins. He was a Jew from among the [children of the exile of Judah, and said,] “Recount this in writing to [glorify and exalt] the Name of the [Most High God].” 

Frahm says that the “exorcist” in the Nabonidus account is clearly Daniel, and it’s easy to understand why the authors of Daniel would have substituted the “tyrant” Nebuchadnezzarin their retelling. “In this theology, where you have to be punished for the sins you committed, it makes sense that it’s Nebuchadnezzar and not Nabonidus who is said to have had this strange episode,” says Frahm.’

It would seem that this parallel yet, different account is about Nabonidus. An exorcist and ulcer are not part of Nebuchadnezzar’s story. Frahm has made sizeable jumps in assumption which are not necessarily true.

‘The Hebrew Bible is an incredible document, not only for the faithful, but for historians like Frahm. In books like 2 Kings and Jeremiah, there are accounts of Nebuchadnezzar and later Babylonian kings that have been independently confirmed by ancient cuneiform tablets recovered from Babylonian sites. But then you have the [story] in Daniel about… Nebuchadnezzar’s dreams and being cursed with a seven-year madness, all of which Frahm describes not as history, but literature [can’t have it both ways; either both are fiction or both are historical accounts]. What does the example of Nebuchadnezzar teach us about the historicity of the Bible? That it’s neither entirely factual nor entirely made up, Frahm says. “You have to look at the details,” says Frahm. “When we have these independent sources, as we do for the sixth century B.C.E., you do have a good chance of figuring out what is historically correct and what is later theological interpretation [this line of reasoning is circular, flimsy and biased].”’

Roos appears keen to discredit the biblical account and promote Frahm’s interpretation of the Babylonian texts. By Frahm’s own admission, he states the name of Nebuchadnezzar has been substituted with Nabonidus. If true, this would not be hard to understand and has support for two reasons. Firstly, Nebuchadnezzar II was the most prominent and successful ruler of the Chaldean Dynasty X of Babylon. Why besmirch his legacy and renown with an account of madness? It was easy to transfer this episode to a weak king who was the last king of the dynasty; whom let the kingdom slide away irrevocably to the Medes & Persians. 

Secondly, the Bible is clear that Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar had an involved and complex relationship. They have the starring roles in the first four chapters of the Book of Daniel. There is just the one chapter devoted to Daniel and Nabonidus and one does not find as close a relationship portrayed. 

Nor does Nabonidus appear to have any affinity with the Eternal as Nebuchadnezzar before him; therefore the Babylonian text accounts if accurate, do not align with the Bible and are to be mistrusted before the Book of Daniel.

Italian men

Forwarding some five hundred years, Germanic tribes are credited with originating from a homeland in southern Scandinavia – modern day Sweden and Norway – including the Jutland area in northern Denmark and a narrow strip of Baltic coastline. The East Germanic Goths were one of the first of the Germanic tribes to form a recognised kingdom and Jordanes states, according to Dio: ‘the Goths were ever wiser than other barbarians and were nearly like the Greeks.’ This is more than coincidental, in that the eastern Goths are closely related to the people we will study as the Greeks in the next chapter.

Those of noble birth amongst the Goths – from whom their kings and priests were appointed – were first known as Tarabostesei. The word ‘tarabostesei’ with its suffixes removed leaves tarabost. The first part, tara can have several meanings, including ‘bull’ or ‘fast.’ Recall the storm god of the Hatti, Taru the bull. The second half, ‘bost’ means ‘hand’ or ‘fist’.

The Goths were constantly attended by a subject tribe, the Heruli who later emerged in Italy as part of the Gothic kingdom of Rome, and to an extent by the Scirii as well. Edward Dawson proposes that there is a distinct possibility that the Goth name emerged as a result of Gaulish [Celtic] influence on a tribal name which derived from Woden or Wodan. ‘The use of Godan instead of Wodan by the Langobard tribe is [key], given the known tendency of Gaulish to convert a ‘w’ into a ‘gw’ or ‘gu’ sound. 

It then appears that Wodan [from Odin], Goth, and God are cognates.’ The people of Guti, Goth, or God.

The Ostrogoths, or Eastern Goths, dominated a vast swathe of what is now southern Russia and Ukraine by the mid-third century. In the Old English epic poem Widsith, the Ostrogoths are known as the Hreo-Gotum or Victory Goths. They migrated through eastern Europe and southwards through modern day Poland. In 487 CE the Scirian commander of Rome, Odoacer, defeated the Rugli tribe, long time allies of the Ostrogoths. This presented a future threat for Italy, with the Langobards migrating into the Rugli homelands in Lower Austria. Theodoric the Great, led the Ostrogothic invasion of Italy, supported by elements of the Rugli. Over throwing Rome and ruling from 493 to 526.

Italian women

The Langobards or Langobardi were the other significant body of people to invade and settle in Italy; who had originated in northwestern Germany from the 1st century CE and later migrated above northern Silesia – now western Poland as part of the Suevi or Suebi confederation of tribes. Recall, the Suevi continued on into the Iberian Peninsula and settled in Portugal [refer Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil]. The Suebi comprised Hul and Mash, sons of Aram. It is probable that they, like the Goths had earlier origins in southern Scandinavia and were forced to migrate due to population expansion. They were also known by their original ethnic name, the Winnili  – ‘Winn’ Germanic for ‘striving’ or ‘being victorious’.

In 415, continuing to wander – recall Terah’s name means, wanderer – from Poland, the Langobards had entered Vurgundaib. This is thought to be the original lands of the Burgundians – who eventually settled in present day Switzerland – located in the northern Carpathians. 

Their westwards journey by the tail end of the fifth century lead to the area equating with modern Austria. They began to attack the established order in Italy from 568 CE; invading northern Italy and surrounding the ‘island’ dominion in Venice. The Langobards, were now known as Lombards and they filled a void left by the demise of the Ostrogoth kingdom at the hands of Byzantium. 

The Lombards occupied territory which had been home to various Celtic tribes since the sixth century BCE, almost unopposed. Their attacks badly affected Rome, cutting it off from the Byzantine empire. Unlike the Ostrogoths, the Lombards did not seek to preserve the ancient Roman methods of governance. Their kingdom in the north and the independent Lombard duchies to the south in central Italy, added a Germanic essence to the peninsula which had begun with the Goth’s arrival. 

This highlights the distinction between the northern and north central Italians with the latinised south Central and southern Italians. The Lombards from the north descending from Aram’s son Uz and the Goths from Nahor’s wife Milcah. Whereas, the southern Italians and Sicilians contain a mixture from Nahor’s concubine Reumah and Joktan’s children, such as Uzal, the progenitor of the modern Greeks. Somewhere in this mix is Terah’s other son, Zoba and his son Aram.

The biggest city in southern Italy is Naples, with some three million people. The biggest city in central Italy is the capital Rome, with approximately four million people. The biggest city in northern Italy and the fashion capital of the world, Milan – though the French would beg to differ – has three million people. It is the capital of the Lombardy region, houses the Italian stock exchange, the Borsa Italiana and has the third largest economy according to GDP after the cities of London and Paris.

During 584 to 585, the Lombards invaded the Merovingian Frankish region of Provence. Returning in kind, the Frankish king of Austrasia, Childebert II and Guntramn, king of Burgundy, invaded Lombard Italy, or Lombardy as it came to be known. They captured Trent and opened negotiations with the eastern Roman emperor with the probable view, of carving up Italy between them. The Lombards, fearing Frankish domination, elected a new king called Authari, to end their disunity after ten years of rule by various Dukes. In 590, Authari was succeeded by Agilulf, the Duke of Turin, who was able to recover most of the portions of land that had been lost to the Frankish-Byzantine alliance. The Lombards, like the Visigioths of Spain were Arians, though they later converted to orthodox christianity in the latter part of the seventh century [refer Chapter XV the Philistines: Latino-Hispano America]. 

The invasion of papal territories by the Lombard kings Aistulf [749–756] and Desiderius [756–774] compelled Pope Adrian I to seek aid from the Frankish king Charlemagne. The Franks entered Italy in 773 and after a year’s siege Pavia fell to their armies. Desiderius was captured and Charlemagne became king of the Lombards as well as of the Franks. Lombard rule in Italy came to an end in 774. 

In a momentous and astute act, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne head of the Holy Roman Empire on December 25, 800 CE.

In the 1200s, powerful city-states – indicative of the ancient Chaldeans – began to develop throughout Italy including Florence, Milan, Venice, and Naples. The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy in the 1300s. The Lombards of Florence or Firenze, are credited with initialising banks and the system of banking. From these Princedoms, famous merchant families arose such as the Medici in Florence, who then formed political dynasties. 

Italy is responsible for driving the arts, sciences and exploration forward with massive worldwide impact; a precursor to the age of discovery, later joined by Portugal and Spain. Famous influencers, included: Galileo, Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Volta, Dante, Ariosto, Verdi and Vivaldi. Today, Italian artists, writers, designers, musicians, chefs, actors and filmmakers have added immeasurably to global art and culture.

In 1796, Northern Italy was conquered by Napoleon and incorporated into the French Empire. Later in 1805, Napoleon declared Italy a kingdom. Subsequently in 1814, Napoleon was defeated and Italy was divided up into small states. In 1815, the process of reunification began and in 1871, the Kingdom of Italy was established for the second time. Rome and Venice had been separate states, but by 1866, Venice became part of Italy and by 1871, most of Italy including Rome was included as one united kingdom. The key personalities in achieving unification were General Garibaldi, spear heading the campaign in Naples and Sicily, the Count of Cavour who led the government of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardina for the Northern Italian monarchy and Victor Emmanuel II – who became the first king of the united Italy.

‘From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.’ Many Italians migrated to Brazil – as well as Argentina, Uruguay and the United States.

Italy’s geographic shape resembles a boot. The other boot that completes the pair exists elsewhere. During World War I, Italy fought on the side of the Allies, though under the rule of the fascist leader Benito Mussolini, it waged war against the Allied powers in World War II. From 1945, Italy has had a multiparty system dominated by two large parties: the Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Communist Party. 

In the early 1990s the Italian party system underwent a radical transformation and the political centre collapsed, leaving a right and left polarisation of the party options which threw the north and south divide of Italy into sharper contrast and gave rise to political leaders like media magnate Silvio Berlusconi. 

Italy is considered to be one of the world’s most culturally and economically advanced countries,with 60,230,454 people. It is the third largest economy in the European Union, in the top ten in the world according to national wealth and the third largest with a central bank gold reserve, behind the United States and Germany. Italy has 2,451.8 tonnes of gold which equates to 69.3 percent of its foreign reserves. Italy has maintained the size of its reserves over a long period. 

Mario Draghi, a former Bank of Italy and also European Central Bank governor, ‘when asked by a reporter in 2013 what role gold plays in a central bank’s portfolio, answered that the metal was “a reserve of safety,” adding, “it gives you a fairly good protection against fluctuations against the dollar.”’ Recall that the Chaldeans were represented by the head of gold in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. 

Italy ‘ranks very highly in life expectancy [due to its mediterranean diet], quality of life, healthcare and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power and a great power, and is ranked the world’s eighth most-powerful military. 

Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union… the country has long been a global centre of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion, and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking and business.As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to the world’s largest number of World Heritage sites (55), and is the fifth-most visited country’ in the world. The Chaldeans were one of the foremost cultured civilisations, just as Italy is today.

Italy is a member of the elite group of G7 nations; comprising the most advanced, developed and biggest economies in the world – excepting the burgeoning economies of the BRIC nations, comprising Brazil, Russia, India and China. These four as we have learned, represent the most prominent descendants from Japheth, Ham and Shem in the scriptures, in that they represent Tyre from Aram, Asshur or the Assyrians, Cush or biblically translated as Ethiopia and Magog, Tubal and Meschech. Japan is the one non-European nation in the seven, though by irony is the most westernised nation of those from the East just as Tarshish was anciently [refer Chapter IX Tarshish & Japan]. Italy is one of the four influential nations from Europe and as we shall discover, is closely related to them all – France, Germany and the United Kingdom – for they are all descended from either Nahor or one of his brothers, Haran and Abraham. 

There are numerous theories on the etymology of the name Italia. One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Viteliu, ‘land of calves’ which in Latin is vitulus. Nahor’s concubine Reumah’s name, included wild ox as a meaning. The daughters of Laban, a grandson of Nahor, both married Jacob, Abraham’s grandson. Leah’s name includes, wild cow in her name’s meaning and her younger sister Rachel, includes ewe, a female sheep in hers.

Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi the most prominent maritime republics. The strong shipping tradition is indicative of the sons of Aram.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Italian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$108.1 billion 
  2. Vehicles: $45.4 billion
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $37.7 billion 
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $36.7 billion
  5. Plastics, plastic articles: $26.3 billion 
  6. Articles of iron or steel: $21.3 billion
  7. Gems, precious metals: $20.8 billion 
  8. Mineral fuels including oil: $19.6 billion 
  9. Iron, steel: $19.2 billion 
  10. Furniture, bedding, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings: $15.8 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 75.3% from 2020 to 2021. That product category was propelled by Italy’s greater international sales of refined petroleum oils. In second place for improving export sales was iron and steel as materials via a 72.9% gain. Italy’s shipments of articles made from iron or steel posted the third-fastest acceleration in value, up by 28.2%.’
The world’s eighth largest economy according to GDP belongs to Italy, at an even $2.00 trillion in 2019. Italy’s economy and level of development vary notably by region, with a more developed, industrial economy in the north contrasted by underdeveloped southern regions. Italy’s second biggest export is automobiles, including several famous brands such as Fiat, Ferrari, Lamborghini, Alfa Romeo and Maserati. One of Italy’s most famous exports is clothing, which includes world-famous brands like Versace, Gucci, Giorgio Armani and Prada. 

The flags of Italy, Venice and the Vatican City

Did you know that Italians have the most diverse DNA in Europe? L’Italo Americano, Giulia Franceschini, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘We usually say that America is a melting pot of cultures and races, but did you know that, according to genetic research, Italy may be just as varied? The study was carried out by a team of researchers from Rome’s Universita La Sapienza, in collaboration with the universities of Bologna, Cagliari and Pisa, and led by anthropologist Giovanni Destro Bisol in 2014. Its main findings show that Italian DNA has from 7 to 30 times more differences than those registered between the Portuguese andthe Hungarians. This variety is present everywhere, from North to South and includes also Italy’s islands, Sardinia and Sicily. In other words, Bisol et al.’s research shows that Italians have a higher level of diversity among themselves than populations living at opposite corners of the continent.’ 

The diagram below is a good example of the difference between those peoples descended from Ham’s son Mizra in North Africa and the Middle East [refer Chapter XIV Mizra: North Africa & Arabia] – below 0.0 y axis – and the peoples of Europe descending in the main from Shem’s son Arphaxad – above 0.0 y axis. It also shows the east to west gradient divide studied in the preceding chapter. The red markers show the similarity between Eastern Europeans such as Poles and Ukrainians with south eastern Europeans like Romanians and Greeks, who all descend from Joktan and are positioned less than 0.0 x axis. The Blue of southern Italy is the inter-connection between Eastern and Western Europe showing both their similarly with each half of the continent, yet also their uniqueness. Their markers lie predominantly above 0.0 x axis, as befits the the majority of Italian descent from Peleg or Aram over Joktan.

Genetic History of Ethnic Italians, unknown author, 2017:

‘In… recent decades there has been a huge increase in the study of human genetics. Practically it has substituted the banned (after WW2) studies on human races. Now we don’t divide world populations because of their eyes and/or hair color, but because of their so called genetic “haplogroup”.’ 

Ratio of blond haired people in Italy, with yellow shading over 20% of the population and black below 2.4% of the population. Highlighting the difference between the Teutonic [Aramaic] north; the Gothic [Chaldean] Centre; and the Latin [Joktan] south.

Eupedia explains the Y-DNA Haplogroup correlation for blond hair, red hair and blue eyes.

‘Fair hair was another physical trait associated with the Indo-Europeans. In contrast, the genes for blue eyes were already present among Mesolithic Europeans belonging to Y-haplogroup I [I1, I2a1 & I2a2]. The genes for blond hair are more strongly correlated with the distribution of haplogroup R1a, but those for red hair have not been found in Europe before the Bronze Age, and appear to have been spread primarily by R1b people.’

United States National Library of Medicine, Is eye color determined by genetics? – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘A person’s eye color results from pigmentation of a structure called the iris, which surrounds the small black hole in the center of the eye (the pupil) and helps control how much light can enter the eye. The color of the iris ranges on a continuum from very light blue to dark brown. 

Most of the time eye color is categorized as blue, green/hazel, or brown. Brown is the most frequent eye color worldwide. Lighter eye colors, such as blue and green, are found almost exclusively among people of European ancestry.

Eye color is determined by variations in a person’s genes. Most of the genes associated with eye color are involved in the production, transport, or storage of a pigment called melanin. Eye color is directly related to the amount and quality of melanin in the front layers of the iris. People with brown eyes have a large amount of melanin in the iris, while people with blue eyes have much less of this pigment.

A particular region on chromosome 15 plays a major role in eye color. Within this region, there are two genes located very close together: OCA2 and HERC2. The protein produced from the OCA2 gene, known as the P protein, is involved in the maturation of melanosomes, which are cellular structures that produce and store melanin. The P protein therefore plays a crucial role in the amount and quality of melanin that is present in the iris. Several common variations (polymorphisms) in the OCA2 gene reduce the amount of functional P protein that is produced. Less P protein means that less melanin is present in the iris, leading to blue eyes instead of brown in people with a polymorphism in this gene.

A region of the nearby HERC2 gene known as intron 86 contains a segment of DNA that controls the activity (expression) of the OCA2 gene, turning it on or off as needed. At least one polymorphism in this area of the HERC2 gene has been shown to reduce the expression of OCA2, which leads to less melanin in the iris and lighter-colored eyes.

Several other genes play smaller roles in determining eye color. Some of these genes are also involved in skin and hair coloring. Genes with reported roles in eye color include ASIP, IRF4, SLC24A4, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, and TYRP1. The effects of these genes likely combine with those of OCA2 and HERC2 to produce a continuum of eye colors in different people.’

As with fairer coloured hair, lighter eyes predominate ing the northern regions of Italy. In previous chapters, particularly with the descendants of Shem, there have been sometimes irregular patterns in which nations are more closely related with other countries when comparing mitochondrial DNA inherited from mothers, or Y chromosome DNA inherited from fathers. 

As Franceschini states, there is wide diversification in Italy from north to south. We will compare the mtDNA from several regions now we recognise the three component parts of Italy: north, central and southern Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia. Specific regions chosen to reflect these three sections are the highest population areas of Lombardy in the north, Tuscany, Latium or Lazio in Central Italy and Campania and Sicily in the south.

Lombardy: H [38.4%] – K [11.3%] – T2 [9%] – X [6.8%] – 

J [5.1%] – U5 [5.1%] – U4 [4%] – HV0+V [3.9%] – HV [3.4%] –

T1 [2.8%] – U1 [1.7%] – U2 [1.1%] 

Lombardy has the highest percentages of lesser Haplogroups K and X in Italy; though with regard to the most common mtDNA Haplogroup in Europeans, Lombardy has less than the Italian average for H. Whereas neighbouring Piedmont has the highest percentage of Haplogroup H with 56.5% and yet the lowest level of HV at 1.2%. The region of Veneto stands out with the highest percentage of Haplogroup T2 – a relatively young Haplogroup – of 18.8%. In contrast, Liguria has the lowest level of T2 with 4% but has the highest percentage of HV0+V, with 10%. 

Friuli-Venezia-Guilia in the far northeast has the second highest levels of Haplogroup H with 54%, yet interestingly, has the lowest levels of a number of Haplogroups: HV0+V, 0%; J, 4%; T1, 0%; K, 2%; I, 0% and X, 0%.

Tuscany: H [41.4%] – T2 [8.6%] – K [7.8%] – J [6.4%] – 

HV0+V [5.1%] – HV [4.8%] – U5 [4%] – U3 [3.5%] – T1 [2.7%] –

U3 [2.4%] – U4 [2.1%] – X [2.1%] – U2 [1.9%] – U1 [0.5%]

Latium: H [39.3%] – J [8.4%] – K [7.6%] – U3 [5.3%] – 

HV0+V [4.7%] – T2 [4.6%] – U5 [4.2%] – HV [3.2%] – X [3.1%] –

T1 [2.9%] – U2 [1.9%] – U1 [1.6%] – U [1.2%] – U4 [0.6%]

Both Tuscany and Latium are not far removed from each other or from Lombardy; with mainly average levels of most Haplogroups. In fact on PCA graphs, Northern Italians and Central Italians are similar. Even Corsicans though part of France; have a genetic composition in keeping with Central Italians. It is as we move southwards that we find observable differences. For Southern Italians are more alike with Greeks and Sardinians are not comparable with anyone, being as far removed from Southern and Central Italians as say an Iranian. 

Campania: H [43.8%] – J [8%] – K [7.4%] – T2 [6.3%] – 

U3 [5.2%] – U5 [4.1%] – T1 [4.1%] – HV [2.8%] – HV0+V [2.8%] –

U [2.2%] – U4 [1.9%] – X [1.7%] – U1 [1.1%] – U2 [0.6%]

Sicily: H [45.2%] – J [6.7%] – K [6.3%] – HV [5%] – 

T2 [4.4%] – X [3.7%] – U5 [3.3%] – T1 [2.7%] – HV0+V [2.3%] –

U1 [2%] – U1 [1.7%] – U4 [1.3%] – U2 [1%] – U3 [0.7%]

Sardinia: H [44.3%] – J [13%] – T2 [10.3%] – U5 [10%] – 

K [6%] – HV [4.4%] – HV0+V [3.7%] – T1 [2.9%] –

U [1.4%] – L [0.5%] – X [0.4%]

Both Campania and Sicily, as well as Sardinia exhibit above average percentages of prime Haplogroup H. Campania has the highest levels of T1 and Sardinia lacks a number of the U sub-Haplogroups. Calabria located in the southern most tip of Italy has the highest level of HV with 10% and also the lowest percentage of Haplogroup H with 28%. Calabria also has the highest percentage of Haplogroup J and Sardinia second with 14% and 13% respectively. 

The average percentages as shown across Italy as a whole. 

Italy: H [40.2%] – T2 [8.2%] – J [8.1%] – K [7.7%] – U5 [4.6%] – 

HV0+V [3.3%] – HV [2.9%] – T1 [3.3%] – U [2.7%] – U3 [2.1%] –

X [2%] – U4 [1.9%] – U2 [1.6%] –  U1 [1.5%] –  L [0.8%]

                            H       HV   HV0+V    J        T2     U5       K       X

Piedmont         57       1.2          7          7         6      1.2        7        3

Lombardy        38         3          4          5         9         5       11        7

Tuscany            41         5           5          6         9        4        8         2

Latium              39         3           5         8         5        4         8        3

Campania         44         3          3          8        6         4        7      1.7

Calabria            28       10          4        14       10       12        8        2

Sicily                 45          5          2          7        4          3        6        4

Sardinia            44         4          4        13       10       10        6     1.3

Italy                   40         3          3          8        8         5         8        2

The demarkation between regions is blurred and not overly obvious. There are few clear patterns. For example, Haplogroup H percentages fluctuate rather than steadily increase or decrease when heading southwards, though T2 levels do decrease overall. Lombardy’s higher levels of Haplogroup K, is invariably associated with Ashkenazi Jews and the Basque in Spain and France.

                           H       J      T2      K      HV    U5   HV0+V

Lombardy          38      5        9       11         3        5          4

Campania          44      8        6        7          3        4          3

Portugal             44       7       6        6       0.1        7          5

Spain                  44       7       6        6       0.7        8          8

According to PCA graphs, Portugal and Spain are closer to Lombardy. Contrastingly, the the stronger link in maternal mtDNA is between Campania in the south of Italy and Iberia. The addition of Brazil confirms a maternal link amongst these four regions.

                            H       U        T         J     HV0+V   HV        X         

Spain                44      14        9         7           8          0.7      1.7     

Portugal           44      13       10        7           5          0.1         2          

Brazil                44      16       14       11                          2         3         

Campania        44      15       10        8           3             3         2

It is now enlightening to add Italy to the mtDNA comparison table of the principle descendants of Shem.

                        H         HV    HV0+V      J        T2         U        U5       K

Brazil             44          2                         11 

Portugal        44       0.1           5             7         6           3          7         6

Spain             44       0.7           8            7          6           2         8         6

Poland          44           1           5             8         7        1.4        10        4

Russia           41           2           4            8          7           2        10        4

Greece           41          3         1.8          10          7          3          5         5

Italy               40         3            3            8          8          3          5         8            

Ukraine        39          4            4            8          8      0.6        10         5

Romania      37          2            4           11          5           2          7        8

Finland         36                        7            6          2       0.8        21        5

Turkey          31           5        0.7            9          4           6         3         6

Iran               17           7        0.6           14          5         12         3         7

A comparison of the principal mtDNA Haplogroups for Italy with the other prominent descendants of Shem studied so far, shows that Italy with its diverse blood lines, is unlike Turkey or Iran and with its combined genetic input from Nahor, Terah, Aram and Joktan sits quite closely with Greece. Italy in fact sits squarely in the middle of the table and bisects the descendants of Arphaxad in half. From an mtDNA perspective, it is not as close to its Latin cousins.

We have Aram at one end of the spectrum and Lud at the other, with the sons of Joktan interspersed between them and Asshur and now Nahor, relatively in the centre of those nations dominated by Haplogroup H. This highlights how closely related the sons of Shem are and particularly those from Arphaxad. Note the similarity between Portugal and Spain;  Russia and Ukraine; and Greece and Italy.

The Haplogroup map above emphatically shows on the maternal mtDNA side how closely related north and central Italy are; yet their paternal Y-DNA reveals a considerable difference. In other words, their original fathers were from different families, yet their mothers are near identical. This would mean that Aram’s son Uz must have married a relative of Milcah and Sarah, the daughters of Haran. On the other hand, southern Italy has a markedly different maternal lineage, as well as a unique paternal line of descent. Therefore, their original progenitors were not related to Uz, Nahor or either of their wives.

The Fifty-Three Known Forefathers of the Italian People: Latest Discoveries from Genetics, Michael Curtotti, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘If we go back far enough (thousands of years) we find (along the patrilineal line) that virtually all Italians are descended from only fifty-three men. A third kind of DNA “autosomal DNA” [First two: Y-DNA (paternal) and mt-DNA (maternal)] (found on all the chromosomes except the sex chromosome) is also used to find relatives and estimate ethnicity (although the latter process is controversial).

R1b, the highest proportion across Italy and one of the 53 forefathers we can now identify is “R1b-U152” [R1b1a-U152 (S28) is most frequent in northern and central Italy, France and Switzerland]… and is the patrilineal ancestor of over 22% of Italians. The highest representation of R1b-U152 occurs in Bergamo plains (53%) and Bergamo Valleys (46%) and Tortona (35%).

The next of our fifty-three forefathers is R1b-S116 [P312] who is the patrilineal ancestor of 8% of Italians. R1b-S116 is found most frequently in Spain [and Portugal].

R1b-U106 [S21, M405], who comes in at 3.8% is a forefather of proto-Germanic speakers [Germany, Low Countries, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom]. He lived 4700 years ago and his branch expanded from northern Europe around 1700-500 BCE. Some of his descendants will have arrived in Italy during the Gothic and Lombard periods.

R1b-L23 dates to 6100 years before the present and represents 3.5% of Italian paternal ancestry [Southern Italy, Greece, the Caucasus].The branch is most strongly represented in Anatolia[Asia Minor, modern Turkey] and may be associated with the ancient Hittites [the Hatti]…’

In connection with sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106, this would have been passed along Arphaxad’s line via Peleg and though present in Nahor, is actually the dominant R1b in the Germans. R-U106 appearing nearly 4,000 years ago when Nahor and his two brothers were born. The approximate date given of 4,700 years ago is quite accurate. The R1b-L23 date of 6100 BCE is also interesting in that this goes back to Peleg, the ancestor, of Nahor and his descendants, the Chaldeans; when the divisional Haplogroup split, between R1b and R1a in Arphaxad’s line occurred. The author, inadvertently says ancient Hittites, this doesn’t mean the later Hittites, but the earlier Hatti 0r Chatti, who are none other than the Chaldeans, descended primarily from Nahor – the modern day Italians.

Eupedia, Maciamo Hay, 2013 & 2017 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘According to the founding myth of Rome, Romulus and Remus descended from the Latin kings of Alba Longa, themselves descended from Trojan prince Aeneas, who fled to the Latium after the destruction of Troy by the Greeks. Troy may well have been founded by the early M269 and/or L23 branches of R1b… If there is any truth in the myth (as there usually is), the Trojans might have brought M269 or L23 (probably with other haplogroups, notably J2) to central Italy circa 1200 BCE, around the same time as U152 invaded from the north. 

The Etruscans, who are thought to have originated in western Anatolia, not far from Troy, might also have brought R1b-L23 to Italy, also blended with other haplogroups. Nowadays R1b-L23 [in the south] is the second most common subclade of R1b in Italy, although well behind R1b-U152 [in northern and central Italy].By comparing Sardinian… DNA, it can be estimated that the Sardinians have inherited between 16% and 24% of their Y-DNA from the Phoenicians.’

Investigation will show that with regard to the Trojans, M269 is an accurate assessment and L23 is not. The same can be said of the Etruscans. The more specific R1b sub-Haplogroups for both are actually M269 and U106. With regard to the Sardinians, Hay is more accurate if he meant the R1b-S116.

‘In 475, various East Germanic tribes (Herulians, Rugians, and Scirians) were refused federated status by [the] Roman emperor. Under the leadership of Odoacer, a former secretary of Attila, they deposed the last emperor and created the first Kingdom of Italy (476-493), bringing to an end the Western Roman Empire. 

The kingdom was taken over by the Ostrogoths, who ruled the whole of Italy except Sardinia until 553. The Ostrogoths’s capital was Ravenna. They were succeeded by the Lombards (568-774), who had to contend for the political control of Italy with the Byzantines. Like the Ostrogoths, the Lombards had invaded Italy from Pannonia and settled more densely in north-east Italy and in Lombardy, which was named after them. The Lombard capital was in Pavia, Lombardy. They set up many duchies, notably those of Friuli (based in Cividale), Trento, Tuscany (based in Lucca), Spoleto, Benevento, as well as in the major cities of Lombardy and Venetia.

In the 5th century the Goths would have become such a melting pot that their original Germanic Y-DNA might have only represented a small percentage of their lineages. This explains why there is apparently so little Germanic Y-DNA in south-western Franceand Spain(location of the former Visigothic kingdom) compared to other regions conquered by Germanic tribes in Western Europe, including Italy.

In contrast with the Goths and the Vandals, the Lombards left Scandinavia and descended due south through Germany, Austria and Slovenia, only leaving Germanic territory a few decades before reaching Italy.The Lombards would have consequently remained a predominantly Germanic tribe by the time they invaded Italy.’

Hay has drawn correct conclusions though possibly via incorrect summations. The reason there is ‘little’ Germanic DNA in Spain is because they are different peoples from the Germanic Germans. Northern Italians are labelled ‘Germanic’ yet they are in part kindred peoples with the Spanish and Portuguese [refer Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil]. The migratory route of the Lombards had little to do with their Germanic-ness.

The Vandals and Alans were not Germanic and the Visigoths and Suevi – the Spanish and Portuguese today – were not pure Germanic. The Visigoths and Suevi were relatively Germanic, when compared with the Vandals, Alans and Moors, who were descended from Ham, via Mizra’s descendants Casluh and Caphtor [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America].

The Y-DNA percentages for the higher population regions of Italy, plus Sardinia; followed by a comparison with the nations of Shem studied to date, reveal the following.

Lombardy: R1b [59%] – G2a [10%] – E1b1b [10%] – J2 [6%] – 

I2a2 [5%] – R1a [4%] – I1 [2.5%] – I2a1 [1%] – T1a [1%] 

Tuscany: R1b [52.5%] – J2 [11.5%] – G2a [9%] – E1b1b [9%] – 

I1 [4%] – R1a [4%] – I2a2 [2.5%] – J1 [2%] – T1a [2%] –

I2a1 [1.5%] – L [0.5%]

Latium: R1b [29%] – J2 [18.5%] – E1b1b [16.5%] – G2a [11%] – 

I1 [8.5%] – T1a [4.5%] -I2a2 [3%] –  R1a [2%] – J1 [2%] –

Q [2%] – I2a1 [1%]

Campania: R1b [29%] – J2 [18%] – E1b1b [16%] – G2a [11%] – 

J1 [6%] – I2a1 [4%] – T1a [4%] – R1a [3%] – I1 [3%] – I2a2 [1.5%] 

Sicily: R1b [26%] – J2 [23%] – E1b1b [20.5%] – G2a [8.5%] – 

R1a [4.5%] – T1a [4%] – J1 [ 3.5%] – I1 [3.5%] – I2a1 [3%] –

I2a2 [1%] – Q [1%]  

Sardinia: I2a1 [37.5%] – R1b [18.5%] – G2a [12%] – E1b1b [9.5%] – 

J2 [9%] – J1 [4%] – I2a2 [2%] – T1a [1.5%] – R1a [1%] – L [0.5%]

With the exception of Sardinia, the four predominant Italian Y-DNA Haplogroups overall, include R1b, J2, E1b1b and G2a. This grouping is similar with Spain, Portugal and Brazil. Haplogroup R1b is indicative of western Europe, J2 of West Asia, E1b1b of North Africa and G2a of the Caucasus region. 

Lombardy has the highest average for R1b, though the highest level has been recorded in Tuscany with 76.2%. Sardinia has the lowest level of R1b, followed by Sicily. Lombardy has the lowest percentage for J2, while Calabria in the very south possesses an average of 29%. The highest percentage for E1b1b is found in Sicily; while Piedmont and Trentino-South Tyrol have the lowest with 6%. The highest level by far of I2a1 is Sardinia which is similar to certain countries in the Balkans [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans]. The highest percentages for I1 are found in Friuli-Venezia-Giuliai with 21% and also R1a with 13%; while Sardinia has the lowest I1 and Umbria and Molise each have with 0% of R1a.

                            R1b      J2     E1b1b     G2a    I1     I2a1     I2a2     R1a      J1

Lombardy          59         6         10          10      3         1           5          4         

Tuscany              53       12          9            9       4        2           3          4         2

Latium                29       19        17           11       9        1            3          2         2

Campania           29      18        16           11       3        4           2           3         6

Sicily                   26       23        21            9       4        3                        5         4

Sardinia              19         9        10          12               38           2           1         4  

There are a number of salient points highlighted in the Table. It is strikingly clear as confirmed by PCA data that the paternal ancestry for Sardinia is unlike the rest of Italy. Tuscany is counted with Central Italy, though from a paternal Haplogroup perspective, it has much in common with Lombardy in the North. 

Haplogroup R1b indicative of western Europe, decreases from north to central Italy markedly, with Latium – which includes Rome – being closer with southern Italy. It also supports the evidence that R1b generally decreases as one heads in a south eastern direction in Europe. 

In contrast, Haplogroups J2 and E1b1b increase. The J2 increase is understandable as it is rarer in northern Europe. Though even the Spanish and Portuguese do not have as high a percentage of J2. One has to look to Greece, Turkey and Iran for similar or higher levels. Haplogroup J2 is not just reflective of southern Europe but principally, of southeastern Europe, the near East and West Asia. 

Haplogroup E1b1b percentages are different, in that even Turkey and Iran do not compare with Sicily. It is only Greece that matches southern Italy. This should not be a surprise, as remember all these nations descend from Shem and as with cousins, some similarities are shared with certain cousins and other likenesses with different relatives. It bears out that those nations with these higher levels have combined a. being drawn to dwell further south in warmer climes and latitudes and b. they show higher levels of probable admixture, with the peoples of Mizra in North Africa and the Middle East.

Combining the regions into the three main areas as well as a total average for Italy produces the following results.

Italy North: R1b [49.5%] – E1b1b [11%] – J2 [10%] – G2a [7.5%] – 

I1 [7%] – R1a [4.5%] – I2a2 [3.5%] – T1a [2%] – J1 [1.5%] – I2a1 [1%] 

Italy Central: R1b [36%] – J2 [23%] – E1b1b [11.5%] – G2a [11%] – 

J1 [5%] – R1a [3%] – T1a [3%] – I1 [2.5%] – I2a1 [2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] 

Italy South: R1b [27.5%] – J2 [21.5%] – E1b1b [18.5%] – G2a [10.5%] – 

J1 [4%] – I2a1 [3.5%] – R1a [3%] – I1 [2.5] – T1a [2.5%] – I2a2 [1%]

Italy: R1b [39%] – J2 [15.5%] – E1b1b [13.5%] – G2a [9%] – 

I1 [4.5%] – R1a [4%] – I2a1 [3%] – J1 [3%] – I2a2 [2.5%] – T1a [2.5%] 

The approximate breakdown for E1b1b in Italy is E1b1b1a, 10%; E1b1b1c, 3%; and E1b1b1b, 1 %. Aside from the sub-Haplogroups mentioned of U152, U106, L23 and S116 for R1b, others include: L21 [M529] and M167. 

                                R1b      J2     E1b1b    G2a     I1     I2a1   I2a2    R1a      J1

Italy North             50       10         11          8        7         1         4         5         2

Italy Central          36       23         12         11        3        2         2         3         5

Italy South             28       22        19         11        3        4          1         3         4

Italy                         39       16         14          9        5        3         3         4         3

Italy subdivided into its three key parts, highlights a little clearer the Haplogroup level changes. Italy as a whole and averaged out reflects central Italy in both R1b and E1b1b. There is a clear three way split, which can be explained by three separate paternal lineages that have intertwined, yet remain distinct. The fathers being Uz from Aram and a wife probably related to Terah’s family; Nahor from Arphaxad and Peleg and his wife Milcah from Haran, as well as his concubine Ruemah, possibly from Joktan. 

Added to this mix and not to be discounted is a mysterious father, such as Aram from Zoba and Terah and again a wife from Joktan’s family. In total, three original progenitors with Nahor providing two of the eventual four lines. Central Italians show evidence of this in that J2 Haplogroup levels are akin to southern Italy, yet their E1b1b levels are different, being closer to northern Italy. Plus, the R1b percentage is marginally closer to southern Italians which is plausible for Nahor and Zoba were both sons of Terah; whereas Uz was from Aram with higher levels of R1b.

Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.’ R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland, it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3%. It is carried by over 110 million European men. 

Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. This time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE, according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup of R1b, U106 or S21, is frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula. R-U152 is more frequent in France and Italy; R-U198 in England; and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. 

Progressing through the descendants of Shem, the levels of R1b vary and gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels for the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups – M269 and U106 – for some of the nations we will study.

