Manasseh & Ephraim – the Birthright Tribes

Chapter XXXIII

The identities of Asshur, Edom, Judah and Dan have been investigated, discussed and written about more than all the other Biblical identities put together, many times over. Anyone with more than a passing interest in the Bible and conversant in the scriptures, will recognise that these four peoples feature significantly in the end time prophecies. We have investigated three of the four and deduced their correct identities as all three so far have been inaccurate, in some instances for hundreds of years. All having major repercussions in interpreting Bible prophecy of future world events. 

The prevalent view has been that Asshur as ‘the instrument of God’s wrath’ in bringing Israel to its knees in repentance is the nation of Germany. Yet, geography, history, migration, with mt-DNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups have shown that the Germans are in fact Ishmael [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael]. As the dominant nation of the descendants of Peleg – from Eber, from Arphaxad and from Shem in Western Europe – the Germans are also the leading nation of Joktan’s descendants also from Eber, in Eastern Europe. A German led European Union will ally itself with the Assyrians [Numbers 24:24]. Our studies have revealed it is in fact Russia who is Asshur and modern day Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. They are the King of the North and the instrument of God’s wrath against Israel and Judah [Zephaniah 2:13, Isaiah 10:5]. 

Coupled with this, is the extraordinary switch of identities between Esau and Judah, where the Jews are not Judah but rather Edom and the tribe of Judah is not the Jewish people but actually the nation of England [refer Chapter XXIX Esau & Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. It is against this panorama of mistaken identities and incorrect interpretation of Biblical prophecy that we now arrive to the most written about and most sought after tribal identity, Joseph. The son of Jacob chosen to be the recipient of the Birthright blessings usually given to the firstborn son. Jacob’s eldest sons, Reuben, Simeon and Levi all disqualified themselves. Even so, Levi was chosen to be the Priestly tribe and even after his own personal misdemeanours, Judah was selected to receive the blessings of the throne, orb and sceptre of Royal rulership. 

Though Joseph was the eleventh of twelve sons, he was still a firstborn son of Jacob and his wife Rachel. We will learn that the blessing prophecy to Joseph and his sons Manasseh and Ephraim are specific enough to quickly identity these peoples in our modern world. It is thus beyond all belief and comprehension, that for nearly five centuries the identification of Jacob’s grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim has been, quite simply… wrong. 

When we first meet Joseph, Rachel was feeling the pressure as Leah was seven nil ahead when it came to children, or nine to two if the hand maiden’s sons are included. 

Genesis 30:22-24

English Standard Version

Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 And she called his name Joseph, saying, “May the Lord add to me another son!”

Abarim Publications – emphasis & Bold mine: 

‘The name Joseph meaning: ‘Increaser, May He Add’ from the verb (yasap), to add, increase, repeat or do again.

The name Joseph means Increaser, Repeater or Doubler, and even the fulfillment of his name is dual: Benjamin becomes Joseph’s younger brother, and Joseph himself becomes father of two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh (see Ezekiel 47:13).

For a meaning of the name Joseph, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads two meanings: (1) May He (Yahweh) Add (assuming that the “He” of our name is YHWH), and (2) Increaser. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads He Shall Add. And BDB Theological Dictionary has He Adds, Increases. Spiros Zodhiates (The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament) translates the name Joseph with May God Add, but note that the “God” part is implied and not actually incorporated in the name Joseph.’

From Genesis chapter thirty-seven through to chapter fifty, the narrative is dominated by Joseph’s life. Of which twelve chapters representing twenty-four percent of Genesis are devoted to Joseph. Slightly less than for Abraham from chapter twelve through to twenty-five, with twenty-six percent. Even Adam and Noah only have three chapters devoted to each of them, or six percent each of the Genesis story. Jacob on the other hand, ostensibly the most flawed of all the Patriarchs has eight chapters, or sixteen percent devoted to him and he also figures, though less than Joseph, prominently in the final thirteen chapters of Genesis; with over forty percent of the Book of Genesis devoted to Jacob’s life.  

We have discussed in previous sections regarding the brother’s betrayal of Joseph and selling him to the Ishmaelite traders at the behest of Judah. The early part of Genesis chapter thirty-seven is of interest as it provides the factors that led to his brothers hatred.

Genesis 37:2-11

English Standard Version

Joseph, being seventeen years old, was pasturing the flock with his brothers. He was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought a bad [H7451 – ra] report of them to their father. 

We learn that Joseph was with certain ones of his brothers. Specifically: Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher. We also learn that Jacob married Rachel and Leah’s handmaids, for they were not concubines of Jacob [Genesis 29:24, 29]. For whatever reason not divulged these four brothers were up to no good and Joseph told on them. At first reading, one would easily assume that Joseph was a tattle tale and acting like a spoilt brat, belying his youthful age. 

Though two reasons suggest otherwise. First, the Bible does not label him as such. If the charge of youthful foolishness were considered, it would have to be quickly dropped for when Joseph was harshly rejected by his brothers and while he served Potiphar in Egypt, Joseph for a young man was focused, efficient and honourable. Far from a spoilt brat. In fact, he accepted his brutal injustices with immeasurable maturity. 

Second, the bad report Joseph made of his brothers was not merely a superficial thing, it was a very serious matter. The Hebrew word ra is translated by the KJV as evil [442], wickedness [59], mischief [21], affliction [6], adversity [4] and harm [3]. It includes a wide range of negative meanings: ‘misery, distress, calamity, malignant’ and ‘grievous.’ 

As we have yet to discuss Jacob’s son Dan, more detail will be investigated in the next chapter. Though it can be stated that Dan is the bad boy or black sheep of the family and if he was involved, he may well have been leading the other three bothers down a dark path that Joseph had no choice but to divulge [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Support for Joseph being honourable in this incident is revealed by the fact that Joseph is rather unique in the scriptures and part of a very select band of people who do not have one word writ against them. Of all the prominent people in the Bible, not including peripheral characters, it is only Daniel and Christ whom have nothing negative recorded and for prominent women, only Ruth, Esther and Mary are included in this exceptional group. Recall that Daniel is also one of the three men described as most righteous in the Bible with Noah and Job. This may have some bearing on why the Eternal revealed the most profound and biggest impacting prophecies of all the prophets to Daniel; for the prophecies of the Book of Revelation through John are in may cases, amplifications of those originating in Daniel. 

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was the son of his old age. And he made him a robe of many colors. 4 But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peacefully to him.

With what we have just learned about Jospeh and the view the Creator had of him, it is clear that Jospeh didn’t act like the favoured son, it was Jacob who created the issue as verse four says. As Jacob is guilty of innumerable unwise decisions this should not come as a surprise; yet one would have thought that growing up in a family with a pronounced and marked divide between parents and sons as Jacob and Esau had with Isaac and Rebecca, that Jacob would have shied away from repeating this tragic scenario. 

As touched upon, for the want of a better explanation, the understanding that Joseph’s coat was tartan or plaid is interesting. Particularly, when we consider the two nation’s that have upheld this pattern more than any other, are Scotland – the tribe of Benjamin – and the United States.

Now Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers they hated him even more. 6 He said to them, “Hear this dream that I have dreamed: 7 Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and stood upright. And behold, your sheaves gathered around it and bowed down to my sheaf.” 8 His brothers said to him, “Are you indeed to reign over us? Or are you indeed to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

One would have to assume with what we know of Joseph’s character that he was being matter of fact and not boasting. Of course, what the brothers were not to know, is that the dream foretold of Joseph being their servant in saving his brothers from starvation in a few short years hence. Though regarding the distant future into our present time, Joseph as the preeminent brother, serves as the protector for all his brothers. 

A component of this story not readily touched upon, is that Joseph had the Holy Spirit and was one converted to the truth. His brothers were not and so could not understand spiritual matters the same way. This would have put considerable distance between himself and his brothers. It also explains why Jacob favoured Joseph over Judah, the son actually most like himself in character, for the son who was like himself spiritually. Recall that the Eternal had a different view from Jacob, in that though the Bible reveals Joseph’s people are special to the Creator, it is in fact Judah that He loves [Psalm 78:68]. In His mind, giving the royal sceptre of rulership for the very throne that His Son will return to sit in, was the greater blessing of favour. 

9 Then he dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?” 11 And his brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.

Jacob did not like hearing this from Joseph, yet considered the matter and deduced that it was of future importance with a positive outcome.

Genesis 39:1-10, 21-23

English Standard Version

Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there. 2 The Lord was with Joseph, and he became a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master. 3 His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord caused all that he did to succeed in his hands. 4 So Joseph found favor in his sight and attended him, and he made him overseer of his house and put him in charge of all that he had. 5 From the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had, in house and field. 6 So he left all that he had in Joseph’s charge, and because of him he had no concern about anything but the food he ate.

This is an incredible occurrence and shows it was more to do with the Eternal’s intervention on Joseph’s behalf, though of course, the Eternal was only able to bless Joseph and Potiphar’s household because Joesph was not only capable but obedient to the Creator. This enhances the case we have built regarding Joseph’s spirituality. To be clear, it is not that Jospeh was perfect, for all sin, but rather some people are more blameless than others and Joseph was such an individual. Potiphar was the captain of the Pharaoh’s personal retinue of soldier’s and thus a high ranking official who had a palatial residence adjacent to the actual palace of the Pharaoh. Joseph was merely seventeen when he arrived in Egypt in 1709 BCE.

Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance. 7 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” 10 And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he would not listen to her, to lie beside her or to be with her.

The Hebrew words here say that Joseph was not just handsome but also had a good physique. Notice his spiritual mindset; Joseph say’s it would be sinning against God to sleep with Potiphar’s wife, not just that he would be betraying his employer. It is a simple case of sexual harassment committed by Potiphar’s wife. Though Joseph could not divulge the reason, could Joseph have requested a transfer or found a way to move? When the opportunity arose and the house was empty, she made her move, grabbing his outer garment. Joseph flees, leaving it behind. 

Potiphar’s wife then frames Joseph for an indecent proposition and Potiphar in understandable anger sends Joseph to the prison reserved for the Pharaoh’s enemies circa 1702 BCE at the age of twenty-four. Though Satan had tried to tempt Joseph and thwart the Creator’s plan, it was not to be.

21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him steadfast love and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison put Joseph in charge of all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever was done there, he was the one who did it. 23 The keeper of the prison paid no attention to anything that was in Joseph’s charge, because the Lord was with him. And whatever he did, the Lord made it succeed.

In Genesis chapter forty we read of the Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker who are put into Joseph’s prison for misdemeanours circa 1698 BCE, when Joseph was twenty-eight. They both have dreams of which Joseph interprets them. He requests that the cupbearer who’s dream is favourable, remembers him to the Pharaoh, though he does not and Joseph remains in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh has a dream. None of his wise men or magicians can interpret it. Pharaoh’s cupbearer, then recalls his encounter with Joseph and finally remembers him to Pharaoh.

Genesis 41:14-16, 25-32, 37-57

English Standard Version

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the pit. And when he had shaved himself and changed his clothes [after six years in prison], he came in before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 16 Joseph answered Pharaoh, “It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer.” 

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 The seven lean and ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty ears blighted by the east wind are also seven years of famine. 28 … God has shown to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 There will come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt, 30 but after them there will arise seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will consume the land, 31 and the plenty will be unknown in the land by reason of the famine that will follow, for it will be very severe. 32 And the doubling of Pharaoh’s dream means that the thing is fixed by God, and God will shortly bring it about. 

Joseph then suggests Pharaoh appoints a wise and discerning person to oversee the storing of twenty percent of grain for each year of plenty and its division during the seven years of famine so that Egypt did not perish.

37 This proposal pleased Pharaoh and all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?” 39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has shown you all this, there is none so discerning and wise as you are. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall order themselves as you command. Only as regards the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck. 43 And he made him ride in his second chariot. And they called out before him, “Bow the knee!” Thus he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no one shall lift up hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah. And he gave him in marriage Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On. So Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

From this account we can appreciate that the Eternal moved Pharaoh further beyond just appointing an overseer but actually elevating Joseph to Vizier of all his kingdom; while recognising that God’s spirit was working in Joseph. It was a wise decision on Pharaoh’s part and showed a level of humility in his character. Aside from Joseph having the Creator blessing him and Joseph being mature as well as good looking, it becomes apparent that Joseph must have been very personable and charismatic. The jealousy exhibited by his brothers makes more sense now we have a clearer picture of Joseph. It is Joseph’s integrity that makes him a good candidate as saviour of Egypt and thus a type of the Messiah himself, and so it is at the same age as Christ when he began his ministry at thirty, that Joseph embarks on his own ministry of service [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Psalm 105:16-21

English Standard Version

16 When he summoned a famine on the land and broke all supply of bread, 17 he had sent a man ahead of them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave. 18 His feet were hurt with fetters; his neck was put in a collar of iron; 19 until what he had said came to pass, the word of the Lord tested him. 20 The king sent and released him; the ruler of the peoples set him free; 21 he made him lord of his house and ruler of all his possessions…

Joseph received a new Egyptian name, thus looking for the name Joseph in Egyptian records would be fruitless. There is considerable debate on what the name Zaphenath-paneah means. Of all the definitions I have found, the two that resonate the most are: ‘the man to whom secrets are revealed’ or ‘the Nourisher of the Two Lands, the Living One.’ Either way, it was through Joseph’s God and His revelation that life in Egypt was preserved. 

Joseph’s wife Asenath is unlikely to be an Egyptian as descended from Ham’s son Mizra [refer Chapter XXIV Mizra] but rather the Egyptian ruling elite. The Priest of On may have had a link with the same order as Moses’s father-in-law Jethro, the Priest of Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham] and the one true God. 

The city of On, known as Heliopolis – the City of the Sun – was a centre of worship of the sun god Ra. The priests of On were considered the most intelligent, cultured and learned people in Egypt. The High Priest of On held the title, Greatest of Seers. When Joseph married into this family, he joined a social class befitting a national leader. Implied is that the marriage was selected by Pharaoh because of his confidence that Joseph too, was a seer or prophet of the highest calibre. If this was the case, then Asenath must have embraced her husband’s faith in the God of Israel as nothing negative is mentioned of the marriage in the Bible. This high profile marriage ordained by Pharaoh, also removed any doubt about the shocking story circulating throughout Egypt, of a former prisoner legitimately rising to second in command of the whole of Egypt. 

The question remains, who was this unusually accommodating, good-hearted Pharaoh? In exact antithesis to the later hard-hearted Pharaoh of the Exodus. According to an unconventional chronology, not only are the Egyptian king lists misinterpreted by conventional chronology – as exposed by the revised chronology of David Rohl; in that dynasties can be hundreds of years out of alignment with the correct time frame – various Egyptian dynasties have been misunderstood as chronologically falling one after the other and not recognised as being concurrent. 

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep, and Amenemhet IV as Pharaoh of the Exodus, Anne Habermehl, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘From previous discussion it is clear that if the plagues and the Exodus caused the collapse of the concurrent 6th and 12th Dynasties, we need to look for our Exodus pharaoh at the end of one of these dynasties. The 12th Dynasty, ruling Lower Egypt in the north, is the one which would produce our Exodus pharaoh because the Children of Israel lived in the Delta there (the 6th Dynasty would have ruled Upper Egypt in the south). 

We suggest that Dynasties 3 to 12 cannot have reigned one after the other in the order that Manetho listed them. Dynasties 5 & 6 may have run concurrently with Dynasties 11 & 12. The First Intermediate Period (at the end of the 6th Dynasty) and Second Intermediate Period (at the end of the 12th Dynasty), both times of great disorder in Egypt, appear to be the same period, as mentioned earlier.Dynasties 7, 8, 9 and 10 would therefore have reigned after the Exodus at the same time as Dynasties 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Versions of this scheme have been offered by various revisionists (e.g., Courville, 1971, volume 1, page 101; Ashton & Down, 2006, page 206). This alone could potentially remove close to 500 of the 675 years by which we wish to shorten the secular timeline.’ 

I agree with the author’s proposal, in that the end of the twelfth dynasty matches the time of Moses, though I would differ on the Pharaoh of the Exodus as one that was in the thirteenth dynasty instead. This means the Pharaoh of Joseph’s dream interpretation is a king from the third dynasty. The first king of the third dynasty was Pharaoh Djoser or Netjerikhet. Records are unclear to his length of reign, from either 19 years according to Manetho; 28 or 29 years according to the royal annals; and 37 or 38 years according to other lists and historians. Lists for the dynasty have a variance of the number of kings, with either four, five or eight kings. I propose the middle number for the reign and the lower for the number of kings – which fits the chronology of Pharaohs until the time of Moses – and a date of reign for Joseph’s pharaoh circa 1700 to 1672/71 BCE. The Saqqara Tablet is viewed by this writer as the most accurate as it lists Djoser as the first of four kings and was found in a tomb near the Djoser Pyramid in Saqqara.

Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of either Djoser or the final dynastic ruler of Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled for 24 years as the Pharaoh in question, as both had Viziers. The other three, six or most probably two rulers sandwiched between these two Pharaohs are not realistic candidates. As there was a turbulent transition from Huni to Amenemhet I, not matching the peaceful reign of Joseph, Huni is ruled out. Djoser was the son of the last 2nd Dynasty king, Pharaoh Khasekhemwy from 1718 to 1700 BCE, and his wife, Queen Nimaathap or Nimaethap, “Mother of the King of the Two Lands.” 

Djoser is derived from the Djed symbol for stability and is also associated with the god Osiris and appears on numerous monuments built during his reign. Though it was common for Pharaohs to have a Queen and lesser wives, Djoser only had one wife, who was his half-sister, Hetephernebti. They had a daughter called, Inetkawes. 