Turkey:    R-M269   14%   –  R-U106   0.4%

Russia:     R-M269   21%   –  R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia  R-M269   17%    –  R-U106      4%

Czech       R-M269  28%    –  R-U106    14% 

Poland     R-M269  23%    –  R-U106      8% 

Ukraine   R-M269  25%    –  R-U106      9%

Italy         R-M269   53%   –  R-U106      6%

Italy’s dominant Haplogroup is R1b and we can see the marked difference comparing with nations from Eastern Europe and beyond. It is worth mentioning that the north to south axis is as important as the east to west and so this explains why for instance Poland has slightly higher percentages of both clades of R1b than Russia as it is further west. Comparably, the Czech Republic displays a higher level of R-U106 than Italy which is further south; yet less R-M269 overall as it is the descendants of Peleg, Aram and the mixed line of Casluh and Caphtor which have the highest levels of R1b [refer Chapters XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America and Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil].

Our Y-DNA comparison table from the previous chapters, now sees the addition of Italy – the first major descendant from Peleg’s line, Nahor. 

                       J        J1      J2     E1b1b    G      R1a     R1b      R1    

Georgia       43      16       27         2        30        9        10       19 

Armenia      33      11       22        6         12         5        30      35  

Turkey         33       9       24       11         11         8        16       24

Iran              32       9       23         7        10       16        10       26

Greece         26       3       23       21          6       12        16       28

Italy             19       3        16       14          9         4        39       43

Romania     15        1       14        14          3       18        16       34

Portugal      13        3       10       14          7       1.5       56       58

Brazil           10                 10       11          5          4       54       58

Spain           10     1.5         8         7          3         2       69        71     

Ukraine        5     0.5     4.5          7          3       44         8       52

Poland          3                   3          4          2       58       13        71

Russia           3                   3         3           1       46         6       52

Finland                                      0.5                      5         4         9

‘Georgia continues as one bookend with the highest Haplogroup J2, J1 and G2a percentages. Finland is… the opposite bookend, with no Haplogroup J and the lowest R1 levels. Poland exhibits the highest percentage of R1a… while Greece has [the most] E1b1b… Spain’s total R1 is equalled by Poland, though in opposite percentages for R1a and R1b.’ Italy slots in towards the middle of the table with relatively average figures for all their main Haplogroups. This mirrors Italy’s geographic position in bisecting western and eastern Europe and the descendants of Peleg and Joktan.

‘Focussing on the key Y-DNA Haplogroups associated with the majority of the European nations in the north [of Europe]. Haplogroups R1, I1 and I2 segment Europe roughly into quarters. Haplogroup R1b is prominent in the west; R1a in the east; I1 and I2a2 in the north and west; with I2a1 in the south and east. Haplogroup N1c1 is prominent in the north, in counter balance to J2, J1, E1b1b and G2a which are more commonly found in southern Europe.’ 

                     R1a      R1b       I1     I2a1      I2a2    N1c

Portugal      1.5         56         2      1.5           5          

Spain              2         69      1.5         5           1

Brazil              4         54                  [9]            

Italy                4         39         5        3           3         

Finland          5           4       28                   0.5      62

Turkey           8         16         1         4         0.5        4  

Greece          12         16         4       10         1.5      

Iran               16         10                 0.5                      1           

Romania      18         16         4       28           3        2

Ukraine        44          8         5        21       0.5         6

Russia           46          6         5        11                    23

Poland          58         13        9          6          2         4

‘The comparison table shifts in emphasis when northern European Y-DNA Haplogroups comprising I1, I2a2 and N1c1 are included.’ Italy has more in common with the other Aramaic nations of south western Europe, which is not a great surprise. It sits towards the top of the table due to its low levels of R1a and higher percentage of R1b. Being a southern and western European nation, Italy does not exhibit more than low percentages of Haplogroups I1 and I2. Italy has little in common with those nations further north and east such as Poland, Ukraine and Russia. Though as mentioned, Southern Italy has commonality with Greece.

Italy is considered a Latin country like Spain, yet the reality is, that Italy is half to two-thirds Gothic, who many would label as Germanic; with the remainder of its north Germanic in a more Teuton sense. Italy has past, Greek, Roman and Celtic influences and so all this added together results in a Latin nation. Spain has almost the same influences and a Germanic Visigoth demographic dominance, yet it is a Latin nation. For Latin encompasses a related culture, romance language, religion and to some degree, ethnicity. Italy’s composition is actually similar to France; with a ‘Latin’ south and a ‘Germanic’ north. Italy and France, straddle the two world’s ethnically; though in language it is Italy and Spain which are more closely related.

Incline your ear, and hear the words of the wise, and apply your heart to… knowledge…

Proverbs 22:17 English Standard Version

“Majorities are generally wrong, if only in their reasons for being right.”

George Saintsbury

© Orion Gold 2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia

Chapter XX

The second son born to Shem was called Asshur. The land that Asshur dwelt, became known as Assyria and it is this word that is used in the Bible. Historians also use the word Assyria to refer to the ancient peoples of Asshur and their ruling dynasties. There are today a Middle Eastern people known as Assyrians, though these are decidedly not a residue of the once mighty Assyrian Empire as we shall discover. Asshur is mentioned repeatedly throughout the Old Testament. Its relationship with the sons of Jacob was tempestuous at best and catastrophic at worst. The vying for centre stage and influence has been waged between the two most prominent sons of Shem, Asshur and Arphaxad from the beginning and continues to the present day.

As disclosed when discussing Madai [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes] and his relationship with Elam or Turkey, Asshur is the ancestor of the peoples of Russia. As we have read, scripture [Zephaniah 9:13] describes that Asshur was to ultimately live in the north, where other nations of the north are located, such as Magog and Togarmah – Northern China and the two Koreas [refer Chapter VI Togarmah & the Koreas and Chapter X China: Magog, Tubal & Meshech]. Most identity aficionados are familiar with Asshur and his prominence in the Bible. They with secular Assyriologists, share a fascination for all things Assyrian, yet do not truly understand which modern people they actually have a  passion for. Nor are they aware of the considerably greater threat posed by Asshur as Russia, compared to the nearly universal erroneous belief within the identity community that Germany is Assyria. One wonders if the fascination is more with Germany than it is for Asshur. It would be flippant to say Russia backwards spells Aissur, though in essence this highlights exactly how many identities are based on nonsensical assumptions, often lacking a thorough line of reasoning.

Russia is a land of superlatives; a country stretching over a vast expanse nearly twice  the size of the territory of Canada, the world’s second largest nation. Extending across the whole of northern Asia and the eastern third of Europe, spanning eleven time zones; incorporating deserts and semiarid steppes to deep forests and Artic tundra. Russia contains Europe’s longest river the Volga, its largest lake Ladoga and the world’s deepest lake, Baikal. 

The first modern state in Russia was founded in 862 CE by King Rurik of the Rus, who was made the ruler of Novgorod. The Rus King Oleg later conquered the city of Kiev and started the kingdom of the Kievan Rus in 882. 

During the tenth and eleventh centuries the Kievan Rus became a powerful empire, reaching its peak under Vladimir the Great in 980 and Yaroslav I the Wise in 1015. In 1237, the Mongols led by Batu Khan, overran the region and scattered the Kievan Rus. 

In its wake, the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Ivan III in 1462 rose to power and became the head of the Eastern Roman Empire, driving out the Mongols in 1480. Ivan IV or the Terrible, crowned himself the first Tsar of Russia in 1547 and began the exponential expansion of Russian lands. Tsar etymologically denotes a name for Caesar, for the Russians called their empire the Third Rome. In 1613, Mikhail Romanovestablished the Roman-ov dynasty – lasting until 1917. Under the rule of Tsar Peter the Great from 1689 to 1725, the Russian empire continued to expand. 

It became a major power and the capital was moved again, by Peter the Great from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 1713. As the Russians have moved their capitals from Novgorod, Kiev, St Petersburg – also called Leningrad – and Moscow; the Assyrians had a proclivity to do the same with their capitals Ashur, Calah and Nineveh respectively.

In 1762, Tsar Peter III was assassinated and his wife Catherine II, a German, assumed the crown. She ruled for thirty-four years in what would be called the Golden Age of the Russian Empire. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia unsuccessfully. During the nineteenth century, the influence of Russian culture was at its peak. Artists and writers, Dostoyevsky, Tchaikovsky and Tolstoy became famous throughout the world. 

In 1853 the Crimean War began, which Russia eventually lost to an alliance of France, the Ottoman Empire, Britain and Sardinia. In 1867, Russia sensationally sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million dollars. In 1897, the Social Democratic Party was established. It would later split into the Bolshevik and Menshevik parties. In 1904, Russia went to war against Japan in Manchuria and decisively lost. 

In 1917 Vladimir Lenin – who was half Tatar – led the Bolshevik Party in revolution overthrowing the Tsar. Civil war broke out in 1918 and eventually the communist Soviet Union was born in 1922. After Lenin died in 1924, Joseph Stalin – who was half Georgian – seized power. Under Stalin, approximately 20 to 40 million people ultimately died, in concentration camps, executions and famines in the great purge beginning in 1934. During World War II, Russia initially allied with the Germans; however, the Germans invaded Russia in 1941. In 1942, the Russian army defeated the German army at the Battle of Stalingrad. This was the major turning point in World War II. From 1949, an arms race developed between Russia and the United States and the Cold War ensued.

In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary. He instituted freedom of speech and openness of the government [Glasnost] as well as a restructuring of the economy [Perestroika]. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred in December 1991. The preeminent empire of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union [U.S.S.R], became an independent country, now called the Russian Federation. 

The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ – commonly known as the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood – is illuminated at night in St. Petersburg, Russia

Origin of the Nations, Herman Hoeh, 1957 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The children of Abraham called Asshurim received that name as a result of migrating to the land of Assyria or Asshur. We shall know where the Asshurim are if we first locate the modern day descendants of Assyria or Asshur.’

This would appear to be a reasonable line of reasoning, yet Abraham and Keturah’s children did not live anywhere near Asshur. We have seen duplication of names already with children from Japaheth, Ham and Shem. The duplication shows a different people with the same name and may mean an amalgamation or it may not. In this instance we will learn it is the latter.

‘Asshur means “strong” or “powerful”. Asshur was a brother of Arphaxad (Genesis 10:22). The Assyrians – who came from Asshur – settled along the Tigris River around the city of Nineveh (Genesis 10:11). None of the sons of Asshur are mentioned in the Bible, but history gives us several of their names. Some of the sons of Asshur are these: Kharmen, or Germanni – meaning men of war; Khatti; Akkadians; Almani, or Halmani; and Kassites, or Cossaei. (For these names see any article on “Assyria”, or these separate names, in Biblical encyclopaedias).’

The Germani, Khatti, Akkadians and Kassites are not Assyrian names, but rather neighbours from different ancestors in different eras.

‘Where are these tribes today? They are no longer in ancient Assyria! Where did they go? The entire tenth chapter of Isaiah pictures the power that Asshur – the Assyrians – shall wield in these latter days. But where shall we look for them? First of all the Assyrians were driven from their land shortly after their fall in 610 B.C. Pliny, the Roman historian of the time of Christ, says the “Assyrians were north of the Crimea in Russia” (NATURAL HISTORY, book IV, section xii). About 300 years later Jerome writes that “Asshur is also joined with the tribes invading Western Europe ALONG THE RHINE” (Letter CXXIII, section 16, from NICENE AND POST-NICENE FATHERS).

So the Assyrians migrated to Central Europe! Notice the tribes coming into Central Europe – into Germany and Austria: the Khatti (the ancient name for Hessians – see ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANICA article “Germany” ): the Quadians (Latin for the Akkadians); the Germanni from which the word German” comes today; the Chauci (the Cossaei of ancient Assyria); and the Allemani (the Latin name for the ancient Alman tribe of Assyria ). CERTAINLY HERE ARE THE TRIBES OF ASSYRIA! Germany is Assyria in prophecy! The North Germans, basically, are therefore the sons of Asshurim of Keturah. The remainder of the Germans and Austrians are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians or Asshur.’

Peoples migrated and their names did not always travel with them. The Khatti [Hessians] are linked with Italy. The Germanni dwelt throughout much of Western Europe and beyond. The Asshurim though settling close to Germany are not in Germany today. Asshur did not travel into western Europe as a Germanic tribe. 

They are an eastern people; genetically, culturally and geographically linked to the Slavic speaking peoples.

‘The ancient Assyrians deified their ancestor Asshur. In the Indo-Germanic language the name Asshur was spelled Athur (ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANICA article “Mesopotamia”, section Persians). And when the Assyrians are next found in Central Europe they are still worshipping Athur as Thur or Thor! And we still commemorate Asshur by the name Thursday – Asshur’s day! The name Asshur or Athur is still preserved among the Thuringian Germans.’

A H Sayce in The Races of the Old Testament, pages 59-60 and 136-137 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Asshur, or Assyria… belonged both in race and language to the Semitic stock. The features of the Assyrian, as portrayed upon his monuments, are of a typical Semitic cast, and his mental and moral characteristics were those of the Semitic race. The country of Assyria took its name from the old capital Assur, or Asshur, now represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat, a little to the north of the junction of the Tigris with the Lower Zab. The founders of the city of Asshur and the kingdom of Assyria had moved northward from Babylonia. The Semitic language of Babylonia differed from that of Assyria only as the dialect of Middlesex differs from that of Oxfordshire. 

It was from Babylonia that the Assyrians had brought their religion, their customs, their art of writing, their science, and their traditions. Their gods were the gods of Babylonia, with the sole exception of the supreme Assur. They built their houses of brick in a land of stone and raised their temples and palaces on lofty platforms, because this had been necessary in the alluvial plain of Babylonia, where stone did not exist and protection had to be sought from the floods of winter. It was the ambition of those Assyrian kings who aimed at empire to be crowned in Babylon. Only so could their right to dominion out side the boundaries of Assyria itself be recognised and made legitimate. To become king of Babylon and the adopted child of the Babylonian Bel was to the Assyrian monarch what coronation in Rome [the Vatican] was to the mediaeval German[ic] prince. 

the Assyrian[’s]… favourite occupations were commerce and war. But the Assyrian remained to the last merely a conquering caste. His superiority, physical and mental, to the older population of the country had made his first invasion of it irresistible, and the iron discipline and political organisation which he subsequently maintained enabled him to preserve his power. He has been called the Roman of the East, and in many respects the comparison is just. Like the Roman he had a genius for organising and administering, for making and obeying laws, and for submitting to the restraints of an inexorable discipline. The armies of Assyria swept all before them, and the conception of a centralised empire was first formed and realised by the Assyrian kings.’

The Assyrians had the advantage of a larger population, considerable intellect, with the ability to control their people as a organised militaristic unit. Some would offer the same could be said about the Germans. The difference being that Germany exhibits these tendencies sporadically, whereas Russia possesses them continually. We will learn that the Russians do actually have a connection with the Romans, specifically the later empire of the East and that it can be no surprise that Asshur was foremost in having a centralised, totalitarian and militaristic society purposed to build empires. The history of Asshur and Russia is replete with examples of this parallel behavioural endeavour. 

Before continuing with an article on Assyria, it would be beneficial to list the main Assyrian Kings during the period we will study the most closely. There are multiple king lists which differ prior to Ashur-dan I. He began his reign in 1178 BCE and the king lists are identical in their contents from this date. Ashur-dan I was a king of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The epoch we will be most interested, is the Neo-Assyrian era from 912 to 609 BCE. This line of Assyrian kings ended with the defeat of Assyria’s final king Ashur-uballit II by the combined efforts, of the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Median Empire in 609 BCE.

The Adaside dynasty:

Shalmaneser IV:      783 – 773 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

Ashur-dan III:          773 – 755 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

Ashur-nirari V:         755 – 745 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

The Pre-Sargonid kings:

Tiglath-Pileser III: 745 – 727 BCE – claimed to be the son of Adad-nirari III, though actually a General who usurped the throne

from Ashur-nirari III

Shalmaneser V:        727 – 722 BCE – son of Tiglath-Pileser III

Sargonid dynasty kings:

Sargon II:            722 – 705 BCE – claimed to be the son of Tiglath-Pileser III and usurped the throne from his [brother?]

Shalmaneser V

Sennacherib:             705 – 681 BCE – son of Sargon II

Esarhaddon:                  681 – 669 BCE – son of Sennacherib

Ashurbanipal:               669 – 631 BCE – son of Esarhaddon

Ashur-etil—ilani:          631 – 627 BCE – son of Ashurbanipal

Sinsharishkun:              627 – 612 BCE – son of Ashurbanipal 

Sin-shumu-lishir:   626 BCE – General of Ashur-etil-ilani who rebelled against Sinsharishkun, attempting to claim the throne for himself

Ashur-uballit II:  612 – 609 BCE – unclear relationship, possibly the son of Sinsharishkun 

The following article is primarily about Germany and linking it with Assyria, though there is valuable material we can recall when we study the identity of Germany [refer Chapter XXVIII The True Identity & Origin of Germany & Austria – Ishmael & Hagar]. Conversely, there are interesting sections worth highlighting with regard to Assyria.

The History of Germany, Stephen Flurry, 1997 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘For several years now… we have taught that modern-day Germany descended from the people the Bible refers to as the Assyrians. In this article, we will prove this fact from the Bible and other historical sources. 

As Noah’s family multiplied exceedingly, many migrated… to a plain in the land of Shinar… (modern-day Iraq). Genesis 10 gives only the briefest account of this occurrence, mainly by just listing the lineages of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. But God does draw special attention to Nimrod… Nimrod’s name means “he rebelled” – against God, that is. Nimrod established the kingdom of Babylon. Babylon means confusion, which is what happened when God confounded their language at the tower of Babel. Aside from Nimrod, Genesis 10 also draws special attention to Asshur. “Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah.” (Genesis 10:11). 

As the margin suggests, a better translation of this verse would reveal that Asshur and Nimrod went out of the land of Shinar to build Nineveh and other cities.There is strong evidence to indicate that Asshur worked with Nimrod, probably in the military field, and helped to build Babel and Nineveh, as well as other cities.’ 

We will study Nimrod in depth in the next chapter. According to an unconventional chronology – and extended lifetimes prior to the flood and post flood up until Abraham means – Arphaxad was born circa 10,717 BCE; thus Asshur as the second son of Shem would have been born slightly before Arphaxad, circa 10,750 BCE. Nimrod was apparently the second generation after the flood, though we will consider that he was actually 3rd generation. The Tower of Babel instigated by Nimrod, ended circa 6755 BCE. The descent from the Ark’s original resting place to the Indus Valley; building a civilisation there; and then migrating to Mesoptamia would likely mean that the cities built in Shinar and later Assyria would have taken place circa 8000 BCE [refer Chapter I Noah Antecessor]. 

‘Now notice verse 22: “The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.” Notice that Arphaxad is listed in this verse as the third son of Shem. Now read Genesis 11:10: “These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood.” Neither of Shem’s first two sons, Elam or Asshur, are mentioned! 

That’s because they were rejected as the heirs of Shem’s inheritance. If they were working alongside Nimrod, you can see why Shem (and God) rejected them! Asshur parted with his father and raised up the Assyrian Empire.’

There is debate over whether Arphaxad was born or conceived two years after the flood. According to the following four verses, Shem’s son Arphaxad would have been born on the Ark: Genesis 5:32, Genesis 7:11, Genesis 11:10 and Genesis 8:13. However, according to Genesis 8:15-19 and Genesis 9:18-19, no children left the Ark. A way to resolve this mathematical conundrum is to say the wording applies to conception rather than birth. This would be the only way to fit the three sons of Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad in a very busy two year period for Shem’s wife.

If on the other hand, the sexagesimal Sumerian counting system is correctly applied  as per an unconventional chronology – and not the mis-leading Biblical edited interpretation – then Arphaxad was actually born 120 years after the flood.

‘Notice what the historian Josephus recorded concerning Asshur: “Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons… Ashur lived at the city of Nineveh; and named his subjects Assyrians, WHO BECAME THE MOST FORTUNATE NATION; BEYOND OTHERS.” (Antiquities, I, vi, 4). Assyria quickly became the most prosperous, powerful nation of the day. 

… in Genesis 14:1-2: “And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal KING OF NATIONS; That these made war…” These four kings in verse 1 were allied as a gigantic Assyrian empire,as Josephus points out: “At this time, when the Assyrians had the dominion over Asia, the people of Sodom were in a flourishing condition… the Assyrians made war upon them; and, dividing their army into four parts, fought against them. Now every part of the army had its own commander; and when the battle was joined, the Assyrians were conquerors; and imposed tribute on the kings of the Sodomites, who submitted to this slavery twelve years… but on the thirteenth year they rebelled, and then the army of the Assyrians came upon them, under their commanders, Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer, and Tidal. These kings had laid waste all Syria, and overthrown the offspring of the giants.” (Antiquities, I, ix, 1). 

… Lange’s Commentary says, “According to Ktesias and others, the Assyrians were the first to establish a world-dominion.” (volume 1, page 403). The last king listed in Genesis 14:1 is Tidal, the “king of nations”. He ruled in the region of Asia Minor. The word Tidal comes from a Hebrew word which means “to fear, make afraid, dreadful and terrible.” For centuries, Assyria caused many nations GREAT FEAR! These four Assyrian generalscame to make war with the kings in Canaan because of their rebellion (GENESIS 14:4). The Assyrians routed the people of Canaan, including the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Genesis 14:17 says that Abram also killed the four top leaders of the Assyrian Empire, mentioned in verse 1. It was a complete rout! The power of Assyria was smashed in one night! Think about how the course of history was changed at this point.’ 

We have learned in the preceding chapter regarding Chedorlaomer, how this was a period of Elamite ascendancy and that these were four Kings of separate city-states, not four Generals of one state [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings]. Flurry has made some very big assumptions not supported by the Biblical account. Though he may be forgiven for ascribing Assyria to Tidal and Arioch, the Bible clearly states the king of Elam, Asshur’s elder brother and the king of Shinar which included Akkad and Sumer and their main capital cities Babylon and Uruk. These peoples were descended from Asshur’s younger brother Arphaxad. 

Assyria was a region at this time in northern Mesopotamia; it had no jurisdiction over southern Mesopotamia which incorporated the Land of Shinar – Akkadia and Sumer – or Elam to the far southeast. Josephus states the kings had ‘laid waste all Syria’. The Guti, Hurrian, Mitanni and Chatti states were predominantly Syrian or Aramean regions – allied with peoples from Haran and Nahor – to the north and west of Shinar and Assyria. We also know that only Arioch of Ellasar or Larsa, the giant possibly died. Genesis 14:17 reveals Abraham defeated Chedorlaomer’s forces during his ambush night attack; not who died in the confrontation. The Assyrians were neither involved or decimated; nor was the course of history changed for Assyria at this time.

‘James McCabe, author of History of the World, says the Assyrians were a “fierce, treacherous race, delighting in the dangers of the chase and in war. The Assyrian troops were notably among the most formidable of ancient warriors… They never kept faith when it was to their interest to break treaties, and were regarded with suspicion by their neighbors in consequence of this characteristic… In organization and equipment of their troops, and in their system of attack and defence and their method of reducing fortified places, the Assyrians manifested a superiority to the nations by which they were surrounded.” (volume 1, pages 155, 160). 

Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote, “Ancient Assyria was the greatest war-making power in all history” (January 1963, Plain Truth, “Germany in Prophecy!”). 

James Hastings wrote, “The Assyrians of historic times were more robust, warlike, ‘fierce’, than the mild industrial Babylonians. This may have been due to the influence of climate and incessant warfare; but it may indicate a different race… The whole organization of the State was essentially military.” (Dictionary of the Bible, article “Assyria and Babylonia”). 

Leonard Catrell in Anvil of Civilization, wrote: “In all the annals of human conquest, it is difficult to find any people more dedicated to bloodshed and slaughter than the Assyrians. Their ferocity and cruelty have few parallels save in modern times.” (It’s interesting that Catrell can only compare their ferocity with those “in modern times.” By far, the Germans have been more dedicated to bloodshed than any other nation in this century.)’

The unfortunate reality as borne out by the figures of the dead, is that Russian rule has been more fierce than the Germans; responsible for the deaths of many, many millions more. Comparisons have been made between Hitler’s and Stalin’s regimes by historians, with Stalin clearly the more diabolical, terrorising and blood-thirsty.

‘C. Leonard Woolley described what these people looked like in his book, The Sumerians: “In the Zagros hills and across the plain to the Tigris, there lived a… fair-haired… people akin to the Guti (Goths) who… remained in what was afterwards Assyria.” (page 5). 

Here is what Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote in “Germany in Prophecy!”: “When the ancient Greek writers wanted to distinguish the Assyrians from the Arameans or Syrians, the Greeks called the Assyrians, ‘Leucosyri’ – meaning ‘whites’ or ‘blonds’ as distinct from the very brunette Syrians… ” (Plain Truth, January 1963, page17). 

By the time of Christ, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder recorded that the Assyrians were now dwelling north of the Black sea (Natural History, IV, 12, page 183). By this time, they had moved north. Much was written about the early German tribes which poured into Europe during the first and second centuries A.D., thanks in large part to the writings of the Roman historian Tacitus, who lived at that time. Among the most significant of these early German tribes are the Chatti… Chatti means “to break down by violence; to make afraid or terrify.” The ancestors of this German tribe, before migrating, lived mostly in Asia Minor, and were called the Assyrian Chatti. 

Many of these early German tribes were in constant conflict with the Roman Empire which is why the Romans collectively labeled them Germani, meaning “war men”. These early tribes migrated into Central Europe, as historians verify. The Romans labeled all of them “war men”. But from where did they come? Smith’s Classical Dictionary answers: “There can be NO DOUBT that they (the Assyrians)… migrated into Europe from the Caucasus and the countries around the Black and Caspian seas.” (article “Germania”, page 361).’ 

Modern Germany has inherited the name ‘Germany’. The Germans do not call themselves by that name. They are known by different names in different languages. They call themselves Deutsch, far removed from the word German. The quote from Smith’s Classical Dictionary does not include ‘the Assyrians’, this has been added as an assumption. We will study the Chatti or Hatti – as there are two different nations, a former and a latter peoples, who were known by that name  – in detail.

‘Some have argued that the Assyrian people spoke a Semitic language, not Indo-Germanic, andtherefore the Germans could not be the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. Yet there is a passage in the Bible which clearly reveals how and why most of the ancient Assyrians acquired a new and different language. In the days of Nimrod, a tower was constructed at Babel which was to be the capital city of a world-ruling dictatorship, under which, God’s truth would have been completely stamped out. Concerning the rebellious people of Nimrod’s day, God said, “Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.”(GENESIS 11:6). 

To keep civilization from progressing to a point of self-destruction so soon, God had to “confound their language” (v.7). This miraculous intervention by God was the origin of differing languages. This was when most of the Assyrians acquired the Indo-Germanic tongue and other related languages.Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote in his article, “Germany in Prophecy!”: “European scholars have thoroughly studied the language of the land of Hatti – the ancestors of the Hessians. They found it to be an Indo-Germanic tongue – numerous words of which were akin to Old High German!… 

The language of the Hatti was the language of the West Assyrians… Scholars admit that for centuries the language of the people who inhabited Assyria was not merely Semitic.” (Plain Truth, January 1963, page 27).’ 

The later Hatti are associated with the Germans and the link with High German we will explore. These Hatti became known as Hittites and were linked to Assyria, living to their west in ancient Anatolia. These Hatti or Hittites were a distinct, separate people allied to Assyria. A similar relationship has existed in more recent history, which we will cover. The language of the Hatti, was not ‘the language of the West Assyrian,’ in that the Hatti were not Assyrian. This is a stretch, as is also saying the Assyrians went from a Semitic language to an Indo-Germanic one at the time of Peleg – we do not know this. Those scholars who profess Semitic speaking Asshur could not be the ancestor of the Indo-Germanic speaking Germans are correct. 

‘On the banks of the Mosel River in western Germany, just six miles from the Luxembourg border, sits the ancient German city of Trier. The Romans claim to be the founders of this ancient city. But German tradition, and even the name of the city, suggests otherwise. 

“On the Rotes Haus (Red House) beside the Steipe, there is a text in Latin boasting that Trier, or Treves, is older than Rome, thirteen hundred years older in fact. That is when Trebeta, son of Semiramis, is said to have founded the town.” That’s what it says in the opening paragraph of the Trier Colorphoto Guide to the Town. Josef K.L. Bihl writes in his German textbook, In deutschen Landen, “Trier was founded by Trebeta, a son of the famous Assyrian King Ninus” (page 69). The biblical name for Ninus is Nimrod

Semiramis was married to Nimrod, the founder of Babylon (Genesis 10:8-10)… Genesis 10:11 says that Asshur and his descendants went out of Babylon and constructed the Assyrian capital – Nineveh. But as the margin correctly indicates,it was Nimrod who led Asshur out of Babylon and who actually supervised the construction project in Nineveh. Early on, the Bible indicates a close alliance between Nimrod and Asshur.’

Two important points from Stephen Flurry’s comments. If Ninus is Nimrod and Ninus is an Assyrian king, how does this square with Nimrod supposedly being a descendant of Cush? Secondly, if Nimrod led Asshur himself or Asshur’s people out of Babylon in the land of Shinar to build Nineveh, the future main city and capital of Assyria, how does this equate with Nimrod being a son of Cush? Was a descendant of Cush really ruling Shinar; comprising the descendants of Arphaxad, as well as the region of Asshur? Was Nimrod actually even descended from Ham’s son Cush? We shall return to these very important questions.

Asshur in Hebrew means: ‘level plain, step, happy, just.’ Derived from the verb asher, ’to go (straight) on’, or yasher, ‘to be level, straight up, just.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘There are two men and one empire called Asshur (=Assyria) in the Bible, and the names of all of these probably derive from the similarly named primary deity of Assyria. Asshur, Assyria and the Assyrians are not to be confused with:

  • The name Aram, the country directly north of Israel, which in Greek times became known by its present name of Syria. Its capital has been Damascus since ancient times. Even though Syria and Assyria are different countries, the Greeks called them both [the same], which isn’t all that strange since several cities and regions in Assyria are known by names that contain Aram; see for instance the names Aram-naharaim and Paddan-aram.
  • The quite different name Ashhur, belonging to the head [leader] of Tekoa (1 Chronicles 2:24)
  • The quite similar name Asher, which belonged to the eighth son of Jacob and second of Zilpah (Genesis 30:13).
  • The Asshurim, who were a people descending from Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:3).

The lesser known man named Asshur is mentioned in the genealogy of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:24), and has no further role in the Bible. The other man named Asshur was a son of Shem… (Genesis 10:22), and, on the Biblical stage, from him sprang the people called the Assyrians, who lived in Assyria, which in the Bible is known simply as Asshur. Its capital city Nineveh was built by Nimrod, according to the Bible(Genesis 10:11).

In the demographical record, the country Assyria started out as a small settlement named Assur, “built on a sandstone cliff on the west of the Tigris about 35 kilometers north of its confluence with the lower Zab River” (says The Oxford Companion to the Bible). It became an empire in the 19th century BC, but soon dwindled, reemerged in the 14th century during which it even took control over Babylon to its south, but quickly faded again.

Under Tiglath-pileser I (1115-1076 BC) the empire experienced brief and extensive success, but succumbed to the invasion of the Arameans.In 935 BC Assyria began to reconquer its territories lost to Aram,which brought them in range of Canaan, and also created the formidable Neo-Assyrian empire that we hear so much about in the Bible.

The foundations of the Neo-Assyrian empire were laid by king Ashurnasirpal II (884-859 BC), who [re]built the city of Calah, which is also known as Nimrud (in the Bible personified as Nimrod), and expanded the (up to then marginal) town of Nineveh. Ashurnasirpal’s son Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) fought at the battle of Qarqar (853 BC), which entailed a clash between the Assyrian imperial army and a coalition of eleven states headed by king Hadadezer of Damascus, and which included the Arameans… and Israel under king Ahab. 

The Bible omits this battle and we know about it from the Kurkh monoliths, which were found in 1861 in Iraq. These monoliths contain the only (possible) reference to Israel in Assyrian and Babylonian records. At Qarqar the progression of the Assyrian empire was checked and in the years that followed its power diminished.

In 745 BC, a revolt in Calah led to the assumption of the Assyrian throne by the vigorous Tiglath-pileser III… who spent his career in conflict intervention all over the broader region. Even king Ahaz of Judah called upon the intervention of this imperial sheriff, when he found his kingdom besieged by kings Rezin of Aram and Pekah of Israel (2 Kings 16:7). He embellished his request with a gift made of silver and gold from the temple of YHWH, and Tiglath-pileser responded by capturing Damascus, exiling its people to Kir and executing Rezin (2 Kings 16:9). Still, the Chronicler wryly asserts that Tiglath-pileser’s assistance didn’t help Ahaz all that much (2 Chronicles 28:21). As part of the same campaign, Tiglath-pileser also invaded the land of Naphtali in the north of Israel and apparently also the territories of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh on the east (1 Chronicles 5:6, 5:26), and deported* the people in what became known as the First Deportation (1 Kings 15:29). King Pekah of Israel was murdered and succeeded by Hoshea, son of Elah, who was made to pay an annual tribute to the king of Assyria.

After six years of paying taxes to Assyria, king Hoshea figured he could get away from it by allying Israel with Egypt. Tiglath-pileser’s son Shalmaneser V (727-722) didn’t think so, marched on Samaria, besieged it for three years and finally captured it. He imprisoned Hoshea and deported the city’s population (2 Kings 17:4-6). His successor was the usurper Sargon II (722-705 BC), who is mentioned only once in the Bible, in Isaiah 20:1 in reference to the battle of Ashdod. But it was he who deported the rest of Israel in what is known as the Second Deportation. This action effectively ended the northern kingdom of Israel and virtually wiped out the tribes other than Judah [with Benjamin] and the two nationally absorbed tribes of Levi and Simeon.

Sargon’s son Sennacherib (705-681 BC) sacked Babylon, deported its population and besieged Jerusalem in the fourteenth year of the reign of king Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:13). King Hezekiah initially bought him off with a tribute of 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold (2 Kings 18:14) but Sennacherib wanted Jerusalem’s submission. He sent Rabshakeh and a division of his army to negotiate Jerusalem’s peaceful surrender but king Hezekiah wouldn’t budge (18:36). Hezekiah sent his chief of staff Eliakim to the prophet Isaiah, who told him that the Lord had said that Jerusalem would not fall to the Assyrians (19:7, 19:20). When Rabshakeh went to report Hezekiah’s refusal to surrender to Sennacherib, he found his king engaged in battle with the army of Libnah and realized that the heat was off Jerusalem (19:8). Then one night the Lord decimated the Assyrian army by undisclosed means, andSennacherib went home.He was killed by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer in the temple of the god Nisroch, and his son Esarhaddon became king in his place (681-669 BC).

King Esarhaddon died of an illness and was succeeded by the great Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC), who expanded the Assyrian empire to its record size. 

In the Bible he’s mentioned only as the king who brought people from outside to Samaria (Ezra 4:10). After his death his empire succumbed to civil war and was left without central reign. Finally, a man named Sin-shar-ishkun (approximately 623-612) took the throne, but within a decade the empire was invaded by a coalition of Medes and Babylonians, who captured the central provinces. 

The last king of Assyria was Ashur-uballit II (612-609), who ruled in Haran, in the empire’s remaining western territories. He had support from Egypt but lost his lands to the Babylonians. The Assyrian empire and its vibrant culture remained forgotten until archeologists of the modern age revived it. The name Asshur is highly similar to the Hebrew name Asher but is spelled with a waw before the resh… [the]verb (‘ashar) covers a decisive progression or a setting right, and is often applied to describe happiness and prosperity…’

We learn of two sons born to Asshur in the Book of Jasher 7:16

And the sons of Ashar were Mirus and Mokil

In Isaiah 66:19 ESV, we read the verse in connection with Tarshish, Lud, Tubal and Javan. Pul is mentioned and commentators sometimes define Pul as Phut or Put. 

… and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish [Japan], Pul [H6322 – Puwl: distinguishing], and Lud [Iran], who draw the bow, to Tubal [Southern Coastland China] and Javan [Archipelago South East Asia], to the coastlands [Gomer and Continental SE Asia] far away, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations.

In 2 Kings 15:19 ESV, we learn:

Pul the king of Assyria came against the land, and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that he might help him to confirm his hold on the royal power.

1 Chronicles 5:26

English Standard Version

So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser [745-727 BC] king of Assyria, and he took them into exile*, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day [time of writing].

Pul is not Phut, but rather a king of Assyria; either Tiglath-pileser III himself, or a successor. Isaiah could well be referring to a future ruler. I would lean towards the spirit or mind of Tiglath-pileser being moved to take Israel captive. In Hebrew, Pul means: ‘distinctive, discerner’ or ‘darkling.’ From the verb palal, ‘to distinguish’ or ‘discern.’ 

Related names via the verb are amazingly, Amraphel the alternate name we discovered for Hammurabi – former ally and turned enemy of Chedorlaomer of Elam – and also the Nephilim, which we will discuss in the chapter following Nimrod [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer & the War of Nine Kings and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

Abarim Publications, bold mine:

‘The name Pul is assigned to one human male and one country:

  • Pul the man is the same as Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria. 
  • Pul the country is mentioned by the prophet Isaiah… Since the other lands that Isaiah lists are all well known, commentators nowadays believe that this otherwise unmentioned Pul is the same as the better known Put. This obviously remains conjecture.

It’s been a long surviving mystery where the name Pul might have come from. In Context of Scripture (2002), William W. Hallo submits: “Today we know that Tiglath-pileser III was Pul, though there is still some discussion among Assyriologists concerning the etymology and use of the name Pul”. Barry J. Beitzel writes in Biblica — The Bible Atlas (2007): “For centuries it was assumed that Pul and Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria were separate kings, as implied by the account in 2 Kings. It is now known that “Pul” is a diminutive form of Tiglath-pileser, presumably from the middle portion of the name from where it may have been associated in folk etymology. Pul or Pulu is a well-known Assyrian name, meaning “limestone (or block of limestone)””.

There aren’t many ways to write Pul in Hebrew, but it appears that his name was really Pulu… also associated to the words for Wonderful, Judge and Gloom. NOBSE Study Bible Name List appears to go with the old tradition and reads Strong.’

In Ezekiel 27:23 ESV, we see Assyria linked in trade with Tyre, other European nations and the Medes: 

Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur [Russia], and Chilmad traded with you.

Abarim Publications: 

‘The name Chilmad occurs only once in the Bible, namely in Ezekiel 27:23, where it is listed among the many nations that traded with Tyre. Unlike most of the other names of this list, it’s not clear where Chilmad might have been located. Some scholars… have proposed that Chilmad isn’t really a name but simply means “all Media”… Since it’s not clear where Chilmad might have been it’s also not clear from which language this name comes, let alone what it might have meant. It’s not even certain that Chilmad is really a name, or was ever intended as one. Ancient Hebrew scribes often transliterated foreign names into barely recognizable forms, often to make a point or pun.

…we surmise that our “name” may have originated as a compressed version of, “all measure” or “all sorts”, in the vein of the similar phrase, “all wealth”, (Ezekiel 27:12 and 27:18), and the phrases, “all spices”, and, “all stones” (both 27:22). The first part of our “name” looks like the noun (kol), meaning all or the whole… And the second part of our name looks like it has to do with the name for Media, namely from the verb (madad), to measure… It’s unclear what the name Chilmad means, but among a Hebrew audience there might have been a creative few who heard Of All Sorts or In Every Measure or even All Disease.’