His passion was building projects, something he continued non-stop as soon as he assumed the throne. Cities had begun to grow in Egypt during the 1st Dynasty, though under Djoser they became widespread throughout Egypt, with architecture becoming more ornate. During his reign, the borders of Egypt were made secure and expansion into the Sinai was achieved through military expeditions. This led to lucrative turquoise and copper mining in the Peninsula, which created great wealth for Egypt. 

Djoser also defeated the Libyans or Phut [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and annexed parts of their lands. Overall, his reign was marked by great technological innovation and whereby, agriculture, the arts, trade and Egypt’s civil administration all flourished. 


There were a number of Viziers in Egyptian history, though it can be no coincidence that the first known Vizier as well as the most famous one was Imhotep, Vizier to Djoser. Not only chancellor to the Pharaoh, Imhotep was reputed to be an architect, engineer, physician as well as possibly a high priest at Heliopolis. Imhotep is credited to be the designer of the Step or otherwise named, Djoser Pyramid at Saqqara. This pyramid contains a large vertical shaft under it and the complex has many similar structures that appear to have been used to store grain. The name or title, Imhotep means: ‘he that comes in peace.’ Imhotep was a renowned scholar, contributing greatly to Egyptian society. Apart from Amenhotep, he is the only other Egyptian to be deified.  

Joseph, son of Jacob (Israel), was Imhotep, of Egyptian History, Nigel Hawkins, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Although Abraham did visit Egypt, it seems more likely that this practice was introduced by Joseph-Imhotep in the third dynasty.Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. 

Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit .

Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph’s bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom).’ 


46 Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plentiful years the earth produced abundantly, 48 and he gathered up all the food of these seven years, which occurred in the land of Egypt, and put the food in the cities. He put in every city the food from the fields around it. 49 And Joseph stored up grain in great abundance, like the sand of the sea, until he ceased to measure it, for it could not be measured.

50 Before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph. Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore them to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh. “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my hardship andall my father’s house.” 52 The name of the second he called Ephraim, “For God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.” 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Manasseh meaning: ‘Forgetting, Evaporating’ from the verb (nasha), to forget.

The name Manasseh is generally seen as derived from the verb… to forget but forgetting due to “evaporation” of a memory the way water evaporates due to solar heat, or the way a principle evaporates due to interest… [describing] an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it. This verb occurs very often and can usually be translated with (1) to lift or lift up, (2) to bear or carry, and (3) to take or take away. An identical verb (or rather the same one used in a specialized way) means to loan on interest. The practice of loaning on interest causes the principal sum to slowly but surely evaporate and was prohibited under Mosaic law. A third identical verb (or again the same one) means to deceive or beguile.

The name Manasseh is probably due to a grammatical form in Hebrew that is comparable to the English present continuous. It fixes the letter (mem) to the root. That would give the name Manasseh the meaning of Forgetting. Another reason why a mem may occur in front of a root is when it comes from a particle that means “from”. Hence the name Manasseh may also mean From A Debt. This is significant because Manasseh’s brother is named Ephraim, a name with a distinctly bitter secondary meaning. Perhaps Joseph named his son From A Debt, because he figured that besides his gratitude for being rescued, he felt that either God or his family owed him a debt for tearing him away from his father.

For a meaning of the name Manasseh, Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Forgetting, Forgetfulness. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Making To Forget.

The name Ephraim meaning: ‘Two-fold Increase, Doubly Fruitful, Exhausted, Ashes’ from the verb (para), to be fruitful. From the verb (‘pr), to be depleted.

We would expect the people from Ephraim to be called (Ephraimites), but that word does not occur in the Bible. Instead, the Bible mostly speaks of sons of Ephraim (Numbers 1:32, Joshua 16:5, 1 Chronicles 9:3). But on occasion, the Ephraimites are referred to as (Ephrathites), for instance in Judges 12:5, where the men of Gilead capture strongholds opposite Ephraim arrest fugitives of Ephraim and asks them if they are Ephrathites. 

The meaning of the name Ephraim is somewhat debated: Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names and NOBSE Study Bible Name List go after Genesis 41:52, “…For […] God has made me fruitful..”. and take the name from the Hebrew verb (para), meaning to bear fruit or be fruitful:

The verb (parar) means to split, divide and usually make more, expand or multiply. This root belongs to an extended family that also contains (paras,) to break (through), (paras and parash), to spread out or declare, (paras), to break in two or divide, and (pa’ar) means to branch out or to glorify.

Noun (par) means young bull and (para) means young heifer. Note that the first letter (aleph) is believed to denote an ox-head, while its name derives from the verb, to learn or to produce thousands. The second letter, (beth) is also the word for house (or temple or stable). The familiar word “alphabet,” therefore literally means “stable of bulls” or “house of divisions” or “temple of fruitful learning”.

It’s not clear what the unused verb (‘apar) might have meant but it’s clearly not very positive and possibly has to do with being exhausted or depleted of inner strength and inherent merit. Noun (‘eper) means ashes, which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel. Noun (‘aper) means covering or bandage, which is what is applied over a limb when its inherent strength is broken.

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Two-fold Increase. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Doubly Fruitful. Taking the aleph from the Qual imperfect first person singular would yield a meaning of I Am Twice Fruitful.

It’s true that the aleph is quite a weak letter which is applied often without essentially changing the meaning of a word. But it’s perfectly conceivable, and perhaps even preferred, that father Joseph casts a wry word play in the naming of his sons.

He names his first born Manasseh (Making To Forget), because, “God has made me forget all my toil and all of my father’s house”. When his father’s house finally shows up, it becomes clear that Joseph had a hard time forgetting them and was in fact happy to see them. His second son he names Ephraim, a name with a strong connection to the word fruitfulness but equally so to the word for ashes, the symbol of worthlessness and grief. 

Perhaps Joseph was not at all happy for having been made to forget his father’s house, and deemed ‘fruitfulness in the land of affliction,’ the golden bars of a still dismal cage. Perhaps the duality of the name Ephraim does not denote a double portion of the same, but rather as a reminder that thecoin of his wealth and status had two sides.

53 The seven years of plenty that occurred in the land of Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. What he says to you, do.”

56 So when the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth.

Jospeh’s son Manasseh was born circa 1691 and Ephraim 1690 BCE. The seven years of plenty ran from 1696 to 1689 BCE, with the following years of famine during 1689 to 1682 BCE. Fourteen years of Joseph’s life from age thirty to forty-four years of age. This was no ordinary famine but a disaster of very serious consequence. The Famine Stela or Stele is an inscription in hieroglyphs, located on Sehel Island in the Nile River, which is near Aswan, Egypt. It records this very disaster and tells of a seven year period of drought and famine during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty. 

The stele is inscribed into a natural granite block with forty-two columns. There are three Egyptian deities on the top with Djoser facing them, with offerings in his outstretched arms. The account is set in the eighteenth year of 1682 BCE of Djoser’s reign, in the seventh year of the famine that had gripped Egypt and testifying of Djoser’s deep concern as the suffering and desperation of the people had grown to breaking point. 

This, in light of Joseph’s forward planning. What if none or little grain had been stored? It is at the end of seven years that the drought finally breaks and the river Nile begins to flow again.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – italicisation theirs: 

‘The Famine Stela is one of only three known inscriptions that connect the cartouche name Djeser (“lordly”) with the serekh name Netjerikhet (“divine body”) of king Djoser in one word. Therefore, it provides useful evidence for Egyptologists and historians who are involved in reconstructing the royal chronology of the Old kingdom of Egypt.’

The stress that Djoser would have felt would make sense if after seven years, Egypt had been selling grain worldwide and not just locally. Even though Joseph had stored a consecutive yearly twenty percent of the vast abundance during the seven years of plenty, the demand in the next seven years may have meant it was a close run thing regarding dwindling grain supplies as the seventh year of famine ran its course. An extension of this period into an eighth year would then have been catastrophic and would support Djoser’s alarm as evidenced on the Famine Stela. 

The World Famine Verified, Lujack Skylark – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shang Dynasty emperor Cheng Tang [of which] some Chinese historians stated his reign began in 1747 B.C. There are others who believe his reign began in 1675 B.C. Chinese emperor Cheng Tang [1st king of the dynasty]… very early in the dynasty recorded a 7 year famine verifying Joseph’s account of the 7 year global famine in Egypt [1689-1682 BCE]. (Genesis 41:57) 

Grant Jeffery wrote a book called “Signature of God” where he said the Yemen marble tablet inscription [reputed to be written at the time of the famine] about people living in a Yemenite castle during the seven years of plenty and the seven years of famine confirm[s] the Genesis account. 

He also wrote about the Yemen stone found in a rich woman’s tomb where this woman sends her [servants] to meet Joseph [who is apparently mentioned by name]!

The pygmy Woolly Mammoths on Wrangel island die out [circa] 1700 B.C…’

“Wrangel island is north of Russia… The migrations of people’s during the worldwide famine is fascinating. Some archaeologist have given the migrations of these people’s from 1700-1500 B.C. window. The migrations at 1700 B.C. makes sense since people were migrating in search of food.”

‘The Kushite kingdom in eastern Africa arises [circa] 1700 B.C. as Africans fleeing famine come together living in close knit community along the Nile river south of Egypt. Some Black tribes migrate from central Africa and settle in southern Africa fleeing from famine. Archaeologist dated their artifacts to [circa] 1700 B.C. Nordic Bronze culture in northern Europe becomes established [circa] 1700 B.C. where bronze weapons are produced used in hunting wild game. Starving Indo-Europeans from western Russia migrate to central Europe and produce bronze weapons to hunt wild game [circa] 1700 B.C. Starving Indo-European tribes invade Dravidan dominated India [circa] 1700 B.C… [and] destroy the Dravidan Mohenjo-Daro civilization… Olmecs migrate into the Yucatan Peninsula [circa] 1700 B.C. Archaeologist[s] state the Olmecs invented plumbing and the Olmecs were interested in water conservation at this time in world history.’

As the famine was worldwide it impacted Jacob and his family in Canaan. He sent all his sons, except Benjamin to Egypt to purchase grain. We have discussed Genesis forty-two to forty-six and the highly charged meetings between Joseph and his estranged brothers of twenty-two years and then seeing his father Jacob, when studying Jacob, Judah, Reuben, Simeon and Benjamin [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. For the year now is 1687 BCE, two years into the famine. One cannot forget the bitter-sweet first meeting with his little brother Benjamin and the poignant  jolt of a reminder, that Joseph would never see his mother Rachel again. 

The one resounding point that beams very bright is that even though Joseph toys with his brother’s and father’s emotions; making them sweat a lot – of which the Creator does not condemn, for does He not put us through our paces when we are in the wrong? – none was done from bitterness, revenge or hatred. There is a hint of a sense of humour on Joseph’s part for dragging out the eventual reunion and the suspense created in so doing. No, what leaps out is Joseph’s profoundly all consuming emotion of ecstatic joy at finally being reunited with his family. He harboured only love and forgiveness towards his brothers who did not really know him. Here was truly a converted man, filled with the spirit of God. Joseph was a worthy type of the future deliverer and Saviour of all humankind. With his grandfather Isaac and his distant cousin Moses, he is in a select group of people to have been given a saviour’s role in imitation of the true Saviour.

In Genesis forty-five, Joseph finally reveals himself. It says in verse three, that his brothers ‘could not answer him.’ The understatement of the Book of Genesis and perhaps the whole Bible. The word dumbstruck comes to mind. It also says the brothers were ‘dismayed at his presence.’ I bet they were. Here was a ghost that had risen before them. A man who should have either been dead, at the bottom of some hideous mine or looking like skin and bone of a man twice his age, as part of a tortuous slave gang. Yet here he was; here was their long lost brother Joseph. Brother Joseph who just won’t go away. As a youngster following them, albeit at their father’s behest and here he was again, a shadow from if not the grave, a shadow from the past following them still. A phantom who was second in power and authority of at least Lower Egypt, if not all the land. 

It is testament to Joseph that he didn’t try to punch or slap any of them, considering the looks on their faces at that moment. Joseph instead alerts them to the five years remaining of famine and invites them to live in the land of Goshen in the Nile delta, where he can provide for them and nurture their flocks and wealth. Pharaoh learns of Joseph’s brothers and provides gifts and provisions for their return journey. Joseph’s sense of humour is exhibited in verse twenty-four, when his last words to his departing brothers are: “Do not quarrel on the way.” He knew them all too well. Jacob in verse twenty-six believing Joseph to be dead, understandably became numb and fainted from the shock of what his sons told him. 

Did Jacob ever find out what his sons had done to Joseph? Did the sons of Jacob dare  to divulge their crime and did Joseph’s honour mean he would not hurt his father in such a way, nor exact any kind of revenge on his brothers. It must have always been that slight bit awkward for the brothers when in Joseph’s presence and therefore, punishment enough. Until such time* that it did come to light…

On the journey down to Egypt, the Creator speaks to Jacob reassuring him, for Jacob must have known what had been said to his grandfather Abraham [Genesis 15:13].

Genesis 46:2-4

English Standard Version

2 And God spoke to Israel in visions of the night and said, “Jacob, Jacob.” And he said, “Here I am.” 3 Then he said, “I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you into a great nation. 4 I myself will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up again, and Joseph’s hand shall close your eyes.”

In Genesis forty-seven, Pharaoh Djoser meets five of Joseph’s brothers and Jacob. It is interesting to learn of Jacob’s view of his own life.

Genesis 47:9-10

English Standard Version

9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my sojourning are 130 years. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their sojourning.” 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from the presence of Pharaoh [as one king to another].

It was an important observation to Jacob that his life in comparison with his father Isaac of 180 years and his grandfather Abraham of 175 years had been shorter and more difficult. Jacob does live longer, though he dies younger at age 147. The difficulties in his life had in large part been caused by himself and here he does seem to be in contrast again, with his family. 

We also learn that the famine was so severe that when Egyptians ran out of money, they then had to purchase grain with their livestock and when that ran out, they then sold their lands to Pharaoh. After that, they were tenant farmers as Jospeh gave them seed to plant with the agreement they would give twenty percent of their harvests to Pharaoh. Skipping to the final chapter of Genesis, we learn of the respect towards Joseph and Jacob and their status as rulers and kings shown to them from the lands of Egypt and Canaan. 

Genesis 50:1-3, 7-11, 15-26

English Standard Version

Then Joseph fell on his father’s face and wept over him and kissed him. 2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 Forty days were required for it, for that is how many are required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days.

7 So Joseph went up to bury his father. With him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 as well as all the household of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s household. Only their children, their flocks, and their herds were left in the land of Goshen. 9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen. It was a very great company. 

10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, they lamented there with a very great and grievous lamentation, and he made a mourning for his father seven days. 11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.”

Joseph’s brothers ask for his forgiveness, concerned for their own safety after Jacob dies.

15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “It may be that Joseph will hate us and pay us back for all the evil that we did to him.” 16 So they sent a message to Joseph, saying, “Your father gave this command before he died: 17 ‘Say to Joseph, “Please forgive the transgression* of your brothers and their sin, because they did evil to you.”’ And now, please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.” Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18 His brothers also came and fell down before him and said, “Behold, we are your servants.” 19 But Joseph said to them, “Do not fear, for am I in the place of God? 20 As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today. 21 So do not fear; I will provide for you and your little ones.” Thus he comforted them and spoke kindly to them.

The New Egyptian Chronology – A revised Egyptian chronology results in startling new archeological discoveries which authenticate Old Testament histories, David Reagan – emphasis & bold mine:

Perhaps the most amazing revelation to be found in Rohl’s book relates to Joseph. The excavations at Tel ed-Daba (Avaris in Bible times) have revealed a large Egyptian-style palace dating from the early 13th Dynasty… Rohl concludes that this must have been the retirement palace of Joseph, built in the midst of his people. In 1987 the excavators began to uncover a large pyramid-style tomb adjacent to the palace. They discovered that the tomb had been carefully emptied in antiquity. There was no evidence of the ransacking that characterizes the work of grave robbers. Further, they discovered the head of a very large statue of the man who had been buried in the tomb. The head is most unusual in that it displays very un-Egyptian type features like a mushroom shaped coiffure or wig. The figure is also clean shaven. Most remarkably, this person is wrapped in a coat of many colors! Rohl concludes that this is a statue of Joseph…’

22 So Joseph remained in Egypt, he and his father’s house. Joseph lived 110** years. 23 And Joseph saw Ephraim’s children of the third generation. The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were counted as Joseph’s own. 24 And Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die, but God will visit you and bring you up out of this land to the land that he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.” 25 Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here.” 26 So Joseph died, being 110 years old. They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

Joseph died in 1616 BCE. Most of his brothers had already died shortly before him, beginning with Simeon in 1630 BCE; with only three remaining brothers who died not long after Joseph, namely Naphtali, Benjamin and lastly, Levi in 1611 BCE.

Exodus 13:18-19

English Standard Version

18 But God led the people around by the way of the wilderness toward the Red Sea. And the people of Israel went up out of the land of Egypt equipped for battle. 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the sons of Israel solemnly swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones with you from here.”

There is an interesting parallel between Joseph and his descendant born exactly one hundred and fifty years later, Joshua from the tribe of Ephraim, the successor to Moses.

Numbers 13:8

English Standard Version

… from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea [Joshua] the son of Nun;

Joshua 24:29-32

English Standard Version

29 After these things Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being 110** years old. 30 And they buried him in his own inheritance at Timnath-serah, which is in the hill country of Ephraim, north of the mountain of Gaash. 31 Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua and had known all the work that the Lord did for Israel.

32 As for the bones of Joseph, which the people of Israel brought up from Egypt, they buried them at Shechem, in the piece of land that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of money. It became an inheritance of the descendants of Joseph [located in Samaria of the tribe of Ephraim].

Jacob and Joseph are included in the faith chapter of the Bible. The importance of Jacob’s blessing for Joseph’s sons was the beginning and fulfilment of the special birthright blessing of great national prosperity and preeminence for Abraham’s descendants that was filtered to his son Isaac, over Ishmael, then Jacob over Esau, then Joseph instead of Reuben and Simeon and split between his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Destiny did not decree for the peoples of Germany, the Jews, Northern Ireland or Wales to be the recipients of the principal birthright blessing. 

Hebrews 11:21-22

English Standard Version

21 By faith Jacob, when dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, bowing in worship over the head of his staff. 22 By faith Joseph, at the end of his life, made mention of the exodus of the Israelites and gave directions concerning his bones.

Prior to Jacob’s death, Jacob blessed his grandsons. Jacob blesses Joseph, yet the specifics are not given to him, but rather his two grandsons; undoubtedly due to the Eternal’s inspiration. Manasseh and Ephraim are youngsters according to the account. In fact it would appear that not long after Jacob’s arrival in Egypt in 1687 BCE, he blessed the lads, so that their ages^ appear to be about five or six for Manasseh and four or five for Ephraim. 

Genesis 48:2-20

English Standard Version

2… it was told to Jacob, “Your son Joseph has come to you.” Then Israel summoned his strength and sat up in bed. 3 And Jacob said to Joseph, “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, 4 and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a company [multitude] of peoples…’ 5 And now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt [circa 1691/1690 BCE] before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, as Reuben and Simeon are.

The destinies of Reuben and Simeon were radically altered when they forfeited their right to the birthright blessings through transgressions. The small nations of Northern Ireland and Wales are testimony of their alternative, yet actual histories and what might have been.

8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons, he said, “Who are these?” 9 Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me here [in Egypt].” And he said, “Bring them to me, please, that I may bless them.” 10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. So Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them. 11 And Israel said to Joseph, “I never expected to see your face; and behold, God has let me see your offspring also.” 12 Then Joseph removed them from his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth. 13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near him. 14 And Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands (for Manasseh was the firstborn). 

Different translations state that the lads were either between Joseph’s knees or on his lap. Others, that they were on Jacob’s knees. The one point in common is that they were very young, as in infants or very small boys^ of pre-school age. Due to the understandable order that Joseph presented them as eldest and youngest to Jacob, Jacob had to cross his hands like a saltire – of which the significance and symbolism will be apparent as we progress – as Jacob understood, as had happened repeatedly in his family’s line, that the youngest was being elevated to eldest.

15 And he blessed Joseph and said, “The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day, 16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the boys; and in them let my name [Israel] be carried on, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude [H7230 – rob; abundance, great number, numerous, many] in the midst [H7130 – qereb] of the earth.”

We arrive at a small word with massive ramifications. A major clue to the location of Joseph’s descendants has been there all along. Even so, it has remained hidden. Its clarification is an important step in identifying Manasseh and Ephraim. Yet identity researchers and experts have been so distracted by the teaching that England – and  by extension, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, [Scotland] – is Ephraim, it has not been given second consideration or thought. 

The Hebrew word for midst can be translated as ‘among, within’ and ‘inwards.’ Its meaning includes, ‘inner part, middle, the centre’ whether in a literal, geographic sense or in a figurative sense as in the ‘heart’ and core. The significance of this is revealed, when an atlas of the world is looked upon and instead of a European or Asia centric photo, drawing or rendition as is most common, an Americas centric map is viewed.  

For there, between the continents of Europe to the east and Asia to the west sit the continents of North and South America ‘in the midst of the earth.’ Sitting astride this vast land mass are the descendants of Joseph in the nations of Canada and the United States of America. 

Not only do these nations occupy a geographic centre on the globe, they exert an influence on the world that figuratively is the heart or centre of our global civilisation. As Joseph was separated from his brothers, so to have the descendants of Jospeh been separated from their brother nations [Genesis 49:26].

17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him,and he took his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, “Not this way, my father; since this one is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head.” 

19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know.[Manasseh] also shall become a people [a nation], and he also shall be great [H1431 – gadal]. 

The Hebrew word used for great is different from the Hebrew word used for great in connection with Ishmael.

Genesis 17:20

English Standard Version

As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful [H6509 – parah: bear fruit, grow] and multiply [H7235 – rabah: become great, numerous, increase greatly, enlarge] him greatly [to a great degree]. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great [H1419 – gadowl: older, mighty, important, proud, insolent] nation.

It is noteworthy that Ishmael was to become a great people like Isaac’s descendants. The subtle difference is that Ishmael was to act like a firstborn, of which he was literally entitled, though he had a tendency to lean towards a self-importance that was proud and selfish. The German nation, thanks to their leaders and not always a reflection of themselves have displayed this negative edge to their inherited greatness during their history [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael].

The Hebrew word great used for Manasseh, doe not carry this slight negative edge. It is translated as ‘magnify, grow, nourish up and grow up.’ Interestingly, it has the connotation of becoming ‘great or important, make powerful, do great things, to grow up.’ We touched upon in the previous chapter how two nations of the sons of Jacob could experience an influx of immigration way beyond their current populations. One was New Zealand, which could easily accommodate millions more people. The other nation is Canada; which could receive tens of millions more people. It may well still be growing into its greatness. If Germany as a prophesied ‘great’ nation has a population of some eighty million people, then it is conceivable that Canada may grow to a population well beyond fifty million people and upwards towards one hundred million people.

Nevertheless, his younger brother shall be greater [H1431 – gadal] than he, and his offspring [descendants, seed] shall become a multitude [H4393 – mlo] of nations.” 

The Hebrew word for multitude can be translated as ‘fulness, all that is therein, handful(s).’ It means ‘that which fills, mass, entire contents, full length.’ It is speaking of many more people than that of Manasseh. A population say, more in line with the United States of America. 

20 So he blessed them that day, saying, “By you Israel will pronounce blessings, saying, ‘God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh.’” Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.

There are two vital points or keys that need to be remembered and discussed in depth regarding Manasseh and Ephraim. The first is a little unique and I have not seen it discussed anywhere else in books, papers or on the internet. It is the fact that as Joseph’s inheritance was divided into two between his sons; the tribe of Manasseh also divided into two, as we have discussed in part already. As Manasseh’s name means forgotten, it is an irony that Biblical identity researchers have forgotten this salient point.

In the original allotment of land in Canaan, the half tribe of East Manasseh chose to live on the east side of the river Jordan with Gad and Reuben. The remaining half tribe of West Manasseh chose to dwell with Ephraim. We will look at this in detail and the scriptures supporting Manasseh receiving two inheritances. This part of the puzzle may have helped identity researchers realise more quickly than they are doing, that equating Ephraim with England and Manasseh with the United States, doesn’t just go contrary to their both being together in the midst of the earth; or that Manasseh is suddenly more powerful than Ephraim but that, who and where on earth, are the missing half tribe of West Manasseh? 

The second point is to do with the phrasing ‘a multitude of nations.’ The Israelite identity movement, driven by its biggest following, British Israel have been so taken with the height of the British Empire some one hundred plus years ago – when the movement was at its most active – and its descendant Commonwealth of nations, they have not seen the devolvement of England’s power and stature before their very eyes and the evolving of the United states’s power. They have only ever seen an England of many colonial parts and a United States, though enormous, powerful, prosperous beyond measure and a great nation, still only as one giant singular nation. The former colonies of England are extensions that now give it no power. Comparing England and the United States highlights that something is very wrong with saying England is mighty Ephraim and the United States is the lesser birthright recipient. For the scripture says in verse twenty: ‘Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.’ The United States was founded on the saying on their great seal: E pluribus unum – Latin for “Out of many, one.” 

Before we study the prophecies and blessings given to Joseph’s descendants by Jacob, Moses and Deborah, we will now look at the meaning of a multitude of nations more closely and the predominant view that it refers to the British Empire as well as the radical view – as deemed by the conservative status quo of the Israelite identity community – that maybe the fifty individual and distinct law making and self-governing states of America are in fact the Biblical fulfilment of an astounding prophecy given 3,500 years before they began to dramatically unfold. 

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna 1989, 2006 pages 176, 183 & 185 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The argument that the United States is Israel basically consists of the following four points. 

First, some of the… prophecies of physical blessings and greatness to Abraham’s descendants… were not completely fulfilled by Israel anciently

Second, the house of Israel and the house of Judah were separate and never reunited. 

Third, prophecies concerning the house of Israel in the end-time show them to be in captivity, which means they must exist in our time as an identifiable people (and distinct from the Jews). 

And fourth… the greatest nation on earth in our time would not be ignored in Bible prophecy.’

Though I disagree with the second point as discussed in Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin, the other three are real and vital proofs of an Israelite identity for nations today and not that the tribes are scattered amongst the nations forever as non-entities. As we learned in Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech, a gigantic nation like China cannot be dismissed or ignored from any Biblical investigation or identification. Similarly, the greatest nation in humanity’s history cannot be ignored or dismissed from a rigorous Biblical examination or explanation. For if we can not correctly identity these two nations, then one may as well close one’s Bible and never read it again. Yet, that has very nearly happened as the identity of the United States has not been understood until very recently.

‘… Jacob was promised his progeny would become “a nation and a company (qahal) of nations”… Ephraim… would become “a fullness (melo) of nations”… the word qahal, “company”… is used of armies or assemblies and refers to a single political unit. The plural goiim, “nations”… does not mean multiple political states (as in “British Commonwealth of Nations”). Rather goiim means peoples or tribes or ethnic groups… Ephraim would become one political entity… consisting of multiple ethnic groups… better rendered “company of peoples”… [or a union of states]… “United States” means in English, literally, a “company of political states,” and “state” is, of course, used synonymously in English for “nation.” Therefore “United States” is, by a pun, “company of nations” in its very name… the fifty states in the United States are not independent, but then neither were the goiim or “nations” in the earlier fulfilment of “company of nations,” the ancient house of Israel. This I saw as the point missed by Anglo-Israelites.’ 

I strongly concur with Greg Doudna and his insightfulness. The United States is the prophesied company of peoples. Out of many, one. This phrase very much applies to the United States of America and its population genesis and continued evolving demographic. It is not indicative of the nation of England in any shape or form. It was shockingly, nearly fifty years ago that Doudna impressively recognised the truth regarding Ephraim, if not Manasseh. Yet today, very few people attach the identity of the United States with Ephraim. Why? 

The United States in Prophecy: The Case for Identifying the United States with Ephraim (not Manasseh), Greg Doudna, 1974: 

‘If Ephraim really has become many separate and sovereign peoples, then Ephraim = Great Britain, Ephraim = Canada, Ephraim = Australia, Ephraim = New Zealand, and Ephraim = other English settlers in British colonies worldwide… then Australia for example, is as much Ephraim as is Great Britain. Then when Hosea and other prophets speak of “Ephraim” doing this or doing that, just who is meant – will Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand simultaneously “call to Egypt” and “go to Assyria” (Hosea 7:11), to cite but one of many similar scriptures? 

Those who support the traditional view must deal with the inconsistency of holding that Ephraim is the Britsh Commonwealth and then applying prophecies concerning Ephraim toward only one of that “company of nations” instead of all of them… The other settlements of Britain are Manassite… The fact Britain has colonies in no way proves she is a company of nations. Britain is a single nation in the same way that other Israelite nations with colonies are still single nations. 

Which land is a land of “coasts”… the United States… has one of the longest usable coastlines of any nation in the world… The… Hebrew word yam is translated “sea” and “west.” The “isles of the sea” or “coasts of the sea”… can easily be translated “coasts of the west.”’

Though the author rightly highlights the inconsistency, untenableness and nonsensicalness of equating four different nations all as Ephraim, he then forgets – pun intended – that Manasseh splitting into four or more nations is not scripturally supported either. This highlights the wider error as we have discussed in the previous three chapters of mis-identifying nations not descended from Jacob as Israelite and then apportioning the remaining English speaking nations as all descended from Joseph. Rather than the correct understanding that all the English speaking nations are the individual Israelite tribes today.

Genesis 49:22-26

Evangelical Heritage Version

22 Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a spring. His branches run over the wall. 

The image of a vine’s branches spreading like tentacles is like the small trickle of English colonists that eventually became a torrent of people arriving in conquest of the American continent, with the inexorable march westwards after the first English settlement of the Virginia Colony Jamestown, in 1607 and the Pilgrims of the Plymouth Colony in 1620. It also refers to the blessings of America, extending outwards and overflowing to other nations such as the rebuilding of Germany and Japan after World War II.

23 The archers have fiercely attacked him. They shot at him and harassed him, 24 but his bow remained steady. His arms and hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, by the name of the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel…

The fledgling and vulnerable colonies were able to navigate the conflicts on American soil and win those crucial in their survival, including the American Revolution from 1775 to 1783, the Indian Wars of 1775 to 1890, the French War from 1798 to 1800, the Great Britain War of 1812 to 1815, the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848, the Spanish-American War in 1898 and the most potentially devastating conflict of all, the American Civil War during 1861 to 1865. 

This war had more at stake than historians realise, for there was more than the question of the survival of the Federal United States and its splitting into two, with a Confederate South. For the people of the South are the half tribe of West Manasseh and the North, Ephraim. It was a fight for sibling supremacy and the fulfilment of prophecy. This marked divide is understood when one appreciates the United States is in fact one and a half tribes. This is why the Bible calls these peoples either Ephraim – after the dominant tribe – or Joseph, as the United States comprise two peoples from two tribes. Canada is technically half a tribe and called Manasseh, Gilead or Machir in the Bible, while its French component was explained in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon. 

Therefore, the half tribe of East Manasseh is the nation of Canada and the tribe of Ephraim with the half tribe of West Manasseh, is the nation of the United States of America.

25 by the God of your father, who will help you, by the Almighty, who will bless you with blessings from heaven [H8064 – shamayim: the abode of God] above [H5920 – al: on high, the most High, God], blessings from the deep that lies below, blessings from the breasts and from the womb. 

Jacob is predicting the physical blessing of many progeny and also spiritual prosperity. This is a verse that is overlooked or ignored when studying the American psyche. Explanations are sought for America’s religiosity – especially the American South – yet the simple answer is that Americans are a more believing peoples by nature and through the Creator’s design.

United States one of the most religious countries, Diane Swanbrow – emphasis & bold mine: 

The United States remains among the most religious nations in the world, according to a worldwide study by the University [of Michigan]. 

About 46 percent of American adults attend church at least once a week, not counting weddings, funerals and christenings, compared with 14 percent of adults in Great Britain, 8 percent in France, 7 percent in Sweden and 4 percent in Japan. Moreover, 58 percent of Americans say they often think about the meaning and purpose of life, compared with 25 percent of British, 26 percent of Japanese and 31 percent of… Germans, the study says.’

Sixty percent of Americans say that religion is ‘very important’ to them; whereas only  twenty-one percent of Western Europeans think the same and more than eighty percent of ‘American adults call themselves Christians’ with more than a third of adult Americans claiming to be ‘born-again.’

“While traditional religious belief and participation in organized religion have steadily declined in most advanced industrial nations, especially in Western Europe, this is not the case in the United States,” says Ronald Inglehart, a researcher at the Institute for Social Research (ISR) and director of the ISR World Values Surveys, which were conducted in more than 80 nations between 1981 and 2001.

Some possible reasons cited for the results: Religious refugees set the tone long ago in America; religious people tend to have more children than non-religious groups; and the United States has a less comprehensive social welfare system, prompting people to look to religion for help.

Inglehart and [Pippa] Norris, a political scientist at Harvard University, also examined the reasons the United States remains an “outlier” in religiosity among postindustrial nations. “The U.S. was founded by religious refugees who attached so much importance to religion that they were willing to risk their lives in a dangerous new environment in order to practice their religion, and to some extent this outlook has been successfully transmitted to succeeding waves of immigrants.”

Their conclusion is that the more ‘self-perceived vulnerability, the greater the importance of religion.’ Though ‘America seems an anomaly: a rich society in which people worship, pray, and believe, as if they lived in a poverty-stricken nation.’ 

‘The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation’s average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.’ 

The more religious mindset of the United States should come as no surprise, for it was founded with a tolerance for freedom to worship unlike any other nation. The aim was to also eliminate any dominant denomination of Christianity from becoming an official or national religion.  

The U.S. was founded as a Christian nation – here’s more proof, Bryan Fischer, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘At the time of the founding, 99.8% of the population of the fledgling country identified themselves, to one degree of sincerity or another, as followers of Jesus Christ. And 98.4% identified themselves as Protestants. Catholics represented 1.4% of the population, and the other 0.2% were followers of Judaism. Virtually 100% of those living in America at the time of its founding were adherents of the Judeo-Christian tradition. 

This truth is reflected in our First Amendment, which… was designed specifically to protect the free exercise of the Christian faith in the new nation, and to prevent competition among the various Christian denominations. It did this by prohibiting Congress from picking one Christian denomination and making it the official church of the United States. [Individual]States, on the other hand, were free to establish Christian denominations in their individual states, and somewhere between six and ten of the original 13 states did so. 

As [Joseph] Story writes, “The real object of the First Amendment was not to countenance much less to advance Mohammedanism, or Judaism, or infidelity by prostrating Christianity, but to exclude all rivalry among Christian sects and to prevent any national ecclesiastical patronage of the national government.” 