In Psalm 83:4-8 ESV, we read of a past alliance or at least a list of the principle adversaries against Jacob’s sons, including Asshur’s powerful military involvement or presence. We will return to this passage when we have studied all the identities listed. All the identities apart from Assyria, are usually identified as being in the Middle East or the Islamic world, which is not correct. 

4 They say, “Come, let us wipe them out as a nation; let the name of Israel be remembered no more!” 5 For they conspire with one accord; against you they make a covenant – 6 the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites, Moab and the Hagrites,Gebal and Ammon and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;Asshur also has joined them; they are the strong arm [for] the children of Lot

Isaiah 31:5-9

English Standard Version

5 Like birds hovering, so the Lord of hosts will protect Jerusalem; he will protect and deliver it; he will spare and rescue it.” 6 Turn to him from whom people have deeply revolted, O children of Israel. 7 For in that day everyone shall cast away his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your hands have sinfully made for you. 8 “And the Assyrian shall fall by a sword, not of man; and a sword, not of man, shall devour him; and he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be put to forced labor. 9 His rock shall pass away in terror, and his officers desert the standard in panic,” declares the Lord, whose fire is in Zion, and whose furnace is in Jerusalem.

This event occurred in part, when Sennacherib’s army was decimated prior to their planned attack circa 701 BCE on Jerusalem, the capital of the Kingdom of Judah – the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin, with Simeon and Levi. It is principally revealing a future event, as the young men of Asshur were not taken as slaves in Sennacherib’s defeat.

Isaiah 30:31

English Standard Version

The Assyrians will be terror-stricken at the voice of the Lord, when he strikes with his rod.

The Assyrians are used to being the Rod of the Creator’s anger, not at the end of it.

Isaiah 10:4-8, 11-16, 24-27

New Century Version

4… God Will Punish Assyria. 5 God says, “How terrible it will be for the king of Assyria. I use him like a rod to show my anger; in anger I use Assyria like a club [rod]. 6I send [Assyria] to fight against a nation that is separated from God. I am angry with those people, so I command Assyria to fight against them, to take their wealth from them, to trample them down like dirt in the streets. 

But Assyria’s king doesn’t understand that I am using him; he doesn’t know he is a tool for me. He only wants to destroy other people andto defeat many nations. 8 The king of Assyria says to himself, ‘All of my commanders are like kings… 11 As I defeated Samaria and her idols, I will also defeat Jerusalem and her idols.’”

12 When the Lord finishes doing what he planned to Mount Zion and Jerusalem, he will punish Assyria. The king of Assyria is very proud, and his pride has made him do these evil things, so God will punish him. 13 The king of Assyria says this:“By my own power I have done these things; by my wisdom I have defeated many nations. I have taken their wealth, and, like a mighty one [refer Chapter XXI],I have taken their people… Not one raised a hand or opened its mouth to stop me.”15 An ax is not better than the person who swings it. A saw is not better than the one who uses it. A stick cannot control the person who picks it up. A club cannot pick up the person! 16 So the Lord God All-Powerful will send a terrible disease upon Assyria’s soldiers. The strength of Assyria will be burned up like a fire burning until everything is gone.

24 This is what the Lord God All-Powerful says: “My people living in Jerusalem, don’t be afraid of the Assyrians, who beat you with a rod and raise a stick against you, as Egypt did. 25After a short time my anger against you will stop, and then I will turn my anger to destroying them.” 26 Then the Lord All-Powerful will beat the Assyrians with a whip as he defeated Midian at the rock of Oreb. He will raise his stick over the waters as he did in Egypt. 27 Then the troubles that Assyria puts on you will be removed, and the load they make you carry will be taken away…

Matthew 12:41

English Standard Version

The men of Nineveh [capital of Assyria, equating to Moscow today] will rise up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah… 

The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In 721 B.C. Assyria swept out of the north, captured the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and took the ten tribes into captivity. From there they became lost to history. Assyria, named from the god Ashur (highest in the pantheon of Assyrian gods), was located in the Mesopotamian plain. 

It was bordered on the west by the Syrian desert [Arameans], on the south by Babylonia [Chaldeans], and on the north and east by the Persian [Elam] and Urarthian hills [Lud]. This area today is primarily the nation of Iraq.

“[The Assyrians] took their common language and their arts from Sumeria [Joktan], but modified them later into an almost undistinguishable similarity to the language and arts of Babylonia [Peleg]. Their circumstances, however, forbade them to indulge in the effeminate ease of Babylon; from beginning to end they were a race of warriors, mighty in muscle and courage, abounding in proud hair and beard, standing straight, stern and solid on their monuments, and bestriding with tremendous feet the east-Mediterranean world. Their history is one of kings and slaves,wars and conquests, bloody victories and sudden defeat.” (Will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, The Story of Civilization, 1:266.)

“Assyria’s ascent as a formidable power in the Near East was due in large measure to strong kings who increased her borders and subjected other nations as tributaries. Assyria first became an independent nation between 1813 and 1781 B.C. under Shamshi-Adad. Under [their] kings Assyria reached its greatest apex of power, controlling the area that included not only Assyria but also Babylonia, Armenia, Media, Judea, Syria, Phoenicia, Sumeria, Elam, and Egypt. This empire “was without doubt the most extensive administrative organization yet seen in the Mediterranean or Near Eastern world; only Hammurabi and Thutmose III had approached it, and Persia alone would equal it before the coming of Alexander” (Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, 1:270).

The most vital part of the Assyrian government was its army. Warfare was a science to the leaders of Assyria… cavalry [was] introduced by Ashurnasirpal to aid the infantry and chariots, [as were] sappers, armor made from iron, siege machines, and battering rams [which] were all developed or perfected by the Assyrians. Strategy and tactics were also well understood by the Assyrian officers. But it was not just Assyrian effectiveness in warfare that struck terror to the hearts of the Near Eastern world. They were savage and brutal as well. 

“A captured city was usually plundered and burnt to the ground, and its site was deliberately denuded by killing its trees. The loyalty of the troops was secured by dividing a large part of the spoils among them; their bravery was ensured by the general rule of the Near East that all captives in war might be enslaved or slain. Soldiers were rewarded for every severed head they brought in from the field, so that the aftermath of a victory generally witnessed the wholesale decapitation of fallen foes. 

Most often the prisoners, who would have consumed much food in a long campaign, and would have constituted a danger and nuisance in the rear, were dispatched after the battle; they knelt with their backs to their captors, who beat their heads in with clubs, or cut them off with cutlasses. Scribes stood by to count the number of prisoners taken and killed by each soldier, and apportioned the booty accordingly; the king, if time permitted, presided at the slaughter. The nobles among the defeated were given more special treatment: their ears, noses, hands and feet were sliced off, or they were thrown from high towers, or they and their children were beheaded, or flayed alive, or roasted over a slow fire…

In all departments of Assyrian life we meet with a patriarchal sternness natural to a people that lived by conquest, and in every sense on the border of barbarism.Just as the Romans took thousands of prisoners into lifelong slavery after their victories, and dragged others to the Circus Maximus to be torn to pieces by starving animals, so the Assyrians seemed to find satisfaction – or a necessary tutelage for their sons – in torturing captives, blinding children before the eyes of their parents, flaying men alive, roasting them in kilns, chaining them in cages for the amusement of the populace, and then sending the survivors off to execution. Ashurnasirpal tells how ‘all the chiefs who had revolted I flayed, with their skins I covered the pillar, some in the midst I walled up, others on stakes I impaled, still others I arranged around the pillar on stakes…

As for the chieftains and royal officers who had rebelled, I cut off their members.’ Ashurbanipal boasts that‘I burned three thousand captives with fire, I left not a single one among them alive to serve as a hostage.’ Another of his inscriptions reads: ‘These warriors who had sinned against Ashur and had plotted evil against me… from their hostile mouths have I torn their tongues, and I have compassed their destruction. As for the others who remained alive, I offered them as a funerary sacrifice… their lacerated members have I given unto the dogs, the swine, the wolves… By accomplishing these deeds I have rejoiced the heart of the great gods.’ Another monarch instructs his artisans to engrave upon the bricks these claims on the admiration of posterity: ‘My war chariots crush men and beasts… The monuments which I erect are made of human corpses from which I have cut the head and limbs. I cut off the hands of all those whom I capture alive.’ Reliefs at Nineveh show men being impaled or flayed, or having their tongues torn out; one shows a king gouging out the eyes of prisoners with a lance while he holds their heads conveniently in place with a cord passed through their lips.” (Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, 1:271, 275–76.)

This is brutal behaviour to the extreme – even in warfare – and is indicative of one stand out peoples of West Eurasian origin, the Russians. 

The analogy with the Romans is uncanny for its exactitude, as we shall discover. Only the Germans can bear any reasonable comparison with the Russians for violence and as we shall learn, the comparison with Rome is also applicable.

‘Under the reign of Tiglath-pileser II[I], Assyria began consolidating its power in the western part of the empire. Around 738 B.C. he demanded and received tribute from Damascus, the capital of Syria, and Samaria, the capital of Israel (2 Kings 15:19-20). But four years later, the two… states rebelled, and once again Tiglath-pileser moved in. Damascus was conquered, as was part of the territory of the Northern Kingdom, and the people were carried off into captivity (2 Kings 15:29). It seems to have been Tiglath-pileser who originated large-scale deportations of conquered peoples. By deporting a conquered people en masse to a foreign land, Tiglath-pileser hoped to break their unity and destroy their national identity. The practice of large deportations continued under Shalmaneser and later Sargon II, successors to Tiglath-pileser who also played an important role in the history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.’

I am reproducing almost in its entirety the entry for Assyria located on the Britannica website. The casual reader may skim or miss it out, though those readers with a special interest in Asshur and Assyria, may find much value if they have not read the article previously – emphasis & bold mine.

‘Strictly speaking, the use of the name “Assyria” for the period before the latter half of the 2nd millennium BCE is anachronistic; Assyria – as against the city-state of Ashur – did not become an independent state until about 1400 BCE. 

In contrast to southern Mesopotamia… written sources in Assyria do not begin until very late, shortly before Ur III [Neo-Sumerian Empire 2100 BC]. In the early 2nd millennium the main cities of this region were Ashur (160 miles north-northwest of modern Baghdad), the capital (synonymous with the city god and national divinity)… [and] Nineveh, lying opposite modern Mosul… In Assyria, inscriptions were composed in Akkadian from the beginning. Under Ur III, Ashur was a provincial capital. The inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia called Assyria Shubir in Sumerian and Subartu in Akkadian; these names may point to a Subarean population that was related to the Hurrians.

The Assyrian dialect of Akkadian found in the beginning of the 2nd millennium differs strongly from the dialect of Babylonia. These two versions of the Akkadian language continue into the 1st millennium. In contrast to the kings of southern Mesopotamia, the rulers of Ashur styled themselves not king but partly issiakum, the Akkadian equivalent of the Sumerian word ensi, partly ruba’um, or “great one.” Unfortunately, the rulers cannot be synchronized precisely with the kings of southern Mesopotamia before Shamshi-Adad I.

Aside from the generally scarce reports on projected construction, there is at present no information about the city of Ashur and its surroundings. There exists, however, unexpectedly rewarding source material from the trading colonies of Ashur in Anatolia. The texts come mainly from Kanesh (modern Kultepe, near Kayseri, in Turkey) and from Hattusa (modern Bogazkoy, Turkey), the later Hittite capital. In the 19th century BCE three generations of Assyrian merchants engaged in a lively commodity trade (especially in textiles and metal) between the homeland and Anatolia, also taking part profitably in internal Anatolian trade. Clearly these forays by Assyrian merchants led to some transplanting of Mesopotamian culture into Anatolia. Thus the Anatolians adopted cuneiform writing and used the Assyrian language.

From about 1813 to about 1781 [1910-1878 BCE] Assyria was ruled by Shamshi-Adad I… Shamshi-Adad’s father – an Amorite [Aramean], to judge by the name – had ruled near Mari. The son, not being of Assyrian origin, ascended the throne of Assyria as a foreigner and on a detour, as it were, after having spent some time as an exile in Babylonia. He had his two sons rule as viceroys, in Ekallatum on the Tigris and in Mari, respectively, until the older of the two, Ishme-Dagan [I], succeeded his father on the throne. Through the archive of correspondence in the palace at Mari, scholars are particularly well informed about Shamshi-Adad’s reign and many aspects of his personality. Shamshi-Adad’s state had a common border for some time with… Babylonia… Soon after Shamshi-Adad’s death, Mari broke away, regaining its independence under an Amorite dynasty that had been living there for generations; in the end, Hammurabi [1894-1852 BCE] conquered and destroyed Mari. After Ishme-Dagan’s death [1857-1837 BCE], Assyrian history is lost sight of for more than 100 years.

Very little can be said about northern Assyria during the 2nd millennium BCE. Information on the old capital, Ashur, located in the south of the country, is somewhat more plentiful. The old lists of kings suggest that the same dynasty ruled continuously over Ashur from about 1600. All the names of the kings are given, but little else is known about Ashur before 1420. 

Almost all the princes had Akkadian names, and it can be assumed that their sphere of influence was rather small. Although Assyria belonged to the kingdom of the Mitanni [Hurrians] for a long time, it seems that Ashur retained a certain autonomy. Located close to the boundary with Babylonia, it played that empire off against Mitanni whenever possible. Puzur-Ashur III concluded a border treaty with Babylonia about 1480, as did Ashur-bel-nisheshu about 1405. Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (c. 1392 – c. 1383) was even able to obtain support from Egypt, which sent him a consignment of gold. 

Ashur-uballit I (c. 1354 – c. 1318) was at first subject to King Tushratta of Mitanni. After 1340, however, he attacked Tushratta, presumably together with Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites. Taking away from Mitanni parts of northeastern Mesopotamia, Ashur-uballiṭ now called himself “Great King” and socialized with the king of Egypt on equal terms, arousing the indignation of the king of Babylonia. Ashur-uballiṭ was the first to name Assyria the Land of Ashur, because the old name, Subartu, was often used in a derogatory sense in Babylonia. He ordered his short inscriptions to be partly written in the Babylonian dialect rather than the Assyrian, since this was considered refined. 

Marrying his daughter to a Babylonian, he intervened there energetically when Kassite nobles murdered his grandson. Future generations came to consider [Ashur-uballit I] rightfully as the real founder of the Assyrian empire. His son Enlil-nirari (c. 1326 – c. 1318) also fought against Babylonia. Arik-den-ili (c. 1308 – c. 1297) turned westward, where he encountered Semitic tribes of the so-called Akhlamu group.

Still greater successes were achieved by Adad-nirari I (c. 1295 – c. 1264). Defeating the Kassite king Nazimaruttash, he forced him to retreat. After that he defeated the kings of Mitanni, first Shattuara I, then Wasashatta. This enabled him for a time to incorporate all Mesopotamia into his empire as a province, although in later struggles he lost large parts to the Hittites. Adad-nirari’s inscriptions were more elaborate than those of his predecessors and were written in the Babylonian dialect. In them he declares that he feels called to these wars by the gods, a statement that was to be repeated by other kings after him. Assuming the old title of great king, he called himself “King of All.” He enlarged the temple and the palace in Ashur and also developed the fortifications there, particularly at the banks of the Tigris River. He worked on large building projects in the provinces.

His son Shalmaneser I (Shulmanu-asharidu; c. 1263 – c. 1234) attacked Uruatru (later called Urartu) [refer Chapter XVII Lud & Iran] in southern Armenia, which had allegedly broken away. Shattuara II of Hanigalbat, however, put him into a difficult situation, cutting his forces off from their water supplies. With courage born of despair, the Assyrians fought themselves free. They then set about reducing what was left of the Mitanni kingdom into an Assyrian province. The king claimed to have blinded 14,400 enemies in one eye – psychological warfare of a similar kind was used more and more as time went by. The Hittites tried in vain to save Hanigalbat. Together with the Babylonians they fought a commercial war against Ashur for many years. Like his father, Shalmaneser was a great builder. At the juncture of the Tigris and Great Zab rivers, he founded a strategically situated second capital, Kalakh (biblical Calah; modern Nimrud).

His son was Tukulti-Ninurta (c. 1233 – c. 1197), the Ninus of Greek legends. Gifted but extravagant, he made his nation a great power. He carried off thousands of Hittites from eastern Anatolia. He fought particularly hard against Babylonia, deporting Kashtiliash IV to Assyria. When the Babylonians rebelled again, he plundered the temples in Babylon, an act regarded as a sacrilege, even in Assyria. The relationship between the king and his capital deteriorated steadily. For this reason the king began to build a new city, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, on the other side of the Tigris River. Ultimately, even his sons rebelled against him and laid siege to him in his city; in the end he was murdered. His victorious wars against Babylonia were glorified in an epic poem, but his empire broke up soon after his death. Assyrian power declined for a time, while that of Babylonia rose. Assyria had suffered under the oppression of both the Hurrians and the Mitanni kingdom. Its struggle for liberation and the bitter wars that followed had much to do with its development into a military power. 

In his capital of Ashur, the king depended on the citizen class and the priesthood, as well as on the landed nobility that furnished him with the war-chariot troops. The breeding of horses was carried on intensively; remnants of elaborate directions for their training are extant. After a period of decline following Tukulti-Ninurta I, Assyria was consolidated and stabilized under Ashur-dan I [1178-1133 BCE] and Ashur-resh-ishi I (c. 1133 – c. 1116). Several times forced to fight against Babylonia, the latter was even able to defend himself against an attack by Nebuchadrezzar I. According to the inscriptions, most of his building efforts were in Nineveh, rather than in the old capital of Ashur. His son Tiglath-pileser I (Tukulti-apil-Esharra; (c. 1115 – c. 1077) raised the power of Assyria to new heights. 

First he turned against a large army of the Mushki that had entered into southern Armenia from Anatolia, defeating them decisively. After this, he forced the small Hurrian states of southern Armenia to pay him tribute. Trained in mountain warfare themselves and helped by capable pioneers, the Assyrians were now able to advance far into the mountain regions. Their main enemies were the Aramaeans… whose many small states often combined against the Assyrians. Tiglath-pileser I also went to Syria and even reached the Mediterranean, where he took a sea voyage. After 1100 these campaigns led to conflicts with Babylonia. Tiglath-pileser conquered northern Babylonia and plundered Babylon, without decisively defeating Marduk-nadin-ahhe. In his own country the king paid particular attention to agriculture and fruit growing, improved the administrative system, and developed more thorough methods of training scribes.

Three of his sons reigned after Tiglath-pileser, including Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1074 – c. 1057). Like his father, he fought in southern Armenia and against the Aramaeans with Babylonia as his ally. Disintegration of the empire could not be delayed, however. The grandson of Tiglath-pileser, Ashurnasirpal I (c. 1050 – c. 1032), was sickly and unable to do more than defend Assyria proper against his enemies. Fragments of three of his prayers to Ishtar are preserved; among them is a penitential prayer in which he wonders about the cause of so much adversity. Referring to his many good deeds but admitting his guilt at the same time, he asks for forgiveness and health. According to the king, part of his guilt lay in neglecting to teach his subjects the fear of god. After him, little is known for 100 years.

State and society during the time of Tiglath-pileser were not essentially different from those of the 13th century. Collections of laws, drafts, and edicts of the court exist that go back as far as the 14th century BCE. Presumably, most of these remained in effect. One tablet defining the marriage laws shows that the social position of women in Assyria was lower than in Babylonia or Israel or among the Hittites. A man was allowed to send away his wife at his own pleasure with or without divorce money. In the case of adultery, he was permitted to kill or maim her. Outside her house the woman was forced to observe many restrictions, such as the wearing of a veil. It is not clear whether these regulations carried the weight of law, but they seem to have represented a reaction against practices that were more favourable to women. 

Two somewhat older marriage contracts, for example, granted equal rights to both partners, even in divorce. The women of the king’s harem were subject to severe punishment, including beating, maiming, and death, along with those who guarded and looked after them. The penal laws of the time were generally more severe in Assyria than in other countries… The death penalty was not uncommon. In less serious cases the penalty was forced labour after flogging. In certain cases there was trial by ordeal. One tablet treats the subject of landed property rights. Offences against the established boundary lines called for extremely severe punishment. A creditor was allowed to force his debtor to work for him, but he could not sell him.

The greater part of Assyrian literature was either taken over from Babylonia or written by the Assyrians in the Babylonian dialect, who modeled their works on Babylonian originals. The Assyrian dialect was used in legal documents, court and temple rituals, and collections of recipes – as, for example, in directions for making perfumes. A new art form was the picture tale: a continuing series of pictures carved on square stelae of stone. The pictures, showing war or hunting scenes, begin at the top of the stela and run down around it, with inscriptions under the pictures explaining them. These and the finely cut seals show that the fine arts of Assyria were beginning to surpass those of Babylonia. Architecture and other forms of the monumental arts also began a further development, such as the double temple with its two towers (ziggurat). Colourful enameled tiles were used to decorate the facades.

The most important factor in the history of Mesopotamia in the 10th century was the continuing threat from the Aramaean[s]. Again and again, the kings of both Babylonia and Assyria were forced to repel their invasions. Even though the Aramaeans were not able to gain a foothold in the main cities, there are evidences of them in many rural areas. Ashur-dan II (934-912) succeeded in suppressing the Aramaeans and the mountain people, in this way stabilizing the Assyrian boundaries. He reintroduced the use of the Assyrian dialect in his written records.

Adad-nirari II (c. 911-891) left detailed accounts of his wars and his efforts to improve agriculture. He led six campaigns against Aramaean intruders from northern Arabia. In two campaigns against Babylonia he forced Shamash-mudammiq (c. 930–904) to surrender extensive territories. 

Shamash-mudammiq was murdered, and a treaty with his successor, Nabu-shum-ukin (c. 904–888), secured peace for many years. Tukulti-Ninurta II (c. 890–884), the son of Adad-nirari II, preferred Ninveh to Ashur. He fought campaigns in southern Armenia. He was portrayed on stelae in blue and yellow enamel in the late Hittite style, showing him under a winged sun a theme adopted from Egyptian art. 

His son Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) continued the policy of conquest and expansion. He left a detailed account of his campaigns, which were impressive in their cruelty. Defeated enemies were impaled, flayed, or beheaded in great numbers. Mass deportations, however, were found to serve the interests of the growing empire better than terror. Through the systematic exchange of native populations, conquered regions were denationalized. The result was a submissive, mixed population in which the Aramaean element became the majority. This provided the labour force for the various public works in the metropolitan centres of the Assyrian empire. Ashurnasirpal II rebuilt Kalakh, founded by Shalmaneser I, and made it his capital. Ashur remained the centre of the worship of the god Ashur – in whose name all the wars of conquest were fought. A third capital was Nineveh. [Recall the Russians have moved their capitals from Novgorod, Kiev and St Petersburg (Leningrad) to Moscow]. Ashurnasirpal II was the first to use cavalry units to any large extent in addition to infantry and war-chariot troops. He also was the first to employ heavy, mobile battering rams and wall breakers in his sieges. The campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II led him mainly to southern Armenia and Mesopotamia. 

After a series of heavy wars, he incorporated Mesopotamia as far as the Euphrates River. A campaign to Syria encountered little resistance. There was no great war against Babylonia. Ashurnasirpal, like other Assyrian kings, may have been moved by religion not to destroy Babylonia, which had almost the same gods as Assyria. Both empires must have profited from mutual trade and cultural exchange. The Babylonians, under the energetic Nabu-apla-iddina (c. 887-855) attacked the Aramaeans in southern Mesopotamia… Ashurnasirpal, so brutal in his wars, was able to inspire architects, structural engineers, and artists and sculptors to heights never before achieved. He built and enlarged temples and palaces in several cities. His most impressive monument was his own palace in Kalakh, covering a space of 269,000 square feet (25,000 square metres). Hundreds of large limestone slabs were used in murals in the staterooms and living quarters. [Recall Pul or Pulu, is a well-known Assyrian name, which includes the meaning ‘limestone’ or ‘block of limestone’].

Most of the scenes were done in relief, but painted murals also have been found. Most of them depict mythological themes and symbolic fertility rites, with the king participating. Brutal war pictures were aimed to discourage enemies. The chief god of Kalakh was Ninurta, a god of war and the hunt. The tower of the temple dedicated to Ninurta also served as an astronomical observaotory. Kalakh soon became the cultural centre of the empire. Ashurnasirpal claimed to have entertained 69,574 guests at the opening ceremonies of his palace.

The son and successor of Ashurnasirpal was Shalmaneser III (858-824). His father’s equal in both brutality and energy, he was less realistic in his undertakings. His inscriptions, in a peculiar blend of Assyrian and Babylonian, record his considerable achievements but are not always able to conceal his failures. His campaigns were directed mostly against Syria. While he was able to conquer northern Syria and make it a province, in the south he could only weaken the strong state of Damascus and was unable, even after several wars, to eliminate it. In 841 he laid unsuccessful siege to Damascus. Also in 841 King Jehu of Israel was forced to pay tribute. In his invasion of Cilicia, Shalmaneser had only partial success. The same was true of the kingdom of Urartu in Armenia, from which, however, the troops returned with immense quantities of lumber and building stone. The king and, in later years, the general Dayyan-Ashur went several times to western Iran, where they found such states as Mannai in northwestern Iran and, farther away in the southeast, the Persians. They also encountered the Medes during these wars. Horse tribute was collected [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes].

In Babylonia, Marduk-zakir-shumi I ascended the throne about the year 855. His brother Marduk-bel-usati rebelled against him, and in 851 the king was forced to ask Shalmaneser for help. Shalmaneser was only too happy to oblige; when the usurper had been finally eliminated (850), Shalmaneser went to southern Babylonia, which at that time was almost completely dominated by Aramaeans. There he encountered, among others, the Chaldeans, mentioned for the first time in 878 BCE, who were to play a leading role in the history of later times; Shalmaneser made them tributaries.

During his long reign he built temples, palaces, and fortifications in Assyria as well as in the other capitals of his provinces. His artists created many statues and stelae. Among the best known is the Black Obelisk, which includes a picture of Jehu of Israel paying tribute. In the last four years of the reign of Shalmaneser, the crown prince Ashur-da’in-apla led a rebellion. The old king appointed his younger son Shamshi-Adad as the new crown prince. Forced to flee to Babylonia, Shamshi-Adad V (823-811) finally managed to regain the kingship with the help of Marduk-zakir-shumi I under humiliating conditions. As king he campaigned with varying success in southern Armenia and Azerbaijan, later turning against Babylonia. He won several battles against the Babylonian kings Marduk-balassu-iqbi and Baba-aha-iddina (about 818-12) and pushed through to Chaldea. Babylonia remained independent, however.

Shamshi-Adad V died while Adad-nirari III (810-783) was still a minor. His Babylonian mother, Sammu-ramat, took over the regency, governing with great energy until 806. The Greeks, who called her Semiramis, credited her with legendary accomplishments, but historically little is known about her. Adad-nirari later led several campaigns against the Medes and also against Syria and Palestine. In 804 he reached Gaza, but Damascus proved invincible. He also fought in Babylonia, helping to restore order in the north. Shalmaneser IV (c. 783-773) fought against Urartu [Lud], then at the height of its power under King Argishti (c. 780-755). He successfully defended eastern Mesopotamia against attacks from Armenia. On the other hand, he lost most of Syria after a campaign against Damascus in 773. The reign of Ashur-dan III (772-755) was shadowed by rebellions and by epidemics of plague. Of Ashur-nirari V (754-746) little is known.

In Assyria the feudal structure of society remained largely unchanged. Many of the conquered lands were combined to form large provinces. The governors of these provinces sometimes acquired considerable independence, particularly under the weaker monarchs after Adad-nirari III. Some of them even composed their own inscriptions. The influx of displaced peoples into the cities of Assyria created large metropolitan centres. The spoils of war, together with an expanding trade, favoured the development of a well-to-do commercial class. The dense population of the cities gave rise to social tensions that only the strong kings were able to contain. 

A number of the former capitals of the conquered lands remained important as capitals of provinces. There was much new building. A standing occupational force was needed in the provinces, and these troops grew steadily in proportion to the total military forces. There are no records on the training of officers or on military logistics. The civil service also expanded, the largest administrative body being the royal court, with thousands of functionaries and craftsmen in the several residential cities.

The cultural decline about the year 1000 was overcome during the reigns of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III. The arts in particular experienced a tremendous resurgence. Literary works continued to be written in Assyrian and were seldom of great importance. The literature that had been taken over from Babylonia was further developed with new writings, although one can rarely distinguish between works written in Assyria and works written in Babylonia. In religion, the official cults of Ashur and Ninurta continued, while the religion of the common people went its separate way.

For no other period of Assyrian history is there an abundance of sources comparable to those available for the interval from roughly 745 to 640. Aside from the large number of royal inscriptions, about 2,400 letters, most of them more or less fragmentary, have been published. Usually the senders and recipients of these letters are the king and high government officials. Among them are reports from royal agents about foreign affairs and letters about cultic matters. Treaties, oracles, queries to the sun god about political matters, and prayers of or for kings contain a great deal of additional information. Last but certainly not least are paintings and wall reliefs, which are often very informative.

The decline of Assyrian power after 780 was notable; Syria and considerable lands in the north were lost. A military coup deposed King Ashur-nirari V and raised a general to the throne. Under the name of Tiglath-pileser III (745-727), he brought the empire to its greatest expanse. He reduced the size of the provinces in order to break the partial independence of the governors. He also invalidated the tax privileges of cities such as Ashur and Harran in order to distribute the tax load more evenly over the entire realm. Military equipment was improved substantially. In 746 he went to Babylonia to aid Nabu-nasir (747-734) in his fight against Aramaean tribes. Tiglath-pileser defeated the Aramaeans and then made visits to the large cities of Babylonia. There he tried to secure the support of the priesthood by patronizing their building projects. Babylonia retained its independence.

His next undertaking was to check Urartu [modern day Persians]. His campaigns in Azerbaijan were designed to drive a wedge between Urartu [Lud] and the Medes [Madai]. In 743 he went to Syria, defeating there an army of Urartu. The Syrian city of Arpad, which had formed an alliance with Urartu, did not surrender so easily. It took Tiglath-pileser three years of siege to conquer Arpad, whereupon he massacred the inhabitants and destroyed the city. In 738 a new coalition formed against Assyria under the leadership of Sam’al (modern Zincirli) in northern Syria. It was defeated, and all the princes from Damascus to eastern Anatolia were forced to pay tribute. Another campaign in 735, this time directed against Urartu itself, was only partly successful. 

In 734 Tiglath-pileser invaded southern Syria and the Philistine territories in Palestine, going as far as the Egyptian border. Damascus and Israel tried to organize resistance against him, seeking to bring Judah into their alliance. Ahaz of Judah, however, asked Tiglath-pileser for help. In 733 Tiglath-pileser devastated Israel and forced it to surrender large territories. In 732 he advanced upon Damascus, first devastating the gardens outside the city and then conquering the capital and killing the king, whom he replaced with a governor. The queen of southern Arabia, Samsil, was now obliged to pay tribute, being permitted in return to use the harbour of the city of Gaza, which was in Assyrian hands.

The death of King Nabonassar of Babylonia caused a chaotic situation to develop there, and the Aramaean Ukin-zer crowned himself king. In 731 Tiglath-pileser fought and beat him and his allies, but he did not capture Ukin-zer until 729. This time he did not appoint a new king for Babylonia but assumed the crown himself under the name Pulu (Pul in the Hebrew Bible). In his old age he abstained from further campaigning, devoting himself to the improvement of his capital, Kalakh. He rebuilt the palace of Shalmaneser III, filled it with treasures from his wars, and decorated the walls with bas-reliefs. The latter were almost all of warlike character, as if designed to intimidate the onlooker with their presentation of gruesome executions. These pictorial narratives on slabs, sometimes painted, have also been found in Syria, at the sites of several provincial capitals of ancient Assyria.

Tiglath-pileser was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser V (726-722), who continued the policy of his father. As king of Babylonia, he called himself Ululai. Almost nothing is known about his enterprises, since his successor destroyed all his inscriptions. The Hebrew Bible relates that he marched against Hoshea of Israel in 724 after Hoshea had rebelled. He was probably assassinated during the long siege of Samaria. His successor maintained that the god Ashur had withdrawn his support of Shalmaneser V for acts of disrespect.

It was probably a younger brother of Shalmaneser who ascended the throne of Assyria in 721. Assuming the old name of Sharru-kin (Sargon in the Bible), meaning “Legitimate King,” he assured himself of the support of the priesthood and the merchant class by restoring privileges they had lost, particularly the tax exemptions of the great temples. The change of sovereign in Assyria triggered another crisis in Babylonia. 

An Aramaean prince from the south, Marduk-apal-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-Baladan), seized power in Babylon in 721 and was able to retain it until 710 with the help of Humbanigash I of Elam. A first attempt by Sargon to recover Babylonia miscarried when Elam defeated him in 721. During the same year the protracted siege of Samaria was brought to a close. The Samarian upper class was deported, and Israel became an Assyrian province. Samaria was repopulated with Syrians [Arameans]and Babylonians [Chaldeans]. Judah remained independent by paying tribute. In 720 Sargon squelched a rebellion in Syria that had been supported by Egypt. Then he defeated both Hanunu of Gaza and an Egyptian army near the Egyptian border. In 717 and 716 he campaigned in northern Syria, making the hitherto independent state of Carchemish one of his provinces. He also went to Cilicia in an effort to prevent further encroachments of the Phrygians under King Midas (Assyrian: Mita).

In order to protect his ally, the state of Mannai, in Azerbaijan, Sargon embarked on a campaign in Iran in 719 and incorporated parts of Media as provinces of his empire; however, in 716 another war became necessary. At the same time, he was busy preparing a major attack against Urartu. Under the leadership of the crown prince Sennacherib, armies of agents infiltrated Urartu, which was also threatened from the north by the Cimmerians. 

Many of their messages and reports have been preserved. The longest inscription ever composed by the Assyrians about a year’s enterprise (430 very long lines) is dedicated to this Urartu campaign of 714. Phrased in the style of a first report to the god Ashur, it is interspersed with stirring descriptions of natural scenery. The strong points of Urartu must have been well fortified. Sargon tried to avoid them by going through the province of Mannai and attacking the Median principalities on the eastern side of Lake Urmia. In the meantime, hoping to surprise the Assyrian troops, Rusa of Urartu had closed the narrow pass lying between Lake Urmia and Sahand Mount. Sargon, anticipating this, led a small band of cavalry in a surprise charge that developed into a great victory for the Assyrians [refer Chapter XVII Lud & Iran]. Rusa fled and died. The Assyrians pushed forward, destroying all the cities, fortifications, and even irrigation works of Urartu. They did not conquer Tushpa (the capital) but took possession of the mountain city of Musasir. The spoils were immense. The following years saw only small campaigns in Media and eastern Anatolia and against Ashdod, in Palestine. King Midas of Phrygia and some cities on Cyprus were quite ready to pay tribute.

Sargon was now free to settle accounts with Marduk-apal-iddina of Babylonia. Abandoned by his ally Shutruk-Nahhunte II of Elam, Marduk-apal-iddina found it best to flee, first to his native land on the Persian Gulf and later to Elam. Because the Aramaean prince had made himself very unpopular with his subjects, Sargon was hailed as the liberator of Babylonia. He complied with the wishes of the priesthood and at the same time put down the Aramaean nobility. He was satisfied with the modest title of governor of Babylonia.

At first Sargon resided in Kalakh, but he then decided to found an entirely new capital north of Nineveh. He called the city Dur-SharrukinSargonsburg” (modern Khorsabad, Iraq). Reminiscent of a certain Peter the Great, who moved his capital from Moscow to St Petersburg in 1713!

He erected his palace on a high terrace in the northeastern part of the city. The temples of the main gods, smaller in size, were built within the palatial rectangle, which was surrounded by a special wall. This arrangement enabled Sargon to supervise the priests better than had been possible in the old, large temple complexes. One consequence of this design was that the figure of the king pushed the gods somewhat into the background, thereby gaining in importance. Desiring that his palace match the vastness of his empire, Sargon planned it in monumental dimensions. Stone reliefs of two winged bulls with human heads flanked the entrance; they were much larger than anything comparable built before. 

The walls were decorated with long rows of bas-reliefs showing scenes of war and festive processions. A comparison with a well-executed stela of the Babylonian king Marduk-apal-iddina shows that the fine arts of Assyria had far surpassed those of Babylonia. Sargon never completed his capital, though from 713 to 705 BCE tens of thousands of labourers and hundreds of artisans worked on the great city. Yet, with the exception of some magnificent buildings for public officials, only a few durable edifices were completed in the residential section. In 705, in a campaign in northwestern Iran, Sargon was ambushed and killed. His corpse remained unburied, to be devoured by birds of prey. 

Sargon’s son Sennacherib, who had quarreled with his father, was inclined to believe with the priests that his death was a punishment from the neglected gods of the ancient capitals. Sennacherib (Assyrian: Sin-ahhe-eriba; 704-681) was well prepared for his position as sovereign. With him Assyria acquired an exceptionally clever and gifted, though often extravagant, ruler. His father, interestingly enough, is not mentioned in any of his many inscriptions. He left the new city of Dur-Sharrukin at once and resided in Ashur for a few years, until in 701 he made Nineveh his capital.

Sennacherib had considerable difficulties with Babylonia. In 703 Marduk-apal-iddina again crowned himself king with the aid of Elam, proceeding at once to ally himself with other enemies of Assyria. After nine months he was forced to withdraw when Sennacherib defeated a coalition army consisting of Babylonians, Aramaeans, and Elamites. The new puppet king of Babylonia was Bel-ibni (702–700), who had been raised in Assyria.

In 702 Sennacherib launched a raid into western Iran. In 701 there followed his most famous campaign, against Syria and Palestine, with the purpose of gaining control over the main road from Syria to Egypt in preparation for later campaigns against Egypt itself. When Sennacherib’s army approached, Sidon immediately expelled its ruler, Luli, who was hostile to Assyria. The other allies either surrendered or were defeated. An Egyptian army was defeated at Eltekeh in Judah. Sennacherib laid siege to Jersualem, and the king of Judah, Hezekiah, was called upon to surrender, but he did not comply. 

An Assyrian officer tried to incite the people of Jerusalem against Hezekiah, but his efforts failed. In view of the difficulty of surrounding a mountain stronghold such as Jerusalem, and of the minor importance of this town for the main purpose of the campaign, Sennacherib cut short the attack and left Palestine with his army, which according to the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings 19:35) had been decimated by an epidemic. The number of Assyrian dead is reported to have risen to 185,000. Nevertheless, Hezekiah is reported to have paid tribute to Sennacherib on at least one occasion.

Bel-ibni of Babylonia seceded from the union with Assyria in 700. Sennacherib moved quickly, defeating Bel-ibni and replacing him with Sennacherib’s oldest son, Ashur-nadin-shumi. The next few years were relatively peaceful. Sennacherib used this time to prepare a decisive attack against Elam, which time and again had supported Babylonian rebellions. The overland route to Elam had been cut off and fortified by the Elamites. Sennacherib had ships built in Syria and at Nineveh. The ships from Syria were moved on rollers from the Euphrates to the Tigris. The fleet sailed downstream and was quite successful in the lagoons of the Persian Gulf and along the southern coastline of Elam. The Elamites launched a counteroffensive by land, occupying Babylonia and putting a man of their choice on the throne. Not until 693 were the Assyrians again able to fight their way through to the north. Finally, in 689, Sennacherib had his revenge. Babylon was conquered and completely destroyed, the temples plundered and leveled. The waters of the Arakhtu Canal were diverted over the ruins, and the inner city remained almost totally uninhabited for eight years. 

Even many Assyrians were indignant at this, believing that the Babylonian god Marduk must be grievously offended at the destruction of his temple and the carrying off of his image. Marduk was also an Assyrian deity, to whom many Assyrians turned in time off need. A political-theological propaganda campaign was launched to explain to the people that what had taken place was in accord with the wish of most of the gods. 

A story was written in which Marduk, because of a transgression, was captured and brought before a tribunal. Only a part of the commentary to this botched piece of literature is extant. Even the great poem of the creation of the world, the Enuma relish, was altered: the god Marduk was replaced by the god Ashur. Sennacherib’s boundless energies brought no gain to his empire, however, and probably weakened it. The tenacity of this king can be seen in his building projects; for example, when Nineveh needed water for irrigation, Sennacherib had his engineers divert the waters of a tributary of the Great Zab River. The canal had to cross a valley at Jerwan. An aqueduct was constructed, consisting of about two million blocks of limestone, with five huge, pointed archways over the brook in the valley. The bed of the canal on the aqueduct was sealed with cement containing magnesium. Parts of this aqueduct are still standing today. Sennacherib wrote of these and other technological accomplishments in minute detail, with illustrations.

Sennacherib built a huge palace in Nineveh, adorned with reliefs, some of them depicting the transport of colossal bull statuesby water and by land.Many of the rooms were decorated with pictorial narratives in bas-relief telling of war and of building activities. Considerable advances can be noted in artistic execution, particularly in the portrayal of landscapes and animals. Outstanding are the depictions of the battles in the lagoons, the life in the military camps, and the deportations. In 681 BCE there was a rebellion. Sennacherib was assassinated by one or two of his sons in the temple of the god Ninurta at Kalakh. This god, along with the god Marduk, had been badly treated by Sennacherib, and the event was widely regarded as punishment of divine origin.

Ignoring the claims of his older brothers, an imperial council appointed Esarhaddon (Ashur-aha-iddina; 680-669) as Sennacherib’s successor. The choice is all the more difficult to explain in that Esarhaddon, unlike his father, was friendly toward the Babylonians. It can be assumed that his energetic and designing mother, Zakutu (Naqia), who came from Syria or Judah, used all her influence on his behalf to override the national party of Assyria. The theory that he was a partner in plotting the murder of his father is rather improbable; at any rate, he was able to procure the loyalty of his father’s army. His brothers had to flee to Urartu.  In his inscriptions, Esarhaddon always mentions both his father and grandfather.

Defining the destruction of Babylon explicitly as punishment by the god Marduk, the new king soon ordered the reconstruction of the city. He referred to himself only as governor of Babylonia and through his policies obtained the support of the cities of Babylonia. At the beginning of his reign the Aramaean tribes were still allied with Elam against him, but Urtaku of Elam (675-664) signed a peace treaty and freed him for campaigning elsewhere. In 679 he stationed a garrison at the Egyptian border, because Egypt, under the Ethiopian king Taharqa, was planning to intervene in Syria. 

He put down with great severity a rebellion of the combined forces of Sidon, Tyre, and other Syrian cities. The time was ripe to attack Egypt, which was suffering under the rule of the Ethiopians [from Cush] and was by no means a united country. Esarhaddon’s first attempt in 674-673 miscarried. In 671 BCE, however, his forces took Memphis, the Egyptian capital. Assyrian consultants were assigned to assist the princes of the 22 provinces, their main duty being the collection of tribute.

Occasional threats came from the mountainous border regions of eastern Anatolia and Iran. Pushed forward by the Scythians, the Cimmerians in northern Iran and Transcaucasia tried to gain a foothold in Syria and western Iran. Esarhaddon allied himself with the Scythian king Partatua by giving him one of his daughters in marriage. In so doing he checked the movement of the Cimmerians. Nevertheless, the apprehensions of Esarhaddon can be seen in his many offerings, supplications, and requests to the sun god. These were concerned less with his own enterprises than with the plans of enemies and vassals and the reliability of civil servants. The priestesses of Ishtar had to reassure Esarhaddon constantly by calling out to him, “Do not be afraid.” Previous kings, as far as is known, had never needed this kind of encouragement.

At home Esarhaddon was faced with serious difficulties from factions in the court. His oldest son had died early. The national party suspected his second son, Shamash-shum-ukin, of being too friendly with the Babylonians; he may also have been considered unequal to the task of kingship. His third son, Ashurbanipal, was given the succession in 672, Shamash-shum-ukin remaining crown prince of Babylonia. This arrangement caused much dissension, and some farsighted civil servants warned of disastrous effects. Nevertheless, the Assyrian nobles, priests, and city leaders were sworn to just such an adjustment of the royal line; even the vassal princes had to take very detailed oaths of allegiance to Ashurbanipal, with many curses against perjurers.

Another matter of deep concern for Esarhaddon was his failing health. He regarded eclipses of the moon as particularly alarming omens, and, in order to prevent a fatal illness from striking him at these times, he had substitute kings chosen who ruled during the three eclipses that occurred during his 12-year reign. The replacement kings died or were put to death after their brief term of office. During his off-terms Esarhaddon called himself “Mister Peasant.” This practice implied that the gods could not distinguish between the real king and a false one – quite contrary to the usual assumptions of the religion. Esarhaddon enlarged and improved the temples in both Assyria and Babylonia. He also constructed a palace in Kalakh, using many of the picture slabs of Tiglath-pileser III. The works that remain are not on the level of those of either his predecessors or of Ashurbanipal. He died while on an expedition to put down a revolt in Egypt.

Although the death of his father occurred far from home, Ashurbanipal assumed the kingship as planned. He may have owed his fortunes to the intercession of his grandmother Zakutu, who had recognized his superior capacities. He tells of his diversified education by the priests and his training in armour-making as well as in other military arts. 

He may have been the only king in Assyria with a scholarly background. As crown prince he also had studied the administration of the vast empire. The record notes that the gods granted him a record harvest during the first year of his reign. There were also good crops in subsequent years. During these first years he also was successful in foreign policy, and his relationship with his brother in Babylonia was good.

In 668 he put down a rebellion in Egypt and drove out King Taharqa, but in 664 the nephew of Taharqa, Tanutamon, gathered forces for a new rebellion. Ashurbanipal went to Egypt, pursuing the Ethiopian prince far into the south. His decisive victory moved Tyre and other parts of the empire to resume regular payments of tribute. Ashurbanipal installed Psamtik (Greek: Psammetichos) as prince over the Egyptian region of Sais. In 656 Psamtik dislodged the Assyrian garrisons with the aid of Carian and Ionian mercenaries, making Egypt again independent. Ashurbanipal did not attempt to reconquer it. A former ally of Assyria, Gyges of Lydia, had aided Psamtik in his rebellion. In return, Assyria did not help Gyges when he was attacked by the Cimmerians. Gyges lost his throne and his life. His son Ardys decided that the payment of tribute to Assyria was a lesser evil than conquest by the Cimmerians.

Graver difficulties loomed in southern Babylonia, which was attacked by Elam in 664. Another attack came in 653, whereupon Ashurbanipal sent a large army that decisively defeated the Elamites. Their king was killed, and some of the Elamite states were encouraged to secede. Elam was no longer strong enough to assume an active part on the international scene. This victory had serious consequences for Babylonia. Shamash-shum-ukin had grown weary of being patronized by his domineering brother. He formed a secret alliance in 656 with the Iranians, Elamites, Aramaeans, Arabs, and Egyptians, directed against Ashurbanipal. The withdrawal of defeated Elam from this alliance was probably the reason for a premature attack by Shamash-shum-ukin at the end of the year 652, without waiting for the promised assistance from Egypt. 

Ashurbanipal, taken by surprise, soon pulled his troops together. The Babylonian army was defeated, and Shamash-shum-ukin was surrounded in his fortified city of Babylon. His allies were not able to hold their own against the Assyrians. Reinforcements of Arabian camel troops also were defeated. The city of Babylon was under siege for three years. It fell in 648 amid scenes of horrible carnage, Shamash-shum-ukin dying in his burning palace. After 648 the Assyrians made a few punitive attacks on the Arabs, breaking the forward thrust of the Arab tribes for a long time to come. The main objective of the Assyrians, however, was a final settlement of their relations with Elam. The refusal of Elam in 647 to extradite an Aramaean prince was used as pretext for a new attack that drove deep into its territory. The assault on the solidly fortified capital of Susa followed, probably in 646. The Assyrians destroyed the city, including its temples and palaces. Vast spoils were taken. As usual, the upper classes of the land were exiled to Assyria and other parts of the empire, and Elam became an Assyrian province. Assyria had now extended its domain to southwestern Iran. Cyrus I of Persia sent tribute and hostages to Nineveh, hoping perhaps to secure protection for his borders with Media. Little is known about the last years of Ashurbanipal’s reign.

Ashurbanipal left more inscriptions than any of his predecessors. His campaigns were not always recorded in chronological order but clustered in groups according to their purpose. The accounts were highly subjective. One of his most remarkable accomplishments was the founding of the great palace library in Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), which is today one of the most important sources for the study of ancient Mesopotamia. The king himself supervised its construction. Important works were kept in more than one copy, some intended for the king’s personal use. The work of arranging and cataloging drew upon the experience of centuries in the management of collections in huge temple archives such as the one in Ashur. In his inscriptions Ashurbanipal tells of becoming an enthusiastic hunter of big game, acquiring a taste for it during a fight with marauding lions. In his palace at Nineveh the long rows of hunting scenes show what a masterful artist can accomplish in bas-relief; with these reliefs Assyrian art reached its peak. In the series depicting his wars, particularly the wars fought in Elam, the scenes are overloaded with human figures. Those portraying the battles with the Arabian camel troops are magnificent in execution.

One reason for the durability of the Assyrian empire was the practice of deporting large numbers of people from conquered areas and resettling others in their place. This kept many of the conquered nationalities from regaining their power. Equally important was the installation in conquered areas of a highly developed civil service under the leadership of trained officers. The highest ranking civil servant carried the title of tartan, a Hurrian word. The tartans also represented the king during his absence. In descending rank were the palace overseer, the main cupbearer, the palace administrator, and the governor of Assyria. The generals often held high official positions, particularly in the provinces. The civil service numbered about 100,000, many of them former inhabitants of subjugated provinces. Prisoners became slaves but were later often freed.

No laws are known for the empire, although documents point to the existence of rules and standards for justice. Those who broke contracts were subject to severe penalties, even in cases of minor importance: the sacrifice of a son or the eating of a pound of wool and drinking of a great deal of water afterward, which led to a painful death. The position of women was inferior, except for the queen and some priestesses. 

As yet there are no detailed studies of the economic situation during this period. The landed nobility still played an important role, in conjunction with the merchants in the cities. The large increase in the supply of precious metals – received as tribute or taken as spoils – did not disrupt economic stability in many regions. Stimulated by the patronage of the kings and the great temples, the arts and crafts flourished during this period. The policy of resettling Aramaeans and other conquered peoples in Assyria brought many talented artists and artisans into Assyrian cities, where they introduced new styles and techniques. High-ranking provincial civil servants, who were often very powerful, saw to it that the provincial capitals also benefited from this economic and cultural growth.

Harran became the most important city in the western part of the empire; in the neighbouring settlement of Huzirina (modern Sultantepe, in northern Syria), the remains of an important library have been discovered. Very few Aramaic texts from this period have been found; the climate of Mesopotamia is not conducive to the preservation of the papyrus and parchment on which these texts were written. There is no evidence that a literary tradition existed in any of the other languages spoken within the borders of the Assyrian empire at this time, except in peripheral areas of Syria and Palestine.

Culturally and economically, Babylonia lagged behind Assyria in this period. The wars with Assyria – particularly the catastrophic defeats of 689 and 648 – together with many smaller tribal wars disrupted trade and agricultural production. The great Babylonian temples fared best during this period, since they continued to enjoy the patronage of the Assyrian monarchs. Only a few documents from the temples have been preserved, however. There is evidence that the scribal schools continued to operate, and “Sumerian” inscriptions were even composed for Shamash-shum-ukin. In comparison with the Assyrian developments, the pictorial arts were neglected, and Babylonian artists may have found work in Assyria.

During this period people began to use the names of ancestors as a kind of family name; this increase in family consciousness is probably an indication that the number of old families was growing smaller. By this time the process of “Aramaicization” had reached even the oldest cities of Babylonia and Assyria. Apparently this era was not very fruitful for literature either in Babylonia or in Assyria. In Assyria numerous royal inscriptions, some as long as 1,300 lines, were among the most important texts; some of them were diverse in content and well composed. Most of the hymns and prayers were written in the traditional style. Many oracles, often of unusual content, were proclaimed in the Assyrian dialect, most often by the priestesses of the goddess Ishtar of Arbela. In Assyria as in Babylonia, the beginnings of a real historical literature are observed; most of the authors have remained anonymous up to the present.

The many gods of the tradition were worshiped in Babylonia and Assyria in large and small temples, as in earlier times. Very detailed rituals regulated the sacrifices, and the interpretations of the ritual performances in the cultic commentaries were rather different and sometimes very strange. On some of the temple towers (ziggurats), astronomical observatories were installed. The earliest of these may have been the observatory of the Ninurta temple at Kalakh in Assyria, which dates back to the 9th century BCE; it was destroyed with the city in 612. The most important observatory in Babylonia from about 580 was situated on the ziggurat Etemenanki, a temple of Marduk in Babylon. In Assyria the observation of the Sun, Moon, and stars had already reached a rather high level; the periodic recurrence of eclipses was established. After 600, astronomical observation and calculations developed steadily, and they reached their high point after 500, when Babylonian and Greek astronomers began their fruitful collaboration. Incomplete astronomical diaries, beginning in 652 and covering some 600 years, have been preserved. Few historical sources remain for the last 30 years of the Assyrian empire. There are no extant inscriptions of Ashurbanipal after 640 BCE, and the few surviving inscriptions of his successors contain only vague allusions to political matters. 

In Babylonia the silence is almost total until 625 BCE, when the chronicles resume. The rapid downfall of the Assyrian empire was formerly attributed to military defeat, although it was never clear how the Medes and the Babylonians alone could have accomplished this [the Scythians were an ally of the Medes and Chaldeans and also involved in the overthrow of Assyria]. More recent work has established that after 635 a civil war occurred, weakening the empire so that it could no longer stand up against a foreign enemy. Ashurbanipal had twin sons. Ashur-etel-ilani was appointed successor to the throne, but his twin brother Sin-shar-ishkun did not recognize him. The fight between them and their supporters forced the old king to withdraw to Harran, in 632 at the latest, perhaps ruling from there over the western part of the empire until his death in 627. Ashur-etel-ilani governed in Assyria from about 633, but a general, Sin-shum-lisher, soon rebelled against him and proclaimed himself counter-king. Some years later (629?) Sin-shar-ishkun finally succeeded in obtaining the kingship. In Babylonian documents dates can be found for all three kings. To add to the confusion, until 626 there are also dates of Ashurbanipal and a king named Kandalanu. 

In 626 the Chaldean Nabopolassar (Nabu-apal-uṣur) revolted from Urek and occupied Babylon. There were several changes in government. King Ashur-etel-ilani was forced to withdraw to the west, where he died sometime after 625. About the year 626 the Scythians laid waste to Syria and Palestine. In 625 the Medes became united under Cyaxares and began to conquer the Iranian provinces of Assyria. One chronicle relates of wars between Sin-shar-ishkun and Nabopolassar in Babylonia in 625-623. It was not long until the Assyrians were driven out of Babylonia. In 616 the Medes struck against Nineveh, but, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, were driven back by the Scythians. In 615, however, the Medes conquered Arrapkha (Kirkuk), and in 614 they took the old capital of Ashur, looting and destroying the city. Now Cyaxares and Nabopolassar made an alliance for the purpose of dividing Assyria. In 612 Kalakh and Nineveh succumbed to the superior strength of the allies. The revenge taken on the Assyrians was terrible: 200 years later Xenophon found the country still sparsely populated.

Sin-shar-ishkun, king of Assyria, found death in his burning palace. The commander of the Assyrian army in the west crowned himself king in the city of Harran, assuming the name of the founder of the empire, Ashur-uballiṭ II (611–609 BCE). Ashur-uballiṭ had to face both the Babylonians and the Medes. They conquered Harran in 610, without, however, destroying the city completely. In 609 the remaining Assyrian troops had to capitulate. With this event Assyria disappeared from history. The great empires that succeeded it learned a great deal from the hated Assyrians, both in the arts and in the organization of their states.’

The double headed eagle, an ancient symbol of Assyria and their allies the Hittites – above. Most famously associated with the Byzantine Empire – below. 

Czar Ivan III ruled from 1462 to 1505 and instituted the black double-headed** eagle as an official emblem of the Russian state; for he was eager to create a link between Byzantium and Russia. It featured as a design motif in the regalia of the Russian Imperial Court until the fall of the monarchy in 1917. 

In 1992 the Russian Federation restored it to the state coat of arms. In Russia, the double-headed eagle was accompanied by another national symbol: a horseman slaying a serpent with a spear, portrayed on a shield. The horseman is a symbol of Russia’s capital, Moscow and usually represents St. George the Victorious. Notice the small saltire in the tail feathers, reminiscent of Scotland’s state flag. It is worthy to note that the horseman slaying a serpent is in eerie contrast to the tribe of Dan, who are described as being a serpent who bites the horse’s heels and bringing its rider down [Genesis 49:17]. We will have much more to learn about the tribe of Dan [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan: The Invisible Tribe].

The coat of arms has changed throughout history, with the eagle changing from gold to black and then back to its current gold. It has gained and lost the crowns over its heads. Currently, each head is topped with another crown floating between them, which once more symbolizes unity. In its talons, the eagle holds an orb and a sceptre – symbols of power and authority. The current interpretation of the coat of arms is quite similar to those used in the Russian Empire. After the monarchy was overthrown in 1917, the eagle became white; then the Bolsheviks gave the bird a rest for about 70 years, replacing it with the communist hammer and sickle.

Prior to Asshur’s re-appearance from the embryonic Rus and long after their demise as the Assyrian Empire, the descendants of Asshur held another lengthy period of preeminence on the world stage as the rulers of the early period of the Eastern Roman Empire. Parallels with the Assyrian empire, Byzantine and the Soviet Union include: The use of the term Tzar, Czar or Csar, for their kings and the etymological link with Caesar, the rulers of the Roman empire. 

The family name of Romanov in Russia derived from the word Roman. The Russian alphabet remarkably resembles the Greek alphabet and its letters used by Byzantium. Russia’s state religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the most similar to yet still distinct, from Roman Catholicism. Assyria had a parallel system of worship to ancient Babylon, substituting their god Assur for the Babylonian Marduk. 

Marduk is thought to be derived from amar-Utu, the ‘immortal son of Utu’ or ‘the bull calf of thesun godUtu.’ The double-headed** Sumerian sun god had the epithet Bel fromBaal, meaning Lord. Marduk was also known as the storm god [refer Chapter XV The Philistines: Latino-Hispano America]. More than coincidently, Nimrod also, was revered as the god, Marduk. Salient points are that Marduk is associated with the planet Jupiter, also important in the Roman pantheon of gods. Marduk is often depicted as a man and his predominant symbol is the serpent dragon. Marduk ascended to great power after being chosen to lead the Annunaki gods during a cosmic civil war – the primeval angelic rebellion. Marduk was the god revered by the great Nebuchadnezzar II of Chaldea-Babylon.

Shamash was the Sumerian sun god, though Assur was also represented as the solar disc that appears frequently in Assyrian iconography. Typically, the symbol of Assur was a winged disc with horns and rippling rays either side a circle or wheel, suspended from wings, enclosing a warrior drawing a bow to discharge an arrow. A comment online states: ‘An Assyrian standard… has the disc mounted on a bull’s head with horns. The upper part of the disc is occupied by a warrior, whose head, part of his bow, and the point of his arrow protrude from the circle. The rippling water rays are V-shaped, and two bulls, treading river-like rays, occupy the divisions thus formed. There are also two heads – a lion’s and a man’s – with gaping mouths, which may symbolize tempests, the destroying power of the sun, or the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates.’

Jastrow regards the winged disc as “the purer and more genuine symbol of Ashur as a solar deity”.  He calls it “a sun disc with protruding rays”, and says: “To this symbol the warrior with the bow and arrow was added – a despiritualization that reflects the martial spirit of the Assyrian empire.” Notice the depiction of Assur with an eagles head.

In the past, Assyria kindled an allied relationship with the Hittites to their west in Anatolia, later eclipsing them. Millennia onwards, Asshur similarly replicating the relationship, as the Eastern Roman Empire which evolved from and later shaded the western leg of the Roman Empire – the original founding Romans [refer Chapter XXVIII The True Identity & Origin of Germany & Austria – Ishmael & Hagar]. Russia in modern times has maintained a covert relationship with these present day Hittites. Who financed in part, the 1917 Revolution and lent support after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. In return, Russia has provided military technology to the similarly warlike Hittites. 

The Byzantine Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces, when its capital was Constantinople – formerly Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century CE and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military presence in Europe.

We learned with ancient Elam how its power faded, with its people migrating and re-appearing as the Persians. Their original home and the people who remained dwelling there are called Elam by historians, even though they were not originally Elamites.  

Similarly, portions of Asshur migrated northwards during the middle of the first millennium CE; gradually leaving their name Byzantium behind and re-surfacing from the early Rus. The Russian peoples progressively grew more powerful as the subsequent waves of migrants arrived, leaving Byzantium successively weaker.

The name Byzantine Empire, is a term created after the end of the realm, as its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire and to themselves as Romans. Though the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, historians confirm the difference in distinguishing Byzantium from its predecessor the Roman empire. For it was centred in Constantinople not Rome and oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture; characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity as opposed to Roman Catholic.

Several events occurring from the fourth to sixth centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire’s Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I, whom we mentioned regarding the Council of Nicea and the Arian controversy, ruling from 306 to 337 CE sought to unify the empire. He established Constantinople as the new capital in 330; again, an Asshurite proclivity, while legalising Christianity, giving it imperial preference. Under Theodosius I from 379 to 395, Christianity officially became the formal state religion. In the reign of Heraclius during 610 to 641, the Empire’s military and administration were restructured; as was the adoption of Greek for official use – replacing Latin.

The West had suffered heavily from the instability of the third century CE and the distinction between the Hellenised East and the Latinised West persisted; becoming increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two Roman worlds. An early instance of the partition of the Empire occurred in 293 when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system, the tetrarchy, to guarantee security in all endangered regions of the Empire. He associated himself with a co-emperor, Augustus and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior emperor. The tetrarchy was short-lived, collapsing in 313 with Constantine I reuniting the two administrative divisions of the Empire as the sole Augustus.

Theodosius I was the last Emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. In 391 and 392 he issued a series of edicts banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship.The last Olympic Games are believed to have been held in 393 CE. In 395, Theodosius I bequeathed the imperial office jointly to his sons: Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, effectively dividing Imperial administration. During the fifth century the Eastern empire was spared the difficulties faced by the West. It had a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, allowing it to placate invaders with tribute or pay foreign mercenaries. 

For instance, to fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. After the fall of Attila, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period of peace, while the Western Empire continued to deteriorate due to the expanding migration and invasions of the Germanic barbarians. The West’s demise is dated at 476 CE, when the Germanic Eastern Roman Foederati General Odoacer, deposed the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus.

Previously, we investigated the statue in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and the correlation of the Medes with the Turkic-Mongol peoples [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes], as well as the Persians with Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey], as both representing the chest and two arms of Silver. In Daniel 2:33, 40-43 NET, it says:

33 Its legs were of iron; its feet were partly of iron and partly of clay. Then there will be a fourth kingdom, one strong like iron. Just like iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything, and as iron breaks in pieces all these metals, so it will break in pieces and crush the others. 41In that you were seeing feet and toes partly of wet clay and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom. Some of the strength of iron will be in it, for you saw iron mixed with wet clay. 42 In that the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, the latter stages of this kingdom will be partly strong and partly fragile. 43 And in that you saw iron mixed with wet clay, so people will be mixed with one another without adhering to one another, just as iron does not mix with clay.

It would be highly unusual to miss out the Assyrians, from the statue, as other major European powers are included as we shall discover. The two legs represent the division of the Roman Empire – as the two arms reflect the dual nature of the Medo-Persian Empire. One leg was the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium and this leg incorporated the descendants of Asshur – the modern Russians. We will study the identity of the other leg later. Some commentators believe the ten toes, represent a grouping of nations yet to occur, or ten rulers administering regions of the earth; even proposing a divisional split of nations from Western and Eastern Europe. The legs are of iron, being much stronger than the silver of the Medes and Persians, yet not as culturally sophisticated or resplendent. 

Only the toes are stated as iron and clay, a mix that cannot fully meld or last. Judging from Daniel chapter seven, the possibility exists that the mixing could be between flesh and spirit; humans and Nephilim; or between humankind and angelic kind. This would be a formidable mix, though ultimately flawed in any capacity to endure. The days of Noah are to be repeated in the latter days and so this scenario, is worthy of consideration [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin and Destiny of Nimrod].

The genesis of Rome and its end are split into different periods, dependant on which stage of its civilisation is being referred to. Rome was officially founded circa 753 BCE, though it earliest incarnation was much earlier. Two brothers and demigods – Romulus and Remus – are credited with founding Rome and it was allegedly ruled by seven kings during the Roman Kingdom until 509 BCE. It was then that the monarchy was replaced with elected magistrates and is known as the Roman Republic, lasting until 27 BCE with the establishment of the Roman Empire by Octavius, appointing himself Augustus – the first emperor. The empire divided in 395 CE, with the Western branch ending when it fell in 476 CE and the Eastern branch’s demise in 1453. 

Arithmetically, it would seem that one leg is longer than the other in that the Roman Empire lasted from 27 BCE to 476 CE. Whereas the Byzantine Empire lasted from 395 to 1453 CE. If we compare the period of the Roman Republic and Empire from 509 BCE to 476 CE, it is 985 years. Similarly, if we consider the Byzantine Empire beginning when the Western fell from 476 to 1453 CE, we have 977 years. The legs would appear to actually match. Rome began its conquest of Greece at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BCE – the same year Rome defeated Carthage. 

Dan 7:7, 17-28

New English Translation 

7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions a fourth beast appeared – one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. It had two large rows of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts [kingdoms and empires] that came before it, and it had ten horns. 17 ‘These large beasts, which are four in number, represent four kings who will arise from the earth. 18 The holy ones of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will take possession of the kingdom forever and ever.’ 

19 “Then I wanted to know the meaning of the fourth beast… 20 I also wanted to know the meaning of the ten horns on its head, andof that other horn that came up and before which three others fell. This was the horn that had eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant things, whose appearance was more formidable than the others. 21 While I was watching, that horn began to wage war against the holy ones and was defeating them, 22 until the Ancient of Days arrived and judgment was rendered in favor of the holy ones of the Most High. Then the time came for the holy ones to take possession of the kingdom.

23 “This is what he told me: ‘The fourth beast means that there will be a fourth kingdom on earth that will differ from all the other kingdoms. It will devour all the earth and will trample and crush it. 24 The ten horns mean that ten kings will arise from that kingdom. Another king will arise after them, but he will be different from the earlier ones. He will humiliate three kings. 25 He will speak words against the Most High. He will harass the holy ones of the Most High continually. His intention will be to change times established by law. The holy ones will be delivered into his hand for a time, times, and half a time. 

26 But the court will convene, and his ruling authority will be removed – destroyed and abolished forever! 27 Then the kingdom, authority, and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be delivered to the people of the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom is an eternal kingdom; all authorities will serve him and obey him.’ 28 “This is the conclusion of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts troubled me greatly, and the color drained from my face. But I kept the matter to myself.

Note the impact this prophecy had on Daniel, the righteous man who recorded it [Ezekiel 14:14]. It is truly astounding and terrifying in its implications and in its eventual future reality. The ‘changing times by law’ has been interpreted as manipulations of the calendar, so as to make it difficult for worshipers in keeping the true sabbath and holy days. We will study what the possible ramifications mean, in an additional appendix. 

Each empire lasted a longer period of time than its predecessor. The fourth empire lasted considerably longer than the other three, in fact longer than all of them combined. Each empire included territory greater in size than its predecessor. It is thought by most Biblical prophecy scholars that the fourth empire is a system that still exists today, or is continuance of the Holy Roman empire as exhibited through the last millennia and a half by the supremacy of the Church at Rome, a type of modern Babylon – for the Church has had influential control over the governments of Europe and the crowning of its kings. 

The ten horns are viewed as successive rulers of the ‘Roman system’ with the little horn a future ruler. We will study this further in the following chapter. The fourth beast is certainly not like the ones before, such as the bear or ram of Medo-Persia. The fourth beast is likened more to a Tyrannosaurus rex, or a Xenomorph; something Daniel was not familiar with, yet inspired horror and dread. 

If we are dealing with a supernatural intruder, the ‘little horn’ may try to actually alter or revise time scales in latter day events, so as to thwart the Son of Man’s return. The little horn equates to the Son of Perdition and the Man of Lawlessness. This entity fulfils the role of the false prophet, the second beast who worships the first beast. We will discuss this relationship further, in the following chapter. 

2 Thessalonians 2:3-13

New Century Version

3 Do not let anyone fool you in any way.That day of the Lord will not come until the turning away from God happens and the Man of Evil, who is on his way to hell, appears. 4He will be against and put himself above any so-called god or anything that people worship. And that Man of Evil will even go into God’s Temple and sit there and say that he is God.

5I told you when I was with you that all this would happen. Do you not remember? 6And now you know what is stopping that Man of Evil so he will appear at the right time. 7 The secret power of evil is already working in the world, but there is one who is stopping that power. And he will continue to stop it until he is taken out of the way. 

8Then that Man of Evil will appear, and the Lord Jesus will kill him with the breath that comes from his mouth and will destroy him with the glory of his coming. 9 The Man of Evil will come by the power of Satan. He will have great power, and he will do many different false miracles, signs, and wonders. 10 He will use every kind of evil to trick those who are lost. They will die, because they refused to love the truth. (If they loved the truth, they would be saved.) 11For this reason God sends them something powerful that leads them away from the truth so they will believe a lie. 12So all those will be judged guilty who did not believe the truth, but enjoyed doing evil.

13 Brothers and sisters, whom the Lord loves, God chose you from the beginning to be saved. So we must always thank God for you. You are saved by the Spirit that makes you holy and by your faith in the truth.

The term ‘holy one’ can refer to righteous angels as in Daniel 4:13, 17 and 23, the Creator as in Isaiah 6:3, as well as including true believers in the latter days.

1 Thessalonians 3:13

English Standard Version

so that he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.

2 Thessalonians 1:10

New Century Version

This will happen on the day when the Lord Jesus comes to receive glory because of hisholy people. And all the people who have believed will be amazed at Jesus. You will be in that group, because you believed what we told you.

1 Peter 1:15-16

New English Translation

… but, like the Holy Onewho called you, become holy yourselves in all of your conduct, for it is written, “You shall be holy, because I am holy.”

The Rus Grand Principality of Kiev began in 882 and endured until 1239. Led by Rurik, the Rus Vikings had ruled the northern Slavs from Novgorod – a region between present day St Petersburg and Moscow. Kiev was captured – according to legend – by Askold and Dir, two Rus boyars of high nobility. The settlement was on the main north-south trade route which was used by the Vikings to reach the rich markets of Constantinople; therefore conquering Kiev meant controlling trade. They were soon dispossessed by a Rus prince by the name of Oleg, a kinsman of Rurik who then moved the capital to Kiev from Novgorod. By the eleventh century the word Rus wasassociated with the Principality of Kiev, while the term Varangian was common as a term for Scandinavians traveling the river routes. 

The Rus are considered to have originated on the Roslagen or Rus-law seashore of Uppland. This is not universally accepted, though Ros-lagen adapted into Slavic easily becomes Rus. An alternative option for naming the Rus, is that it may originate in the Proto-Finnic word for Swedish Scandinavians Ruotsi; a possible Finnic origin for Rurik’s name. This name may have been used by the Rus for themselves, or alternatively by the eastern Slavs who would soon be subjects of the Rus. Ruotsi is derived from ruskea, meaning light brown which is related to the old Russian rusi, for brown. Hence the name Rus and a Slavic word rusy – referring to hair colour ranging from dark ash-blond to light-brown – cognate with ryzhy, used forred-haired.

The two main theories for the Russian’s origins are the Normanist, which places the Rus ancestrally as Northern Vikings trading and raiding on the river routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from the eighth to eleventh centuries and the anti-Normanist explanation, which places their origins as being autochthonous with the region of the Carpathian Mountains. There is merit to both theories which can be reconciled by the Assyrian descended peoples travelling from western Asia Minor to the Carpathian Mountains and then onwards to Scandinavia. The Russian Y-DNA Haplogroups are most similar to northern Slavic speaking peoples as well as the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Baltic. There is some minor influence evidenced from Scandinavia and vice-versa. In the words of F Donald Logan: ‘… in 839, the Rus were Swedes; in 1043 the Rus were Slavs.’

The Primary Chronicle is a Slavonic language narrative account of Rus history, compiled from a wide range of sources in Kiev at the start of the thirteenth century. Coincidently, the chronicle includes the texts of a series of Rus-Byzantine Treaties from 911, 945 and 971. The Rus-Byzantine Treaties give a valuable insight into the names of the Rus. Of the fourteen Rus signatories to the Treaty in 907, all had Norse names, though by the Rus-Byzantine Treaty in 945, some signatories of the Rus had Slavic names while the vast majority still retained Norse names. 

Other possible origins for the name Rus include the three early emperors of the Urartian Empire [refer Chapter XVII Lud & Iran] in the Caucasus, north of Assyria from the eighth to sixth centuries BCE; their names being Russa I [733-714 BCE], II and III, documented in cuneiform monuments. 

The ancient Sarmatian tribe of the Roxolani, from the Ossetic, ruhs meaning ‘light’; the Russian rusyje volosy, meaning ‘light-brown hair’ or Dahl’s dictionary definition of rus, meaning: ‘world, universe’, or literally ‘white world, white light.’ 

From the Old Slavic name that meant ‘river-people’, tribes of fishermen and ploughmen settled near and navigated the rivers Dnieper, Don, Dniester and Western Dvina. The rus root is preserved in the modern Slavic and Russian words ruslo for ‘river-bed’ and rusalka, for ‘water sprite’. From one of two rivers in the Ukraine near Kiev and Pereyaslav, Ros and Rusna, whose names are derived from a postulated Slavic term for water, akin to rosa for dew. Lastly, a postulated proto-Slavic word for bear, cognate with Greek arctos and Latin ursus. This is interesting as we hear of Russia described, as the Russian Bear. 

A look at an atlas shows the outline of Russia – and particularly the old Soviet union – and its likeness to a bear. The Russias were all the lands of the Rus, incorporating the principalities and states which had existed from the ninth century onwards. 

Ivan Vasilyevich or the Terrible, ruled from 1547 to 1584; spending a great deal of his reign fighting the Livonian Wars in an effort to conquer Old Livonia and North Estonia. With the expectation of expanding his new empire westwards, the forces of Sweden, Lithuania and Poland were able to check Ivan. Ivan IV, known as Grozny the Terrible, was the first Czar of all the Russias and was a descendant of Theodora, a daughter of Sartaq Khan of the Golden Horde.

It was descendants of Rurik of Novgorod who had ruled the Rus from the late ninth century. Their rule was ended in the early seventeenth century by an interregnum period of civil war following the murder of Czar Dimitri I and then his successor being deposed by the Seven Boyars, or nobles. These same nobles invited Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania to Moscow in 1610; electing his son, Wladyislaw as Czar. 

But, Wladyislaw was unable to take up the position due to his father’s opposition and so the Czarate continued to fight within itself for three years without a Czar to rule Russia at all. This was known by later generations as the Times of Troubles.

A prominent family called the Romanovs, formed Russia’s second dynasty. The most famous being Mikhail Romanov who was descended from a mysterious Boyar – privileged landowner from high ranking feudal nobility – Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla. During the reign of Ivan IV, Koblya’s descendants via his son Feodor, became known as the Yakovlev family. A grandchild from one of them, Roman Yurievich Zakharyin-Yuriev, assumed the formation of a clan name, by adapting his first name into Romanov or Romanoff – essentially meaning the clan or descendants of Roman. Roman’s daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, became the wife of Ivan IV in 1547; bringing the family great wealth and influence. 

Following the expulsion of the Poles in 1612, the crown was offered to several Rurik and Gedimin princes whilst a number of pretenders also sought to claim the throne. In the end, the son of the highly respected Filaret Romanov was asked – the sixteen year old Mikhail Romanov I, who ruled from 1613 to 1645 – and the nephew of Czar Feodor I. Once he had been persuaded to accept by his mother Kseniya Ivanovna Shestova, he pursued a policy of emphasising family ties with the Ruriks. 

Mikhail made sure that he sought the advice of the Assembly of the Land on important issues, thereby ensuring that the populace loved him and the nobility respected him. Mikhail or Michael Romanov ended the wars against Sweden and Poland-Lithunia, allowing the return of his father from exile. Filaret Romanov then assumed the administrative duties of Czar, without the trappings of power. Michael’s role was ceremonial until his father’s death in 1633. The direct line of Romanov rulers died out with Elizabeth Petrovna – the daughter of Peter the Great. She had ruled from 1741 to 1762; although the direct male line had already ended with the death of Peter II in 1730. A period of crisis followed her death until a suitable candidate was sought amongst various distant relatives. In the end, a grandson of Peter I was found in the German Houseof Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the House of Oldenburg. 

Peter III or Karl Peter Ulrich, was the son from a marriage between Grand Duchess Anne, daughter of Peter I and Duke Charles-Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp. Acclaimed as a Romanov, the fact remains he began the line of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov which ruled Russia until 1917. As the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp he had an extra degree of interest in affairs in Germany – too much for some elements of the Russian nobility. Peter III planed an attack on Denmark in order to restore areas of Schleswig to his duchy, and  thereby withdrawing Russian troops from the Seven Years’ War. 

In Europe, the Seven Years War was fought between an alliance of France, Russia, Sweden, Austria and Saxony, against Prussia, Hanover and Great Britain between 1756  and 1763. The war had international interest, particularly as Britain and France were fighting one another for domination of North America and India. As such, it had been  originally referred to as the first world war.

The plot to depose Peter III was led by his own wife. He was transported to captivity at Ropsha, where he died after only six months on the throne, in mysterious circumstances. Catherine Yekaterina became Czarina and is known in history, as Catherine II and the Great, ruling from 1762 until 1796. Catherine casts a long shadow over neighbouring lands during her reign. Beginning in 1762, she tightened Russian control of Livonia and Estonia. In 1764, she created the imperial province of Novorossiya or New Russia along the central northern area of the Black Sea coast – which is now part of Ukraine. The province was a merging of several military districts and the Cossack Hetmanate in order to improve and increase Russian control of the region as part of the ongoing process of impinging on the Ottoman Empire. 