… Maryland’s first state constitution, enacted in 1776, specifically granted religious freedom to every denomination of Protestants and Catholics, i.e., to followers of the Christian faith. Article 33 of that first Constitution read this way: 

“That, as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to him; all persons, professing the Christian religion, are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty… wherefore no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate on account of his religious persuasion or profession, or for his religious practice… yet the Legislature may, in their discretion, lay a general and equal tax for the support of the Christian religion.” 

Article 55 laid down the following requirement for anyone who wanted to serve in public office in the newly established state: 

“That every person, appointed to any office… shall… take the following oath: I… do swear, that I do not hold myself bound in allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and that I will be faithful, and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland; and shall also subscribe a declaration of his belief in the Christian religion.” 

In other words, no one but Christians were allowed to hold public office. Now Maryland’s constitution has undergone subsequent revisions, but still to this day it requires “a declaration of belief in the existence of GOD” as a qualification for holding elected office.’ 

26 The blessings of your father are greater than the blessings of my parents, greater than the treasures of the ancient hills. They will rest on the head of Joseph, on the forehead of him who is elevated above [set apart from] his brothers.

Jacob is telling Joseph that the blessing he has passed to Joseph is considerably greater than that which was given to him by his father Isaac and that the proof is in the difference between his inheritance and that of his brothers. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Far from being an isolated depository of utterly alien dictums, Israel was the melting pot and refinery of the greatest traditions the world had come up with (Psalm 12:6). Israel was never intended to be anything other than a phenomenon from which every family mentioned in Genesis 10 would actively derive blessings, right away and from the “family-level” up (Genesis 12:3). Long before it was formally established, Israel was an international project; a USA of its days, with myriads of cultural and economic tributaries…’

Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States: 

“We find ourselves in the peaceful possession of the fairest portion of the Earth, as regards fertility of soil, extent of territory, and salubrity of climate… We … find ourselves the legal inheritors of these fundamental blessings. We toiled not in the acquirement or the establishment of them.”  

The United States’ economy is the largest in the world as measured by nominal Gross Domestic Product – and has been since 1890. Its 2019 GDP was $21.43 trillion, being some 24% share of the global economy. The biggest contributor to its GDP is the economy’s service sector which includes finance, real estate, insurance, professional and business services and healthcare. The United States has an open economy, ‘facilitating flexible business investment and foreign direct investment in the country. It is the world’s dominant geopolitical power and is able to maintain a large external national debt as the producer of the world’s primary reserve currency.’ Although America’s population is only 4.2% of the world’s total, the United States holds 29.4% of the total wealth of the world, the largest share held by any country. The United States ranks first in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020. 

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in American global shipments during 2021.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$239.8 billion 
  2. Machinery including computers: $209.3 billion
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $185.4 billion 
  4. Vehicles: $122.2 billion 
  5. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $91.7 billion 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $89.1 billion 
  7. Gems, precious metals: $82.3 billion 
  8. Pharmaceuticals: $78 billion 
  9. Plastics, plastic articles: $74.3 billion 
  10. Organic chemicals: $42.9 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 58.6% since 2020. In second place for improving export sales were pharmaceuticals via a 45% gain. America’s shipments of gems and precious metals posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 37.5% year over year, propelled by higher international sales of silver, gold and platinum.’

Canada had $1.74 trillion in GDP in 2019, rounding out the top ten economies in the world at number ten. ‘Canada has a well developed energy extraction sector, with the world’s third largest proven oil reserves. Canada also has impressive manufacturing and services sectors, based mostly in urban areas near the U.S. border.’ Canada’s free trade relationship with the United States means that three-quarters of all its exports head to the United States market each year. Canada’s close economic ties to the United States  means it has grown largely in parallel to the world’s most powerful economy.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Canadian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$119.9 billion 
  2. Vehicles: $45.8 billion 
  3. Machinery including computers: $33 billion 
  4. Gems, precious metals: $24.3 billion 
  5. Wood: $22.6 billion
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $16.9 billion 
  7. Ores, slag, ash: $13.3 billion 
  8. Electrical machinery, equipment: $12.6 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $12.2 billion 
  10. Aircraft, spacecraft: $10.5 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 74.1% since 2019. In second place for improving export sales was wood which was up by 68.1%. Canada’s shipments of aluminum posted the third-fastest gain in value thanks to a 46.1% increase year over year.’ 

Canadian Flag 1868 – 1921

The blessings afforded to the sons of Jacob, not just Joseph, are evident by the statistics of the world’s wealthiest nations. For instance – based on 2018 figures and – according to market research company New World Wealth, the world had accumulated $215 trillion in private wealth in 2018, a 12% increase over the previous year. ‘Incredibly, the vast majority of this wealth – about 73.5% – is held by just 10 countries.’ Of those ten nations, four of them are descendants of Jacob and three more of the remaining six are descended from Abraham in Germany and his two brothers Haran in France and Nahor with Italy. 

Canadian Flag 1922 – 1957

The United States was the number one wealthiest country in the world with $62.584 trillion, the United Kingdom was at fourth with $9.919 trillion, Canada at number eight with $6.393 trillion and Australia at nine with $6.142 trillion. Adding New Zealand’s net wealth of $1.5 trillion, the Celtic-Saxon-Viking nations possessed a combined wealth of $86.538 trillion, which equated to 40.25% share of the entire world’s wealth for only six percent of the world population. An economic influence and prosperity well beyond their relative population size. 

Moses confirmed the spectacular prosperity as foretold by Jacob in his prophecy for Joseph. 

Deuteronomy 33:13-17

Evangelical Heritage Version

13 Concerning Joseph he said: His land is blessed by the Lord: blessed with the best gifts from the heavens, blessed with dew and with the deep waters hidden below, 14 blessed with the best gifts produced by the sun, blessed with the best gifts yielded by the seasons, 15 blessed with the best crops from the ancient mountains, blessed with the best gifts from the everlasting hills, 16 blessed with the best gifts of the earth and its fullness, blessed with the favor of the one who was dwelling in the burning bush. May all these come on the head of Joseph, on the forehead of the one set apart from his brothers.  

Both Canada and the United States are breadbasket nations providing massive food surpluses. Canada, is the fourth most important food provider in the world. The Canadian Prairies, comprised of the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan are vital to the world for their grain production. The region’s mainstay is agriculture and industries process the agricultural produce. Main crops cultivated include durum wheat, canola, barley, oats, lentils, brassica and assorted horticultural products, with also the farming of sheep, cattle and poultry. 

The United States is the second most important food provider in the world. The state of California is a massive contributor to the total agricultural produce of the United States  and accounts for 12.8% of the country’s agricultural yield. Most of this produce comes from the San Joaquin Valley. For instance, the county is the single biggest producer of almonds worldwide, with production constituting 70% of the total global almond yield and supply.

In the top ten nations with the most Natural Resources, the United States ranks seventh. Mining is an integral industry in the United States. In 2015, total metal and coal reserves in the country were estimated to be worth $109.6 billion. The United States has been the leading producer of coal for decades and it accounts for just over 30% of global coal reserves. Total natural resources for the United States are an astounding estimated $45 trillion, almost 90% of which comprises timber and coal. Other major resources include substantial reserves of copper, gold, oil and natural gas deposits. 

Canada is third in the world. The vast territory of Canada has an estimated $33.2 trillion worth of commodities, is a major exporter of energy, with the third largest oil deposits – 13% global share – after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. Deposits include industrial minerals, such as gypsum, limestone, rock salt, and potash, as well as energy minerals, such as coal and uranium. Metals include copper, lead, nickel, zinc, cobalt, cadmium and precious metals like gold, platinum and silver. Canada is the leading supplier of natural gas and phosphate in the world and is the third largest exporter of timber.  

Canada and the United States rank in the top ten technologically advanced or driven economies in the world. Canada at number eight has a highly efficient technology sector and continues to strongly encourage science and research. The country is responsible for creating resourceful interactive machines and chip less credit and debit cards. 

The United States is second in the world, being a significant contributor in terms of technology and development. Aviation, nuclear energy, pharmaceuticals, defence systems and telecommunications have all been inventions by the world’s only hyper power. It has produced the world’s biggest technology companies like Google, Facebook, Apple, Intel, IBM, Microsoft and Amazon; completely transforming modern society and the way we live. The United States ranked third in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, after Switzerland and Sweden. 

The United States tops the top ten countries with the largest gold reserves holdings, with 8,133.5 tonnes – nearly as much as the second to fifth placed nations of Germany, Italy, France and Russia combined  – amounting to 77.5% of foreign reserves, the third highest allocation. The majority of United States gold is held at Fort Knox in Kentucky, with the remainder held at the Philadelphia Mint, the Denver Mint, the San Francisco Assay Office and the West Point Bullion Depository. ‘Which state loves gold the most? Well, the state of Texas went so far as to create its very own Texas Bullion Depositoryto safeguard investors’ gold.’

17Like a firstborn bull, he has majesty, and his horns are the horns of a wild ox [H7214 – r’em: great auroch, unicorn]. With them he will gore the peoples, all the peoples, to the ends of the earth. Such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. Such are the thousands of Manasseh.

No one does razzamatazz or pomp and ceremony like America does. It exudes a pride and power like no other nation on earth. This is why Moses likens Joseph to the extinct giant auroch bull or the otherwise mythical, or possibly only extinct, unicorn. The United States of America’s growth from a new born nation only two hundred and forty-six years ago to fully fledged nation only just approaching middle age has been spectacular and a phenomena never before seen; standing as a clear witness to the truth of the words anciently promised to Abraham and his seed through Joseph. 

Mark Lane says: ‘The reference [by] Moses to the wild ox has caused some observers to associate the star sign Taurus with the [west] side of the Israelite camp [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The constellation Taurus prominently features two giant horns as if thrusting upward in attack. The constellation is almost completely above the ecliptic, indicating it is a righteous person or nation. The sign does not reveal the rest of the bull’s body. Could this mean the nation never ‘sees their tail’? In other words, its days are shortened? Or, its days as a righteous nation are shortened? Or both?’ 

America uses the symbol of the Bull – Wall Street has a symbol of a large Bull.  

The United States possesses the most powerful and technologically advanced military capability, that is typically, approximately ten or more years ahead of any other country’s development. Annually, America spends more on its military than the next seven highest ranking countries in military spending combined. Making up more than a third of global military spending, it is the foremost military power in the world and internationally the leading political, cultural and scientific force. 

This power has allowed America to use its horns so-to-speak in getting its way diplomatically and politically, since the First World War.  

United States economic power is demonstrated by the fact that its GDP is more than the other developed G7 nations of Japan, Italy, France, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom, combined. 

Moses speaks of the physical number dominance of Ephraim over Manasseh. Those who subscribe to England being Ephraim and America being Manasseh have yet to successfully and rationally explain this verse. 

The population of the United states is 334,862,755 people and Canada has 38,398,1521 people. If we include the American South – the half tribe of West Manasseh – with the people in Canada of British and Irish heritage, the half tribe of East Manasseh, they are still outnumbered by the peoples of Ephraim descended from British and Irish stock through the numerical superiority of the eastern, northern and western States of America. 

According to World Population Live: ‘Unlike China and India, the United States population is expected to continue to grow throughout the century with no foreseeable decline. By 2067, the U.S. population is expected to surpass 400 million people.’ It is worth under scoring the point earlier regarding Canada’s potential population explosion. WPL – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The population is growing at a steady pace and, based on current projections will surpass 50 million by 2070. Canada has one of the fastest growth rates of any G7 nation, growing faster than many other industrialized countries. 

Canada’s growth rate has been anywhere between 0.8% and 1.2% for the past ten years. While Canada’s fertility rate is 1.53 births per woman, below the population replacement rate, the population continues to grow as migration plays an increasing role in the population. Canada’s net migration rate is 6.375 per 1,000 people, the eighth-highest in the world. Unlike many other countries, Canada is “underpopulated” and celebrates a growing population. There are many job vacancies to be filled and more people means more economic growth and prosperity for Canada.’

Judges 5:7, 13-14

English Standard Version

7 The villagers ceased in Israel; they ceased to be until I arose; I, Deborah, arose as a mother in Israel…13 Then down marched the remnant of the noble; the people of the Lord marched down for me against the mighty. 14 From Ephraim their root [H3828 – sheresh:  bottom, deep, heel] they marched down into the valleyfrom Machir marched [descended] down the commanders [H2710 – chaqaq – governor, law giver]…

As discussed in previous chapters, certain tribes joined the Judge Deborah in the fight against the Canaanites more readily than others depending on how directly it impinged on their territories. Deborah’s headquarters were located in Ephraim, so it would have been unlikely for them not to have given support. Manasseh had one son Machir, a name which can also be used in describing the descendants of Manasseh from Gilead, the half tribe of East Manasseh. 

Grand Union flag of 1775 with the Union Jack – union of Jacob’s sons – of Judah in the canton. 

The verse containing Ephraim includes Amalek. As we have discussed Amalek in depth [refer Chapter XXIX Esau], but not specifically this verse, it is worth comparing it in different translations as the English Standard version decided to completely miss the word Amalek out from its translation. 

Judges 5:14

American Standard Version

Out of Ephraim came down they whose root is in Amalek…

New International Reader’s Version

Some came from the part of Ephraim where some Amalekites lived…

Young’s Literal Translation

Out of Ephraim their root [is] against Amalek…

New English Translation

They came from Ephraim, who uprooted Amalek…

New Century Version

They came from Ephraim in the mountains of Amalek.

The tribe of Ephraim included territory lived in by a residue of Amalek. A people who existed before Esau’s grandson with the same name and are related to the Horites. In fact, the Amalekites are traceable to the antediluvian ruler Lamech. Not Lamech, the father of Noah, but evil Lamech, descended from Cain. The Amalekites were Nephilim related and a line of Elioud giants. Esau’s posterity intermarried with Amalek and descendants exist to this day.  

The Betsy Ross flag of 1776 with a circle of stars on a blue background in the canton, very similar to the current European Union flag. 

Certain scattered Jews have this ancestry and the Bible is indicating that they have a presence in Ephraim. There are a significant number of Jews in the United States, with approximately six to seven million people, particularly in the northeast, where the old family wealth and political leverage is located that wields the real power and control  in America.

Numbers 26:28, 35-37, 29-34

English Standard Version

28 The sons of Joseph according to their clans: Manasseh and Ephraim. 

35 These are the sons of Ephraim according to their clans: of Shuthelah [noise of breaking], the clan of the Shuthelahites; of Becher [young camel], the clan of the Becherites; of Tahan [camp], the clan of the Tahanites. 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran [watcher], the clan of the Eranites. 

37 These are the clans of the sons of Ephraim as they were listed, 32,500.

29 The sons of Manasseh: of Machir [H4353 – Makiyr: sold], the clan of the Machirites; and Machir was the father of Gilead [H1568 – Gil’ad: rocky region]; of Gilead, the clan of the Gileadites. 

1 Chronicles 7:14-17

English Standard Version

14… Manasseh… his Aramean concubine bore… Machir the father of Gilead… 16 And Maacah the wife of Machir bore a son, and she called his name Peresh; and the name of his brother was Sheresh; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem. 17 The son of Ulam: Bedan.

30 These are the sons of Gilead: of Iezer [no help], the clan of the Iezerites; of Helek [portion], the clan of the Helekites; 31 and of Asriel [I shall be prince of God], the clan of the Asrielites; and of Shechem [back, sholuder], the clan of the Shechemites; 32 and of Shemida [wise], the clan of the Shemidaites; and of Hepher [a well], the clan of the Hepherites. 33 Now Zelophehad [H6765 – Tslophchad: first born]the son of Hepher had no sons, but daughters. And the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah

34 These are the clans of Manasseh, and those listed were 52,700.

1 Chronicles 5:23-26

English Standard Version

23 The members of the half-tribe of Manasseh lived in the land. They were very numerous from Bashan to Baal-hermon, Senir, and Mount Hermon. 

24 These were the heads of their fathers’ houses: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty warriors, famous men, heads of their fathers’ houses. 25 But they broke faith with the God of their fathers, and whored after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them. 26 So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day. 

Part of the puzzle in understanding why Manasseh split into two is the fact that the tribe of Judah and Manasseh intermarried early in Israel’s history. Something that is easily missed or glossed over. It explains why the half tribe of East Manasseh today as Canada, is such a resolutely patriotic, supporter and defender of the English throne and Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. For many Canadians will have more English – the tribe of Judah and Pharez – heritage and blood than they realise. 

This injection of Judah’s line has created a marked distinction between American Southerners and Canadians. Many future Canadians fled the United States and crossed the northern border on grounds of differences in political ideology. 

They espoused loyalism to the Crown rather than the rebellion of a Republic. In fact, after the American Civil War, many Confederate generals fled to Canada as did their President, Jefferson Davis of Welsh and Scottish forebears. Canadians have a different sense of humour, more in keeping with the English than that of Americans.

The flags of the Canadian provinces and territories. Notice the preponderance of British [Judah & Benjamin] symbols, the four Union Jacks, the three English St George’s Cross flags, the two English Passant Lions, the Scottish Rampant Lion and the Scottish Saltire.

1 Chronicles 2:4-5, 21-23

4 [Judah’s] daughter-in-law Tamar also bore him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.

5 The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.

21 Afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was sixty years old, andshe bore him Segub.22 And Segub fathered Jair, who had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead. 23 But Geshur and Aram took from them Havvoth-jair, Kenath, and its villages, sixty towns. All these were descendants of Machir, the father of Gilead.

1 Chronicles 12:16-22

English Standard Version

16 And some of the men of Benjamin and Judah came to the stronghold to David [descendant of Hezron]. 17 David went out to meet them and said to them, “If you have come to me in friendship to help me, my heart will be joined to you… 

18… Amasai, chief of the thirty… said, “We are yours, O David, and with you, O son of Jesse! Peace, peace to you, and peace to your helpers! For your God helps you.” Then David received them and made them officers of his troops.