In 1767, all of Alania fell under the Russian Empire’s rule as part of Catherine’s thrust southwards through the Caucasus Mountains to remove territories from Turkey’s influence. During 1768 till 1774, the First Russo-Turkish War was part of Catherine’s desire to secure the conquest of territory on Russia’s southern borders. The most serious revolt during Catherines’s reign was the Ural Cossack rebellion of 1773 to 1775. Two battles fought back to back over four days at Kazan, eventually defeated the rebels. The Second Russo-Turkish War occurred between 1787 and 1792, with Russia gaining from Turkish losses.

From 1791, Russia operated an area known as the Pale of Settlement. Initially it was small, but increased greatly from 1793 and the Second Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By the mid-nineteenth century it incorporated a substantial territory comprising modern Belarus – eastern Poland at the time – eastern Latvia, Lithuania, the province of Bessarabia – modern Moldova – and western Ukraine. Having formerly been citizens of the defunct commonwealth, the Jewish population of the Pale were restricted from moving eastwards into Russia. Catherine II died in 1796 after an eventful reign that greatly solidified and strengthened the Russian Empire. Her son Paul I reigned briefly from 1796 to 1801; cut short when he was killed in a palace coup.

The threads of Russia’s ties with Germany remained entwined when the Bolshevik government seized control in 1917. The new government, far from stable, badly handled what remained of Russia’s First World War effort, holding out for a beneficial peace agreement with Germany. Instead, Russia was forced to accept the harsh terms of the Brest-Litovsk treaty. As a result of that as well as too many reforms in too short a period, Russia lost control over many of its outlying states and provinces. Principally those which had been handed over to Germany under the terms of the treaty, Bessarabia, such as Byelorussia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Russina Poland, Western Ukraine, the Crimea, the industrial Donetz basin and the Don. It took the collapse of Imperial Germany and three long years of civil war before the Russian empire could be reborn under Soviet control. 

The former Soviet Union at the height of its power and territory, which in reality was a modern day Empire and reflective of the dictatorial and militaristic martial based civilisation of the mighty Assyrian Empires of the past.

Modern claims of sovereignty over the Russias included Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich Romanov to be the rightful heir to Czar Nicholas II, which was not disputed. 

Czar Nicholas II

However, since his death in 1992 the divided branches of the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov each put forward their own claimant as heir to the throne of the Russias. Prince Nicholas Romanovich is recognised by most of the family, bearing direct descent from the uncrowned successor to Nicholas II, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich. Meanwhile, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, the daughter of Grand Duke Vladimir, upholds her claim because her father issued a controversial decree recognising her as his successor. 

Left: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (left) with Nicholas II (right) in 1905. 

Nicholas is wearing a German Army uniform, while Wilhelm wears that of a Russian hussar regiment. 

Right: Tsar Nicholas II (left) and King George V (right) in Berlin, 1913

Nicholas married Princess Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt less than a month after he became Tsar at the age of twenty-six in 1894. Alexandra was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Meanwhile Nicholas was first cousin to King George V of England – of which he bore an uncanny resemblance – and second cousin to Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany.

The most infamous claim in succession for the Russian throne was by Anna Anderson the supposed daughter Anastasia, of Czar Nicholas who had been able to escape, when her father, mother, brother and sisters had all been shot and their bodies amateurishly cremated. Even so, her claim as a pretender to any throne was redundant while a valid male heir lived.

Modern Russia is a federal, semi-presidential republic founded in 1991 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ‘Despite bearing the resemblance of a democratic state in terms of its offices and elections, it always manages to convey the impression that old habits die hard in terms of its tendencies towards strong centralist control.’ 

The map above shows the extent of the Soviet Union’s geo-political power and reach after World War II until 1991.  

The apt term Iron Curtain was coined by Winston Churchill. The map is also significant as it shows the split 

between Western Europe and Eastern Europe – with the exceptions of Finland and Greece 

which should be orange and East Germany, blue – which we will discover is the family split of one of 

Shem’s sons – not including Turkey, Russia, Spain and Portugal.

Russia lay at the heart of the CIS, the Commonwealth of Independent States; a voluntary organisation of republics that had once formed part of the original Soviet empire. Its creation had been principally masterminded by Boris Yeltsin the president of the Russian republic. The clever ploy had been carried out behind the back of Mikhail Gorbachev; leaving him with no other choice than to announce the dissolution of the Soviet state. 

Most of the Russian population is concentrated in the western European portion of the country, especially in the fertile region surrounding Moscow. Moscow and St Petersburg, formerly Leningrad are the two most important cultural and financial centres in Russia and are among the most picturesque cities in the world. 

Russians are also populous in Asia; beginning in the seventeenth century and particularly pronounced throughout much of the twentieth century, a steady flow of ethnic Russians and Russian speaking peoples migrated eastward into Siberia, where cities such as Vladivostok and Irkutsk flourish today. 

Russia is a multinational state with over one hundred and ninety ethnic groups within its twenty-two republics; all with unique languages and cultures. The population is 146,093,935 people of which eighty-one percent are ethnic or Slavic Russian. It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth most populous country in the world. Russia’s population density stands at only nine inhabitants per square kilometre, or twenty-three per square mile. Russia has one of the oldest populations in the world, with an average age of 40.3 years and a projected population by 2030 of 139,599,000 people. 

The Russian economy can be fragile at times, though still ranks as one of the world’s biggest economies by nominal GDP. Russia is the world’s eleventh largest economy, with a GDP of $1.70 trillion as of 2019, 1.3% higher than in 2018.Russia has moved toward a more market-based economy over the three decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union, though government ownership of and intervention in business, is still common. As a leading exporter of oil and gas, as well as other minerals and metals, Russia’s economy is highly sensitive to swings in world commodity prices. 

Austrian statesman Klemens Furst von Metternich aptly noted: “Russia is never as strong as she appears, and never as weak as she appears.” 

As one of the world’s largest producers of gas and oil derived from its considerable mineral and oil reserves, Russia does not refrain from using its power in this area as an economic weapon. Russia is an energy superpower. The country has the world’s largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves and the eighth largest oil reserves. Russia is the world’s leading natural gas exporter – which gives it immense control over much of Europe – and the second largest oil exporter. Added to these impressive statistics, Russia is the fourth largest electricity producer and the ninth largest renewable energy producer in the world. Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world’s first nuclear power plant. In 2019, nuclear energy generated twenty percent of the country’s electricity.

Russia’s land offers a massive source of crops and its Chernozemie region in Central Russia makes it one of the major bread basket nations of the world with China, Brazil, Canada and the United States. This region is renowned for its rich soil known as Black Earth. The soil contains a high humus percentage and other soil enriching nutrients such as ammonia and phosphorous. It is also deep and its clay like qualities give it water retaining properties. This makes the area an agricultural powerhouse for Russia. Main crops include grains, particularly wheat and sunflowers, corn, soy beans, peas, rapeseed and barley. 

Of the top ten Countries with the most natural resources, Russia is ranked number five in the world; behind India at four and ahead of Brazil at six. Also, Russia is positioned at number two behind South Africa of the world’s top five mineral producing powers. Russia’s total estimated natural resources are worth $75 trillion. The country boasts the biggest mining industry in the world, which is a driving force in its national economy; producing substantial volumes of mineral fuels, industrial minerals, and metals. Russia is a leading producer of aluminum, arsenic, cement, copper, magnesium metal, as well as compounds like nitrogen, palladium, silicon, and vanadium. The nation is the second-largest exporter of rare earth minerals and accounts for up to 20% of nickel and cobalt production in the world and 7 % of global iron ore and coal exports.

Of the top ten technological nations in the world, Russia is at number six, ahead of the United Kingdom at seven and behind Germany at five. Russia led the space race with space exploration and moon landings. It is a leading producer and inventor of weapons technology and defence systems; being a major exporter of its equipment worldwide.

The richness of resources has not translated into an easy life for most of the country’s people; much of Russia’s history has been a grim tale of the very wealthy and powerful few, ruling over the great mass of their poor and powerless compatriots. 

An uncompromising parallel with the ancient Assyrians and their martial driven society and warlike persona. Despite such weighty problems, Russia shows potential promise of re-gaining its superpower* status. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Russian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$211.5 billion 
  2. Gems, precious metals: $31.6 billion 
  3. Iron, steel: $28.9 billion 
  4. Fertilizers: $12.5 billion 
  5. Wood: $11.7 billion 
  6. Machinery including computers: $10.7 billion 
  7. Cereals: $9.1 billion 
  8. Aluminum: $8.8 billion 
  9. Ores, slag, ash: $7.4 billion 
  10. Plastics, plastic articles: $6.2 billion 

Iron and steel was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 80.4% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales were international sales of Russian fertilizers via a 78.5% gain. Russia’s shipments of ores, slag and ash posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 71.2%. The sole decliner among Russia’s top 10 export categories was cereals thanks to its -2.2% drop year over year.’

Russia is listed at number five in the world for countries with the largest gold reserves. Russia possesses 2,295.4 tonnes which equates to 22.0% of foreign reserves. ‘The Russian Central Bank has been one of the largest buyers of gold for the past seven years and overtook China in 2018’ who is now sixth. ‘In 2017, Russia bought 224 tonnes of bullion in an effort to diversifyaway from the U.S. dollar, as its relationship with the West has grown chilly since the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in mid-2014. To raise the cash for these purchases, Russia sold a huge percentage of its U.S. Treasuries.’ 

As of 2017, the Russian military comprised over one million active duty personnel, the  fifth largest in the world.  It is mandatory for all male citizens aged between 18 and 27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces. A distant residue of the militaristic mindset of Assyria. Russia’s tank force is the biggest in the world, while its surface navy and air force are among the largest. The country has a huge and fully indigenous arms industry producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. It has been one of the world’s top supplier of arms since 2001, accounting for about thirty percent of worldwide weapons sales; while exporting weapons to about eighty countries. Russia is the third biggest exporter of arms behind the United States and China. 

  1. The state flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR] from 1922 to 1991 
  2. The Russian Naval ensign adopted in 1712 and designed by Czar Peter I, between 1692 and 1712, after proposing eight different designs. Inspiration taken from the Scottish Saltire of the same colours, though in reverse. 
  3. The current flag of the Russian Federation.

An online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Russian Federation has been suggested as a potential candidate for resuming superpower* status in the 21st century… while others have made the assertion that it is already a superpower. 

In his 2005 publication entitled Russia in the 21st Century: The Prodigal Superpower, Steven Rosefielde, a professor of economics at University of North Carolina… predicted that Russia would… augur another arms race… Rosefielde noted that such an end would come with tremendous sacrifice to global security and the Russian people’s freedom.

Matthew Fleischer of the Los Angeles Times contends that Russia will not become a superpower unless climate change eats away at the permafrost that covers, as of March 2014, two-thirds of the country’s landmass. The absence of this permafrost would reveal immense stores of oil, natural gas, and precious minerals, as well as potential farmland, which would allow Russia to become the world’s bread basket – and control the planet’s food supply.”

… in December 2013, Russian president Vladimir Putin denied any Russian aspiration to be a superpower. He was quoted saying: “We do not aspire to be called some kind of superpower, understanding that as a claim to world or regional hegemony. We do not infringe on anyone’s interests, we do not force our patronage on anyone, or try to teach anyone how to live [a dig at the United States].”

Forbes writer Jonathan Adelman… summarized the arguments against Russia’s superpower potential… “Russia has a trade profile of a Third World country [for now], a GNP the size of Canada which is less than 15 percent of the United States GDP, no soft power, Silicon Valley, Hollywood, Wall Street or highly rated universities.” Former political journalist Peter Brown wrote that Russia “would like to reclaim the superpower status it held for nearly 40 years after World War II,” but in the 21st century may lack the combination of economic and military power” to do so. He said that “Russia won’t be a superpower anytime soon,” citing Russia’s shrinking population, high levels of poverty and poor public health. 

In 2011, British historian and professor Niall Ferguson… suggested that Russia is on its way to “global irrelevance”. [The scriptures paint a different picture for the King of the North. A few decades or a century can change the fortunes of a nation considerably, particularly after a major conflagration such as a Third World War]. Russia has, however, shown a slight population growth since 2012, partly due to immigration. The number of Chinese in the Russia’s Far East has been growing.’

In Chapters XVII and XVIII on Lud and Elam, we studied the two sons of Shem who have the most in common with regard to their mtDNA maternal and Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups. The Persian Iranians with the Turks, exhibit varying admixture with the neighbouring Arab peoples and or, a shared past history with the Turkic-Mongol peoples. Underlying these factors though, is the fact their respective Haplogroup sequencing bears similarity. In contrast, comparing them with the Russians, it soon becomes obvious there is a marked difference between the latter and the former two peoples. 

What we will discover as we progress through each of Shem’s five sons, is that some are more closely related to certain brothers than others. We will also find, especially towards the end, how similar cousins can be to each other compared to their own siblings. It is quite common for cousins to be drawn to each other and get along better with one another than with their own brothers or sisters. Haplogroups now highlight these relationship dynamics. 

Russian men

Asshur shares Haplogroups predominately with Eastern Europe, partially with Northern Europe and almost negligible with Southern Europe or Western Europe. Contrastingly, Aram shares Haplogroups split between Western Europe and Southern Europe and minutely small commonalty with either Northern or Eastern Europe. The remaining son of Shem, Arphaxad sits in the middle of these two geographically and bridges the gap between them genetically. 

Russian women

Of all the peoples descended from Japheth and his seven sons; Ham and his four sons; Shem and two out of his five sons, who have exhibited black or brown hair and brown eyes – regardless of skin tones – the Russians from Asshur, are the first peoples on our identity journey, who possess a marked increase in fair hair and blue eyes.

The mtDNA Haplogroups for the Russians in descending order. 

H [41.2%] – U5 [ 10.4%] – J [7.8%] – T2 [6.5%] – HVO+V [4.2%] – 

U4 [3.9%] – K [3.7%] – T1 [2.7%] – U [2.2%] – I [2%] – HV [1.8%] – 

W [1.8%] – U2 [ 1.4%] – X [1.3%] – U3 [1.1%] – L [0.2%] 

The main Haplogroups shared with Turkey and Iran include H, J and T2. Haplogroup H is the most frequent Haplogroup throughout West Eurasia; J is a major European Haplogroup and T, a more recent though prominent European Haplogroup. It is Haplogroup U5, where there is a more pronounced difference between Russia and the Middle Eastern nations of Elam and Lud. As Turkey exhibits a significantly higher percentage of Haplogroup H than Iran, so does Russia compared with Turkey.

Russia:  H [41.2%] – J [7.8%] – T2 [6.5%] – K [3.7%] – U [2.2%] – HV [1.8%] 

Turkey: H [30.8%] – J [8.9%] – U [6.3%] – K [5.6%] – HV [4.8%] – T2 [4.3%]

Iran:      H [16.9%] – J [13.8%] – U [11.8%] – HV [7.4%] – K [7.3%] –

T2 [4.9%]

The three Haplogroups which Iran and Turkey share higher levels, that Russia also possesses but in lower percentages include K, U and HV. Haplogroup K is higher in distinctive groups such as the Basque and Ashkenazi Jew and found in Central Asia as well as North Africa. 

In contrast with Haplogroup T, Haplogroup U is one of the oldest and most diverse of the European Haplogroups. Haplogroup HV is the ancestral group to both H and V and dominates Western European lineages.

                       H       HV      J       T2      U      U5      K

Russia          41        2         8        7        2       10       4

Turkey         31        5          9       4        6         3       6

Iran              17        7        14        5      12         3       7

Russia ostensibly, has more in common albeit distantly, with Turkey than Iran. We will learn that Russia in fact, has more commonality with the Northern Slavic and Baltic nations. Recall the first and fourth points in the introduction. Peoples today invariably live next to those peoples they are most related to – with a few notable exceptions and Haplogroups provide the evidence that this hypothesis is a valid one.

Khazaria, Russian Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Russians are the dominant ethnicity in Russia today. The Russian language belongs to the East Slavic family and is related to Ukrainian and Belarusian. The Russian people, too, are closely related to their Belarusian and Ukrainian neighbors, and also fairly close to Poles and Slovenians… We can genetically divide the Russian people into two* main types: Northern Russians and Southern Russians.’

Mitochondrial DNA variability in Poles and Russians, Annals of Human Genetics 66, multiple authors, 2002, pages 261-283. Excerpts from the summary:

“The main mitochondrial haplogroup of the Polish and Russian sequences is group H, which is the most frequent haplogroup in Europe and also common in the Near East. Haplogroup H comprises the majority of the Russian(42.3%) and Polish (45.2%) samples… The node designated as HV* is highly important in mtDNA phylogeny because two of the most frequent haplogroups in Europe, H and pre-V, descend from it. The haplogroup HV*, rare in European populations, was identified in Polish and Russian samples with low frequency (1% and 2%, respectively)…

Haplogroup J sequences in Poles and Russians are characterized by similar frequencies of 7.8% and 8%, respectively… Haplogroup U and K sequences, which are defined by a variant-12308HinfI, were found in 19.5% of the Polish mtDNAs and in 20.0% of the Russian mtDNAs.”

“The distribution of the subgroup U5a and U5b frequencies in Poles and Russians is approximately equal, with the U5a subgroup prevailing over U5b – 5.3% and 3.4% in Poles, and 7.5% and 3% in Russians. U4 (with CR motif 16356-195) is the next relatively frequent subgroup in the populations studied, being found at a frequency of 5% in Poles and 3.5% in Russians.”

Mitochondrial DNA variation in Russian populations… Genetika 38:11, multiple authors, 2002, pages 1532-1538. Excerpts from the abstract, translated into English:

“Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was examined in three Russian populations from the European part of Russia (Stavropol krai, Orel oblast, and Saratov oblast). This analysis showed that mitochondrial gene pool of Russians was represented by the mtDNA types belonging to haplogroups H, V, HV*, J, T, U, K, I, W, and X. A mongoloid admixture (1.5%) was revealed in the form of mtDNA types of macrohaplogroup M.Comparative analysis of the mtDNA haplogroup frequency distribution patterns in six Russian populations from the European part of Russia indicated theabsenceof substantial genetic differences between them. However, in Russian populations from the southern and central regions the frequency of haplogroup V (average frequency 8%) was higher than in the populations from more northern regions…”

The macrohaplogroup U structure in Russians, Human Genetics 53:4, multiple authors, 2017, pages 498-503. Abstract:

“The structure and diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) macrohaplogroup U lineages in Russians from Eastern Europe are studied on the basis of analysis of variation of nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes. In total, 132 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U1, U2e, U3, U4, U5, U7, U8a, and K are characterized. 

Results of phylogeographic analysis show that the mitochondrial gene pool of Russians contains mtDNA haplotypes belonging to subhaplogroups that are characteristic only of Russians and other Eastern Slavs (13.7%), Slavs in general (11.4%), Slavsand Germans* (17.4%), and Slavs, Germans, and Baltic Finns (9.8%). 

Results of molecular dating show that ages of mtDNA subhaplogroups to which Russian mtDNA haplotypes belong vary in a wide range, from 600 to 17000 years [birth of Noah 16,837 BCE]. However, molecular dating results for Slavic and Slavic-Germanic* mtDNA subhaplogroups demonstrate that their formation mainly occurred in the Bronze and Iron Ages (1000 to 5000 years ago). Only some instances (for subhaplogroups U5b1a1 and U5b1e1a) are characterized by a good agreement between molecular dating results and the chronology of Slavic ethnic history based on historical and archaeological data.”

Genetic studies show that modern Russians are closest to Belarussians, Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, Balts and Ukrainians. In an interesting twist, the Ethnographer Zelenin, affirms ‘that Russians overall are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians* are to northern Russians.’ 

A study found that ‘the genetic distances from the Russians to the European language groups indicate that the gene pool of present-day Russians bears the influence of Slavic, baltic, Finno-Ugric and, to a lesser extent, Germanic groups, as well as Iranian and Turkic groups.’ 

These findings ‘uphold the traditionally held genetic differentiation between Northern and Southern Russians, with the decisive ethnic element being the Finno-Ugric one, more important in the north, the southern population having substantial – generally unacknowledged in historical debates about Russian ethnogenesis – Germanic influence.’

The Russians as Asshur are a bridge genetically amongst the sons of Shem and this will be affirmed; becoming more apparent when we study his brothers, Aram and Arphaxad. Aram and the western half of Arphaxad are both similar, as Lud and Elam are to each other. 

Asshur stands between the two pairings, though leans towards the eastern half of Arphaxad’s descendants. The reason and evidence for these relationships will be supported once Arphaxad’s mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups are studied. 

In reiteration of point one in the introduction, peoples today are living next to those people they are most related to. Even though Russians have had interaction and inter-marrying with Germanic and Finno-ugric peoples, as well as Turks and Iranians, their dominant association in shared migration, history, culture and language has been with fellow Slavic speaking peoples.

What historians and geneticists have not understood is that the Russians or the Rus, did not originate in the Carpathian Mountains nor from Uppland in Scandinavia. These were merely settlements along their northwestern route from the lands of Byzantium. And before that, both anciently in Anatolia and originally before and afterwards in upper Mesopotamia, north of Shinar. 

The northward dwelling Russians, have similarity with the Finno-Ugric peoples in that they have similarly high levels of Y-DNA Haplogroup N1c1. The southward Russian inhabitants display higher levels of I2a1 like southeastern Europeans. Russians possess these two genetic splits, as does Arphaxad – yet geneticists and ethnologists seek to explain these Haplogroups as deriving from mixing alone. 

This would require considerable inter-marrying. If anything, the Haplogroup map of Europe shows that the R1a and N1c1 Haplogroups if they did not originate with the Russians as Asshur, they at least certainly appear to have influenced their near neighbours percentages. Ukraine, Belarus and Poland have suspiciously high levels of R1a like Russia. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland have high levels of N1c1, again like Russia.

The Haplogroups for Russians match the northern Slavic and Baltic peoples they reside next to; whereas, the nation of Germany’s Haplogroups match their neighbours. That is, the people with which they are related to in West-central Europe. When we study the Slavs of Eastern Europe and then the Germanic, Scandinavian, Celtic and Latin peoples of Western Europe, it will be self-evident why Russia identifies with Asshur – and, why Germany cannot be Assyria. 

Four of the five sons of Shem all live on the periphery of Europe, surrounding where Arphaxad’s descendants dwell. Asshur, Elam and Lud – Russia, Turkey and Iran – live in the East and to the Southeast of Europe. We will find that the sons of Aram also dwell in peripheral locations within and outside Europe. 

As a guide it is worth mentioning as we delve into the European peoples more fully that broadly speaking, their principle Y-DNA Haplogroups of R1, I1 and I2 signify the four quarters of Europe. Haplogroup R1b is prominent in the west; R1a in the east; I1 and I2a2 in the north and west; with I2a1 in the south and east. Added to this, is N1c1 prominent in the north and in counter balance J2 and J1, which are common in southern Europe. 

Khazaria, Russian Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

The Y-DNA (paternal) haplogroup R1a and its offshoots are very common among Russian men. Some specific subgroups of R1a found among ethnic Russians in the “Russia-Slavic DNA Project” include R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1g, and R1a1a1g2. The “Russia-Slavic DNA Project” includes men who have the sub-types R1b1a2 and R1b1a2a1a1b… [and] the sub-types I2a and I2a2. The Y-DNA haplogroup N is also common among Russian men… N haplogroups are often signals of Finnic ancestry… N1c1 is a sub-type that’s found in Russia. E1b1b Y-DNA haplogroups (ultimately originating in northeastern Africa) are not very common among Russian men, but some do have them.’

Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context, American Journal of Human Genetics 82:1, multiple authors, 2008, pages 236-250. Excerpts from the abstract:

“… In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) [N] and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. 

The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps.”

Excerpts from middle of the study: “We collected 1228 DNA samples from 14 regional Russian populations. All sampled individuals identified their four grandparents as ethnic Russians, with their mother tongue being Russian. The rural areas and small towns were chosen for sampling so that the influence of more recent migrations could be minimized. Only individuals with all four grandparents born in the local area were sampled… The 1228 Russian Y chromosomes analyzed, all except 20 (1.6%) fall into seven major haplogroups (E, G, I, J, K2, N, and R1) characteristic to West Eurasian populations. 

Eleven samples could be classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K, and nine samples (0.7%) fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 that are specific to East and South Asian populations. At a higher level of molecular resolution, only eight subclades of these major West Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups are presented with their average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, [N1c1], [I1], R1b, [I2], J2, [N1b1], and [E1b1b]. Taken together, they account for 95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool. 

Every second Russian Y chromosome belongs to haplogroup R1a… within the boundaries of Europe, R1a is characteristic for Balto-Slavonic populations, with two exceptions: southern Slavs and northern Russians. R1a frequency decreases in northeastern Russian populations down to 20% – 30%, in contrast to central-southern Russia, where its frequency is twice as high…

The second frequent among Russians is haplogroup [N1C1, formerly N3], which is a typical haplogroup for Altaic and Finno-Ugric populations of Siberia and northeastern Europe… within the Russian area, the frequency of [N1c1] decreases significantly from north (>35%) to south (<10%)… The third most frequent haplogroup in Russians is [I1, formerly I1b], and its variation is also clinal… The remaining two haplogroups, J2 and [E1b1b, formerly E3b], exhibit spotty frequencies in Russians, expected for low-frequency haplogroups.”

A 2008 paper, sampling 1,228 people in Russia who self-identified as ethnic Russians, found the following top four Y-DNA Haplogroups among the sample:

R1a: 19.8% to 62.7%, with an average of 46.7%

N: 5.4% to 53.7%, with averages of 21.6% for all regions

[10% Central and South Russia]

I: 0% to 26.8%, with an average of 17.6% for all regions

[23.5% Central and South Russia]

R1b: 0% to 14%, with an average of 5.8%

Y-DNA Haplogroups listed for Russia, Turkey and Iran. We have noted the similarities between Turkey and Iran.

Russia: R1a [46%] – N1c [23%] – I2a1 [10.5%] – R1b [6%] – I1 [5%] – 

J2 [3%] – E1b1b [2.5%] – T1a [1.5%] – Q [1.5%] – G2a [1%] 

Russia:   R1a – N1c – I2a1 – R1b – I1 – J2 – E1b1b – T1a – Q – G2a 

Turkey:  J2 – R1b – G2a – E1b1b – J1 – R1a – I2a1 – N – L – T1a –

Q – O – I1 – R2 – H – C – I2a2 

Iran:       J2 – R1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L – Q – T1a – N1c2 – I

From this comparison, we learn that Russia’s Y-DNA Haplogroups though similar as a lineage descending from Shem, standout as different with those of Turkey and Iran in sequencing and percentages. We will learn that Asshur has a closer genetic relationship with his younger brother, Arphaxad. 

Viewing the table from the preceding chapters and adding Russia highlights the disparity between Russia and the other two in those Haplogroups more usually associated with North Africa, the Middle East and southern Europe of E1b1b, G2a, J1 and J2. Whereas, Russia’s high level of R1a firmly places it in the Eastern European  genetic arena. The one surprise is the low level of R1b in Russians, though six percent is an average and levels can be comparable with Turkey and Iran in certain areas. What is more significant and shows Russia’s closer genetic ties with north and eastern Europeans is adding the percentages for R1b and R1a. Russia has 52% compared with 24% and 26% for Turkey and Iran respectively.

                       J1       J2     E1b1b      G      R1a      R1b

Iran                9        23         7          10       16        10

Turkey           9        24       11           11         8        16

Russia                        3         3            1       46          6

Selecting the key Haplogroups more closely associated with the majority of the European nations and particularly in the north and east; reveals how Russia’s highest percentages position it with similarly related peoples in north eastern Europe, whilst highlighting how similar, yet distinct Turkey and Iran are compared with Europe as a whole.  

                      R1a     R1b     I1     I2a1   I2a2     N1c

Russia           46        6        5        11                   23

Turkey            8       16        1         4       0.5        4  

Iran               16       10               0.5                      1           

The comparison table subtly shifts with the emphasis on northern European Y-DNA Haplogroups comprising I1, I2a2 and N1c compared with those synonymous with southern Europe, such as J2, E1b1b and G2a. Iran’s dominant Haplogroups are J2 and R1a; Turkey’s are J2 and R1b; whereas Russia’s are R1a and N1c. It is not surprising that Haplogroup I2a2 is negligible as this is found in northwestern Europe primarily, or that the R1b percentage is low, as this is a predominantly a western European Haplogroup. 

As Haplogroup J2 – followed by G2a, E1b1b and J1 – firmly distinguishes Turkey as a southern European nation at best and in reality a nation of the Near East; Haplogroup R1a – with N1c, I2a1 and I1 – establishes Russia as both an eastern and a northern European nation. 

Continuing the Y-DNA comparison table comprising Iran, Turkey and their related neighbours, with the addition of the Russians.

                       J        J1      J2     E1b1b      G      R1a     R1b      R1    

Georgia       43      16       27         2          30        9        10       19 

Iran              32       9       23         7          10       16        10       26

Armenia      33      11       22         6          12         5        30      35  

Turkey         33       9       24         11         11         8        16       24 

Russia            3                  3          3            1       46         6       52

As Georgia bookends one end with the highest Haplogroup J percentages and lowest R1, Russia bookends the other with the lowest Haplogroup J levels and contrastingly the highest R1. Georgia possesses the highest level of J2 as well as Haplogroup G2a; while Russia has the highest percentages of R1a and N1c.

For those readers  interested in all things Assyrian or Russian, there is an excellent two volume historical novel that brings the ancient world of Assyria colourfully alive, called The Assyrian by Nicholas Guild, 1987 and its sequel The Blood Star, 1989.

If a wise man has a controversy with a foolish and arrogant man, The foolish man ignores logic and fairness and only rages or laughs… there is no peace… or agreement.

Proverbs 29:9 Amplified Bible

“… we must bear in mind that the cause of learning has often been promoted by scholars who are prepared to take a risk and expose their brain-waves to the pitiless criticisms of others.”

F F Bruce [1910 – 1990]

“All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.”

Arthur Schopenhauer

© Orion Gold 2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Shem Occidentalis

Chapter XVI

Noah’s third son is Shem. His descendants are prominent in the Bible and have influenced the history of the world. His descendants – from all his five sons – are the European, western peoples of the earth located in Europe, West Asia and the New World of the Americas as well as Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. They include a diverse range of peoples from fair skin, blue eyes and blond hair, to olive skin, brown eyes and black hair. 

Shem in Hebrew, means: ‘name’ or ‘renown’ from the noun shem.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shem became the ancestor of Abraham and thus Jesus (Luke 3.36)… Shem… lent his name to the language group that Hebrew is part of: Semitic. The name Shem is equal to the word (shem), which itself means “name”:

The name Shem means Name, Fame or Reputation, or even Identity or Personality… we’re pretty sure that Shem wasn’t named after his own fame or prowess but rather after the Name of the Creator, which in turn reflected all of his deeds…

For a meaning of the name Shem, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Name, Renown. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names has Name, but adds Celebrated, Distinguished.’

We will look at additional definitions for Shem’s name when we study Nimrod in Chapter XXI. Shem is mentioned in the genealogical lists in Genesis Ten and 1 Chronicles One, with his brothers. We have studied the incident involving Noah, Ham and Canaan [refer Chapter XI Ham Aequator]. Shem with Japheth, acted honourably in dealing with the aftermath and his reward is recounted in Genesis 9:26, Expanded Bible:

Genesis 9:26

Expanded Bible

Noah also said, “May the Lord, the God of Shem, be praised [blessed]! May Canaan be Shem’s slave.

Notice, Shem wasn’t being praised or his name, but rather the Creator. There is a clue here that Shem may have been similar to Noah and Enoch and Abel before them, in being a member of the priestly line and a servant of the Creator. Some teach that Shem is the same person as the priest of the most High God, Melchizedek, who Abraham paid tithes to and partook of bread and wine. In the Book of Jasher it says in chapter sixteen, verses 11-12:

11 And Adonizedek king of Jerusalem, the same was Shem [or renowned], went out with his men to meet Abram and his people, with bread and wine, and they remained together in the valley of Melech. 12 And Adonizedek blessed Abram, and Abram gave him a tenth from all that he had brought from the spoil of his enemies, for Adonizedek was a priest before God.

Using Ushers widely accepted Biblical chronology, this would be possible. Combining science [worldwide flood evidence is missing for circa 4000-2500 BCE] and a more accurate chronology [the unconventional chronology based on the Sumerian sexagesimal (base 60) system] for the Old Testament prior to Genesis chapter twelve, it would be impossible for Shem and Abraham to meet as Shem died in 5717 BCE and Abraham was born in 1977 BCE. That aside, Melchizedek is a unique personality and not to be mistaken for Shem or even Christ as some propose. We will look at Nimrod’s kingdom later, though for now it is interesting to note that his territory was the ‘land of Shinar.’

Shinar is mentioned outside of the Nimrod account in Genesis Ten and Eleven.

Joshua 7:20-21

English Standard Version

20 And Achan answered Joshua, “Truly I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and this is what I did: 21 when I saw among the spoil a beautiful cloak from Shinar, and 200 shekels of silver, and a bar of gold weighing 50 shekels, then I coveted them and took them. And see, they are hidden in the earth inside my tent, with the silver underneath.”

Isaiah 11:11

English Standard Version

11 In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, from Assyria [Russia (Asshur)], from Egypt [Middle East and North Africa (Mizra)], from Pathros [Egypt], from Cush [India], from Elam [Turkey],from Shinar, from Hamath [Nigeria],and from the coastlands of the sea [East & South East Asia].

Zechariah 5:10-11

English Standard Version

10 Then I said to the angel who talked with me, “Where are they taking the basket?” 11 He said to me, “To the land of Shinar, to build a house for it. And when this is prepared, they will set the basket down there on its base.”

What is the Land of Shinar and Where is it Located? Petros Koutoupis, 2007 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Genesis 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel [Babylon], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Genesis 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur [Nimrod], and built Nineveh [capital], and Rehoboth-ir, and Kalaḥ, Genesis 10:12 and Resen between Nineveh and Kalaḥ – the same is the great city. 

In the past, many have argued… about the true location of the land of Shinar… among a majority of scholars in the same field, [I] have identified this to mean the land of Sumer. While the Sumerians themselves called their land ki-en-gir (“place of the civilized lords”), the name Sumer is derived from the Akkadian Shumer [Shem]. 

Shinar is simply a Hebrew corruption of the Akkadian word. It literally translates to “country of two rivers” which could only mean the Tigris and Euphrates when taking into account the cities mentioned above. 

Erech/Uruk, Akkad/Agade, and Babylon existed nowhere else but the land of Shinar. In times past, early rulers used to differentiate the lands between Sumer and Akkad when boasting of their achievements,making the one the southern kingdom (Sumer) and the other the northern kingdom (Akkad). 

Collectively this had evolved to one piece of land between the two rivers. Further evidence of its location, outside of Genesis 10:10-11 comes to us from the Book of Daniel: 

[Daniel] 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. [Daniel] 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god. 

Nebuchadnezzar [II], a Neo-Babylonian king to whom Jerusalem fell [607-587 BCE] under which also resulted in the Jewish Exile, was said to have come from the land of Shinar or Chaldea.

Erech has been identified with the Mesopotamian city of Uruk (Sumerian Unug); the home and kingdom of Gilgamesh. Akkad has been identified with Agade, the capital of the Akkadian Empire. Babel was the native name of the city the Greeks called Babylon, which literatally translates [as] “gate of god”, corresponding to the Akkadian Bab-ili. As for the location of Calneh, modern day scholars have located this to be Nippur (modern day Niffer), which is situated in the marshes of [the] east bank of the Euphrates; roughly 60 miles southeast of Babylon.’

Assyria from Asshur, was situated to the north of Akkad and not counted as the land of Shinar. The land of Shinar incorporated Akkad and Sumer, with Babylon formerly Babel, to the south of Akkad; located approximately in the middle of the two regions. Thus the cities of Accad and Babylon were northwards in Akkad and Calneh or Nippur and Erech further south in Sumer. ‘Sumer’ and the Sumerians derive from the name Shem, while the Akkad[ian] origin is unclear. The term Chaldea[n] is believed to have derived from Shem’s son Arphaxad. Akkad is possibly linked to Arphaxad as well. 

The early geography involved three of the sons of Shem in close proximity after the Tower of Babel, so that in the north of the fertile crescent there was Asshur, below him, Arphaxad and beneath him, Elam. Aram or Syria and Lud or Lydia, were not so clearly defined. Lud has been identified more with Ham’s children, particularly Mizra and may have been located originally south of Shinar. Lud is invisible until he appears in Anatolia in Western Asia Minor [refer Chapter XIV Mizra: North Africa & Arabia and Chapter XVII Lud & Iran]. The same applies to Aram until he appears north of Assyria and to the East of Lud. This layout will come into clearer focus, once we uncover the five identities of the sons of Shem. 

Sayce pages 60-61 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… But Babylonia had not always been in Semitic hands. Its earliest population belonged to another race, and the language which they spoke was agglutinative… it was the pre-Semitic population, and not the Semitic intruders, to whom the origin of Chaldaean culture and civilisation were due. It was this population who were the inventors of the pictorial characters which developed into the cuneiform syllabary, they were the first to write on tablets of clay, they founded the great cities and temples of the country, and initiated the art and science, the literature and law, the systems of government and religion which the Semitic Babylonians afterwards inherited. Babylonia was divided into the two provinces of Accad in the north and Sumer… in the south; Accad was the first to fall under Semitic influence and domination, and it was here that the first Semitic empire that of Sargon of Accad took its rise.’

Turkey or Elam is not considered by all biblical historians as a line of Shem but invariably from Japheth. The interaction of Elam with Madai – descended from Japheth – accounts for some of the confusion. The pictorial characters are the cursive script of Elam and evidenced today by modern Turkish. Recall in the previous chapter we touched upon the link between Turkish and Sumerian. Agglutinative is defined as: ‘pertaining to or noting a language, as Turkish, characterized by agglutination.’ It includes ‘the act or process of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance, the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts, that which is united; a mass or group cemented together.’

In linguistics: ‘a process of word formation in which morphemes, each having one relatively constant shape, are combined without fusion or morphophonemic change, and in which each grammatical category is typically represented by a single morpheme in the resulting word, especially such a process involving the addition of one or more affixes to a base, as in Turkish, in which ev means “house,” ev-den means “from a house,” and ev-ler-den means “from houses.”’

Though descended from Shem, Elam as Turkey, has its feet planted firmly in the two worlds of Japheth and Ham, as evidenced by its link with the Central Asians, Turkic-Mongol language and non-European religion of Islam [refer Chapter IV Central Asia – Madai & the Medes and Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. In time, Elam moved eastwards from Sumer – adjacent to the Persian Gulf, into modern day Iran – and hence the gradual lessening by their influence on the descendants of Arphaxad who moved southwards from Akkadia  into Sumer [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans].

Two other nations which have agglutinating languages, causing dispute regarding their language families are the Korean and Japonic languages. An understandable coincidence, as we have learned in Chapter VI and IX, that both Korea from Gomer and Japan from Javan, migrated in a different pattern to their brothers in South East Asia. Thus, their languages are not readily linked to not-so-related close neighbours China, or more closely related, yet geographically distant relatives in the southeast of Asia.

Book of Jubilees 7:13-18

And Ham knew that his father had cursed his younger son, and he was displeased that he had cursed his son and he parted from his father, he and his sons with him,Cush [Indians] and Mizraim [Arabs] and Put [Pakistan] and Canaan [Africans]. And he built for himself a city and called its name after the name of his wife Ne’elatama’uk. And Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built for himself a city, and he called its name after the name of his wife ‘Adataneses. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on the mountain,and he too called its name after the name of his wife Sedeqetelebab. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’eltama’uk on the south; ‘Adatan’eses towards the west. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad… 

This account relates to the period after the flood, or shortly after the incident with Noah [refer Chapter XI Ham Aequator]. If Noah stayed close to the Kashmir area, then the locations of Ham’s and Japheth’s children equate with their travelling along the Indus River and populating this region of southwest Asia. Japheth and Ham continued to the far west; Shem migrating behind them both. Japheth’s descendants eventually dwelling in the Aegean and Anatolia, Ham’s descendants living in Canaan, Egypt and North Africa, while Shem’s descendants settled in Mesopotamia.

Shem’s descendants migrating westward and displacing the children of Japheth and Ham would answer two questions. Why the sons of Ham migrated into North Africa, though the sons of Canaan lingered in the coastal strip of the East Mediterranean – because the land was rich in natural resources and beautiful, being the best real estate in the area – rather than continuing southward with Cush, Phut and Mizra. And, Why the sons of Japheth moved northward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and its islands. Javan or ‘Greece’ – the island peoples – left their family names throughout the area until the present day [refer Chapter II Japheth Orientalium].

It would explain why the area is now known as Sumer, as Shem’s descendants have left a more recent and indelible imprint. Remember, the time frame is considerably longer ago than typically credited by historians or biblical scholars. Some time well after 10,837 BCE, though still prior to Nimrod circa 6755 BCE. Then we are introduced to Nimrod and the emphasis of the names for the areas of Assyria named after Asshur, Akkad named after Arphaxad and Sumer after Shem; even though his first born Elam, may have been originally first, his memory has been erased or blurred due to his migration further southeast – possibly directly after the Tower of Babel – as well as the important fact of lower Mesopotamia being inhabited by additional children of Arphaxad – for Arphaxad had numerous descendants [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans]. 

The Book of Jubilees provides additional details regarding Shem’s territory – the central middle eastern region – which was sandwiched between Japheth to the north and Ham to the south. It is referenced against the Garden of Eden, which we will return to when we study Eden [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

Book of Jubilees 8:10-18, 21

8:10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father.

12And there came forth on the writing as Shem’s lot the middle of the earth which he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons… from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa, from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its waters into the sea Me’at, and this river flows into the great sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth’s, and all that is towards the south belongs to Shem. 13 And it extends till it reaches Karaso… which looks towards the south. 14 And his portion extends along the great sea, and it extends in a straight line till it reaches… the Egyptian Sea… and it extends to the west to ‘Afra, and it extends till it reaches the waters of the river Gihon, and to the south of the waters of Gihon, to the banks of this river. 

21 And he knew that a blessed portion and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto the generations… the whole land of Eden and the whole land of the Red Sea… the land of Bashan, and all the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, and all the mountains of Sanir and ‘Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Susan [the eventual capital of Elam]and Ma’edai [Madai], and all the mountains of Ararat [Turkey], and all the region beyond the sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur towards the north, a blessed and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good [the whole of Mesopotamia].

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shinar Meaning: From the root (s’r), which expresses intense negative emotion and the experience of violence. From the root (na’ar), to growl, shake or be young. From (1) the verb (shanan), to be sharp, and (2) the noun (‘ir), city. Scholars generally assume that Shinar is the Hebrew interpretation of what is commonly referred to as Sumer. 

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names derives [shinar] from (sh’r): (se’ar) means hair… the… verb (sa’ar)… literally mean[s] to be hairy… but in fact is solely used to mean to be afraid… Noun (sa’r) means horror. Verb (sa’ar) means to sweep or whirl away… in relation to a storm wind. 

Verb (she’ar)… to break, tear through or split… nouns (sha’ar), gate, and (sho’er), gatekeeper… The core idea of root (sh’r) is to split open, to break through. Thus, for a meaning of the name Shinar, Jones reads Casting Out, or Scattering In All Manner Of Ways…’

An online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Sinʿar occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible… This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babel/Babylon (in northern Babylonia) and Erech/Uruk (in southern Babylonia).In the Book of Genesis… Verse 11:2 states that Shinar enclosed the plain that became the site of the Tower of Babel after the Great Flood. [The Book of] Jubilees 9:3 allots Shinar (or, in the Ethiopic text, Sadna Sena`or) to Ashur… Jubilees 10:20 states that the Tower of Babel was built with bitumen from the sea of Shinar. David Rohl theorized that the Tower was actually located in Eridu*, which was once located on the Persian Gulf, where there are ruins of a massive, ancient ziggurat worked from bitumen.’

Alan Alford comments on Sumer – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The discovery of ancient Sumer is an exciting story, which begins in the nineteenth century… Spurred on by Biblical clues, the accounts of earlier travellers and by local folklore, archaeologists such as the Paris-born Englishman Sir Austen Henry Layard indeed found their fame and fortune. It was a Frenchman who made the first important discovery. In 1843, Paul Emile Botta uncovered fantastic temples, palaces and a ziggurat (step-pyramid) at a site identified as Dur-Sharru-Kin, the eighth century BC capital of Sargon II, king of Assyria. Botta will always be remembered as the discoverer of the Assyrian civilization.

Whilst archaeologists such as Botta and Layard continued to seek and explore new sites such as Nimrud and Nineveh, scholars such as Sir Henry Rawlinson and Jules Oppert began to shed light on the numerous clay tablets which the digs had uncovered. It soon became apparent that the ancient Mesopotamians were diligent record keepers, preserving information in a cuneiform script, inscribed on clay tablets. In 1835, Rawlinson had carefully copied a vital trilingual inscription on a stone slab found at Behistun in Persia; in 1846, he deciphered the script and its languages, one of which was Akkadian, common to the Assyrians and the Babylonians, who had inherited the Near East after the collapse of Sumer c. 2000 BC.

Sir Henry Rawlinson’s timing was fortuitous. A few years later, Sir Austen Henry Layard began to excavate the mounds of the ancient Assyrian capital Nineveh, 250 miles north of modern-day Baghdad. As well as fantastic temples and palaces, he discovered in 1850 the library of Ashurbanipal [Assyrian King, 669-631 BCE], containing a collection of 30,000 clay tablets. As more and more tablets were translated, the archaeologists became increasingly excited by the independent confirmation of Biblical rulers and cities.

One inscription, listing the achievements of an earlier ruler, Sargon I, claimed that he was the “King of Akkad, King of Kish”, and that he had defeated in battle the cities of “Uruk, Ur and Lagash”. Scholars were amazed to find that this Sargon had preceded his later namesake by nearly two thousand years, taking the Mesopotamian civilization back to at least 2400 BC. This was just the beginning of a series of tremendous finds which turned back the clock on the beginning of civilization and enriched the museums of Europe and America with some of their prize exhibits. At this time, Sumer did not exist in the history books – it is only with hindsight that we now recognize it as the Biblical “Shinar”.

Further south, the hot and dusty wasteland of Uruk yielded the world’s first ever ziggurat, dedicated to the Goddess Inanna, as well as examples of some of the earliest inscribed writing. The best preserved ziggurat in the whole of Mesopotamia was found at Ur, the birthplace of the Old Testament patriarch Abraham. The partly restored ruins of that ziggurat still dominate the landscape today at the modern town of Muqayyar, 186 miles south-east of Baghdad. It was at Eridu, however, almost 200 miles south-east of Baghdad that the earliest Sumerian city was found. The city of Eridu is [today] an abandoned, windswept wilderness, dominated by the ruins of Ur-Nammu’s* ziggurat.’

We addressed albinism, Noah, his son Shem and the introduction of white skin in chapter one on Noah, as well as discussing melanin variation that causes the darkness and lightness of skin, hair and eyes in Chapter XII Canaan & Africa. Blond hair is linked to the carriers of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a; blue eyes with Haplogroup I1; and Red hair  within the R1b Haplogroup. The argument for antediluvian humans possessing a light shade of brown skin is incontrovertible and the introduction of all other shades which stem from South Asians, East Asians, Arabs, Latinos and Europeans through Noah, his sons and their wives is the only scenario that fits the 11,000 to 19,000 years ago timeline, provided by scientists – and supported by an unconventional chronology. Due to lengthened ages,Noah was born nearly 19,000 years ago and his sons nearly 14,000 years ago, with Noah’s grandsons beginning to be born approximately 13,000 years ago. The exact time frame when the explosion of Haplogroup mutations is thought to have occurred.  

Real History explains the scientific process of where and how white skin originates – capitals theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Gene copies, however, are not always healthy. When the copies of a gene differ from each other, as through deleterious mutation or failure: Then in this heterozygous condition, we call the two parts “Alleles” and the undamaged or un-mutated allele is dominant, and the organism’s appearance and function is normal. The damaged “other” allele has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance, and is called the “Recessive” allele.

When BOTH alleles of a gene become recessive, then the gene cannot complete its assignment. As an example: many Black people have alleles of their “P” gene which are heterozygous and they look normal in every way: (The “P” gene controls the production of Melanin in the skin for protection from the Sun). 

But if TWO of these people with heterozygous alleles in their “P” gene [reproduce], then one or more, of their children will be an Albino. If two Albinos mate, there is only damaged or recessive “P” genes to inherit; therefore ALL of their children will be White. 

The trait for curly hair (which is the [norm] for humans) follows the same rules, two damaged or recessive allele’s of the “TCHH” gene [results in] straight hair. Same for the genes which control eye color and hair color: (Blonde and Red hair is recessive, as is Blue, Green, and Gray eyes).’

Washington Post: Friday, May 1, 2009, Study Finds Africans More Genetically Diverse Than Other Populations:

Africans are more genetically diverse than the inhabitants of the rest of the world combined,according to a sweeping study that carried researchers into remote regions to sample the bloodlines of more than 100 distinct populations. So says Sarah Tishkoff, a University of Pennsylvania geneticist who led the international research team. The report was published in the journal Science Express.”

Spencer Wells, [Genetic Anthropologist, on the first Great Migrations] page 39 The Journey of Man: A genetic Odyssey 

… Genetic data corroborates the mitochondrial results, placing the root of the human family tree – our most recent common ancestor – [from Africans]… Consistent with this result, all of the genetic data shows the greatest number of polymorphisms in [Africans] – there is simply far more variation in that continent than anywhere else. You are more likely to sample extremely divergent genetic lineages within a single African village than you are in whole of the rest of the world. 

The majority of the genetic polymorphisms found in our species are found uniquely in AfricansEuropeans, Asians and Native Americans carry only a small sample of the extraordinary diversity that can be found in any African village.”

‘The question was asked: If Europeans are Albinos, then how is it that they still make [white children]? [The] confusion is due to believing [the] definition of [an] Albino. In order to confuse pigmented people, [Europeans]… try to say that ONLY type 1 (OCA1) [Chromosome 11] Albinos exist. They say: “Though we have White Skin, we DON’T have White Hair and Red eyes. We also have good vision and can TAN, so that proves that we are NOT Albinos… Type “1” Albinos are [those] with White hair, White Skin, Red Eyes, and poor eyesight. There are “8” (so far discovered) types of Albinism, with type 2 (OCA2) [Chromosome 15] being by far the MOST COMMON!’

The phenotype typical of type 2 Albinism (OCA2) is “TANNABLE WHITE SKIN, BLONDE to BROWN HAIR, and BLUE, GREEN, GRAY, or BROWN EYES – sound familiar? And how is it that type 2 (OCA2) Albinos can still make type 1 (OCA1) Albinos? Simple, normal everyday European Albinism is caused by mutation of the “P” (OCA2) gene. Whereas type 1 (OCA1) Albinism is caused by a mutation of the tyrosinase gene. These genes are at different locations of the cell Chromosome, therefore one mutation does not exclude the other. Consequently type 2 Albinos producing type 1 Albinos is not unusual in the least. And just like in Blacks with Albinism, future generations are dependent only on the… partner’s mutations or lack of mutations.’

“It is my conviction that a white skin is not natural to man, and that by nature he has either a black or brown skin like our forefathers… and that the white man was never originally created by nature; and that, therefore, there is no race of white people.” 

From… Metaphysics of Sexual Love by Arthur Schopenhauer.’

‘Genetics Out of Africa, Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins:

“Recently a major molecular cause of this change in skin color has been discovered in Europeans. Specifically, the gene SLC24A5 turns out to be critical for the production of melanin, the predominant dark pigment of the skin and hair… 100 percent of Europeans have a mutation in SLC24A5 that impairs the function of the protein…Asians share the fully functional version of SLC24A5, but have acquired mutations in other genes that result in lighter skin, while retaining black hair (Francis Collins, The Language of Life (NY: Harper, 2010), page 150).” Keith Cheng from Penn State College of Medicine reported that one amino acid difference in the gene SLC24A5 is a key contributor to the skin color difference between Europeans and West Africans. This is undoubtedly where the Irish get their light skin from. “The mutation in SLC24A5 changes just one building block in the protein, and contributes about a third of the visually striking differences in skin tone between peoples of African and European ancestry,” he said.’

The study by professor of pathology Keith Cheng, was published in the Genetics Journal, 2005. Cheng worked together with Victor Canfield, assistant professor of pharmacology, studying DNA sequence differences across the globe. Segments of genetic code have a mutation located closely on the same SLC24A5 chromosome and are often inherited together. Specifically the mutation is called A111T and is found in everyone of European ancestry.

A111T is also found in peoples of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, though not in high numbers in Africans. Researchers discovered that all individuals from the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa and Southern India who carry the A111T mutation share a common ‘fingerprint’ or ‘traces of the ancestral genetic code’ in the corresponding chromosomal region; which indicates that all existing instances of this mutation originated from the same person. That same person would be ancestor zero: Noah. Cheng unwittingly confirms: “This means that Middle Easterners and South Indians, which includes most inhabitants of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, share significant ancestry.”

Apparently, the mutated segment of DNA was itself created from a combination of two other mutated segments which are commonly found in Eastern Asians. Cheng comments: “The coincidence of this interesting form of evidence of shared ancestry of East Asians with Europeans, within this tiny chromosomal region, is exciting… the combining of segments occurred after the ancestors of East Asians [from Japheth] and Europeans [from Shem] split geographically [genetically] more than 50,000 [14,000] years ago; the A111T mutation occurred afterward” [in Noah’s sixteen grandsons].

Differences in skin colour affect skin cancer rates. For instance, Europeans have ten to  twenty times more instances of melanoma than Africans; yet despite having lighter skin as well, East Asians have the same lower melanoma rates as Africans. The reason for this difference could only be explained once the gene mutations for both groups are found. I would propose it is linked to the fact that the original two lines of humankind before Noah’s sons [Homo sapiens sapiens], were the Neanderthal line created on Day Six and the Adamic line [Homo Sapiens] created on Day Eight [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. These antediluvian lines are replicated today with modifications, respectively in the oriental peoples descended from Japheth and the section of equatorial peoples descended from Ham through his youngest son, Canaan.

‘The study above mentions the term “Nonsyndromic”: A “Syndrome” is a set of signs and symptoms that appear together and characterize a disease or medical condition. Therefore “Nonsyndromic” means something that is not associated with other signs and symptoms. This comes into play because Europeans typically deny their Albinism by claiming that “REAL” Albinos have bad eyesight! 

This study makes clear that is not the case: Note that this study was [conducted] by Asians. Just like SLC24A5 is a gene denoting Albinism, so too is SLC45A2, an Albino gene. What is the official name of the MC1R gene? The official name of this gene is “melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor).” 

What is the normal function of the MC1R gene? The MC1R gene provides instructions for making a protein called the melanocortin 1 receptor. This receptor plays an important role in normal pigmentation. The receptor is primarily located on the surface of melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.

Melanocytes make two forms of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin. The relative amounts of these two pigments help determine the color of a person’s hair and skin. People who produce mostly eumelanin tend to have brown or black hair and dark skin that tans easily. Eumelanin also protects skin from damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight. People who produce mostly pheomelanin tend to have red or blond hair, freckles, and light-colored skin that tans poorly. Because pheomelanin does not protect skin from UV radiation, people with more pheomelanin have an increased risk of skin damage caused by sun exposure.

The melanocortin 1 receptor controls which type of melanin is produced by melanocytes. When the receptor is activated, it triggers a series of chemical reactions inside melanocytes that stimulate these cells to make eumelanin. If the receptor is not activated or is blocked, melanocytes make pheomelanin instead of eumelanin.

Common variations (polymorphisms) in the MC1R gene are associated with normal differences in skin and hair color. Certain genetic variations are most common in people with red hair, fair skin, freckles, and an increased sensitivity to sun exposure. These MC1R polymorphisms reduce the ability of the melanocortin 1 receptor to stimulate eumelanin production, causing melanocytes to make mostly pheomelanin. Although MC1R is a key gene in normal human pigmentation, researchers believe that the effects of other genes also contribute to a person’s hair and skin coloring. The melanocortin 1 receptor is also active in cells other than melanocytes, including cells involved in the body’s immune and inflammatory responses. The receptor’s function in these cells is unknown.

The MC1R gene belongs to a family of genes called GPCR (G protein-coupled receptors). A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. Many genetic changes in the MC1R gene increase the risk of developing skin cancer, including a common, serious form of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes (melanoma). Alterations in the MC1R gene disrupt the ability of the melanocortin 1 receptor to trigger eumelanin production in melanocytes.

Because eumelanin normally protects skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation, a lack of this pigment leaves fair skin more vulnerable to damage from sun exposure. Skin damage caused by UV radiation from the sun is a major risk factor for developing melanoma and other forms of skin cancer.’

Studies suggest that variations in the MC1R gene may also increase the risk of developing melanoma in the absence of UV radiation-related skin damage. In these cases, melanomas can occur in people of dark or light skin coloring. These cancers are often associated with mutations in additional genes related to melanoma risk, such as the BRAF and CDKN2A genes. Researchers are working to explain the complex relationship among MC1R variations, other genetic and environmental factors, and melanoma risk.

Certain genetic changes in the MC1R gene modify the appearance of people with oculocutaneous albinism type 2. This form of albinism, which is caused by mutations in the OCA2 gene, is characterized by fair hair, light-colored eyes, creamy white skin, and vision problems.People with genetic changes in both the OCA2 and MC1R genes have many of the usual features of oculocutaneous albinism type 2; however, they typically have red hair instead of the usual yellow, blond, or light brown hair seen with this condition.’

Wiki: Sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5 (NCKX5), also known as solute carrier family 24 member 5 (SLC24A5), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC24A5 gene that has a major influence on natural skin colour variation. The NCKX5 protein is a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger family. Sequence variation in the SLC24A5 gene, particularly a non-synonymous SNP changing the amino acid at position 111 in NCKX5 from alanine to threonine, has been associated with differences in skin pigmentation. 

The SLC24A5 gene’s derived threonine or Ala111Thr allele (rs1426654[3]) has been shown to be a major factor in the light skin tone of Europeans compared to Africans, and is believed to represent as much as 25–40% of the average skin tone difference between Europeans and West Africans. It has been the subject of recent selection in Western Eurasia, and is fixed in European populations.

The SLC24A5 gene, in humans, is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 15 on position 21.1, from base pair 46,200,461 to base pair 46,221,881. NCKX5 is 43 kDa protein that is partially localized to the trans-Golgi network in melanocytes. Removal of the NCKX5 protein disrupts melanogenesis in human and mouse melanocytes, causing a significant reduction in melanin pigment production. Site-directed mutagenesis corresponding to a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC24A5 alters a residue in NCKX5 (A111T) that is important for NCKX5 sodium-calcium exchanger activity. SLC24A5 appears to have played a key role in the evolution of light skin in humans of European ancestry… The Penn State team [calculated] that the gene, known as slc24a5, is responsible for about one-third of the pigment loss that made black skin white. A few other as-yet-unidentified mutated genes apparently account for the rest…’

This removes any doubt that Homo sapiens, from the line of Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve were dark skinned. Science has confirmed that white skin is a mutation – the SLC24A5 gene on Chromosome 15 – of a darker skinned human. Science dating of this event aligns with the birth of Shem and the genetic bottleneck at the time of the Flood. Eve as mitochondrial Eve would have been mtDNA Haplogroup L0. Adam as Y-DNA Adam, would have been Y-DNA Haplogroup A. Both these Haplogroups are the Haplogroups of the sub-Saharan Black African peoples [refer Chapter XII Canaan & Africa].

The gene’s function in pigmentation was discovered in zebrafish as a result of the positional cloning of the gene responsible for the “golden” variety of this common pet store fish. Evidence in the International HapMap Project database of genetic variation in human populations showed that Europeans, represented by the “CEU” population, had two primary alleles differing by only one nucleotide, changing the 111th amino acid from alanine to threonine, abbreviated “A111T”.

The derived threonine allele (Ala111Thr; also known as A111T or Thr111) represented 98.7 to 100% of the alleles in European samples, while the ancestral or alanine form was found in 93 to 100% of samples of Sub-Saharan Africans, East Asians and Indigenous Americans. The variation is a SNP polymorphism rs1426654, which had been previously shown to be second among 3011 tabulated SNPs ranked as ancestry-informative markers. This single change in SLC24A5 explains between 25 and 38% of the difference in skin melanin index between peoples of West African vs. European Ancestry.

Furthermore, the European mutation is associated with the largest region of diminished genetic variation in the CEU HapMap population, suggesting the possibility that the A111T mutation may be the subject of the single largest degree of selection in human populations of European ancestry. It is theorised that selection for the derived allele is based on the need for sunlight to produce the essential nutrient vitamin D. In northerly latitudes, where there is less sun, greater requirement for body coverage due to colder climate, and frequently, diets poor in vitamin D, making lighter skin more suitable for survival. Tests for this variation have obvious application to forensic science. 

It has been estimated that the threonine allele became predominant among Europeans 11,000 [circa 9,000 to 10,000 BCE birth of Shem’s sons, Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram] to 19,000 [circa 17,000 BCE birth of Noah] years ago.

After providing all manner of scientific data to prove European Albinism: We now turn to the common sense approach to proving European Albinism… todays White Europeans… are clearly loath to admit that they are [technically] Albinos. So to hide this truth, they utilize all manner of “Double-Speak”: that is defining Albinism, but turning aside all inference to themselves. They say things like: OCA2 is rare in Europe, but more common in Africa… ALL White Europeans are ALREADY OCA2, so to hide that; they only count as Albino, those of their number who have genetic vision problems because of their OCA2 Albinism: (Another lie they tell is that ALL Albinos have vision problems). So for a better understanding, let[’]s DEFINE OCA2. OCA2 stands for Oculocutaneous Albinism type II.

“OCA” stands for Oculocutaneous Albinism. The “OC” stands for “Oculocutaneous” Definition of OCULOCUTANEOUS: relating to or affecting both the eyes and the skin – oculocutaneous albinism – Definition of ALBINISM: the condition of an albino. Full Definition of ALBINO: an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation; especially: a human being that is congenitally deficient in pigment and usually has a milky or translucent skin, white or colorless hair, and eyes with pink or blue iris and deep-red pupil (In short, Albino means WHITE or WHITE like – from the Latin albus “white”).

These are the symptoms of OCA2. Genetics Home Reference

The OCA2 gene (formerly called the P gene) provides instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein is located in melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.”

NOAH (National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation) [Monumental coincidence – or is it – and irony that this is the acronym, for Noah is Ancestor Zero]. 

A common myth is that people with albinism have red eyes. Although lighting conditions can allow the blood vessels at the back of the eye to be seen, which can cause the eyes to look reddish or violet, most people with albinism have blue eyes, and some have hazel or brown eyes. There are different types of albinism and the amount of pigment in the eyes varies; however, vision problems are associated with albinism.”

Did you notice in the “Genetics Home Reference” definition where it said that “The OCA2 gene was formerly called the P gene”? Now why would White people RENAME a gene after a disease?

THE HUMAN BODY DOES NOT “NORMALLY” COME WITH DISEASE! So why did [Europeans] RENAME the “P” gene, and give it the name of a DISEASE? They did that when they found out that the MUTATED form of the “P” gene was “NORMAL” in THEM! OCA2 “IS” the “MUTATED” FORM of the “P” gene. To put it plainly… A Normal Black person’s gene would be called a “P” gene. And only the MUTATED form found in Europeans and African Albinos, would be called the OCA2 gene. Since ALL Europeans have the OCA2 gene, therefore they are all Albinos. And of course it’s rare in Africa, most Africans are NOT Albinos.

So then, if the OCA2 gene is a “Normal” human gene, then BLACKS MUST HAVE A “OCA-2” (Albinism gene) too? Logically then: if “OCA2” means “Oculocutaneous Albinism type 2” – HOW CAN BLACK PEOPLE HAVE THIS GENE AND NOT BE WHITE?… Of course Black People DO NOT have a OCA2 Gene, they have a “P” gene. When the “P” gene is healthy, Black people make Black people. But when the “P” gene has “Mutated” and is no longer healthy, It CAN cause Black people to produce WHITE people (Albinos).

How can two people with normal pigmentation (Black people) produce a child with albinism? That is because these parents – like one out of every 75 people – are carriers for albinism. A carrier is someone who has one functional gene and one abnormal gene. (We all have two copies of all genes). Because the functional gene overrides the abnormal gene, these people do not have albinism themselves. However, they are still able to pass the abnormal gene on to their child. If the other parent is also a carrier for the same type of albinism, the offspring has a 25% chance of having albinism, a 50% chance of being a carrier, and a 25% chance of having two “normal” genes.

In Herodotus’s “History of the Persian Wars” of the dozens of peoples that he describes in the book; he chooses to describe only three peoples by racial type. The Colchians… whom he describes as “black-skinned and have woolly hair”. And the Budini of Gelonus (east-central Ukraine), whom he describes as (they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair). The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) said this about them: 

“For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves. 

Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.”

From those passages we know for sure what White Europeans looked like when they first invaded Europe – they were Pure Albinos. But today, they rarely have the RED HAIR and BLUE EYES of their ancestors – What Happened?’

We will learn that the Germanic tribes in Germany were peoples who were predominantly fair and blue eyed and they still are today. It doesn’t account for all the White people in Europe with brunette hair and brown eyes. Thus the assertion that the blue eyed, red haired people are disappearing is not true in this background context, of ‘all white people were red haired and blue eyed.’ What is true, is that those nations which are predominately fair and blue eyed are being ‘watered down’ so-to-speak through intermarriage and inter-mixing.  Thus the following is relevant in that context.

‘THIS HAPPENED! “Since the turn of the century, people born with blue eyes in the United States have dramatically decreased, with only about 10 percent having blue eyes today.

According to Mark Grant, an epidemiologist from Loyola University in Chicago. During the turn of the last century, the percentage of people with blue eyes stood at 57.4% for those born between 1899 through 1905; and 33.8% for those born between 1936 through 1951. According to Grant, in a study titled “Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye color among US whites.” This decrease in the occurrence of blue eyes is due to many factors, with the majority pointing to the increase in brown-eyed immigrants, mainly Hispanics and Asians, as well as heightenedinterracial relationships: as the other determinant, (when a normal Black person and a European make a baby, the baby GAINS varied ability to make MELANIN). Blue eyes, next to green, are the rarest eye color in the world, as people of counties in Asia and Africa possess brown eyes.”

‘Are there three Races? As the evidence indicates… [Europeans have]… taught… that there [are] THREE RACES: The Black Race. The White Race. The [Asiatic] type Race. This was just to give themselves an undeserved place of importance in the Human hierarchy. Following the evidence, it becomes clear that there are indeed THREE RACES, but their types are different: [1] Blacks with “Negroid” features, produce Albinos with Negroid features. [2] Blacks with “Caucasian” features, produce Albinos with Caucasian features. And [3] Blacks with “Mongol” features produce Albinos with Mongol features… there is the one Black Human Race. Then there are TWO sub-races: The Albino Race – which encompasses Whites/Albinos of EVERY Phenotype. (Europeans insist that they are the only “True” Whites: but as is clear from the evidence, they are in no way unique). And then there is the “MULATTO” Races: which are MIXTURES of all the above, in varying QUANTITIES… [including] the Middle East, North Africa, and Latin American: as well as Asia…’

A rather abrupt expression of the no less undeniable reality, that the oldest genes – as expressed by Y-DNA Haplogroups – pre-flood, are the ancestor genes or Haplogroups which mutated through Noah’s sons and grandsons into the variety of races or ethnicities we observe today. Thus the original mtDNA L and Y-DNA A Haplogroups were passed from Noah to Ham, to Canaan. Mutations of these founder Haplogroups have been passed from Ham to each of his other three sons. Each son receiving a unique sequence, yet there are some Haplogroups common to each or all. Japheth received a unique set which diversified amongst his seven sons, as did Shem for his five sons. The fact there is crossover Haplogroups between Japheth, Ham and Shem as well as between the grandsons themselves, proves their family link and supports the scientific understanding of genetic mutations as evidenced by Haplogroup expansions.

For example, let’s take R1b and R1a. Both are European marker Haplogroups, for western and eastern Europe respectively. Yet, the Latinos of the Americas also possess R1b, as the Indians of India also have R1a. Geneticists debate the origin of R1a: is it West Eurasian or European or East Eurasian and South Asian in origin. Which line came from who? But if Shem and Ham both carried the Y-DNA R Haplogroup, then this would explain how both have passed on the R1b and R1a mutations. Therefore, Indians and Europeans are related, just not as closely as scientists believe. They are not both Aryan, as the Indian peoples are Hamitic. Not brothers per se, but more accurately, cousins [refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut]. 

‘[The top four] places in the world where… [Europeans] refuse to accept the fact that they have physical disadvantages as regards the Sun [are] Israel, Australia, New Zealand [and] California… In these places they inhabit beaches as if they were Black or Brown people. The results are often disastrous.’ [the State of Israel has since been passed by Australia, moving into second and New Zealand has leapt into first, regarding the highest rates of skin cancer in the world].

The principal mtDNA maternal Haplogroups associated with Shem’s descendants include:

Haplogroup H – the most frequently found Haplogroup throughout West Eurasia, with a uniform distribution throughout Europe.

Haplogroup HV – the ancestral Haplogroup to H and V, which dominates the western European lineages today. About seventy-five percent of the western European population descends from this Haplogroup.

Haplogroup I – widespread throughout Europe, although at relatively low levels of about two percent. 

Haplogroup J – one of the four major specific European Haplogroups.

Haplogroup K – spread throughout Europe. Certain lineages are also found in Central Asia and Northern Africa. It is known for its presence in distinct population groups, such as the prehistoric Basques and the Ashkenazi Jews.

Haplogroup N – one of the two major lineages from which non-African Haplogroups descend. Today, members of this Haplogroup are found in many continents around the world.

Haplogroup T – relatively young European Haplogroup.

Haplogroup U – one of Europe’s oldest and most diverse Haplogroups. About 10 to 11% of Europeans and Americans of European descent belong to this Haplogroup.

Haplogroup V – a European Haplogroup with links to Iberia [Spain], that spread east and north.

Haplogroup W – found throughout Europe, deriving from super Haplogroup N.

The global distribution of Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants are summarised in Retina, Fifth Edition, 2013:

‘Haplogroup I is a clear European haplogroup; it is one of the most frequent haplogroups among northwestern European populations. 

It is generally agreed that haplogroup J was dispersed by the westward movement of people from the Middle East to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.

Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K* and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.

Haplogroup L is found mainly in India and Pakistan, as well as in the Middle East and, very occasionally, in Europe, particularly in Mediterranean countries.

The Y-DNA haplogroup N has a wide distribution, primarily in northern Eurasia, and is often associated (but not necessarily) with current and earlier Uralic speakers. 

The extensive haplogroup R, which is mainly represented by two lineages – R1a and R1b. The members of R1b are… the most common Y haplogroup in Europe. More than half of men of European descent belong to R1b. Haplogroup R1a is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.’

A PCA plot highlighting the descendants of Shem and their genetic proximity with one another. 

We will now turn our attention to Shem’s five sons and their offspring.

And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.

Colosians 3:17 English Standard Version

Sir Isaac Newton was asked how he discovered the law of gravity. He replied, “By thinking about it all the time.” 

“He who thinks half-heartedly will not believe in God; but he who really thinks has to believe in God.”

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

China: Magog, Tubal & Meshech

Chapter X

We arrive at one last glaringly left-out nation, on our journey of the identity of nations and principally the seven sons of Japheth. The informed reader will be doing cognitive cart wheels – this nation is famous for its acrobats and tumblers – seeing not one, but three of Japheth’s sons grouped together, after only discussing four sons thus far.

Tubal is the fifth son of Japheth and Meshech, the sixth. For many years I searched for them both. I entertained Korea as Meshech and Japan as Tubal; as well as considering North Korea as Meshech and South Korea as Tubal. Eventually, the pieces of the puzzle led to only one viable answer, the identity arrangement we will now study. When I researched for scientific and historic support, I was astounded to find considerable information. A lesson was learned; investigate the DNA data sooner and delve that little bit deeper into history.

Magog is the second son of Japheth. There are very few Bible verses on Magog, yet ironically, he is probably the most well-known of Japheth’s sons and the one that certainly leaves, the biggest impression. There has been less confusion surrounding Magog – saying that, many have attributed Magog to the Celts or Britain as with Gomer – and considerable mis-understanding regarding Meshech and Tubal. So much so, it affected my research considerably.

A H Sayce, pages 45, 47-48 – bold mine:

‘Gog is the Gugu of the Assyrian inscriptions, the Gyges of the Greeks… Tubal and Meshech… are almost always coupled together in the Old Testament, and were famous for their skill in archery.’

Israel a History of – emphasis mine:

These three sons of Japheth are closely linked throughout scripture. Ezekiel 38:2 mentions all three sons in a prophecy against Gog. Magog’s name possibly means “the place of Gog”, and is very likely that this referred to the region near the Black Sea called Georgia. Josephus states that Magog, or Gog, was the forebearer of the Scythians. The Scythians originally settled in the Black Sea area, which correlates to the meaning of Magog’s name. Ezekiel links these three brothers together in association with Rosh, translated “chief” in the King James… Rosh was the name from which present day Russia was derived. By and large, from the line of the sons of Noah, Magog, Meshech, and Tubal have come to be known and accepted by scholars as the originators of the current Russian peoples.’

The Scythians we will discover, are a line from Shem, not Japheth. Meshech and Tubal may well have lived in Russia and left their names while sojourning east. Neither Magog, or his other two brothers identify with Russia. The Hebrew word ‘Rosh’ is just that, a Hebrew word meaning chief. It is a title, not a name or identity. 

Derek Walker – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine: 

One of the most fascinating aspects of Ezekiel 38-39 is that Islam has its own version of the Battle of Gog and Magog, called the War of Yajuj and Majuj. In two places the Koran specifically mentions Yajuj and Majuj by name (18:96; 21:96).

Tubal and Meshech are mentioned together in Ezekiel 38:2. Some believe these people intermarried and became known as Magog, the dominant tribe.*There are two main theories for their location: (1) RUSSIA and (2) TURKEY. Whichever it is does not change the overall picture as both are identified by the other names in Ezekiel. 
(1) Regarding Meshech and Tubal, some assign a Russian identification, connecting these 2 nations with the modern Russian cities of Moscow and Tobolsk. This view is partly based on the similarity of sound in these names and their close proximity to Rosh (Russia). L. Sale-Harrison corroborated this identification on linguistic grounds. 

Wilhelm Gesenius, the world class Hebrew scholar, whose Hebrew Lexicon has never been surpassed, said Gog is undoubtedly the Russians. “Meshech was founder of the Moschi, a barbarous people, who dwelt in the Moschian mountains.” He went on to say that the Greek name “Moschi”, derived from the Hebrew ‘Meshech’, is the source of the name for the city of MOSCOW. In discussing Tubal he said, “Tubal is the son of Rapheth [Japheth], founder of the Tibereni, a people dwelling on the Black Sea to the west of the Moschi.” His conclusion was these people make up the modern Russian people. 

‘Meshech’ the 6th son of Japheth, [originally] settled in the NE portion of Asia Minor. His posterity extended from the shores of the Black Sea along to the south of the Caucasus. He was the father of the Rossi and Moschi, who dispersed their colonies over a vast portion of Russian territory. And their names are preserved in the names of Russians and Muscovites to this day. The Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders the term: “Meshech” by the words “Mosch” and “Rosch”; while “Moscovy” was a common name for Russia, and the city of Moscow is one of her principal cities. ‘Tubal’ or ‘Tobal’ [originally] settled beyond the Caspian and Black Seas in the eastern possessions of Russia, embracing a very large portion of these dominions. The name of this patriarch is still preserved in the river Tobal, which waters an immense tract of Russian territory; and the City of Tobalski in Russia is still a monument to him.

(2) Another line of study reveals that Meschech and Tubal are the ancient Moschi/Mushki and Tubalu/Tibareni peoples who dwelled in the area around, primarily south of, the Black and Caspian Seas in Ezekiel’s day. Meshech was located near what was known as Phrygia, in central and western Asia Minor, while Tubal was located in eastern Asia Minor. 

So Meshech and Tubal form portions of modern Turkey. Expositors Bible Commentary: “Meshech and Tubal refer to areas in eastern Turkey, southwest of Russia and northwest of Iran.” Assyrian texts & monuments locate Meshech (Mushku) and Tubal (Tabal) in Anatolia (Western Turkey), the areas that became known as Phyygia and Cappadocia. Later migrations north from Turkey to Russia could mean that both identifications are valid, and indeed both Turkey and Russia are directly to the north of Israel (as required by Ezekiel 38:6, 15, 39:2). In any case, between them, Magog, Rosh, Mechesh and Tubal certainly represent RUSSIA…’

We will expand on the potential of intermarrying later, with Derek Walker’s final sentence also key, though I would substitute the title Rosh with the personality of Gog.

Herman Hoeh – capitalisation  & emphasis his, bold mine:

Russia is mentioned almost by name in some versions of the Bible! Turn to Ezekiel 38:2. Here you will find that a certain power called “Gog” is “the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal”. The proper translation is “the prince of Rosh. Meshech and Tubal!” In Hebrew, the word for chief is “Rosh”. That is also the ancient name for “Russia”.’

We will study Russia and its identity as Asshur later and scrutinise the word ‘rosh’ [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia]. It may look like Rus-sia but it is not a marker for Russia but rather a clue to Meshech and Tubal’s relationship with Gog.