19 Some of the men of Manasseh deserted to David when he came with the Philistines for the battle against Saul. (Yet he did not help them, for the rulers of the Philistines took counsel and sent him away, saying, “At peril to our heads he will desert to his master Saul.”) 

20 As he went to Ziklag, these men of Manasseh deserted to him: Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, chiefs of thousands in Manasseh. 21 They helped David against the band of raiders, for they were all mighty men of valor and were commanders in the army. 22 For from day to day men came to David to help him, until there was a great army, like an army of God.

Joshua 13:29-31

English Standard Version

29 And Moses gave an inheritance to the half-tribe of Manasseh. It was allotted to the half-tribe of the people of Manasseh according to their clans. 30 Their region extended from Mahanaim, through all Bashan, the whole kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, sixty cities, 31 and half Gilead, and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. These were allotted to the people of Machir the son of Manasseh for the half of the people of Machir according to their clans.

Joshua 17:1-18

English Standard Version

Then allotment was made to the people of Manasseh, for he was the firstborn of Joseph. To Machir the firstborn of Manasseh, the father of Gilead, were allotted Gilead and Bashan, because he was a man of war. 2 And allotments were made to the rest of the people of Manasseh by their clans, Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, and Shemida. These were the male descendants of Manasseh the son of Joseph, by their clans.

3 Now Zelophehad the son of Hepher, son of Gilead, son of Machir, son of Manasseh, had no sons, but only daughters, and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 4 They approached Eleazar the [high] priest and Joshua the son of Nun and the leaders and said, “The Lord commanded Moses to give us an inheritance along with our brothers.” So according to the mouth of the Lord he gave them an inheritance among the brothers of their father. 

Thus there fell to Manasseh ten portions [half tribe of West Manasseh], besides the land of Gilead and Bashan, which is on the other side of the Jordan, because the daughters of Manasseh received an inheritance along with his sons [next to the land of Ephraim]. The land of Gilead was allotted to the rest of the people of Manasseh [the half tribe of East Manasseh].

The five daughters of Zelophehad had raised the matter previously with Moses and so it was reconfirmed in front of Joshua. The only stipulation was that the daughters had to marry within the tribe of Manasseh so that the inheritance would remain in Manasseh and not be lost to another tribe.

Numbers 27:1-7

English Standard Version

Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad… 2 And they stood before Moses… saying, 3 “Our father died in the wilderness. He was not among the company of those who gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah… And he had no sons. 4 Why should the name of our father be taken away from his clan because he had no son? Give to us a possession among our father’s brothers.” 5 Moses brought their case before the Lord. 6 And the Lord said to Moses, “The daughters of Zelophehad are right. You shall give them possession of an inheritance among their father’s brothers and transfer the inheritance of their father to them.

Numbers 36:10-12

English Standard Version

10 The daughters of Zelophehad did as the Lord commanded Moses, 11 for Mahlah, Tirzah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Noah, the daughters of Zelophehad, were married to sons of their father’s brothers [cousins]. 12 They were married into the clans of the people of Manasseh the son of Joseph, and their inheritance remained in the tribe of their father’s clan.

The five daughters of Zelophehad received ten portions of land that comprised the half tribe of West Manasseh in the land of Ephraim. This was in addition to the land of Gilead and Bashan which the half tribe of East Manasseh received. As East Manasseh today is Canada, so West Manasseh is the American South. It is an interesting similarity that the core eleven states of the South, roughly equate to the ten portions given to West Manasseh. Though if the Carolinas were added together as one; it would be an exact ten. Two states that joined the confederacy, though did not secede from the Union and would make thirteen, were Missouri and lastly Kentucky. The first seven to become states during February and March in 1861 and joined the Confederation permanently are listed first as they were ratified between March and April 1861. The  following four states are listed in the order they were admitted between May and December of 1861.

Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, South Carolina and Florida then Virginia, Arkansas, [North Carolina] and Tennessee.

7 The territory of Manasseh reached from Asher to Michmethath, which is east of Shechem. Then the boundary goes along southward to the inhabitants of En-tappuah. 8 The land of Tappuah belonged to Manasseh, but the town of Tappuah on the boundary of Manasseh belonged to the people of Ephraim. 

9 Then the boundary went down to the brook Kanah. These cities, to the south of the  brook, among the cities of Manasseh, belong to Ephraim. 

Then the boundary of Manasseh goes on the north side of the brook and ends at the sea, 10 the land to the south being Ephraim’s and that to the north being Manasseh’s [in geographic reversal to today], with the sea forming its boundary…12 Yet the people of Manasseh could not take possession of those cities, but the Canaanites persisted in dwelling in that land. 13 Now when the people of Israel grew strong, they put the Canaanites to forced labor, but did not utterly drive them out.

14Then the people of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying, “Why have you given me but one lot and one portion as an inheritance, although I am a numerous people, since all along the Lord has blessed me?” 15 And Joshua said to them, “If you are a numerous people, go up by yourselves to the forest, and there clear ground for yourselves in the land of the Perizzites and the Rephaim, since the hill country of Ephraim is too narrow for you.” 

16 The people of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us. Yet all the Canaanites who dwell in the plain have chariots of iron, both those in Beth-shean and its villages and those in the Valley of Jezreel.” 17 Then Joshua said to the house of Joseph, to Ephraim and Manasseh,“You are a numerous people and have great power. You shall not have one allotment only, 18 but the hill country shall be yours, for though it is a forest, you shall clear it and possess it to its farthest borders. For you shall drive out the Canaanites, though they have chariots of iron, and though they are strong.”

Joshua 16.8-9

English Standard Version

8… Such is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Ephraim by their clans, 9 together with the towns that were set apart for the people of Ephraim within the inheritance of the Manassites, all those towns with their villages.  

The people were grumbling, yet the tribe of Ephraim, as ‘the possessor of the primogeniture of Joseph’ had been given a superb region of Canaan, in the very centre of the land which reached from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean and bordered Benjamin and Dan in the south and Manasseh in the north. It was a rich and beautiful hill country, well watered and richly wooded, abounding in corn fields and orchards, and secure from attacks by foreigners. This allotment, which included the greater part of the region afterwards called Samaria, contained numerous important towns and cities, of which Shiloh – where the ark and the tabernacle were homed for several hundred years – was the religious centre of the nation during the period of the Judges and the early monarchy. 

There was the city of Shechem between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerezim, once occupied by the ancient Hittites and later venerated as the burial place of Jacob; and the city of Samaria, which throughout the history of the separate Kingdom of Israel was the capital of the northern kingdom. Shiloh and Samaria are both cited often in the scriptures and today would represent first, the heart and soul of the nation, New York and second its capital, Washington DC.

Isaiah 7:5-17

English Standard Version

5 Because Syria, with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, has devised evil against you, saying, 6 “Let us go up against Judah and terrify it, and let us conquer it for ourselves, and set up the son of Tabeel as king in the midst of it,” 7 thus says the Lord God: “‘It shall not stand, and it shall not come to pass.

8 For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin. And within sixty-five years Ephraim will be shattered from being a people.9 And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is the son of Remaliah. If you are not firm in faith, you will not be firm at all.’” 17 The Lord will bring upon you and upon your people and upon your father’s house such days as have not come since the day that Ephraim departed from Judah – the king of Assyria!

A plot by Ephraim to conquer Judah was not permitted to unfurl. Instead, Ephraim was to be conquered by Assyria. As this prophecy is dual, the King of the North will one day defeat modern day Ephraim – as unlikely as that may seem today, it will not seem so in the future, when Russia’s economy and military strength overtakes the United States.

Jeremiah 50:19

English Standard Version

I will restore Israel to his pasture, and he shall feed on Carmel [Ephraim] and in Bashan [Gilead], and his desire shall be satisfied on the hills of Ephraim [and half tribe of West Manasseh] and in Gilead [half tribe of East Manasseh].

The territory of Joseph was in the west and comprised Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh to its north, equating to the United States today in reverse and Gilead or Bashan was in the east and comprised the half tribe of East Manasseh, equating to Canada today.

Psalm 60:6-8; [108:7-9]

English Standard Version

6 God has spoken in his holiness: “With exultation I will divide up Shechem and portion out the Vale of Succoth. 7 Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim is my helmet; Judah is my scepter. 8 Moab is my washbasin; upon Edom I cast my shoe; over Philistia I shout in triumph.”

The flags of the American States. Notice the preponderance of the colour red in the Southern States as well as stars and saltires. The crossing over of Jacob’s hands as symbolised on Scotland’s [tribe of Benjamin, Joseph’s brother] flag. The American Declaration of Independence also echoes the Scottish Independence Declaration of Arbroath. The states in the south with obvious saltires include Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and states with an alluding of saltires includes Arkansas, with Texas, Tennessee, Georgia and North Carolina exhibiting stars and the predominant colour red.

Gilead is Manasseh, and Manasseh is also an identity linked with Ephraim. Though Gilead is not Ephraim. The Handmaid’s Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood and was published in 1985. It is set in a near future New England, with a strong patriarchal and totalitarian ‘theonomic state’ known as the Republic of Gilead, which has overthrown the legitimate United States government. There are a number of interesting correlations. First, Atwood is Canadian and technically, Canada is modern day Gilead, though she has chosen to call the United States Gilead in her story. Atwood also uses the term Commanders for the key administrators of the Republic of Gilead. Again, this is a term in the Bible used for military leaders of Machir or Gilead.

Judges 5:14

English Standard Version

14… from Machir marched down the commanders…

Flag of Hawaii – the eight stripes represent its islands and like the Cambridge or Grand Union flag, contains a Union Jack in it canton

The main plot line is that women are having difficulty in conceiving children. Handmaids are used by the ruling families in producing children for the barren wives of commanders. The apostasy in Gilead is stated in the Book of Hosea, though most of Hosea is a warning to Ephraim. Pregnancy is discussed in the Book of Amos and eerily connects Gilead and Canada with the Ammonites of French Quebec [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. 

Hosea 12:11

English Standard Version

If there is iniquity in Gilead, they shall surely come to nothing: in Gilgal they sacrifice bulls; their altars also are like stone heaps on the furrows of the field.

Amos 1:13-14

English Standard Version

13 Thus says the Lord: “For three transgressions of the Ammonites, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they have ripped open pregnant women in Gilead, that they might enlarge their border. 14 So I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah [Quebec, Quebec], and it shall devour her strongholds, with shouting on the day of battle, with a tempest in the day of the whirlwind…

A chilling future prophecy indictment on Ephraim, reminiscent of Atwood’s Republic of Gilead is stated in Hosea. 

Hosea 9:1-17

English Standard Version

3 They shall not remain in the land of the Lord, but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and they shall eat unclean food in Assyria. 8 The prophet is the watchman of Ephraim with my God; yet a fowler’s snare is on all his ways, and hatred in the house of his God… 11 Ephraim’s glory shall fly away like a bird – no birth, no pregnancy, no conception! 12 Even if they bring up children, I will bereave them till none is left. Woe to them when I depart from them! 13 Ephraim, as I have seen, was like a young palm planted in a meadow; but Ephraim must lead his children out to slaughter. 14 Give them, O Lord – what will you give? Give them a miscarrying womb and dry breasts. 16 Ephraim is stricken; their root is dried up; they shall bear no fruit. Even though they give birth, I will put their beloved children to death.

Hosea 5:3, 5, 9-14

English Standard Version

3 I know Ephraim, and Israel is not hidden from me; for now, O Ephraim, you have played the whore; Israel is defiled… 5… Israel and Ephraim shall stumble in his guilt; Judah also shall stumble with them.Ephraim shall become a desolation in the day of punishment; among the tribes of Israel I make known what is sure. 10 The princes of Judah have become like those who move the landmark; upon them I will pour out my wrath like water. 11 Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in judgment, because he was determined to go after filth. 12 But I am like a moth to Ephraim, and like dry rot to the house of Judah. 13 When Ephraim saw his sickness, and Judah his wound, then Ephraim went to Assyria, and sent to the great king. But he is not able to cure you or heal your wound. 14 For I will be like a lion to Ephraim, and like a young lion to the house of Judah. I, even I, will tear and go away; I will carry off, and no one shall rescue.

Hosea 6:4, 8 -10

English Standard Version

4 What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah? Your love is like a morning cloud, like the dew that goes early away… 8 Gilead is a city of evildoers, tracked with blood. 9 As robbers lie in wait for a man, so the priests band together; they murder on the way to Shechem; they commit villainy. 10 In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing; Ephraim’s whoredom is there; Israel is defiled.

Hosea 7:1, 8-9, 11–13

English Standard Version

1… the iniquity of Ephraim is revealed, and the evil deeds of Samaria, for they deal falsely… 8 Ephraim mixes himself with the peoples; Ephraim is a cake not turned. Strangers devour his strength, and he knows it not; gray hairs are sprinkled upon him, and he knows it not… 

11 Ephraim is like a dove, silly and without sense, calling to Egypt [the Arab world], going to Assyria [Russia]. 12 As they go, I will spread over them my net; I will bring them down like birds of the heavens; I will discipline them according to the report made to their congregation. 13 Woe to them, for they have strayed from me! Destruction to them, for they have rebelled against me! I would redeem them, but they speak lies against me.

Hosea 8:5-6, 8-9, 11, 14

English Standard Version

5 I have spurned your calf, O Samaria… 6… The calf of Samaria shall be broken to pieces. 8 Israel is swallowed up; already they are among the nations as a useless vessel. 9 For they have gone up to Assyria, a wild donkey wandering alone; Ephraim has hired lovers… 11  Because Ephraim has multiplied altars for sinning, they have become to him altars for sinning… 14 For Israel has forgotten his Maker and built palaces, and Judah has multiplied fortified cities; so I will send a fire upon his cities, and it shall devour her strongholds.

Judah’s Sceptre, & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The first thing recorded of Jeroboam, as [first] king of Israel, is that he built the city of Shechem, in Mount Ephraim, and dwelt there. This city was the first capital of that kingdom. From there the king of Israel went out and built the city of Penuel, and seemed to prosper for a short season. But Jeroboam fell to thinking that, if his subjects were allowed to continue going to Jerusalem to sacrifice unto the Lord, their hearts would turn again to Rehoboam, whose capital city it was, and they would then kill him, and go again to the kingdom of Judah. 

Therefore he made two calves of gold, and said unto the people, “It is too much (trouble) for you to go to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And he set one in Bethel [Tribe of Benjamin on border with Ephraim in the south], and one in Dan [Tribe of Dan in the north]. And this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one (in Bethel), and even unto Dan. And he made a house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi. 

“And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month [October/November], on the fifteenth day [sabbath] of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, sacrificing unto the calves that he had made: and he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made. So he offered upon the altar which he had made in Bethel, on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, even in the month which he had devised in his own heart; and ordained a feast unto the Children of Israel, and he offered upon the altar and burnt incense,” I Kings 12:28-33. 

This was the great sin which was such a curse to the people. But we want you to note just how the Lord speaks of it. After the prophet whom he had sent out of Judah had proclaimed the doom of Jeroboam, he further adds: 

“The Lord shall smite Israel, as a reed is shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of his good land, which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the river, because they have made their groves, provoking the Lord to anger. And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who did sin, and who made Israel to sin,” I Kings 14:15, 16.’ 

What is fascinating is that Jeroboam instituted a new feast or Holy day holiday one month after the Feast of Tabernacles of the seventh month of Tishri in September/October of each year. This mirrors and foreshadows the Americans millennia later instituting their own celebration also one month after the Feast of Tabernacles. That is, Thanksgiving weekend in November, also one month later during the eighth month according to the lunar sacred calendar and according to Parker’s Astrology, it is the Eighth Astrological House of October 24 to November 22. Scorpio is the eighth astrological sign and is linked with the Tribe of Dan. The significance of this will become apparent in the next and final chapter.  

Hosea 11:2-6, 8-10

English Standard Version

2 The more they were called, the more they went away; they kept sacrificing to the Baals and burning offerings to idols. 3 Yet it was I who taught Ephraim to walk; I took them up by their arms, but they did not know that I healed them. They shall not return to the land of Egypt, but Assyria shall be their king, because they have refused to return to me. 6 The sword shall rage against their cities, consume the bars of their gates, and devour them because of their own counsels. 8 How can I give you up, O Ephraim? How can I hand you over, O Israel? How can I make you like Admah? How can I treat you like Zeboiim? [Genesis 14:2]. 

I will not execute my burning anger; I will not again destroy Ephraim; for I am God and not a man, the Holy One in your midst, and I will not come in wrath. 10 They shall go after the Lord; he will roar like a lion; when he roars, his children shall come trembling from the west; 11 they shall come trembling like birds from Egypt, and like doves from the land of Assyria, and I will return them to their homes, declares the Lord. 12 Ephraim has surrounded me with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit, but Judah still walks with God and is faithful to the Holy One [until the time of their punishment and captivity over one hundred years later] .

Hosea 12:1, 8, 14 

English Standard Version

Ephraim feeds on the wind and pursues the east wind [the Orient, East Asia, China and Japan] all day long; they multiply falsehood and violence; they make a covenant with Assyria, and oil is carried to Egypt… Ephraim has said, “Ah, but I am rich; I have found wealth for myself; in all my labors they cannot find in me iniquity or sin.” Ephraim has given bitter provocation; so his Lord will leave his bloodguilt on him and will repay him for his disgraceful deeds.