‘Over half of all Russia is occupied by a people called “Great Russians” today. The Great Russians are divided into two distinctive people who have remained constantly together since the beginning of history. We shall now prove from history that the Great Russians are the descendants of Meshech and Tubal (Genesis 10:2). Here is what the ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA says about the Great Russians: “Not with standing the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches differing from one another by slight divergencies of language and type and DEEP DIVERSITIES OF NATIONAL CHARACTER…

One branch settled around Moscow. The word Moscow is but an English spelling of the Russian “Moskva”, a word almost identical to the one used by the Assyrians to refer to the the people of Meshech! The other branch constitutes the people of Tubal. This branch of the Great Russians founded the city of Tobolsk in Siberia and named the Tobol River… Meshech and Tubal migrated into Russia! Surely there is no mistaking who Meshech and Tubal are today.’

Meshech and Tubal, as a great many others, traversed and dwelt in present day Russian lands. Their final migratory resting place is not Russia.

‘… Do you know where the word “Siberia” comes from? In Asia Minor, where the people of Tubal first settled, a vast tract of land was called Subaria, sometimes spelled less correctly “Subartu”. This word has puzzled historians no end! Here is the origin of “Siberia!”

What is the origin of the word “Russian” – the “Rosh” of Ezekiel 38:2 (when properly translated)? The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA gives the answer. Here, under the article “Rosh”, we find that a vast area of the Mesopotamian Valley was called “the land of Rashu!” The word “Russ” or “Rosh” means blonde. In modern times the name “Russ” was first applied to Russia because of the blond people of White Russia who live next to the people of Meshech and Tubal.

Turn again to the prophecy of Ezekiel 38 and 39. Notice the identity of Gog and Magog. Who are the people called “Gog” and “Magog” ? Magog, rather than Gog, is mentioned in Genesis 10:2. Gog is apparently a tribal subdivision of Magog.* In prophecy, Magog comes to great prominence in the West only in the latter days. Here is what the JEWISH ENCYCLOPAEDIA says about Gog and Mogog: “ … [a] wall [was] built by… (Alexander the Great) to shut them off from the rest of the world… Geographically they represent the extreme northeast, and are placed on the borders of the sea that encircles the earth.”

Notice what the unrivalled McCLINTOCK & STRONG ENCYCLOPAEDIA says about Gog and Magog: “According to Reinegge… some of the Caucasian people call their mountains Gog, and the highest northern points Magog” – because the people of Magog once lived in these regions in Bible times! “The [A]rabians are of the opinion that the descendants of Gog and Magog inhabit the northern parts of Asia, beyond the Tartars and Sclavonians (or Russians), and they put Yajuj and Majuj always in conjunction, thereby indicating the extreme points in north and north-east of Asia“. Some writers spell these Arabic words Yagog and Magog. Now to what people are these names referring? They dwell in the northern part of Asia, bordering on the ocean, and rise to prominence… “in the latter days” (Ezekiel 38:8).

The Mongols and their Asiatic kinsmen! In fact, the proper spelling of “Mongol” is ‘Mogol”, obviously a slightly changed form of “Magog”! And in Asiatic Russia live the Yakuts – the Yagog of the Arab historians. The people of Mongolia, together with China, Manchuria, Korea [rather, Gomer’s son Togarmah] and Japan [rather, Javan’s son Tarshish], are all of this one great branch of mankind. A remnant of the people of Magog appear, with pigtails and yellow skin, on the Egyptian monuments. They were called Kheta by the Egyptians and Ketei by the Greeks. When the Russians first met the Mongolians and Chinese they called them Khitai!* Western Europeans used a similar word for China in the Middle Ages: Cathay. Here indeed is “Gog, of the land of Magog”.’

Rather, a reference to Kitti*, a son of Javan as previously discussed [refer Chapter VIII Indonesia: Kittim, Khitai & Cathay].

Magog principally, is the modern nation of China. The Chinese are an amalgamation of different, related peoples, with the answer inside the Bible all along. Discoveries in genetics have demonstrated the proposition as fact.

Rosh in Hebrew, means: ‘Head, Chief, Top’. From the root ro’sh [H7218], which has to do with primality and can mean ‘to shake the head (as most easily shaken), whether literal or figurative (in many applications, of place, time, rank…)’ It can also mean, ‘beginning, first, principal, captain, company’ and ‘height.’ It is used as head, 349 times in the KJV of the Bible, chief [91] and top [73]. The head of men, a company or a division, the top or tip on a mountain, the height of stars

The word following rosh in Ezekiel chapter thirty-eight, verse two is the Hebrew word *nasiy’ [H5387] which is translated by the KJV as prince [96], captain [12], chief [10], ruler [6], vapours [3], governor [1]. It refers to ‘one lifted up’ a ‘rising mist’ or ‘vapour.’ It is linked with H5375, ‘an exalted one’ a king.

Abarim Publications: 

‘The name Rosh belongs to a man and to a region in the Bible. Rosh the man is a son of Benjamin (Genesis 46:21), but other Biblical genealogies of Benjamin don’t list Rosh. Rosh the land is mentioned only by Ezekiel in his apocalyptic vision of the attack of Gog of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal (Ezekiel 38:2-3 and 39:1).’

Rosh is being misinterpreted and is, either a title of a person known as Gog, or a description of a region called Gog – not a region called Rosh. Nor does the word rosh come after nasiy’, it precedes it. Thus ‘prince of rosh’ or literally ‘prince of head’ is not what the Hebrew is saying, it is saying: the ‘head prince.’

‘The name Rosh is the same as the noun (ro’sh) meaning head or top… it may also refer to the beginning of a period: adjective (ri’shon) literally means chiefly but is mostly used in the same sense of previous or former. Noun (ri’sha) means pinnacle but may also refer to some past golden age or bygone glory days.’

Magog can be defined as ‘place of Gog’ or ‘agent of Gog’. Magog is derived from the name Gog. Its literal meaning is ‘rooftop’* and ‘place of the roof’, from the noun gag, meaning ‘rooftop.’

Abarim Publications – bold mine:

‘Magog was originally a son of Japheth, son of Noah (Genesis 10:2) but later this name came to denote a region (Ezekiel 38:2). Magog is often mentioned in conjunction with Gog of Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:4).’

We will return to Gog the descendent of Reuben, when we study the sons of Jacob.

Magog is often mentioned in conjunction with Gog… but later also the name of a certain prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal… literally the Chief Prince of the Occupied Zone that is The World… 

The name Magog is the name Gog with a prefixed mem, which may be a particle of inquisition: (me), what, or (mi), who? Or it may come from the particle (min; often abbreviated to a single mem), meaning from. Nouns that start with an m often describe place or agent of the parent verb. Where the name Gog comes from is not clear; BDB Theological Dictionary resolutely declares its root unknown. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, on the other hand, points towards the Hebrew word (gag), usually meaning roof. The noun (gag) means rooftop, but since a society was a “house’” its “rooftop” referred to that society’s level of science and technology… the most remarkable usage is in Exodus 30:3 and 37:26 where [it] denotes the top of the altar of incense.

Gog may be a region, and Magog is then said to mean From Gog(BDB Theological Dictionary). But Ezekiel 38:2 speaks of a man named Gog who is of the land of Magog (= the land of the land of Gog), which seems overly redundant. But Gog may mean Roof, and Magog may subsequently mean Off The Roof, which means more in English than in Hebrew. Magog might literally mean Place Of The Roof and describe a center of wisdom, or Agent Of The Roof and describe a person who works in such [a] center.’

Perhaps place of the roof denotes China’s size and influence on the earth, whether it be technology, military, economic, even the gigantic rooftop covering of its population. China is blanketing civilisation with its increasing number of souls and deluge of exports. Is the roof or top of the world, a prediction that China will be the preeminent power of the world. It surely isn’t a coincidence that Rosh means top and Magog roof-top. A roof covers the whole building beneath it. It also protects those underneath.

A map of the world from a Chinese perspective – the Middle of the Earth – and note how the United States of America is turned on its head

Lastly, it could be a reference to conquering space and dominance over the rest of the world that is below. China is actively developing it space program to rival that of Russia and the United States. It became only the third nation to retrieve materials from the Moon, bringing back lunar rocks in December 2020.

Science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov proposed the idea for a space power station in 1941. China is planning to launch a fleet of mile-long solar panels into space by 2035, that would convert solar energy into electrical energy and be fully operational by 2050. A microwave transmitter or laser emitter would convert the power to a high frequency radio wave and transmit the highly economical green energy to earth. An Array would capture the signal like a giant fishing net, converting into electricity to be fed into the grid. In 2008, Japan confirmed the idea of space solar power a national goal. The United Kingdom has joined Japan, China, Russia and the United States in pursuing space based power generation, in a new space race. 

The People’s Republic of China receives continual press as an emerging ‘second superpower.’ Barry Buzan said in 2004 that “China certainly presents the most promising all-round profile” of a potential superpower. In 2011, Singapore’s first premier, Lee Kuan Yew, stated that: “[China] have transformed a poor society by an economic miracle to become now the second-largest economy in the world. How could they not aspire to be number 1 in Asia, and in time the world?” using their “huge and increasingly highly skilled and educated workers to out-sell and out-build all others.” Arvind Subramanian an Economist stated in 2012 that, “China was a top dog economically for thousands of years prior to the Ming dynasty. In some ways, the past few hundred years have been an aberration.”

Though China is considerably ahead of the other top ten economic powers in the world it is yet to catch the United States; as China is lacking in soft power – the ability to influence others to your advantage and has a low GDP per person. China also has an ageing and shrinking workforce to tackle in the future. Susan Shirk in China: Fragile Superpower, 2008, lists factors that ‘could constrain China’s ability to become a superpower… limited supplies of energy and raw materials, questions over its innovation capability, inequality and corruption, and risks to social stability and the environment.’ Minxin Pei said in 2012, that China has used its economic power to influence some nations, yet is surrounded by potentially hostile nations. ‘This situation could improve if regional territorial disputes were resolved and China participated in an effective regional defence system that would reduce the fears of its neighbours.’ Also, a ‘democratization of China could improve foreign relations with many nations.’

Meshech in Hebrew means: ‘Departed, drawn out’, from the verb mush, ‘to depart’, masha, ‘to draw out’ and mashak, ‘to draw or drag.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In Genesis 10:23, Mash is listed as a son of Aram, who is a son of Shem… In 1 Chronicles 1:17 the same genealogy occurs, although the various generations are now all listed as sons of Shem. And Mash is called (Meshech). Another man named Meshech is mentioned as a son of Japheth… (Genesis 10:2). He is mentioned about half a dozen times in the Bible, mostly along with Javan and Tubal, and it’s clear that these are the names of nations rather than individuals (Psalm 120:5, Ezekiel 27:13). Older translations may have the ethnonym “the Moschi” instead of Meshech.

The name (Mash) does not occur as a regular word in Hebrew, but it may be viewed as a contraction of the word (mush), meaning depart or remove… The verb (mashash) means to feel; to sense or search for tactilely… and appears most often in the negative, when something is typically not ambulant but stays where it’s at… the sweeping or scanning motion that usually accompanies tactile reconnaissance. This same motion could be applied to describe a being footloose or untethered. Verb (nasa’) describes an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove itto lift up… to bear or carry… to take or take away… to loan on interestto deceive or beguile.

Noun (mas’et), reflects… uprising (of smoke), uplifting (of hands), utterance (of an oracle), a burden or that what’s carried. Noun *(nasi’) describes a lifted-up onea captain or chiefa mist or vapour. Note this keenly observed connection between paying interest and being formally governed…mesho’a, ruin or desolation… Plural noun (mashshu’ot) means deceptions…Noun (si’) means loftiness or pride. Noun (se’et) means dignity, swelling or outburst, a rising up… the verb (sha’a), to be noisy or ruinous

The verb (nasha)… to lend on interest or to forget, or rather to have a memory slowly evaporate away. Noun (neshiya) means forgetfulness or oblivion. Noun (neshi) means debt… Verb (masha) means… a drawing out of waters: to extract from water. NOBSE Study Bible Name List does not translate Mash but reads Extend(ed), or Tall for Meshech.’

An upward motion into mist or vapour could refer to space, or just how high Meshech is over the world. The final definitions of extended and tall alludes to this as does Meshech appearing to have financial power as a lender and the control or governance, that extends from lending – on a worldwide scale.

According to Abarim Publications, Tubal’s definition in Hebrew is incredible in light of both Magog’s and Meshech’s meanings. They define it from the noun tebel, as ‘the whole world-economy’ and the verb yabal, meaning ‘to flow or carry along’, ‘to bring, lead, conduct.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the Bible there’s one person named Tubal and one more named Tubal-cain. Tubal-cain and his brothers Jabal and Jubal and sister Naamah are the last in line from Cain, the cursed son of Adam and Eve… Just Tubal descends from Cain’s youngest brother Seth and is a son of Japheth, who is a son of Noah… The latter Tubal shows up quite a bit in prophetic texts, usually in the company of his brothers Meshech and Magog… 

The verb (balal) means to mix something with oil, usually flour products… as ritualistic food preparation. The emphasis… lies on saturation and overflowing: to fill something with oil until it can absorb no more and begins to reject an excess of oil. Noun (belil) describes a very rich mix of animals to eat… and noun (teballul) tells of insoluble material that obstructs a person’s eye. 

Noun (yabal) means water course or conduit… noun (‘ubal) means stream or river… noun (bul) means produce or outgrowth. Noun (yobel)… describes “a carrier” or “a producer” or “something that drives a flow”… Verb (‘abel)… [is]… often used to describe a collective mourning, which either happened in a procession or else contagious enough to drag others along. Nouns (‘ebel) and (‘abel) both mean mourning, but the latter is also the word for actual water stream or brook… adverb (‘abal)… expresses solemn affirmation (verily, truly, yes indeed I’m totally going along with you there) but later texts appear to put somewhat of a breaking force on the momentum (“yes!… but”)

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names settles for the general meaning of the verb and reads Flowing Forth for the meaning of the name Tubal. However, identical to the name Tubal is our root’s derivative (tebel), meaning world. Hence the name Tubal means World, but the whole flow and currencies of the world-economy in its broadest sense.’

A ‘very rich mix of animals’ is reflected in the very varied taste of the Chinese and the breadth of animals they will eat. Tubal has a role to play in driving the global economy and therefore the world. The earth appears to comply, though with growing reservation. There are a handful of alternative meanings for Meshech and Tubal, that we will now consider as we study verses on all three brothers.

The Book of Jubilees 8:25:

And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north-easterly to the whole region of Gog, and to all the country east thereof.

Japheth’s area is measured against the land of Gog, as Magog is gigantic compared to his brothers. The Book of Jasher 7:4, 7-8 provides names of the sons of Magog, Tubal and Meshech, who are omitted in the Bible: 

And the sons of Magog were Elichanaf and Lubal… And the sons of Tubal were Ariphi, Kesed and Taari. And the sons of Meshech were Dedon, Zaron and Shebashni.

Notice the similarity with Meshech’s son Dedon and Javan’s son Dodan, the Philippines [refer Chapter VII Javan: Archipelago South East Asia & Polynesia]. 

The map above provides a good representation of some of Japheth’s descendants after their migration from the Indus Valley, somewhere between 9000 and 8000 BCE. The sons of Javan and Madai are accurate as they are and Tiras would have been where Javan – which is redundant – is marked. Javan’s fourth son Tarshish, should be located between Dodan and Tiras. Gomer is redundant and marks where Magog was actually dwelling. Tubal and Meshech would have been living adjacent to Magog, where Ashkenaz and Togarmah are in eastern Anatolia. Ashkenaz should be where Meshech and Tubal are placed and finally, Togarmah would have been residing where Magog is incorrectly placed in western Anatolia.

The book of Ezekiel describes a combined East and South East Asian military alliance, though it is far in the future, after the prophesied return of the Son of Man and at the end of a millennial Kingdom He establishes on Earth. The book of Daniel as we noted with Kitti, alludes to a battle between the King of the North and his confrontation with an enemy from the north and east. China could figure prominently twice, in shaping world events through warfare. A plausible scenario could involve the King of the South joining forces with Magog in opposition to the King of the North – Russia and their ally, a German led, European Union.

Ezekiel 38:1-23

New English Translation

A Prophecy Against Gog

38 The Lord’s message came to me: 2 “Son of man, turn toward [Hebrew: “set your face against”], Gog of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal… Look, I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 

The Interlinear Hebrew text, without punctuation or prepositions says:

‘… set thy face against Gog land Magog chief prince Meshech Tubal… Gog chief prince Meshech…’

4 I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and bring you out with all your army, horses, and horsemen, all of them fully armed, a great company with shields of different types all of them armed with swords. 5 Persia, Ethiopia [Cush], and Put are with them, all of them with shields and helmets. 6 They are joined by Gomer [Continental SE Asia] with all its troops, and by Beth Togarmah [Korea] from the remote parts of the north with all its troops – many peoples are with you.

7 “‘Be ready and stay ready, you and all your companies assembled around you, and be a guard for them. 8 After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come to a land restored from the ravages of war, from many peoples gathered on the mountains of Israel** that had long been in ruins. Its people were brought out from the peoples, and all of them will be living securely. 9 You will advance; you will come like a storm. You will be like a cloud* covering the earth, you, all your troops, and the many other peoples with you.

10 “‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind, and you will devise an evil plan. 11 You will say, “I will invade a land of unwalled towns; I will advance against those living quietly in security – all of them living without walls and barred gates – 

12 to loot and plunder, to attack the inhabited ruins and the people gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who live at the center of the earth.” 13 Sheba and Dedan [grandsons of Cush] and the traders of Tarshish [Japan] with all its young warriors [East Asian Tiger Economies] will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’

14 … On that day when my people Israel [the sons of Jacob, not the State of Israel**] are living securely, you will take notice 15 and come from your place, from the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a vast army. 16 You will advance against my people Israel like a cloud covering the earth. In future days I will bring you against my land so that the nations may acknowledge me, when before their eyes I magnify myself through you, O Gog.

17 … Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days by my servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days that I would bring you against them? 18 On that day, when Gog invades the land of Israel, declares the Sovereign Lord, my rage will mount up in my anger. 19 In my zeal, in the fire of my fury, I declare that on that day there will be a great earthquake in the land of Israel. 20 The fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the wild beasts, all the things that creep on the ground, and all people who live on the face of the earth will shake at my presence. The mountains will topple, the cliffs will fall, and every wall will fall to the ground. 21 I will call for a sword to attack Gog on all my mountains, declares the Sovereign Lord; every man’s sword will be against his brother. 22 I will judge him with plague and bloodshed. I will rain down on him, his troops, and the many peoples who are with him a torrential downpour, hailstones, fire, and brimstone. 23 I will exalt and magnify myself; I will reveal myself before many nations. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’


38:2 translation Hebrew “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names withlater geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. 

I concur with the NET Bible footnote and do not subscribe to a prince of rosh. It does not make sense to have a ‘prince of head, chief or top’. It does make sense to have a ‘head, chief or top prince’. This prince is the head, chief or top of Meshech and Tubal. The top prince, is revealed a few words previously as Gog… of the land of Magog. It is not immediately clear whether Gog is purely a dominant people or region within and part of Magog, or an actual leader called Gog. Verses 16 and 21-22 support an individual, with the use of the personal you and him

If it is a ruler, then it is an individual of great authority^ as they have ‘height’ as ‘one lifted up’ and as ‘an exalted one.’ The rebellion of Magog transpires when the devil called Satan, is loosed* from their restraint; thus, the likelihood of Gog being a real leader of Magog is strengthened. As is their identity being linked to the mysterious Nephilim.^ Gog is clearly the leader over all three brothers, and so I will use the name Gog when referring to all three peoples of Magog, Tubal and Meshech from hereon. 

Ezekiel 39:1-16

New English Translation

“… O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal! 2 I will turn you around and ‘drag you along’[definition of Tubal and Meshech]; I will lead you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel…. I will send fire on Magog and those who live securely in the coastlands [principally Gomer in Continental SE Asia]… “‘Then those who live in the cities of Israel will go out and use the weapons for kindling – the shields, bows and arrows, war clubs and spears – they will burn them for seven years. 10 They will not need to take wood from the field or cut down trees from the forests because they will make fires with the weapons…

11 “‘On that day I will assign Gog a grave in Israel. It will be the valley of those who travel east of the sea; it will block the way of the travelers. There they will bury [their leader] Gog and all his horde [army]; they will call it the Valley of Hamon Gog. 12 For seven months Israel will bury them, in order to cleanse the land. 13 All the people of the land will bury them… 14 They will designate men to scout continually through the land, burying those who remain on the surface of the ground, in order to cleanse it. They will search for seven full months. 15 When the scouts survey the land and see a human bone, they will place a sign by it, until those assigned to burial duty have buried it in the valley of Hamon Gog. 16 (A city by the name of Hamonah will also be there)…

The inference is that Gog is an identity of a real ruler. A literal dema-gog-ue. Demagogue definition: ‘a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people.’ Magog China is clearly in the far ‘north’ as are Togarmah [refer Chapter VI Togarmah & the Koreas]. Seven months to bury the dead and seven years of using the component parts of their weapons reveals the gigantic size of Magog’s military might and alliance.

As there are prophetic Kings of the North and South, there is also a name for the Magog led confederacy from East and Southeast Asia: the Kings of the East.

Revelation 16:12-14

English Standard Version

12 The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, to prepare the way for the kings from the east. 

13 And I saw, coming out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs. 14 For they are demonic spirits, performing signs, who go abroad to the kings of the whole world, to assemble them for battle on the great day of God the Almighty.

Revelation 20:2, 7-9

English Standard Version

2 … the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years… 7 And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released* from his prison 8 and will come out to deceive^ the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. 9 And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them…

The book of Revelation is clear in that the gathering of Magog is a vast number of people. Only two nations could provide such a number of personnel – China and India.  We will learn that India does not descend from Japheth, nor does it fulfil the verses that apply to Magog. Also, the timing of this attack against the sons of Jacob is at the end of the millennial rule and devoid of any alliance with the King of the South, or against the King of the North. Interestingly, the dragon is the primary symbol of China. In heraldry the dragon is a powerful and charismatic emblem. As formidable or more so even than that of an eagle or lion as adopted by numerous nations.

China’s state flag and the Manchu Qing dynasty flag of 1890 – 1912.

The meanings of the names Meshech and Tubal – the ones with a darker connotation – are compelling when compared with Magog’s, to cover like a cloud with an innumerable number of Soldiers. Meshech as part of Gog, also means ‘deception,^ pride, forgetfulness’ and ‘oblivion’. A plan to deceive fellow nations and encourage them to be involved in the plot to attack the sons of Jacob, not the State of Israel; a pride in their power; a forgetfulness of a prior age of suffering before the millennium; a disregard for the current age of peace; and ultimately, oblivion for the actions taken. 

Tubal’s part as Gog, broadly means to ‘lead and drag’ other nations into a conspiracy as like a ‘poisonous wound’ and the forceful ‘flow of water’, other nations ‘agree to be coerced, though with growing reservation’.Scriptures that pertain to Meshech and Tubal.

Psalm 120:5

New English Translation

How miserable I am. For I have lived temporarily in Meshech; I have resided among the tents of Kedar.

Kedar is a son of Ishmael and is likened to Meshech due to a similarity in a militaristic and austere way of life. 

In reference to trading with Tyre, Ezekiel 27:12-14 NET:

12 “‘Tarshish [Japan] was your trade partner because of your abundant wealth; they exchanged silver, iron, tin, and lead for your products. 13 Javan [Archipelago SE Asia, principally Indonesia], Tubal, and Meshech were your clients; they exchanged slaves and bronze items for your merchandise. 14 Beth Togarmah [Korea] exchanged horses, chargers, and mules for your products.

Ezekiel 32:26 

New Century Version

“Meshech and Tubal are there with the graves of all their soldiers around them. All of them are unclean and have been killed in war. They also frightened people when they lived on earth.

Isaiah 66:19

English Standard Version

and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish [Japan], Pul, and Lud [a son of Shem], who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the coastlands far away, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations.

There are a number of scriptures including Magog, Tubal and Meshech together, as well as one each for the brothers where they are accounted for singularly. We could deduce three separate nations or three separate peoples in one nation, as the majority include all three or two together. As we have run out of East Asian nations or hopefully attributed the other sons of Japheth successfully to their modern descendants, I believe it is the latter option. 

Obviously at one time, the brothers were separate peoples, before amalgamating. For the purpose of understanding the future prophecies in the Bible, they appear as one identity. It is interesting to note their order. Gog is always before Magog and both are listed first as designated leader of the three brothers. Even though Tubal is older than Meshech, he is always placed second of the two, with one exception. It appears that when the context is militaristic, Meshech has dominance. The one verse that highlights economic power, it is Tubal with the superiority and listed first. The individual meanings of their names supports this arrangement. Lastly, the verse where Tubal is listed without Meshech, associates Tubal with Javan’s children; highlighting their location furthest east, as well as economic influence.

China’s major exports.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Chinese global shipments during 2021.

  1. Electrical machinery, equipment: US$804.5 billion (26.6% of total exports)
  2. Machinery including computers: $492.3 billion (16.3%)
  3. Furniture, bedding, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings: $126.3 billion (4.2%)
  4. Plastics, plastic articles: $118.1 billion (3.9%)
  5. Vehicles: $108.9 billion (3.6%)
  6. Toys, games: $94 billion (3.1%)
  7. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $88.8 billion (2.9%)
  8. Articles of iron or steel: $85.4 billion (2.8%)
  9. Knit or crochet clothing, accessories: $78.2 billion (2.6%)
  10. Organic chemicals: $73 billion (2.4%)

Vehicles represent the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 42.8% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales was toys and games via a 31.4% gain. China’s shipments of organic chemicals posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 28.1%.’

China is the world’s second largest economy, with nominal GDP in current dollars of $14.34 trillion in 2019. China has opened its economy over the past four decades and its economic development has improved living standards greatly. The government has gradually phased out collectivised agriculture and industry, allowing greater flexibility for market prices and increasing the autonomy of businesses with the result of foreign and domestic trade investment booming. An industrial policy that encourages domestic manufacturing, has made China the world’s number one exporter. Still, China faces the ‘challenges of a rapidly ageing population and severe environmental degradation.’

Of the top ten countries with the most natural resources China tops the list as number one overall, with an estimated worth of $23 trillion. Ninety percent of China’s resources include coal and rare earth metals. 

Timber is a major natural resource and other resources China produces are ‘antimony, gold, graphite, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc. China is the world’s second largest producer of bauxite, cobalt, copper, manganese, and silver’ and also has deposits of chromium and gem diamonds.

China also fulfils the important role of being one of the world’s breadbaskets. In other words, it has large areas of highly arable land. It is in fact ranked number three in the world. The food produced by the country constitutes about twenty percent of the total world exports. China has the largest agricultural output in the world and seventy-five percent of its farming focuses on food crop farming. The country’s primary crop is rice, with rice fields occupying approximately twenty-five percent of its cultivated land. 

China makes the top ten most technologically advanced nations in the world, positioned at number nine. Recall South Korea is number three and Japan number one. China has a long list of achievements in the last decade. It currently focuses on furthering advances in robotics, semiconductors, high-speed trains, super-computers and genetics.

Of the top ten nations with the largest gold reserves, China is at number six, the highest in Asia. It has 1,948.3 tonnes of gold, yet this is only 3.3% of its foreign reserves. As of 2021, China has allowed ‘domestic and international banks to import large amounts of the precious metal into the country in an effort to support prices.’ The only other East Asian nation in the top ten is Japan in eighth. It has 765.2 tonnes which makes up 3.1 percent of its foreign reserves. In January 2016, China ‘lowered interest rates below zero – which helped fuel demand for gold around the world.’

China’s wealthiest cities – as listed by The Richest website – assist in gauging any demographic patterns. City number 10 Chengdu, is located in the southwest of China. Also in the southwest is Chongqing at number 5. In the southeast is Hangzhou [9], Guangzhou [7], Suzhou [6] and Shenzhen at number 4. Both islands of Hong Kong and Taiwan are situated on the southeast coast of mainland China. A city that we are all now aware is Wuhan, in the southeast and is ranked number 8.

‘Traditionally China’s powerful urban [centres] were along the borders or the coast, but Wuhan has risen up in recent years from central [southeast] China to become an extremely important city in its own right. First settled in 1500 BC, Wuhan is one of the oldest cities in China. Wuhan’s population of 10,220,000 [people] is relatively small by Chinese standards, but the city punches well above its weight economically. Regarded as the key to central China, Wuhan’s economy is based primarily on finance, transportation, and information technology.’

In the northeast there are the cities of Tianjin [3] and Beijing [formerly Peking] the capital, at number 2.

The national capital of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing is one of China’s cities that the entire world is familiar with. Beijing is China’s political and cultural [centre], and home to virtually all of China’s largest state-owned companies. With a population of 21,150,000 [people], Beijing is home too many of the ruling government’s key leaders and operations, both past and present – the renowned Forbidden City, that housed the Chinese emperors of old, is situated in Beijing. Beijing’s economy is valued at an absolutely astounding 366.11 billion Yuan (approximately $59.88 billion USD). It is by a large margin one of the global economy’s most important hubs, and one of the most prosperous and developed cities in China.’

Stunning photographs of Shanghai

At number 1, is Shanghai – the counter point to Beijing in the north – located in the southeast.

Although it might be tempting to assume Beijing is the Chinese economy’s most important city, since it also doubles as the national capital, that would be a mistake. The specter of Shanghai looms large not only over all of China, but also over the entire world.Shanghai proper has a population of 24,000,000 [people] (which doesn’t account for those living just outside the city) making it the most populous city in the entire world. It’s also the world’s busiest port city, and boasts an urban economy valued at an absolutely astounding 410.95 billion Yuan (approximately $67.16 billion USD). Shanghai has emerged in post-reform China as the nation’s economic leader, and its policies and practices have served as an example for China’s other rising cities since the influx of foreign investment into China began. Where Shanghai goes, the Chinese economy will follow.’

Recall Tubal in its broadest sense means the whole flow and currencies of the world-economy. ‘To flow or carry along’, ‘to bring, lead, conduct.’ A breakdown of China’s richest cities, two in the southwest, six in the southeast, two in the northeast. Or, eight in the south, two in the north. Those cities located on the east coast of China, [see map] are in keeping with Tubal’s location, name and wealth. China has the world’s biggest population, a staggering 1,453,089,986 people. Magog certainly blankets like a ‘covering’ as the rooftop of the world.

Mandarin is spoken in northern and southwestern China and has by far the most speakers. This language group includes the Beijing dialect which forms the basis for Standard Chinese called Putonghua or Guoyu and often translated as Mandarin or simply Chinese. Wu varieties are spoken in Shanghai, most of Zhejiang and the southern parts of Jiangsu and Anhui. This group comprises hundreds of distinct spoken forms, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The Suzhou dialect is usually taken as representative as Shanghainese features several atypical innovations.

Jerry Norman classified ‘the traditional seven dialect groups of China into three larger groups: Northern (Mandarin), Central (Wu, Gan, and Xiang) and Southern (Hakka, Yue, and Min).’ Norman stated that the Southern Group was derived from a standard used in the Yangtze valley during the Han dynasty from 206 BCE to 220 CE, calling it Old Southern Chinese. The Central group was transitional between the Northern and Southern groups. Dialect boundaries between Wu and Min are particularly abrupt, while others, such as between Mandarin and Xiang or between Min and Hakka, are less clearly defined. We will continue to investigate this three-part distinction – as highlighted in the major language groups – as it is a tip of an iceberg with regard to the Chinese composition of China.

There are a number of peoples within China’s borders including the Han, Manchu, Mongol and Tibetan. Tibetan populations are most genetically similar to other modern East Asian peoples. A 2016 study claimed that the Tibetan gene pool diverged from that of the Han Chinese around 15,000 years ago; attributed to a post-LGM [Last Glacial Maximum] dispersal. Analysis of around two hundred contemporary populations showed that Tibetans shared ancestry with 82% from East Asia, 11% from Central Asia and Siberia, 6% from South Asia, and 1% with western Eurasia and also Oceania. 

These results support the premise that Tibetans arose from a mixture of multiple ancestral gene pools and that their origins are more complicated and ancient than previously suspected. The date of divergence between Tibetans and the Sherpas of Nepal has been estimated to have taken place about 11,000 to 7,000 years ago [between the Flood 10,837 BCE and the time of Peleg circa 6755 BCE].

After modern Oceanic populations, Tibetan populations show the highest rate of allele sharing with primitive hominins [extinct humans not belonging to Homo sapiens] at over 6%. Remarkably, modern Tibetans show genetic affinities to three ancient peoples: Denisovans, Neanderthals and… an unidentified archaic population.* In comparison to modern Han populations, modern Tibetans show greater genetic affinity with Denisovans; however, both the Han and Tibetans have similar ratios of genetic affinity with general Neanderthal populations. 

Tibetans have been identified as the modern population that has the most alleles in common with Ust’-Ishim man. Ust’-Ishim man is the term given to the remains of an early modern [Cro-Magnon (Homo sapiens)] human inhabiting western Siberia. The fossil of a male left femur – discovered in 2008 – was a very important discovery, as it had intact DNA. This allowed the complete sequencing of its genome; the oldest modern human genome to be decoded. Dated as forty-five thousand years old, though about half this age is more likely to be accurate. 

Coupled with this discovery was the finding of a fossil jaw in the Himalayan highlands of Tibet, belonging to none other than the vanished human species, Denisovan. From the scientists perspective, this discovery deepened the mystery of human ‘evolution’ in Asia. A local Buddhist monk found the fossil, which shows these ancient human relatives lived on the roof of the world in the rarefied air of almost 11,000 feet. 

This is an altitude that would leave most people starved for oxygen today. This notable contribution of the Denisovan genome, is an allele of a gene involved in adaptation for low oxygen. This allows today’s Tibetans and the Sherpa people to live at high altitude more comfortably than other people. When this was discovered, it was perplexing to scientists because they have inaccurately placed modern humans reaching the region at ‘forty thousand years ago at the earliest’ and yet the same allele is found in modern populations living in much lower altitudes. For instance, Denisova Cave the discovery site, is seven hundred metres above sea level. 

Scientists now entertain that Neanderthals may have lived past forty thousand years ago and are relying on new fossil evidence to resolve the question. Kirk Lohmueller, a University of California geneticist, admitted: ‘That’s a paradox the field needs to address.’ One answer could be that Neanderthals did not die out that long ago, but rather when the great flood occurred. This would place their demise about thirteen thousand years ago and would assist in understanding the amount of Neanderthal DNA that Europeans and especially East Asians carry, if it was a far more recent development in our genetic material. 

In fact, some scientists after a detailed analysis of the DNA of people living in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, now think our species may have been interbreeding with Denisovans as recently as, fifteen thousand years ago.

Scientists shared interesting evidence in an article, Neanderthal Introgression at Chromosome 3p21.31 Was Under Positive Natural Selection in East Asians, multiple authors, 2014, of ‘accumulation of a Neanderthal DNA region found on chromosome 3 that contains 18 genes, with several [alleles] related to UV-light adaptation, [in] the Hyal2 gene.’ 

A map showing the global distribution of the introgressive Haplotypes from archaic hominins 

‘Their results reveal this region was positively selected and enriched in East Asians, ranging from up to [49.4] percent in Japanese to [66.5] percent in Southern [Han] Chinese… [as well as quite high percentages in Native Americans – see map]… the Neanderthal genomic region suggests that UV-light mutations were shown to be lost during the [unproven] exodus of modern humans from Africa, and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals.’ 

We touched on the sun light conditions, the UV-light adaptation and the formation of Vitamin D, as well as the atmospheric conditions in the antediluvian epoch previously [refer Chapter I Noah Antecessor Nulla]. We have an extra link between the pre-flood world and the Neanderthal that existed prior to the flood, but not afterwards. Some researchers believe the Neanderthal and the Nephilim* are one and the same. This would indicate they are not. The requirement for the Neanderthal to have this genetic adaptation, means that the lines of Japheth and Shem, with their generally fairer skins, both received the adaptation. 

The darker skinned peoples descending from Seth and later Ham are now linked more strongly, as the line of Seth that Noah descended did not all inter-marry with the people of Day Six or descendants of Cain. Thus, Noah was pure in his genetic composition as discussed in chapter one. Cain’s line did mix and may explain some of the Japheth-like names of his family. Plus, we now have the strong likelihood that at least one, maybe two people in Noah’s family had Neanderthal DNA, to then pass on to Shem and Japheth’s children. We also have further support confirming the scientific data from Haplogroups [Y-DNA Haplogroup A & mtDNA Haplogroup L], that darker skinned people originated first and lighter skinned people have subsequently descended [mutated] from them [refer Chapter XVI Shem Occidentalis].

Though I lean away from the ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis and lean towards the off the Ark scenario, they align in two important points, with science actually affirming the Biblical, Sumerian and many other ancient written accounts. First, both show that there was an original environment and then a secondary one afterwards. Secondly, there were a reduced number of ethnicities in this first environment and an increased number in the second. An African continent, then a post-Africa diversifying movement of new European and Asian peoples; or an antediluvian world preceding a post-diluvian world, with the development of more variety in the ethnic races going from either two or three, to sixteen. 

The Neanderthal were a separate line of human – prior to Homo sapiens – who existed before the flood. Their larger head and increased brain capacity reveals they were  highly intelligent and certainly not ape-like as has been falsely promulgated. It is believed that the Denisovans and Neanderthals split, with the former migrating to Asia and the latter to Europe. In realty, the split is primarily genetic and secondarily geographic. The Denisovans component is primarily present in Melanesians, East Indonesians and the Negritos from the Philippines, compared to other southeastern Asians. Thus, only populations situated to the east of the biological boundary traced by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869, consistently share genetic material from Denisovans; pointing to a close relationship among them. 

The detailed aspects of one, the Neanderthal question; two, parallel humans; and three, the Nephilim* prior to the flood are addressed in a separate chapter, though for now, it is relevant to briefly discuss the relevance of Japheth possessing Neanderthal and Denisovans DNA [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Both Neanderthal and Denisovans DNA is genetically closer than either is to Homo sapiens sapiens, or modern man. About two per cent of the genome [ranging from 0 to 5%] of a typical European contains genetic material almost identical to Neanderthal DNA; though people in China, Japan and other East Asian countries carry 20 per cent [generally ranging from 15 to 30%] more Neanderthal DNA. This remains an inexplicable puzzle to scientists. 

Kirk Lohmueller and graduate student Bernard Kim constructed a computer model of Europeans and Asians, simulating reproduction over time, adding Neanderthal DNA and observing the emerging genetic differences. 

The modelling highlighted that the only scenario that could explain why modern Asians have more Neanderthal DNA, was that they had a second encounter with Neanderthals at a later date – another ‘pulse’ of their genes into the Asian pool. Of course, this two pulse hypothesis explanation runs into the same ‘forty thousand years ago’ difficulty, as the Neanderthal would have disappeared well before the European and Asian populations genetically diverged. ‘How could there have been Neanderthals left to interbreed with Asians a second time?’ Mainstream science remains adamant that Neanderthal man became extinct forty thousand years ago, contrary to growing evidence. 