Abraham Lincoln’s proclamation on April 30, 1863, for a nation-wide day of fasting and prayer: 

“It is the duty of nations, as well as of men, to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God… and to recognize the sublime truth, announced in the Holy Scriptures and proven by all history, that those nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord… We have been the recipients of the choicest blessings of heaven. We have been preserved, these many years, in peace and prosperity. We have grown in numbers, wealth and power as no other nation ever has grown; but we have forgotten God! We have forgotten the gracious Hand which preserved us in peace, and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts, that these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving grace, too proud to pray to the God that made us. It behooves us, then, to humble ourselves before the offended Power, to confess our national sins, and to pray for clemency and forgiveness.”

The last good man?

Isaiah 17:3-4

English Standard Version

The fortress [military defence, strength] will disappear from Ephraim… 4 And in that day the glory of Jacob will be brought low, and the fat of his flesh will grow lean.

Zechariah 9:10, 13

English Standard Version

10 I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the war horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow shall be cut off, and he shall speak peace to the nations; his rule shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. 13 For I have bent Judah as my bow; I have made Ephraim its arrow…

Isaiah 9:9, 12, 19-21

English Standard Version 

9… Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria, who say in pride and in arrogance of heart… 12 The Syrians [Spanish] on the east and the Philistines [Mexicans] on the west devour Israel with open mouth. 19 Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts the land is scorched, and the people are like fuel for the fire; no one spares another. 20 They slice meat on the right, but are still hungry, and they devour on the left, but are not satisfied; each devours the flesh of his own arm, 21 Manasseh devours Ephraim, and Ephraim devours Manasseh; together they are against Judah.

A time when Canada and the United States in desperation, turn on each other and then together against England. This is in opposition to their current relationship that has been borne and refined during two world wars and several joint military operations over the decades. Churchill described it a special relationship. All the more meaningful when their individual identities, are rightfully understood. In 1946, March 5, Winston Churchill in an oration – The Sinews of Peace – at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri; which incidentally, he also lodged ‘iron curtain’ in the diplomatic lexicon, describes the friendship between Great Britain and the United States.

‘Now, while still pursuing the method of realising our overall strategic concept, I come to the crux of what I have travelled here to Say. Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organisation will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States. 

This is no time for generalities, and I will venture to be precise. Fraternal association requires not only the growing friendship and mutual understanding between our two vast but kindred Systems of society, but the continuance of the intimate relationship between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets at technical colleges.’

When Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau visited with the then United States President Barack Obama, they lavished praise on their nations’ relationship during the first official visit by a Canadian leader in nearly twenty years. Trudeau toasted the two nations as ‘siblings’ at a state dinner… and Obama said that the United States and Canada were ‘blessed to be neighbours.’ Though Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau does not fully comprehend how the United States of America and Canada are actual blood related siblings; and not just because they share an undefended border that is thousands of miles long, his observation, like Churchill’s is no less true. 

In fact this element of deep trust between Ephraim, Manasseh and Judah – with Benjamin, Simeon and Reuben – extends to Asher and Naphtali. Not everyone is aware that the only nations considered true allies by the United States are Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. A 2013 report disclosed by the German publication Der Spiegel noted that while the United States has a massive cyber-espionage program, that ‘only Canada, Australia, Britain and New Zealand were explicitly exempted from spy attacks.’ 

European nations such as Germany and France want the United States to treat them the same way they treat the Anglo-nations, which have been called the “five eyes.” There are longstanding and deep tensions over intelligence sharing between the United States, Germany and France. The United States has for decades, with few interruptions, strictly shared intelligence with just these four principal countries under the ‘five eyes’ agreement [FVEY], which includes a proviso that they do not spy on each other.

American symbol of power

“Germany and France have long resented this special relationship in intelligence,” according to Tim Naftali, of the New America Foundation, “But the question is whether (France and Germany) would be able to accept the coordination of their foreign policies that comes along with the agreement.” When intelligence agencies discuss targeting they are giving away what they know, said Naftali. “Is the US prepared to do that across the board with France and Germany?” The United States of America officially considers Canada, Britain, Australia and New Zealand as its most trusted and possible only non-hostile, allies. 

Hosea 4:17-19

English Standard Version

17 Ephraim is joined to idols; leave him alone. 18 When their drink is gone, they give themselves to whoring; their rulers dearly love shame. 19 A wind has wrapped them in its wings, and they shall be ashamed because of their sacrifices.

Isaiah 28:1, 3, 7

English Standard Version

1 Ah, the proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim, and the fading flower of its glorious beauty, which is on the head of the rich valley of those overcome with wine! 3 The proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim will be trodden underfoot; 7 These also reel with wine and stagger with strong drink; the priest and the prophet reel with strong drink, they are swallowed by wine, they stagger with strong drink, they reel in vision, they stumble in giving judgment.

The prophet Isaiah may have meant this figuratively, as in drunk with power and success, though a literal explanation is probably also intended. There are nations with higher rates of alcohol consumption nationally and per person than the United States, but figures for rates of Alcoholism tell a different story. The United States primarily the tribe of Ephraim, is ahead of any other English speaking Celtic-Saxon-Viking nation.

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Alcohol Use Disorder/Alcoholism (both genders):

  1. Hungary – 21.2%
  2. Russia – 20.9%
  3. Belarus – 18.8%
  4. Latvia – 15.5%
  5. South Korea – 13.9% (tie)
  6. Slovenia – 13.9% (tie)
  7. United States – 13.9% (tie)
  8. Poland – 12.8%
  9. Estonia – 12.2% (tie)
  10. Slovakia – 12.2% (tie)

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Alcohol Use Disorder/Alcoholism (females):

  1. United States – 10.4%
  2. Russia – 7.4%
  3. Sweden – 7.3%
  4. Hungary – 7.2%
  5. South Korea – 6.8%
  6. Belarus – 6.2%
  7. Austria – 6.1%
  8. United Kingdom – 4.7%
  9. Latvia – 4.6%
  10. Slovenia – 4.5%

Psalm 78:9, 67

English Standard Version

9 The Ephraimites, armed with the bow, turned back on the day of battle. 10 They did not keep God’s covenant, but refused to walk according to his law. 11 They forgot his works and the wonders that he had shown them… 67 He rejected the tent of Joseph; he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim, 68 but he chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, which he loves.

Isaiah 11:13-14

English Standard Version

13 The jealousy of Ephraim shall depart, and those who harass Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not be jealous of Judah, and Judah shall not harass Ephraim. 14 But they shall swoop down on the shoulder of the Philistines in the west, and together they shall plunder the people of the east. They shall put out their hand against Edom and Moab, and the Ammonites shall obey them.

Zechariah 10:6-7

English Standard Version

“I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph. I will bring them back because I have compassion on them, and they shall be as though I had not rejected them, for I am the Lord their God and I will answer them. 7 Then Ephraim shall become like a mighty warrior, and their hearts shall be glad as with wine. 

Jeremiah 31:6, 8, 9, 18, 20

English Standard Version

For there shall be a day when watchmen will call in the hill country of Ephraim… 8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the farthest parts of the earth, 9… for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn. 18 I have heard Ephraim grieving, ‘You have disciplined me, and I was disciplined, like an untrained* calf; bring me back that I may be restored, for you are the Lord my God. 20 Is Ephraim my dear son? Is he my darling child? For as often as I speak against him, I do remember him still. Therefore my heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, declares the Lord.

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Ephraim is called a “bullock” or young* bull. In Hebrew “bullock” is “aegel”. Historically this very same name, “Aegel”, pronounced in the same way, was an alternative form for the ethnic term “Angle”. The Angles gave England (i.e. “Angle- land”) its name. Together with the Saxons, Jutes… and others the Angles conquered from the Celts the land that was later named England. The Angles were also called “Aegels”. The appellations “Angle” and “Aegel” were employed interchangeably. The Hebrew word for young bull is “Aegel”. Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yistchaki 1040-1105 CE) was the foremost Medieval Jewish Commentator. In commentating on this verse (Jeremiah 31:18) Rashi states that the Hebrew word “Aegel” (Young Bull) was a name applied to Ephraim.’ 

It was circa 500 CE that the Angles – the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh – from Angeln departed their lands as part of a full-scale migration over the North Sea to Britain, where they found several kingdoms in newly conquered territory. Angeln was reputedly left abandoned and empty by the mass population movement, allowing the Danish Vikings from Asher to migrate south and west to fill the gap. 

During this period, the Danes became an ever greater threat to the Frisian hegemony of the North Sea and the northwestern European coastal territories. The Angles as part of the Saxon peoples who also comprised the Jutes from Judah and the Frisians from Issachar and Zebulun, left little imprint on Anglia and Mercia, their strongholds in west and east Middle England [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali]. 

Chromosomes Sketch New Outline of British History, New York Times: 

‘But surprisingly, there is little sign of Anglo-Saxon heritage in southern England. “One tends to think of England as Anglo-Saxon,” Dr. Goldstein said. “But we show quite clearly there was not complete replacement of existing populations by either Anglo-Saxons or Danes. It looks like the Celts [or rather Jutes] did hold out.”’

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When Jacob transferred the birthright to the sons of Joseph he, with one hand resting on the head of each, prayed: “Let my name (Israel) be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac.” The birthright kingdom did, as we have seen, inherit the name of Israel, and also that of Isaac. For Amos says: “And the high places of Isaac shall be desolate, and the sanctuaries of Israel (Bethel and Dan) shall be laid waste, and I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword,” (Amos 7:9). Here we have Isaac, Israel and the house of Jeroboam used as interchangeable names for the ten-tribed kingdom. 

Thus the name of Isaac was named upon the house of Joseph, and it is true, both in race and name, that, in Isaac shall thy seed be called.” It seems that the Jews [Edom] had a preference for the name of Jacob, but Israel clung to the name of Isaac, especially after they were taken into captivity; they dropped the name of Israel and called themselves “Saac” – Sacae, or Saxae, as per Latin derivation – which is nothing more or less than the Hebrew name of Isaac, from which the initial letter “I” has been dropped. 

It is now a well-authenticated fact that the word Saxon is derived from the Hebrew name of I-saac, together with an affix which means sons of. Professor Totten says: “In most of the Eastern languages ‘sons of’ is written ‘sunnia.’ It is equivalent to the Scottish ‘Mac’ and the English and Irish ‘Fitz’ – Mac Donald, son of Donald; Fitz Henry, son of Henry. 

So, in the distant home of our ancestors, Saac-Sunnia means sons of Isaac. Stambul is formed of Istanbul by dropping the prefix I, and so the Saxon is a direct descendant of our father Isaac.’ 

Doctor W. Holt Yates accepts this derivation of the Saxon name as positive, and the Reverend W. H. Poole, D. D., speaks of it as follows: “It is a little curious to glean from the ancient nations and from the stone monuments of the early times the various forms in which this word is to be found. I will here insert a few from a list of my own gleaned from ancient history, thus: Sons of Isaac, Sons of Saac, Saac-Sunnia, Saac-Suna, Saac-Sena Saaca-pena, Esakska, Sacae-Amyrqui, Beth-Sakai (House of Isaac), Sunnia-Sakai, Sakai-Suna, Saca-Suna, Sacae-Sunnae, Sackisina, Sacka-Sunia, Saca-cine, Saka-Suna, Sacas-Sani, Sakas-Saeni, Saxi-Suna, Sach-Suni, Sachi, Sacha, Sakah, Saachus, Saacus, Sacho, Saxo, Saxoi, Saxonia, Saxones, Saxae, Sach-sen, Sack-sen, Saxe-sen, Saxone, Saxony, Saxon.” –  “Our Race.” 

Concerning the etymology of the word Saxon, Yatman says: “Its history is as follows: The Persians used the terms Sacae and Scythian as convertible, whether from a corrupt rendering of one from the other or because the Sacae, a great tribe of Scythians (wanderers) bordering upon them, were so called by a tribal name. 

Of the fact of the identity of the Sacae and the Scythians there is not the shadow of a doubt, and it is clear that these people called their country Sacasena. It is equally clear that the Saxons of England were the Scythians or Celte-Scythians. Their geographical position in Europe is accurately described by Plutarch, Tacitus, Ptolemy, and other authors.” 

To this testimony all the historians agree. Strabo asserts that the most ancient Greek historians knew the Sacaea as a people who lived beyond the Caspian Sea.’

‘Diodorus says: “The Sacaea sprung from a people in Media who obtained a vast and glorious empire.” 

Ptolemy finds the Saxons in a race of Scythians, called Sakai, who came from Media. 

Pliny says: “The Sakai were among the most distinguished people of Scythia, who settled in Armenia, and were called Sacae-Sani.” 

Albinus says: “The Saxons were descended from the ancient Sacae of Asia.” 

Prideaux finds that the Cimbrians came from between the Black and Euxine (Caspian) seas, and that with them came the Angli. 

Sharon Turner, the great Saxon historian, says: “The Saxons were a Scythian nation, and were called Saca, Sachi, Sacki, Sach-sen.” 

Gawler, in “Our Scythian Ancestors” (Page 6), says: “The word ‘Saacae,’ is fairly and without straining or imagination, translatable as Isaacites.”’ 

‘But why has it been necessary for the historians of these various nations thus to trace this name, search records, tablets and monuments, and hunt for the origin of the Anglo-Saxons? Are they an obscure people? Are they a feeble nation? Are they an ignorant folk? Are they an uncivilized race? No; they are diametrically opposite to all this… but they do not know where they originated, nor who were their ancestors – they are lost. 

Some of these historians whom we have quoted do not agree among themselves as to the origin of the Saxons, but belong to different schools of contention, and are wrangling over the question whether these lost people belong to the Aryan, or to the Semitic race. The only use which we have, just here, for their contention is to show that they all trace the Saxons to the very place where the captive ten tribes of Israel were deported by Shalmanesar, the King of Assyria. These same historians also show that the Sax-ons sprang into existence, in so far as their modern and medieval history is concerned, about three years after the Israelites were taken to that country, and that there they lose them and can trace them no further.’ 

Helmet of East Angle King Raedwald

In the Book of Revelation we read about the 144,000 saints that live at the end of days. They are the loyal and faithful ones gathered from the physical sons of Jacob. In counterpoint to the mark of the Beast – the mark of Cain – spiritually placed in everyone’s forehead or mind, these elect are sealed by the Holy Spirit with special protection from the Tribulation and the ‘time of Jacob’s trouble.’ [Jeremiah 30:7]

Revelation 7:1-8

English Standard Version

After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, that no wind might blow on earth or sea or against any tree. 2 Then I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, with the seal of the living God, and he called with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given power to harm earth and sea, 3 saying, “Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees, until we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads.” 4 And I heard the number of the sealed, 144,000, sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel:

verses 5-8

12,000 from the tribe of Judah were sealed,
12,000 from the tribe of Reuben,
12,000 from the tribe of Gad,

12,000 from the tribe of Asher,
12,000 from the tribe of Naphtali,
12,000 from the tribe of Manasseh,

12,000 from the tribe of Simeon,
12,000 from the tribe of Levi,
12,000 from the tribe of Issachar,

12,000 from the tribe of Zebulun,
12,000 from the tribe of Joseph,
12,000 from the tribe of Benjamin were sealed.

What various commentators have righty observed though wrongly interpreted, is that Joseph at number eleven and Manasseh at number six, are mentioned twice in place of the missing tribe of Dan. The answer is less to do with Dan and more to do with the fact that the 12,000 people from Manasseh means from the British and Irish descended peoples of Canada. The 12,000 people from Joseph, means from the British and Irish descended peoples of the United States, for they are comprised of two tribes, Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. Hence in the Bible recall, they are known and called, either Joseph or Ephraim. Manasseh on the other hand remember, is known vicariously as Machir, Gilead, the half tribe of Manasseh or simply as, Manasseh.

As we have learned from previous chapters: Judah is England; Reuben is Northern Ireland; Gad is the Republic of Ireland; Asher is Australia; Naphtali is New Zealand; Simeon is Wales; Levi are scattered, though mainly in England, Wales and Scotland; Issachar and Zebulun are the British in South Africa and Zimbabwe; and Benjamin is Scotland. 

Key points and dates in Canadian history.

1688 – War fought between King William’s New England and New France. 

1713 – The British gained control of much of Eastern Canada under the Treaty of Utrecht.

1755 – The British expelled the Acadians from their lands. 

1759 – The British occupied Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. 

1763 – France lost the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years’ War to the British. The British gained control of all the French lands in Canada as a result and  these were absorbed into the British Empire.

1775 – The invasion of the Continental Army of America is stopped at the Battle of Quebec. 

1783 – The Treaty of Paris established official borders between the United States and Canada. 

1784 – The colony of New Brunswick was established. 

1791 – Quebec was divided into Upper Canada – today’s Ontario – and Lower Canada, today’s Quebec. 

1812 – War between the British and the United States. American forces attempted to invade Canada. 

1818 – The 49th parallel is determined as the border between much of the United States and Canada.

1837 – Rebellion occurred throughout Canada towards the British government. 

1838 – The Durham Report was issued which recommends that Upper and Lower Canada be united. 

1840 – Upper and Lower Canada were merged into a single colony – the United Provence of Canada – by the Act of Union. 

1846 – The border between the United States and Canada in the west is decided by the Oregon Treaty. 

1867 – The Dominion of Canada is formed – the Canadian Confederation. It included the four provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. 

1870 – The province of Manitoba joins Canada and in 1871 – British Columbia becomes the sixth province of Canada. 

1873 – The Northwest Mounted Police were established. They become the Canadian Mounted Police. 

1896 – Gold was discovered in the Yukon. The Klondike Gold Rush occurred as thousands of prospectors moved to Canada to find gold. 

1905 – Saskatchewan and Alberta become provinces. 