So scientists are still left scratching their heads how Asians received their additional Neanderthal DNA. Weak explanations offered to this quandary include: ‘European ancestors bred with another yet-to-be discovered species of ancient human that watered down their Neanderthal DNA’… or… Asians also mixed with another group of humans – now extinct – that had interbred with Neanderthals and carried much of their DNA.’ 

Regardless of time frames, the idea of additional inter-breeding between Neanderthal and East Asians, does not account for the fact that they did and Europeans did not. In a separate section, the Genesis account is dissected for any answers to this question. What we find, is that there were people that came into existence before Cro-Magnon or Homo sapiens man. These people were the Neanderthal, or the people of Day Six. The high level of their DNA and the Denisovans within Oriental Asian people can be answered if it was already included in Japheth’s line. How and when this happened could be answered a number of ways. Input on the technicalities of this process would be welcomed, as white Europeans possess considerably less Neanderthal DNA and no Denisovans, while sub-Saharan Black people possess neither of the DNA genetic material of this early human.

A perusal of the East Asians does highlight a few salient points. They standout from the rest of the world in physiognomy and yet within Japheth’s seven sons, there is far less DNA variation amongst them – as evidenced by Haplogroups – than we will find exhibited in the four sons of Ham or the five sons of Shem. The Oriental Asians mainly have straight hair, a smaller stature and are by various degrees rather inscrutable. They appear to have a hive mentality, which adds to their industriousness compared with other peoples. Their languages are pictorial and reminiscent of the hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt; which in turn possess a rather distinct alien influence. 

Plus, why do so many Asians wear eye glasses? Myopia or nearsightedness afflicts some twelve percent of Americans and twenty-three percent of Australians. It is quite different in East Asia, where it has been recorded as high as 90%, starting in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan and spreading to the big cities of China. High myopia affects two percent of Americans, but upwards of sixteen percent in East Asians. 

Then there is the mystery of the shape of Asian eyes, alluding scientists ability to explain as there is no satisfactory evolutionary answer for the slant of the eyes. 

Formed by a fold of skin, Asian eyes look deceptively smaller. It can be known as a monolid, a single eyelid or a Mongolian bridle. Its correct name is the epicanthic fold or epicanthus.

Looking at the Haplogroup family trees, it is apparent that with mtDNA, passed from mothers to their sons and daughters, the main East Asian Haplogroups alphabetically, of B, D and M plus the addition of the American Indian Haplogroups of A and C are less closely linked to the key Ham Haplogroups of L and M; or the prime Haplogroups of Shem, H, T and U. 

With regard to the Y-DNA Haplogroups passed from fathers only to their sons, they show that the main East Asian Haplogroups of C, K and O plus the American Indian Haplogroup Q, are again less closely linked to the key Shem Haplogroups of I1, I2, R1a and R1b or the main Haplogroups of Ham, A, B, E, H and J. 

It is Ham and Shem who are closer genetically on both the maternal and paternal side. This could mean that the wives of Ham and Shem were more closely related than with Japheth’s wife. It answers why the Y-DNA passed from Noah to both Ham and Shem exhibits more crossover Haplogroups – which we will confirm as we progress. Meanwhile, Japheth inherited a quite different set of Y-DNA Haplogroups. Considering the high levels of Neanderthal DNA in the Oriental Asian; it remains puzzling, why the African people descended from Ham, possess 0% Neanderthal DNA, while the other peoples from Ham and the Europeans from Shem, possess Neanderthal DNA albeit in smaller percentages.

Chinese men

The distribution of Haplogroup D-M174 or D1, is found among nearly all the populations of Central Asia and Northeast Asia south of the Russian border, although at a low frequency of 2% or less. A significant spike in the frequency of D1 occurs towards the Tibetan Plateau. D-M174 is also found at high frequencies among Japanese people as discussed, though it fades into low frequencies in the Koreas and China, between the vast expanse of land separating Japan and Tibet.

A study carried out in 2018 calculated ‘pairwise FST (a measure of genetic difference) based on genome-wide SNPs, among the Han Chinese (Northern Han from Beijing and Southern Han from Hunan and Fujian provinces), Japanese and Korean populations. It found that the smallest FST value was between North Han Chinese (CHB) and South Han Chinese (CHS) (FST[CHB-CHS] = 0.0014), while CHB and Korean (KOR) (FST[CHB-KOR] = 0.0026) and between KOR and Japanese (JPT) (FST[JPT-KOR] = 0.0033). Generally, pairwise FST between Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean (0.0026~ 0.0090) are greater than that within Han Chinese (0.0014). These results suggested Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean are different in terms of genetic make-up, and the difference among the three groups are much larger than that between northern and southern Han Chinese.’

Chinese women

A genetic study on the remains of people circa 4000 BCE ‘from the Mogou site in the Gansu-Qinghai (or Ganqing) region of China revealed more information on the genetic contributions of [the] ancient Di-Quiang people to the ancestors of the Northern Han. It was deduced that 3300–3800 years ago some Mogou [Magog] people had merged into the ancestral Han population, resulting in the Mogou people being similar to some northern Han in sharing up to ~33% paternal [O2a1] and ~70% maternal (D, A, F, M10) haplogroups. The mixture rate was possibly 13-18%.’

The contribution of northern Han to southern Han is substantial in both paternal and maternal lineages and a geographic cline exists for mtDNA. As a result, the northern Han [Magog] are the primary contributors to the gene pool of the southern Han [Tubal and Meshech]. The expansion process was dominated by males, as there is evidence of a greater contribution to the Y-chromosome [paternal] than the mtDNA [maternal] from northern Han to southern Han. 

These genetic observations are in line with historical records of continually large migratory waves of northern Chinese inhabitants escaping warfare and famine, to southern China. Other smaller southward migrations also occurred during the past two millennia.A study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences into the gene frequency data of Han subpopulations and ethnic minorities in China, showed that Han subpopulations in different regions are also genetically quite close to the local ethnic minorities, meaning that blood of ethnic minorities had mixed into Han, while at the same time, the blood of Han had mixed into the local populations. 

The most extensive genome-wide association study of the Han population, showed that geographic, genetic stratification from north to south has occurred and centrally placed populations acted as the conduit for outlying ones.Ultimately, with the exception in some ethnolinguistic branches of the Han Chinese, such as Pinghua, ‘there is “coherent genetic structure” (homogeneity) in all Han Chinese.’

Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2-M122, is a prevalent DNA marker in Han Chinese, as it appeared in China in prehistoric times. ‘It is found in more than 50% of Chinese males, and ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of the Han ethnicity. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Han Chinese increases in diversity* as one looks from northern to southern China, which suggests that male migrants from northern China married with women from local peoples after arriving in southern China.’ Tests comparing the genetic profiles of northern Han, southern Han and southern natives determined that Haplogroups O-M176 [O1b2], O-M88 [O1b1a1a1a1a] and O-M7 [O2a2a1a2], which are prevalent in southern natives, were only observed in some southern Han – 4% on average – but not in the northern Han. This proves that the male contribution of southern natives on southern Han was limited. 

There are consistent strong genetic similarities in the Y chromosome Haplogroup distribution between the southern and northern Chinese population. Analysis indicates almost all Han populations form a tight cluster in their Y chromosome. However, other research has also shown that the paternal lineages Y-DNA O-M119 [O1a], O-P201 [O2a2a1a1a, M-159],O-P203 [O1a1a M307] and O-M95 [O1b1a1a] are found in both southern Han Chinese and South Chinese minorities, but more commonly in the latter. In fact, these paternal markers are in turn less frequent in northern Han Chinese.

The Han Chinese which form some 90% of China’s population are closely related, though there are variations in the Haplogroups to suggest the Han can be split into northern and southern. The southern Han have more variation than the northern Han and indicate a further division again.* The Mongols are an ethnic group in northern China or Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, parts of Siberia and Western Asia.

The Later Jin dynasty from 1616 to 1636 CE and the subsequent Qing dynasty from 1636 to 1912 CE were established and ruled by Manchus, descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the first Jin dynasty during 1115 to 1234 CE in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group – the 2nd being Zhuang, with 17 million people and 3rd, the Hui with 10 million people.They can be found in thirty-one Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region.

Manchu men with a single braid of hair known as a queue

While the Manchu ruling elite at the Qing imperial court in Beijing and in posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Han culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities – as well as those of various tribal people – in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved and as a vital reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime. The Qing emperors endeavoured to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus in central and northern Manchuria. In particular, they restricted the migration of Han settlers to the region. This had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defence of northern China against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with a skilled work force and conducting trade in the region’s products. Even so, a continuous trickle of Han convicts, workers and merchants found their way to the northeast. There is debate* over whether the Qing equated the lands of the Qing state – including present-day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas – with ‘China.’ Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585 people; approximately nine percent of the ethnic minorities and 0.8% of China’s total population.

China’s North and China’s South are two mega-regions within China. The self-perception of the Chinese nation has been dominated by this concept of two Chinas; as regional differences in culture and language have historically under-pinned distinct regional identities. Used as the geographical dividing line between northern and southern China is the Qinling-Huaihe Line – the Qin Mountains and the Huai River. 

The Northeast and Inner Mongolia are considered belonging to northern China according to this definition. 

At certain times in history, Tibet and other areas, were not considered* as being part of either the north or south, though internal migration has led to previously marginalised areas being seen as the part of the north. The perception of a northern and southern China originates from differences in climate, geography, culture and physical traits; as well as historical periods of political division. 

Northern and north-eastern China is considered too cold and dry for rice cultivation – though rice is grown there today, using modern technology – and consists largely of flat plains, grasslands or desert, Southern China is contrastingly, warm and rainy enough for rice and consists of ‘lush mountains cut by river valleys’. These differences have influenced warfare during the pre-modern era; for instance, cavalry could easily dominate the northern plains, but encountered difficulties against river navies used by the south. There are also major differences in cuisine, culture and popular entertainment. The Northern and Southern Dynasties showed such a high level of polarisation between North and South that sometimes northerners and southerners referred to each other as barbarians.

For a large part of Chinese history, northern China was economically more advanced. The Jurchen or Manchu and Mongol invasion caused migration to southern China, so that the Emperor shifted the Song dynasty capital city from Kaifeng in northern China to Hangzhou, located south of the Yangtze river. The population of Shanghai increased from 12,000 households to over 250,000 inhabitants after Kaifeng was sacked by invading armies. This began a shift of political, economic and cultural power from northern China to southern China. The east coast of southern China has continued as a leading economic and cultural centre for China until the present day.

In 1730 the Kangxi Emperor made the observation in the Tingxun Geyan: “The people of the North are strong; they must not copy the fancy diets of the Southerners, who are physically frail, live in a different environment, and have different stomachs and bowels.” Lu Xun a major Chinese writer, wrote: ‘According to my observation, Northerners are sincere and honest; Southerners are skilled and quick-minded. These are their respective virtues. Yet sincerity and honesty lead to stupidity, whereas skillfulness and quick-mindedness lead to duplicity.’

During the Deng Xiaoping reforms of the 1980s, South China developed more quickly than North China, leading scholars to wonder whether the economic fault line would create political tension between the north and south. This was based on the idea that there would be conflict between the bureaucratic north and the commercial south. This never eventuated ‘because the economic fault lines eventually created divisions between coastal China [represented by Tubal] and the interior [Meshech] as well as between urban and rural China, which run in different directions from the north-south divide, and in part, because neither north or south has any type of obvious advantage within the Chinese central government.’

The concepts of North and South continue to play an important role in regional stereotypes.

‘Northerners are seen as:

  • Taller: according to the 2014 census, the average male height between the age of 20-24 was 173.4 cm in Beijing, 174.9 cm in Jilin province and 177.1 cm in Dalian.
  • Speaking Mandarin Chinese with a northern (rhotic) accent.
  • More likely to eat noodles, dumplings and wheat-based foods (rather than rice-based foods).

Southerners are seen as:

  • Shorter: according to the 2014 census, the average male height between the age of 20–24 was 173.3 cm in Shanghai, 171.6 cm in Zhejiang provinceand 171.9 cm in Fujian province.
  • Speaking Mandarin Chinese with a southern (non-rhotic) accent or speaking any southern Chinese language, such as those under Yue (e.g. Cantonese), Min (e.g. Hokkien), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese), Hakka, Xiang or Gan.
  • More likely to eat rice-based foods (rather than wheat-based foods) and seafood.’

Following: two integral papers regarding Chinese origins. They are lengthy and a little technical for those so inclined. For those not so much inclined, I have highlighted the key findings in bold. We will then put what we have read so far together, to clarify the puzzle of China’s inhabitants.

Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to 3,000 Years Ago, multiple authors, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be dividedinto two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. 

However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site… 

We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. 

The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago…’

The consensus is that the Han Chinese migrated south and contributed greatly to the paternal gene pool of the SH, whereas the Han Chinese and ancient southern ethnic groups both contributed almost equally to the SH maternal gene pool. However, the genetic history of the NH is still obscure. Currently, NH populations inhabit much of northern China, including the Central Plain and many outer regions that were inhabited by ancient northern ethnic groups. 

The Han Chinese or their ancestors who migrated northward from the Central Plain might have mixed with ancient northern ethnic groups or culturally assimilated the native population. This scenario would indicate that the Han Chinese living in different areas should have genetic profiles that differ from each other. However, genetic analyses have shown that there are no significant differences among the northern Han Chinese populations, which has led to conflicting arguments on whether the genetic structure of the NH is the result of an earlier ethnogenesis or, instead, results from a combination of population admixture and continuous migration of the Han Chinese. 

Until now, only a few genetic studies have investigated the ancient Han Chinese or their ancestors. These studies have been restricted by small sample sizes, high levels of kinship among samples, and short fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and thus provide limited insights into the genetic history of the Han Chinese… a large number of graves were excavated at a necropolis called Hengbei located in the southern part of Shanxi Province, China, on the Central Plain, that dates back to approximately 3,000 years ago (Zhou dynasty), a key transitional period for the rise of the Han Chinese. In a previous study investigating when haplogroup Q1a1 entered the genetic pool of the Han Chinese, we analyzed Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from human remains excavated from the Hengbei (HB) site and identified haplogroups for 27 samples. In the present study, we attempted to extract DNA from 89 human remains. Using a combination of Y chromosome SNPs and mtDNA genetic data, we uncover aspects of the genetic structure of the ancient people from the Central Plain region and begin to determine the genetic legacy of the northern Han Chinese in both the maternal and paternal lineages.

According to a previous study, the haplogroups of the Han Chinese can be classified into the northern East Asian-dominating haplogroups, including A, C, D, G, M8, M9, and Z, and the southern East Asian-dominating haplogroups, including B, F, M7, N, and R. These haplogroups account for 52.7% and 33.85% of those in the Northern Han, respectively. Among these haplogroups, D, B, F, and A were predominant in the NH, with frequencies of 25.77%, 11.54%, 11.54%, and 8.08%, respectively. However, in the SH, the northern and southern East Asian-dominating haplogroups accounted for 35.62% and 51.91%, respectively.’

In other words, the southern Han were opposite to the northern Han with a dominance understandably in south eastern mtDNA Haplogroups; as opposed to the northern Han being dominant, unsurprisingly in north eastern mtDNA Haplogroups. 

‘The frequencies of haplogroups D, B, F, and A reached 15.68%, 20.85%, 16.29%, and 5.63%, respectively. Notably, in the HB samples, haplogroups D, B, F, and A were also predominant and showed frequencies of 23.44%, 12.5%, 10.93%, and 10.93%, respectively. In addition, the frequency of haplogroup M was high and reached 17.19%. Other haplogroups such as C, G, M7, M8, M9, Z, N9a and R had lower frequencies at 3.13%, 1.56%, 1.56%, 3.13%, 7.81%, 3.13%, 3.13% and 1.56%, respectively. The northern and southern East Asian-dominating haplogroups [from the Hengbei] account for 50.04% and 26.56%, respectively, which is similar to the values in the NH.

To further identify the genetic affinities among the HB, two ancient populations and the present-day Chinese population, represented by 9 NH, 9 Northern Minorities, 14 SH and 57 Southern Minority groups, the mtDNA haplogroup distributions were compared using a PCA. The PCA plot of the first and second components (31.81% of the total variance), shows that the current populations largely segregate into three main clusters: Northern Han (in orange), Southern Han (in blue), and Southern Minorities (in gray), and Northern Minorities (in green). The distribution of populations in the PCA plot was in line with their geographic distribution, and these populations were separated by the first principal component. The populations living in northern China (NH and NM) are located on the right side of the PCA, and they contain the northern East Asian-dominating haplogroups A, C, D, G, M8, M9, and Z.’ 

‘In contrast, the populations living in southern China (SH and SM) are located on the left side of the PCA, and they contain the southern East Asian-dominating haplogroups B, F, M7, and R. 

Moreover, the NH can be separated from other populations except for two SH (Hubei and Shanghai), using the second principal component. The HB population (PC1 value: 0.071; PC2 value: 1.453) groups closely with the NH (PC1 value: 0.239±0.269; PC2 value: 1.590±0.336). Overall, these results indicate that the HB [Hengbei] population shares a similar genetic profile with the Northern Han that is distinct from the Northern Minorities and ancient northern ethnic groups.

The Han Chinese originated from the Central Plain region, which is substantially smaller than the region the Han Chinese now occupy. According to historical documents, the Han Chinese suffered many conflicts with natives prior to expansion into their lands. The Han migrated northward into regions inhabited by many ancient northern ethnic groups. Based on the advanced agriculture, technology, and culture, the Han Chinese or their ancestors often had a greater demographic advantage over ancient northern ethnic groups. Thus, the Han Chinese or their ancestors might have played a predominant role in the genetic mixture of populations. This scenario would mean that the genetic structure of the NH was shaped a long time ago. In our study, the HB population showed great genetic affinities with the NH when maternal lineages were tested. First, the HB contained a distribution and component of mtDNA similar to that of the NH and clustered closely together with the NH in the PCA plot. Second, the HB shared more haplotypes with the NH than with other populations in the haplotype-sharing analysis. Third, the FST value from comparisons between the HB and NH populations was lowest and negative. Generally, FST value should theoretically range between 0 and 1. 

However, if the estimate of within diversity is larger than the estimate obtained of variance among groups, negative FST values should be obtained, and they are represented as equal to zero. It indicated that HB bore a very high similarity to NH populations. Considering the location and culture of the HB, we suggest that the NH might have provided a significant contribution to the HB and find that the maternal genetic profiles of the NH [represented by Magog] were shaped 3,000 years ago. These conclusions are further supported by the relationship between the HB and NM, XN, and XB. 

In our study, the PCA plot is consistent with the SH not only mixing with the SM but also with the NH, which is consistent with a previous genetic study that concluded that the SH was formed from almost equal contributions of southward migrating Han Chinese and southern natives. However, the NH and NM group into two separate clusters, which is not consistent with their current geographic distributions because these two populations often live together in the northern region of China. Moreover, XN, XB1 and XB2 pool into the NM and are far away from HB and NH. 

A haplotype-sharing analysis of the three ancient populations and each present-day Han Chinese population shows that the fraction of haplotypes from HB is significantly higher than that from XN, XB1 and XB2 (all of the p values of HB/XN, HB/XB1 and XB2 are less than 0.01, two-tailed t-test. In the FST comparisons, the FST values of the XN/HB, XB/HB, XB/NH, XN/NH, and NM/NH are significantly higher, and all of the p values are less than 0.05, indicating that the XN and XB were distinct from the NH and HB. 

This finding indicates that the ancient populations of the XN and XB had a limited maternal genetic impact on present-day Han Chinese.

Y chromosome SNP analysis was consistent with the conclusions drawn from studying the maternal lineages. In the paternal lineage, HB contained the haplogroups or sub-haplogroups N, [O1a, O1b, O2a] and Q1a1. The total frequencies of these haplogroups reached high levels (66%–100%) in current Han Chinese. Haplogroup Q1a1, which was predominant in HB, is highly specific to the Han Chinese. Haplogroup [O2a1], the second highest frequency (33.34%) in HB, occupies the highest frequencies in almost all current Han Chinese populations (32.5%-76.92%). Moreover, in the PCA plot, HB groups closely with the Han Chinese. 

These results indicate that the 3,000-year-old ancient people from the Central Plain region share similar paternal genetic profiles with the current Han Chinese. In contrast, XN yielded three haplogroups (N3, Q, and C) but no haplogroup O. The frequency of O in NM is significantly lower than the frequency of O in NH, but the frequency of haplogroup N shows the inverse trend. Moreover, NM has a relatively high frequency of haplogroup R, but NH does not.’

Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Descend from Three Neolithic Super-Grandfathers, multiple authors, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘To achieve sufficiently high coverage in the non-recombining regions of Y chromosome (NRY) and an adequate representation of individual samples, we selected 110 males, encompassing the haplogroups O, C, D, N, and Q which are common in East Eurasians, as well as haplogroups J, G, and R which are common in West Eurasians and sequenced their non-repetitive segments of NRY using a pooling-and-capturing strategy.

Results… Overall ∼4,500 base substitutions were identified in all the samples from the whole Y chromosome, in which >4,300 SNPs that has not been publicly named before 2012 (ISOGG etc.). We designated each of these SNP a name beginning with ‘F’ (for Fudan University). We obtained ∼3.90 Mbp of sequences with appropriate quality (at least 1× coverage on >100 out of 110 samples, and identified ∼3,600 SNPs in this region. 

A maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree of the 78 individuals with good coverage was reconstructed, the topology of which is congruent with the existing tree of human Y chromosome. The tree contained samples from haplogroups C, D, G, J, N, O, Q, and R, and thus represented all the three super-haplogroups out of Africa – C, DE and F. In addition to the known lineages, many new downstream lineages were revealed. 

All the earlier divergences were found to be bifurcations, except for three star-like structures, i.e.multiple lineages branching off from a single node, were observed under Haplogroup [O2a-M324+], indicating strong expansion events.

The most surprising discovery in the tree is the three star-like expansions in Haplogroup [O2a-M324+], i.e. under the M117 clade, the M134 [O2a2b1] x M117 [O2a2b1a1] paragroup, and the 002611 clade. Here we denote the three star-like expansions as Oα, Oβ, and Oγ, respectively. 

Since the sample selection for high-through put sequencing was intended for representing a wide variety of clades in East Asian populations, a star-like expansion indicates successful expansion of male lineages within a very short period (<500 years). These three clades are present with high frequency across many extant East Asian populations and encompass more than 40% of the present Han Chinese in total (estimated 16% for Oα, 11% for Oβ, and 14% for Oγ). 

It is conspicuous that roughly 300 million extant males are the patrilineal progenies of only three males in the late Neolithic Age.The expansion dates are estimated 5.4 kya for Oα, 6.5 for Oβ, and 6.8 for Oγ [post Tower of Babel dispersal circa 6755 BCE]… We therefore propose thatin the late Neolithic Age, the three rapidly expanding clans established the founding patrilineal spectrum of the predecessors in East Asia. 

Since all the sequenced Han Chinese M117+ samples are under the Oα expansion, and M117+ subclade exists in moderate to very high frequency in many Tibeto-Burman ethnic groups, it would be of interest to know when the M117+ individuals in other ethnic groups diverged with the ones in Han Chinese, and whether they are also under the Oα expansion, in order to trace the origin and early history of [the] Sino-Tibetan language family.

Although most of the sequences in this study were obtained from individuals in China, the haplogroup representation (C, D, G, J, N, O, Q, and R) already enabled us to calculate the times of most of the major divergence events… like G/IJK, NO/P etc., since the times were achieved using the hypothesis of molecular clock, and the results of divergence time between haplogroups would not be affected by from whichever continent or country the individuals were sampled. One good sequence from each of two haplogroups is enough for calculating their divergence time, and more sequences could only help to enhance the precision but would not greatly change the result.’

Additional Supporting Paper:

‘It remain[s] mysterious… how many times the anatomically modern human migrated out of Africa, since that among the three super-haplogroups C, DE and F, Haplogroup F distributes in [the] whole [of] Eurasia, C in Asia and Austronesia, D exclusively in Asia, while D’s brother clade E [is] distribute[d] mainly in Africa, so there are two hypotheses, 

1) haplogroups D and CF migrated out of Africa separately; 

2) the single common ancestor [Y-DNA Haplogroup B] of CF and DE migrated out of Africa followed by a back-migration of E to Africa. From this study, the short interval between CF/DE and C/F divergences weakens the possibility of multiple independent migrations (CF, D, and DE) out of Africa, and thus supports the latter hypothesis.’

We will return to Y-DNA Haplogroup E and the continent of Africa.

Haplogroup D is comprised of subclade D1-M15 [D1a1a]and D3-P99 [D1a1b], both in continental East Asia… especially frequent in Tibet [D1a1], subclade D2-M55 [D1a2a], nearly exclusively in Japan, and paragroup D, which was discovered mainly in Tibet as well as on the Andaman Islands. In this study, only [D1a1a] and [D1a1b] samples were sequenced. Except for the sample YCH177 (Zhuang ethnicity), all the tested D1 samples (Han and Yi ethnicities) are derivative at SNP N1.

Together with Haplogroup D, C is also considered as one of the harbingers in East Eurasia and Australia. Soon after its divergence with F, Haplogroup C moved eastwards along the coast of Indian Ocean, reached India and China, and might be associated with the earliest known modern human inhabitants in Australia… 

In China, the vast majority of Haplogroup C belongs to [C2]-M217, which constitutes ~10% of Han Chinese, as well as [a] great part of Altaic-speaking populations, e.g. Mongol, Manchu, and Kazakh. Here we identified two clades of [C2]which split at 25.9 kya: a northern clade (C3-n) with SNP F1396, including a Mongol and a Manchu sample, and a southern clade (C3-s) with SNP F1144, including all sequenced Han Chinese [C2] samples. The STRs of YCH168 (Mongol ethnicity) is close to the ‘star-cluster’, which is abundant in the steppe ethnicities, indicating that a substantial part of Altaic-speaking population belongs to C3-n. 

The southern clade expands rather late (only about 6.5 kya, i.e. in the Neolithic Age), including most former [C2] individuals in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the subclade C3d-M407 [C2c1a1a1], which is common in Sojot (Turkic) and Buryat (Mongolic), originated only after this expansion of C3-s. The C3-s clade showed a similar expansion time comparing to the three star-like expansions under [O2], and probably will also be found a multifurcation, if more samples will be sequenced.’

The southern clade expanded later than the north^ because it contained Tubal and Meshech’s lines, who share similar Haplogroup sequences not just with each other but with the northern clade as evidenced by Magog. The reason why these three brothers have easily and inconspicuously become one, is due to their strong similarity genetically, in temperament and in personalty.

‘The Superclade F did not undergo [a] major split since 54.0 kya, until the divergence of Haplogroup G and IJK at 35.8 kya, which was followed by the emergence of all major haplogroups (IJ, and K, and its subclades NO, P, and LT) during the following 3,000 years. Haplogroup NO… split into N and O at 30.0 kya. Haplogroup P diverged into Q and R at ~24.1 kya, slightly before the LGM [this time frame includes the birth of Japheth and Shem].’

Both Japheth and Shem carry Y-DNA Haplogroups K, N, & Q; though they are more associated with Japheth’s descendants than with Shem.

‘Most Q individuals in Han Chinese belong to the Q1a1-M120 clade, while R’s in Han Chinese are mostly R1a1-M17. The separation events of R1 and R2, and R1a and R1b are estimated here at 19.9 and 14.8 kya, respectively. This study leads to a discovery of 265 new SNPs under Haplogroup N-M231, adding significantly to the only 11 currently known SNPs. Haplogroup N is frequently found in Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic, Altaic, Uralic, Slavic, and Baltic peoples. Haplogroup N went through a bottleneck lasting for 14 thousand years (30 – 15.8 kya).

Haplogroup O, which cover[s] 1/4 of all males [in] the world today, began frequent splitting into subclades before the LGM [last glacial maximum]. The ancestor of O-M175 [Noah circa 19,000 ya] suffered an intermediate bottleneck event at 30 – 25 kya, and expanded rapidly at 24.7 – 21.5 kya [birth of Japheth, circa 12,000 ya], indicating a southern distribution during the LGM. 

We found that Haplogroups O1 and O2 share 6 SNPs (e.g. F75), forming a monophyletic lineage before joined with [O2]-M122… O1a1-P203 [O1a1a M307] is the major clade of Haplogroup O1 in China, especially frequent (>20%) in the eastern provinces like Zhejiang and Jiangsu, corresponding to the Neolithic expansion of the ancient Yue (ancestral group of present Tai-Kadai and southern Han Chinese). Since Tai-Kadai O1 samples were not included in this study, their divergence time with the East China Yue population is not yet clear.

Among the three main branches of Haplogroup O, [the O1] clade expanded the earliest, fitting the current distribution which is more at the south.^ All the sequenced O2-M268  [O1b] samples other than [O1b2]-M176 form a monophyletic clade, labeled by F1462, and the SNP PK4 lies inside this clade. Further genotyping of the newly discovered SNPs under F1462 clade will unveil the origin and migration routes and time of the Austro-Asiatic and Tai-Kadai peoples in South China, Southeast Asia and India. Haplogroup [O2] covers more than half of all the Han Chinese population.’

Khazaria – emphasis & bold mine: 

Ancient DNA evidence supports the contribution of Di-Qiang people to the Han Chinese gene pool, multiple authors, 2010 – emphasis & bold mine: 

“Han Chinese is the largest ethnic group in the world. During its development, it gradually integrated with many neighboring populations. To uncover the origin of the Han Chinese, ancient DNA analysis was performed on the remains of 46 humans (1700 to 1900 years ago) excavated from the Taojiazhai site in Qinghai province, northwest of China, where the Di-Qiang populations had previously lived. 

In this study, eight mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, D, F, M*, M10, N9a, and Z) and one Y-chromosome haplogroup [O2] were identified. All analyses show that the Taojiazhai population presents close genetic affinity to Tibeto-Burman populations (descendants of Di-Qiang populations) and Han Chinese, suggesting that the Di-Qiang populations may have contributed to the [Northern] Han Chinese [Magog] genetic pool.”

‘The Y-DNA haplogroup O2-M122 is very common in the Han Chinese population and had a presence in prehistoric China, as did Q1a1a1-M120, which is also found among Mongols. Other branches of Q1a are found among Central Asians, Siberians, Amerindians, and Northern Europeans.

Most Han Chinese lineages are of East Eurasian origin, and in autosomal tests most Chinese people score entirely within the East Asian and Southeast Asian categories. However, some male lineages originating from Central-South Eurasia or West Eurasia have been detected in some groups of northern Han, including:

R1a1, which is particularly common in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia; 

R2a, which is especially found among South Asians and also found among some Central Asians; 

G2a, which is fairly common in Southern Europe, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus; 

J1, which is especially common in the Middle East among Arabs and among Jews… 

J2a, which is prevalent among Middle Easterners, Italians, southern Spaniards, Pakistanis, and northwestern Indians.’

‘The Han originated in China’s Central Plain (Zhōngyuán) region and were descendants of the Hua and Xia tribes that farmed the lands near the Yellow (Huáng Hé) River. 

Beginning during the early period of unified China’s rule by kings from the Shang dynasty, beginning around 1600 B.C.E., the Hua and Xia combined to form the Huaxia ethnicity, but they later rebranded themselves the Han after the name of the ruling Han imperial dynasty (260 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.).

The Han people did not originally live as far south as Guangdong or as far southwest as Sichuan, nor in the far northern areas of today’s China. What happened was that in later times, many Han men [Magog] moved southward and northward into lands of other cultures and intermarried with their women, including those from the so-called Yue peoples of the south [Tubal]and the Dian peoples of the southwest [Meshech], and China politically grew to encompass those new lands. 

The Han culture became dominant in southern China after this expansion and the descendants of Han-Yue intermarriages came to regard themselves as Han. Although the Han are a coherent ethnicity on the paternal side, carrying a core group of Y-chromosomal haplogroups across the geographic span of the ethnicity, there are some genetic differences between the Northern Han and Southern Han that persist to the present day, because Southern Han are somewhat shifted towards southeastern Asians and carry some different mtDNA haplogroups. 

Nevertheless, Razib Khan pointed out that the Southern Han Chinese “are not closer to Southeast Asians than they are to North Chinese (the furthest southern dialect groups, such as those of Guangdong, are about equidistant to Vietnamese).”’

“On the maternal side, however, the mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed substantial differentiation between northern Hans and southern Hans. The overall frequencies of the northern East Asian-dominating haplogroups (A, C, D, G, M8a, Y and Z) are much higher in northern Hans (55%, 49-64%) than are those in southern Hans (36%, 19-52%). In contrast, the frequency of the haplogroups that are dominant lineages (B, F, R9a, R9b and N9a) in southern natives is much higher in southern [Hans] (55%, 36-72%) than it is in northern Hans (33%, 18-42%).”

“… Our results highlight a distinct difference between spatial genetic structures of maternal and paternal lineages. A substantial genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations is the characteristic of maternal structure, with a significant uninterrupted genetic boundary extending approximately along the Huai River and Qin Mountains north to [the] Yangtze River. 

On the paternal side, however, no obvious genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations is revealed.”

…Fisher’s exact test revealed that [mt-DNA] haplogroups M7, D4, R9, A, and B4… displayed the most significant differences in distribution between northern and southern China… Haplogroups D4 and A contributed most to the north cluster, whereas M7, F1, and B4 to the south cluster […]”

“… Using only 6 populations (two Han Chinese populations, Japanese, Korean and two Mongolian populations) to reconstruct an individual tree, we found the phylogeny of the populations became clearer. Japanese individuals have their own cluster and Korean individuals are almost distinct from Han Chinese. North and South Han Chinese mixed together, but still have some substructure…”

A Comprehensive Map of Genetic Variation in the World’s Largest Ethnic Group-Han Chinese, multiple authors, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A comprehensive autosomal DNA study of the genomes of 11,670 Han women from 19 of China’s provinces plus one autonomous region and all four direct-controlled municipalities. Excerpts from the Abstract: “… We identified previously unrecognized population structure along the East-West axis* of China, demonstrated a general pattern of isolation-by-distance among Han Chinese, and reported unique regional signals of admixture, such as European influences among the Northwestern provinces of China…”’

Case for Two Divisions: It is clear that China has a north-south divide ethnically and culturally, combined with an east-west divide economically. The concentration of prosperity can be located in the east and south on the coasts of Tubal and the governance of the nation in the north of Magog. The Han element to the south has more genetic variations, coupled with a greater variety of minorities – indicating a Meshech-Tubal amalgamation. The north is less diverse, with less minorities that have merged more fully; including the minorities to the far west and far north. This split concept would be indicative of a northern Magog and a southern Meshech-Tubal divide. 

Case for Three Divisions: We have seen the scientific data to support three paternal parentages for the Chinese, as well as for three main language groups. Anciently, there were three dominant kingdoms: Wei, Shu* and Wu. Wei representing Magog, Shu, Meshech and Wu, Tubal.

Case for Four Divisions: Even though Gog appears strongly to be an individual, it is plausible to consider Gog as a fourth component in China. Geographically, it would sit with Magog in the north. The Manchus would be a good fit for Gog, as they have had prominence as the ruling element of China historically – or it could mean the greater geopolitic region of the Beijing/Tianjin area.

An informative table and map, found online; with gratitude extended to its author; for they have marked the four territories, as I would approximately position them. 

ProvincePopulation (2010)Density (/km2)Area (km2)

Jiangsu Province78,659,903767102,600
Hebei Province71,854,202383187,700
Beijing Municipality19,612,3681,16716,800
Tianjin Municipality12,938,2241,14411,305
Shandong Province95,793,065623153,800
Liaoning Province43,746,323300145,900
NORTHEAST TOTAL322,604,085522618,105


Shanghai Municipality23,019,1483,6306,341
Zhejiang Province54,426,891534102,000
Anhui Province59,500,510426139,700
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region7,061,2006,3961,104
Guangdong Province104,303,132579180,000
Jiangxi Province44,567,475267167,000
Fujian Province36,894,216304121,300
Hainan Province8,671,51825534,000
SOUTH TOTAL338,444,090451751,445


Shaanxi Province37,327,378182205,600
Sichuan Province80,418,200166485,000
Yunnan Province45,966,239117394,000
Jilin Province27,462,297147187,400
Shanxi Province35,712,111228156,300
West subtotal226,886,2251591,428,300
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region6,301,3509566,400
Heilongjiang Province38,312,22484454,000
Gansu Province25,575,25456454,300
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region24,706,321211,183,000
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region21,813,334131,660,400
Qinghai Province5,626,7228721,200
Tibet Autonomous Region3,002,16621,228,400
Rural West subtotal125,337,371225,767,700
WEST TOTAL352,223,596497,196,000


Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region46,026,629195236,000
Henan Province94,023,567563167,000
Hunan Province65,683,722313210,000
Guizhou Province34,746,468197176,000
Hubei Province57,237,740308185,900
Chongqing Municipality28,846,17035182,300
MIDLANDS TOTAL326,564,2963091,057,200

CHINA TOTAL1,339,836,0671449,622,750

Green and Red equate to Magog, with green representing Gog. Blue for Meshech and yellow for Tubal. The four quarters comprising extremely similar numbers of population; though greater Magog – Gog and Magog combined – represents half the Chinese population and therefore, the dominant tri-partner. As stated in the book of Revelation, their number is like the the sand of the sea. When Gog is spoken to separately from Magog, this would be plausible, whether it is their leader being addressed or if it is in reference to Northeast China and the leadership in Beijing, the capital.

Ezekiel 38 paraphrased with today’s identities, could read: 

‘The Lord’s message came to me: “Son of man, turn toward, Beijing of the land of Manchuria… the leader of Southern China…’ 

Alternatively: ‘… turn toward Gog from Northern China… the leader ruling all the rest of China also…’

When comparing Y-DNA Haplogroups from China with Tibet, Bhutan, Taiwan and Mongolia, we find Tibet and Bhutan have Haplogroup sequencing in common, rather than with China. Mongolia has Haplogroups in common with the Central Asian Republics [refer Chapter IV Central Asia: Madai & the Medes]; though Inner Mongolia within China has less of Haplogroup C and a higher percentage of O2 like China. 

Only Taiwan of the four, is similar with China; but not the Aboriginal Taiwanese whom we have discussed in Chapter VII on Javan, but rather the Han Chinese, though this is a mis-leading appellation. 

Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact, The Taiwanese are not Han Chinese, Lin Kenryo:

‘Many people think the Taiwanese belong to the same ethnic group as the mainland Chinese… that 2% of the Taiwanese population are aborigines, 13% are natives of the mainland who fled to Taiwan with Chiang Kai-Shek in 1949 (and their descendants), and the remaining 85% are natives of the mainland who arrived in Taiwan prior to World War II. Therefore, they reach the conclusion that 98% of Taiwanese are Han Chinese. Dr. Lin Mali, professor of hematology at Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taipei, conducted a hematological survey. By analyzing human lymphocytes, she discovered that the genetic makeup of Taiwanese is completely different from that of Han Chinese. The Taiwanese are not Han Chinese.’

The Taiwanese share a similar level of Y-DNA Haplogroup O2a1 with the Southern Han Chinese, though they differ enough in O1a and O1b2, to reveal that they are a unique line of descent within the possible Meshech and probable, Tubal gene pool.