1931 – When the Statute of Westminster was authorised, whereby Canada became an independent nation. 

1982 – The year Canada actually became fully independent from the United Kingdom, adopting its own constitution. 

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. The etymological origins of the word Canada, is accepted as coming from the St Lawrence Iroquian word kanata, meaning ‘village’ or ‘settlement.’ The national motto A Mari Usque Ad Mare means ‘From Sea to Sea.’ Covering 3.85 million square miles, Canada is the world’s second largest country by total area, after Russia. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 5,525 miles, is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, with 1,323,783 people. 

Britannica – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although Canada shares many similarities with its southern neighbour – and, indeed, its popular culture and that of the United States are in many regards indistinguishable the differences between the two countries, both temperamental and material, are profound. “The central fact of Canadian history,” observed the 20th-century literary critic Northrop Frye, is “the rejection of the American Revolution.” Contemporary Canadians are inclined to favour orderly central government and a sense of community over individualism; in international affairs, they are more likely to serve the role of peacemaker instead of warrior, and, whether at home or abroad, they are likely to have a pluralistic way of viewing the world. More than that, Canadians live in a society that in most legal and official matters resembles Britain – at least in the English-speaking portion of the country.’

Canadian Coat of Arms

Key points and dates in American history.

1492 – Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas. The origin of the name America is often attributed to the explorer Amerigo Vespucce. Yair Davidy offers an alternative derivation from the term Machir, the son of Manasseh. The Western Hemisphere is referred to as either North, Central or South America, though when the term ‘American’ is used, this is normally a universal reference to the peoples of the United States. The nickname ‘Yankee’ for a North American derives from a form of the name Jacob. The Latinos themselves, use the term Norte Americanos to refer to Americans in the United States. 

America may have even taken its name from a Welshman called Richard Amerik, a chief investor in late fifteenth century voyages of discovery. The word Amerik itself is derived from ap Meuric, Welsh for ‘son of Maurice’ – the latter was anglicised further to Morris. The American state of Pennsylvania is possibly named after the Welsh word for head, pen.

In an audio study course called An Invitation to Hebrew in its section on the ‘Vocabulary of Jewish Life’ the teacher confirms that ‘covenant in Hebrew is… b’rit. He mentions its occurrence in the term b’nai b’rit, or the ‘children of the covenant’ in reference to the United States of America, which is called in Hebrew, Artzot Ha-Brit, ‘the lands of the covenant.’ [Mordecai Kamrat, Spoken Arts, Incorporated, 1960].

1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon visited Florida. 

1540 – Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto explored the Southeast. 

1565 – St. Augustine was established as the first permanent settlement in the United States. 

1607 – The Jamestown settlement – Virginia Colony – was founded by John Smith. 

1620 – The Mayflower landed with the pilgrims at Plymouth. 

1629 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded. 

1692 – The Salem witch trials took place in Massachusetts. 

1765 – The British government imposed the Stamp Act on the colonies. The colonies protested with the Stamp Act Congress. 

1770 – The Boston Massacre occurred. 

1773 – Bostonians protested the Tea Act with the Boston Tea Party dumping tea into the Boston Harbor. 

1774 – The First Continental Congress was held. The British government imposed the Intolerable Acts on the colonies. The American colonies grew unhappy with what they called “taxation without representation”.

1775 – The Revolutionary War began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord. The Second Continental Congress was held and the Battle of Bunker Hill occurred. The American Revolutionary War fought by the Thirteen Colonies against the British Empire, was the first successful war of independence by a non-European entity against a European power in modern history.

1776 – The American colonies declared their independence as the United States of America. 

1777 – The Continental Army stayed at Valley Forge for the winter. 

1781 – The British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia. The Articles of the Confederation were ratified by the colonies. 

1783 – The Revolutionary War officially ended with the Treaty of Paris. 

1787 – The Constitution was adopted by the Constitutional Convention. 

1789 – George Washington became the first President of the United States. 

1791 – The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution as the first ten amendments. 1793 – The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney. 

1803 – The size of the United States was nearly doubled with the Louisiana Purchase from France. 

1812 – The War began against Great Britain. 

1815 – United States troops led by Andrew Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans. 

1823 – The Monroe Doctrine was declared by President James Monroe. North and South America closed to any further colonisation and to any interference by an European power.

1836 – The Battle of the Alamo took place in Texas. 

1838 – The Cherokee Nation was forced to march from the Southeast to Oklahoma in what was known as the Trail of Tears. 

1846 – The Mexican-American War began.  

1849 – Prospectors travelled to California in the California Gold Rush. 

1860 – Abraham Lincoln was elected president. 

1861 – The American Civil War began. 

1863 – The Union Army won the Battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves in the South. 

1864 – Union General Sherman made his famous “march to the sea.” 

1865 – The American Civil War came to an end with General Robert E. Lee surrendering at the Appomattox Court House. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. 

1865 – Slavery was outlawed by the Thirteenth Amendment. 

1867 – Alaska purchased from Russia. 

1869 – The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed. 

1876 – The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. 

1914 – In both World Wars the United States tried to remain neutral but ended up on the side of the United Kingdom and the Allies.

Britannica – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Probably no other country has a wider range of racial, ethnic, and cultural types than does the United States. The nation’s wealth is partly a reflection of its rich natural resources and its enormous agricultural output, but it owes more to the country’s highly developed industry. 

Despite its relative economic self-sufficiency in many areas, the United States is the most important single factor in world trade by virtue of the sheer size of its economy. Its exports and imports represent major proportions of the world total. The United States also impinges on the global economy as a source of and as a destination for investment capital. The country continues to sustain an economic life that is more diversified than any other on Earth, providing the majority of its people with one of the world’s highest standards of living. 

America was the first of the European colonies to separate successfully from its motherland, and it was the first nation to be established on the premise that sovereignty rests with its citizens and not with the government. In the 20th century the United States emerged as a world power, and since World war II it has been one of the preeminent powers. It has not accepted this mantle easily nor always carried it willingly; the principles and ideals of its founders have been tested by the pressures and exigencies of its dominant status. The United States still offers its residents opportunities for unparalleled personal advancement and wealth.’ 

Yair Davidy describes the link between the name Joseph and Parthian rulers, as well as metallurgy in ancient Spain and in Samaria of ancient Israel.

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Arsacides were the rulers of the Parthian* Empire in Persia. The Parthians rulers were of Israelite descent [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. Some scholars trace the name “Aspourgos” to the Iranian “aspa” meaning horse or to the Akkadian-Syrian “aspuraku” meaning “horseman”. The name however had a different original connotation and any similarity with the word for “horse” and the like deviates from the primary root of the name. Haynman traces the name “Aspourgos” to the Semitic-Hebrew root “asaph” (to gather in) and to “biraka” which she understands to, mean “thy self-creation” or something similar. She points out that the name Joseph has the same origin. 

The people of Tanais did have their own independent form of monotheistic belief, similar to but not derived from Judaism. They did not eat pork [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. They were part of the Sacae-Scythian people who had Israelite tribal names and are shown for other reasons to have been of Israelite descent. It may therefore be concluded that they revered “Joseph” under the name “Aspourgos” because they were descended from Joseph. The guilds connected with Aspourgos really did have ceremonies commemorating traditions about Joseph. They also retained some degree of monotheistic sentiment because they were of Hebrew origin. This was also the reason they did not eat pork whereas all other peoples in the region at that time did. 

… researchers have suggested that the features found in Tanais were part of the Sakae-Scythian culture in general. Tanais was abandoned in the early 400s CE, about the time of the Hun invasion of Europe, and its inhabitants apparently joined their Scythian brothers and moved westward.’ 

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Ammianus Marcellinus said that the original inhabitants of Tartessos had been called Dorians. The Dorians in Classical literature were a branch of the Greeks but in this case the intention is to people coming via the port of Dor on the coast of Israel. Dor was the major port on the coast of Central Israel and in Assyrian times it was the name given to a province comprising the whole coastal area. Bochart using Greek and Latin sources demonstrated that the Dorians who migrated to Gades and Tartessus were descendants of a legendary “Dorus and Phoenicius” i.e. of Dorians and Phoenicians. Bochart traced them to Dor in Israel and says that originally they were identified as Galicians, i.e. Galatians. 

… the original Dorians of Tartessus, the first settlers of Baetica in southern Spain, and the Galatians were all essentially one and the same people and that amongst them were members of the Tribe of Manasseh. “Dor and her towns” had been part of the region inherited by the Tribe of Manasseh whose original Canaanite inhabitants at first could not be driven out but were put to tribute (Joshua 17:11-12, Judges 1:27- 28). Later the area was considered Israelite. “All the region of Dor” became one of the 12 administrative districts into which the Land of Israel was divided by King Solomon and it was governed by Abinadab who “had Taphah the daughter of Solomon to wife” (1-Kings 4:11). 

When the Assyrians conquered Israel they named the whole coastal region of Manasseh and Ephraim after Dor. Ptolemy records the “Menesthei Portus”, i.e. the Port of the Tribe of Manasseh in the region of the Turdulorum just to the east of Gades off the southwest coast of Spain! The port of Gibraltar is within the area most consistently connected with Tartessos and therefore was Israelite before Spain existed. Gibraltar since 1704 CE has belonged to Britain [Judah*].This is not a coincidence! 

Metal produced in Baetica (in southeast Spain) was called “Samarian metal” (Pliny N.H.) after Samaria in Israel. There was also a port named “Samarium” in Galatia of northwest Spain. The Samar (Somme) River in north Gaul and neighboring city of Samarobriva (Amiens) and the Sambre River just to their north in Belgium were also named after Samaria in Israel.’ 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When Americans spread westward toward the Pacific Ocean, they migrated in wagon trains. In doing so, they carried on a tradition of the ancient Scythians. The Scythians also migrated via covered wagons, which are described in the following words: 

“The wagons in which the women and children traveled had from four to six wheels. They were covered with felt roofs and the space inside was divided into two or three compartments. Little clay models of these prototypes of the modern caravan have been found in some… Scythian burials.” 

Like the cowboys of the American “West,” the Scythians also “excelled at lassoing.” 

With their horse riding, lassoing, and “wagon trains,” Scythian culture resembled the pioneer days of the American West (without the six­shooters). Perhaps the power of genetic influence is more potent than generally realized. 

The original twelve tribes of Israel grew to became thirteen when Joseph was subdivided into the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. Since Ephraim was given its portion before Manasseh, Manasseh essentially became “the thirteenth tribe.” The number “13” has uniquely been associated with the founding of America. The United States of America was born as a union of thirteen separate colonies, with its flag exhibiting thirteen stripes and thirteen stars. The prominence of the number “13” in the founding of America indicates a divine hand influencing world events to appropriately place the number “13” on this new Manassehite nation.’ 

This is circumlocutory reasoning to fit a theory. It could be argued that thirteen represents Ephraim as the thirteenth born and the last or youngest even though blessed greater than Manasseh. Thirteen could also represent Jospeh as in he represents twelve and thirteen. Apportioning Manasseh to the the number thirteen is convenient but doesn’t make sense by itself, particularly when we know the United States is principally Ephraim or Joseph. It is Canada that is Manasseh; though to be fair, it is the one whom is forgotten

‘A common symbol of the United States of America is an eagle clutching “an olive branch” and a “group of arrows” in its talons. The olive branch signifies America’s desire for peace while the arrows signify prowess in war. Is it only coincidence that the ancient Scythians (a “Sacae” nation) used the same war sign as modern America (a “Saxon” nation): a clump of arrows? Furthermore, the eagle was also a common Scythian symbol. One Scythian eagle­crest was found in a pose resembling the eagle­crest of the United States: both show eagles with modern outstretched wings and flared tail feathers (the Scythian eagle holds prey in its talons, while the American eagle holds a branch and a clump of arrows in its talons).Indeed, the eagle­crest of the United States not only has its roots in the Scythian eagle­ crest, but also proclaims [an Israelite] origin by having thirteen arrows in one talon, thirteen leaves on the olive branch in the other talon, thirteen stars over the eagle’s head, thirteen bars in the shield over the eagle’s body, and even thirteen letters in the phrase “E PLURIBUS UNUM.”

If this sounds surprising, consider the fact that in 1857, two messages were given by a Rev. F. E. Pitts to a joint session of the U.S. Congress, presenting evidence that the United States of America was descended from the ten tribes of Israel! Pastor Pitts had little of the information presented in this book available to him, so he based his conclusion on biblical prophecies alone. He utilized prophecies in the books of Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and Hosea to show that America had fulfilled many prophecies about the ten tribes of Israel. Pastor Pitts wrote: 

“The United States of America, our great country, is foretold in the Holy Scriptures… The United States of America is the nationality that is promised in the prophetic Scriptures to arise in the latter times as Israel Restored… Such… was ancient Israel, and such is the United States of America.”

An alternative argument on the re-occurring number thirteen, is presented by Stewart A Swerdlow in his book, Blue Blood, True Blood, Conflict and Creation, 2002:

The United States was established with 13 colonies, one for each of the Illuminati families. The original flag had 13 stars, and still has 13 stripes. The eagle, the symbol of the United States, holds 13 arrows in its talons. The United States is actually a corporate asset of the Virginia Company that was established in 1604 in England with direct involvement of the Rothschilds. The finances of the Rothschilds were necessary to fund the exploration and exploitation of the North American continent. The assets of the Virginia Company, including the United States, are owned by the Holy Roman Empire via the Vatican. Executorship remains with the British royal family, but actual ownership lies with the Roman Catholic Church.

The United States of America is not named after Amerigo Vespucci, as you learned in school. The Illuminati would never name a continent, actually two continents, after an Italian mapmaker.

The name is actually a combination of words.

  • “Am” is the Hebrew word for “people”
  • “Ame” is also the command form of the Spanish/Latin verb “to love”
  • “Eri” or “ari” is a Hebrew term for “lion”
  • “Rica” is the feminine form of the Spanish word for “rich”
  • “Ka” is the ancient Egyptian word for soul, or spirit force within a body

The symbolic statement of America is that it is a combination of Lemuria and Atlantis; a blend of the… Lyrae with… Draco… [and] the combination of these… civilizations would produce the most powerful, technological Empire ever known!’

There are two other words worth noting that may have an etymological link with the word America. The first is Amorica or Aremorica, which literally means ‘place in front of the sea.’ The word differs merely by one vowel letter. It was the name for the northwestern extremity of ancient Gaul, now known as Brittany. In Celtic, Roman and Frankish ages, Amorica also included the western area of what later became known as Normandy. Both Normandy [Normans] and Brittany [Britain] have strong Israelite association [refer Chapter XXX  Judah & Benjamin].

The other word is Mercia which derives from the Old English word Merce, meaning ‘people of the Marches’ or boundaries. Swapping two letters, gives Merica. Mercia was a powerful Saxon kingdom – with its capital in Tamworth – during the seventh to ninth centuries and was prominent amongst the six other great Saxon kingdoms of East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The first national flag of those original United States had thirteen Stars and thirteen Bars. The bars symbolize the Union, and the constellation of thirteen stars was intended to symbolize the nation formed of thirteen independent states. In this, the Great Seal of our country… we have the arms and crest of the United States of America. We would first call your attention to the fact that the eagle is holding in what is called the “Dexter” talon an Olive Branch. In the fourteenth chapter of Hosea, that prophet, who has so much to say about lost Ephraim-Israel, we have the following: “O Israel, return unto the Lord thy God; I will heal their backslidings; I will love them freely; for mine anger is turned away from him… I will be as the dew to Israel; he shall grow like the lily (the national flower of Egypt), and cast forth his roots as Lebanon (royal cedar). His branches shall spread, andhis beauty shall be as the OLIVE tree.Ephraim will say, What have I to do any more with idols?”’  

‘Ephraim is the representative of the house of Joseph, and we have placed this Scripture before our readers that they may see that the Olive tree is among the insignia of the birthright family, and that it is here represented as belonging to one of the Branches of the birthright kingdom, and since the birthright is Joseph’s, it is the Olive Branch of Joseph which has been placed in the “Coat of Arms” of [Ephraim], the thirteenth tribe in Israel, who has now fulfilled the prophecy of becoming a great nation. 

Still this fact, if it stood alone, might not mean so much, but in the other talon, which is called the “Sinister,” is a “Bundle of thirteen Arrows,” which represents the nation individually and collectively prepared for war. 

It is marvelous that the Olive Branch should have been made our official insignum of Peace, and that the Arrows should have been made by law to represent the War Power of the country, for the Arrows were in the heraldry of Israel, as well as the Unicorn and Lion, when Balaam was compelled to bless instead of curse them. Also, the Josephites were Bow-men, and Jacob, after speaking of Joseph and his branches, said, “The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him. But his Bow (munitions of war) abode in strength, and the Arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob,” Genesis 49:23-24. It is a well-known, and much-rejoiced-over fact that the Bow of the United States, which has sent her Arrows into the ranks of her enemies, has always abode in strength, and that both her chief men and people have always said: “God has helped us.” 

and the Eagle, like everything else that pertains to national Israel, has fallen to the birthright family, and is now the national ensign of the thirteenth tribe of Israel, the people of which are not only the descendants of [Ephraim]… but they also compose the firstborn nation out of the “MANY NATIONS,” which were promised to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, and whose ensign Eagle holds in his beak a scroll upon which is written their national motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” which has thirteen letters, and means “One out of MANY.”

“He (Israel) shall fly as an Eagle, and spread his wings over Moab,” Jeremiah 48:40. No wings except those which are spread out can be shadowing wings, and the Shadowing wings of Israel’s Spread Eagle are in the ensign of the United States of America. Hence, America is the land shadowed by wings of which Isaiah wrote, whose ambassadors cross the sea in vessels of bulrushes, or, literally, of caldrons which absorb water; i. e., the modern steamship. The Shield, or escutcheon, which is borne on the breast of the Spread Eagle, has thirteen pieces, called pales, or paleways, which comes from the same word as palings or pickets. These thirteen paleways are united by one at the top. The Lord said to Abraham: “I am thy Shield.” 

‘On the national seal of America, the “Great People,” above the shadowing wings and the scroll, is a Cloud emitting rays of Glory. “Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel… and behold the Glory of the Lord appeared in the Cloud.” To our fathers that glory Cloud was significant of the presence of Jehovah. That Glory Cloud,  which hung over Israel, guided those who had but just escaped from the Egyptian bondage, and it stood between them and their enemies. But this is not all, for this Cloud of our American heraldry surrounds what is called “The Constellation.” 

This constellation is a group of thirteen stars, or planets, on a field of azure sky, which is exactly the same number of planets that appeared on the azure sky in the dream of Joseph, which drove him into separation from his brethren. 

Any one of these features in the blazonry of our nation might have been a coincidence, but when we see that there is not a single feature, but that which is Josephic and Israelitish, it is simply astounding.

But when we turn our face upon the reverse side of that great national seal we are overwhelmed, for there stands the Great Pyramid of Egypt, which is one of the two great monuments of Egypt, the birthplace of Ephraim and Manasseh, the Egypto-Israelitish sons of Joseph, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham. And, marvel of marvels! The national Crest of England has that other great monument of Egypt, the Sphinx, on its reverse side. Thus do the people of Great Britain and the United States of America, the Brother nations, by that which speaks louder than words, for signs are arbitrary, say that they are the offsprings of the Egypto-Israelitish holders of the Abrahamic birthright. 

The people of the United States made this declaration by that which was made a law on Thursday, June 20, 1782, for on that day the ensign which bears those shadowing wings of Israel, together with the Heraldry of Joseph, became a law among us. Also over the pyramid on the reverse side of the Great Seal of America is another thirteen-lettered motto, which, of course is not only lawful, but also national; i.e., “Annuit Coeptis,” – “He (the Lord) hath prospered our undertakings.” This also is Josephic, for we read, “The Lord was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man.” “The Lord was with him (Joseph), and that which he did the Lord made it to prosper,” Genesis 39:3-23. 

Those who understand the Cabala and the arithmography of the Scriptures, it is known that the number thirteen is significant of rebellion, but all that we can say about it here is that the first time this number occurs in the Bible it is with reference to Rebellion (Genesis 14:4) [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. Surely that people whose characteristic number is thirteen did rebel in 1776, and prospered in it, too. They also prospered in 1814, in another little affair concerning the acquisition of a vast stretch of territory known as Louisiana. 

This people have also had rebellion within their own borders, and it is a remarkable fact that, although thirteen was not the number of states in the Confederacy, the Confederate Congress, in 1863, formally adopted a battle flag for the Confederacy, and also a Confederate flag. The Battle Flag was a white field with a blue cross of this (X) shape, in which there were thirteen stars. The flag for the Confederacy was white, with a red field in the Dexter chief corner, bearing this same (X) cross with its thirteen stars. Here again is both rebellion and the birthright cross of the house of Joseph. In his struggle the government also prospered, and it was essential that it should thus prosper, not only in this case, but also in the others of which we have spoken, in order to fulfill a prophecy concerning one feature of their history, namely: “Shew my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to undo the heavy burdens, and let the OPPRESSED GO FREE, and that YE break every yoke?” These are the reasons for which Our Race go to war. England freed her slaves in 1838 and America freed hers in 1861.’

Tribal Emblems of Ephraim – National symbols of America, Mark Lane: 

‘In Numbers Chapter 2 it says “Everyone of the children of Israel shall camp by his own standard, beside the emblems of his father’s house” (Numbers 2:2). 

We thus conclude that each tribe of Israel had emblems, or tribal symbols. The tribal symbols of Ephraim would likely have been: 

 Symbol of a Bull or Wild Ox or Horn
 Symbol of fruitfulness of the land: Sheaf of Wheat or Fruit Laden Bough Symbol of Strong Arm or Arrows

If the USA is the prophetic fulfillment of Ephraim we would expect to see its citizens rallying to their county’s protection under similar national symbols. That is precisely what we see. Ephraim was granted the blessing of divine protection. In the Bible this is signified by the figure of an eagle. The Lord said that he protected Israel on the exodus from Egypt “on eagle’s wings” (Exodus 19:4). Therefore, the eagle is the symbol of God’s protection: it is not the symbol of a nation per se. Many of the national symbols of the USA match the symbols of the tribe of Ephraim. 

(1) Great seal of the United States: 

 Eagle grasps a clutch of arrows in one claw 

 Eagle grasps a fruitful bough in the other claw
 Eagle’s breast displays a shield (allusion to spiritual protection)
 Eagle’s head is turned to its right: facing West (allusion to the West side of the Camp)
 Over the Eagle’s head is a cloud (allusion to the cloud of God which traveled with the      Camp)
 Obverse side displays a pyramid (allusion to Joseph who ruled Egypt)
 Obverse side display the “eye of God” (another allusion to God’s watchful protection)

(2) American Money: 

The penny displays two sheafs (two tribes) [representing Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh] of wheat: on the left and on the right 

The US one dollar bill has both sides of the Great Seal printed on it 

(3) American Mottos: 

“In God We Trust” placed on pennies (1865) official motto of US (adopted in 1956)
“New World Order” NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM (Great Seal)
“Out of Many One” E PLURIBUS UNUM (Great Seal)
“He has Prospered our Undertakings” ANNUIT COEPTIS (Great Seal)

In the US national symbols the number 13 is prominent. There are 13 stars in the cloud, 13 arrows in the clutch, 13 leaves on the bough, 13 fruits on the bough, 13 strips on the shield… The spiritual number 13 signifies “Rebellion” and in truth the United States gained its independence by rebelling against the authority of its… brother the United Kingdom. There were also 13 states in the original colonies of the United States. Normally rebellion has a negative connotation, however at the core of the American ideal of liberty and pursuit of happiness is the concept of resisting over-authoritarian governments.

It is fair to say Americans love their country and they express that on many occasions by honoring their flag, or their ‘colors’. One of the possible pitfalls of a nation being as great as America is its citizens might fall into a love of country that surpasses their love for God. To them the flag is a symbol of protection, much as the skins protected the tabernacle in the desert. When citizens begin to look to their government for protection, and not to God for protection, they put their trust in the wrong place. Instead of ‘In God We Trust’ it is ‘In our Natural Resources We Trust’, or ‘In our Military We Trust’, ‘In our Government We Trust’, or ‘In America We Trust’. When an American… looks at the stars and stripes, the colors should remind him that the great nation of the United States depends for its existence and prosperity on the blessing and protection of God, not the government of the day.’ 

Symbol of United States power – the American Bald Eagle

The Meaning of the Great Seal of The United States, American Heritage Education Foundation, 2017:

‘The Great Seal of the United States is the official emblem and heraldic device of the United States of America. It was adopted by the Continental Congress in 1782 [June 20] to represent the nation and to demonstrate to other nations of the world the ideas and values of its Founders and people.

The Great Seal of the United States guarantees the authenticity of official U. S. documents. It is used 2,000-3,000 times per year to seal documents. Such documents include treaties, presidential proclamations, appointments of government officials, and presidential communications to heads of foreign nations. The seal is also printed on the U.S. $1 bill, providing U.S. citizens with a ready reference to the nation’s foundational ideas. 

The custody of the Great Seal is assigned to the U.S. Department of State. The seal can be affixed by an officer of the Secretary of State. 

The Great Seal… was first used officially on September 16, 1782, to guarantee the authenticity of a document that granted full power to General George Washington “to negotiate and sign with the British an agreement for the exchange, subsistence, and better treatment of prisoners of war.” Thomas Jefferson was the first Secretary of State to have custody of the Great Seal. 

The Great Seal has two sides and displays a number of important symbols. The front (obverse) side of the seal displays the coat of arms of the United States. The coat of arms is officially used for coins, postage stamps, stationary, publications, flags, military uniforms, public monuments, public buildings, embassies and consulates, passports, and items owned by the U. S. government.’

The long held belief amongst many Biblical identity adherents that Ephraim is England, with its colonies; while Manasseh is the United States, is after some five hundred years like masonry stone work and concrete that is long dried and set. For those who believe this explanation, there is little point on the one hand in attempting to shatter this deeply imbedded and incorrect paradigm of belief. Those that support this premise feel very real indignation from any presentation that argues the opposite view. Rightly so, as it is intrinsically flawed arguing that England is Manasseh, when such is clearly not the case and they can rightly see through the error. 

Even so, the perceived threat of the truth regarding Ephraim is felt so strongly, that  extensive lists are compiled to validate the United States is still Manasseh. Since Canada is the real Manasseh and not the United States let alone England or its other offshoots, many of the points used as ‘proof’ suddenly lose their relevance or veracity as ‘evidence.’ It still may be of value to look at a selection of the points raised only as they relate to the United States and Ephraim, while ignoring the blind tangents of those relating to the United Kingdom, Great Britain or England [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. 

‘Jacob placed Ephraim before Manasseh, and he was called the Firstborn’ [Genesis 48:14-19, Jeremiah 31:9]. It is argued that Ephraim’s [prophetic] destiny was to be fulfilled before Manasseh’s because the roles were reversed. If such is the case, then the United states did become a nation… before Canada. The younger did become the firstborn. 

‘Ephraim set before Manasseh means he would be first in both time and greatness’ [Genesis 48:20]. It is argued that Ephraim would be set before Manasseh in terms of position and time and in sense of occurrence and importance. If such is the case, then the United States is a greater nation that Canada and came into being before Canada became a nation. 

‘Manasseh would become a great people after Ephraim.’ It is argued that though Manasseh is the elder son of Joseph, he would become additionally or subsequently to Ephraim, a great people – the second to come into greatness. If such is the case, then Canada was definitely second to America. 

‘Manasseh would be a republic with a representative government, not a monarchy.’ As the scriptures do not say this, it cannot be a valid point of argument. Another commentator defines Manasseh as ‘responsible representation’ as in a republic, Ephraim as ‘aristocracy’ as in royalty and Machir as ‘capitalism’ and the ‘principle of salesmanship.’ These definitions in this writer’s view are stretching Hebrew definitions to fit suppositions that cannot be used as objective evidence. Judah was to be defined by its monarchy. Both Manasseh and Ephraim were not. Though if Manasseh was to be a great people, or a ‘multitude gathered as a unit’ as in one people, one nation and Ephraim a ‘company of nations’ as in many groups of peoples comprised of many peoples, then Canada and the United States have fulfilled scripture. 

Bible exponent William Dankenbring, based on Greg Doudna’s research, became the most vocal supporter of the belief that Ephraim was the United States, prior to his death in 2017. It is a view only a minority of people have been able to comprehend within the identity movement. Ironically, as there are many people in America who do not have any allegiances or ties to British-Israel believing groups or Church of God affiliation, they already understand that the United States is Ephraim of the Bible. 

The United States as Ephraim, William F Dankenbring – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although virtually no one has noticed it, God has left the identity of modern Israel in the most obvious place one could imagine – in the very name  of our great nation!  Our nation is the only nation in the world directly named ‘company of nations’!

The house of Israel was a company or union of equal members, none of whom were sovereign. This fits the United States. It does not fit Great Britain or the British Commonwealth. The British Commonwealth has never been a company of equal states.  Britain has always been one great nation. Whereas the British Commonwealth is a collection of scattered, independent, satellite nations around the world under the authority of the single great nation Britain.  The United States is an assembly of fifty united states who have given up their sovereignty in the interests of collective political union and are, for the most part, united geographically, as was the house of Israel anciently. The United States began with thirteen states.  When we reached the West Coast we had ‘filled up’ our land with forty-eight states, perhaps paralleling the forty-eight cities for the Levites in ancient Israel. Then we added two more to reach a ‘fullness’ of fifty, or five times the number in the house of Israel of old (and the Jubilee number). The United States is the company, fullness, assembly, or convocation of states that Ephraim was to  become” 

In Hebrew, the word for “nations” here is goyim, and means “peoples, nations, states, a troop, a flight,” a word that has the sense of “massing.” Thus Jacob really said the descendants of Ephraim would become a TROOP of people, a MASS of people, MANY states, families, or groupings. Thus we have in fulfillment of this prophecy THE FIFTY STATES of the United States – we became 50 different states, UNITED, but ONE PEOPLE. Each state has its own constitution and government.’ 

‘On the other hand, if Ephraim were the nations of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa… then when the prophecies of Hosea speak of Ephraim “calling to Egypt” or “going to Assyria,” which of those nations would be meant? (Hosea 7:11). If Ephraim were composed of widely scattered nations, the prophecies of Hosea would be inexplicable; it would be impossible to determine to which “part” of Ephraim they applied, or how they could possibly apply to every “nation” of Ephraim!  Obviously, the prophecies directed toward Ephraim in the Bible are directed to ONE UNITED COUNTRY, one sovereign nation, UNITED TOGETHER – as Ephraim was historically, and as the United States is, today! The very words of the U.S. Constitution reveal our national identity! The Constitution begins, “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union… ” 

The U.S.A. – A Union of “Nation-States” Ephraim was to become a united company or assembly of peoples.  Isn’t it interesting that the United States is famous around the world for being the “melting pot” of the nations? The United States has more emigrants from more diverse locations, than any other nation on earth!  This is both a strength, and a fatal weakness. The prophet Hosea foretold this condition would describe Ephraim in the last days! Hosea wrote, “Ephraim MIXES with the nations; Ephraim is a flat cake not turned over (white on one side, baked black or brown on the other side). Foreigners sap his strength, but he does not realize it. His hair is sprinkled with gray, but he does not notice” (Hosea 7:8-9). 

Ephraim’s very name means “double fruit.” It is the United States which exploded onto the world scene, becoming a world power in the days of Theodore Roosevelt at the turn of the century, and the twentieth century has been hailed as “America’s Century,” and world peace “Pax Americana.” Jacob prophesied that the younger brother, Ephraim, was to be greater than his older brother, Manasseh.  Manasseh, the firstborn, was the older brother.  Which nation is older – the United States or Great Britain? 

But what about the United States? Is it greater than Great Britain… Let’s face this question honestly and squarely, without pride, pretence, or hypocrisy. The United States is the wealthiest nation in the world in terms of resources, business and assets, and gross national produce – although we have also become the world’s biggest debtor nation by far due to our… living beyond our means… Either California or New York could be the world’s fifth or sixth richest nation in the world. The state of Illinois produces more than the entire continent of Africa! The eight industrial states from New York to Illinois produce as much as the Common Market, [Russia], or all of Latin America, Africa, most of Asia except Japan, and the Middle East combined!

The United States is greater than Britain by far. It is the United  States which is the greatest and most powerful nation the world has ever seen. It has been the United States which has soared to the status of the richest of nations… not Great Britain. The comparison in national wealth is meaningless – there is no comparison. The economy of the United States has been the engine that has driven the free world since the end of World War II. It has led to postwar recovery of the entire Western World. Further, there is no comparison in military power between the two nations [today]…’ 

‘If the United States is NOT Ephraim, the most populous, “doubly fruitful” Israelitish nation – then who is? Fruitfulness, flourishing population, can also refer to the rate of growth.  The growth rate of the United States has been nothing short of phenomenal… an exponential population growth of nearly 70 times over!  No country in history has, like the United States, literally come from out of nowhere, and literally EXPLODED in population growth and power, both [in its] military and economic [influence]! Truly, the United States – modern “Ephraim” – has experienced a dramatic population increase. Truly it has lived up to its name – and is “DOUBLY fruitful”!’

Two great powers, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [Judah, Benjamin, Simeon & Reuben] and the United States of America [Ephraim & the half tribe of West Manasseh]. Both have the word united as part of their official names as the House of Israel and the House of Judah were once the United Kingdom of Israel. Remember the forgotten nation, Canada [the half tribe of East Manasseh].

Early during the American Civil War, the Union’s plan was to economically strangle the Confederacy via naval blockades in all the major Southern Ports. The Confederacy sent Ambassadors to Britain in an attempt to drum up opposition support. They bypassed the Union blockade and reached Cuba. James Mason and John Slidell boarded the British mail ship, the Trent. The Union intercepted the ship and arrested the two diplomats. The Union had violated all principles of international law relating to neutrality, with the British government rightly pointing out that the United States Congress had declared war on Britain in 1812, when the British had seized American vessels en route to France. 

It looked as if Britain might enter the war against the North but was averted by Lincoln’s apology and the release of the Confederate commissioners. Britain openly favoured the South, letting them build warships in British shipyards. According to Kemp, the link was ‘cemented by the personal friendship of the British Jewish Prime Minister… Benjamin Disraeli, and the Confederate Jewish Secretary of State, Benjamin Judah. Disraeli’s views on race… made him personally sympathetic to the Confederate cause, and when Judah fled the South at the end of the war, he stayed as Disraeli’s personal guest at the latter’s private house in England.’ 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Battle of the Bull Run [July 21, 1861] was an early defeat for the Union, which at first believed it would easily be able to crush the Confederates by launching an attack into northeastern Virginia. Repulsed by the Confederates, the Union army fled in disarray to Washington DC. The Confederates pursued the Union army, and seemed to threaten the Northern capital. The battle exhausted both sides, with the Union suffering 14,500 casualties and the South 9,100 in the seventeen-day-long engagement. 

On April 6, 1862, a confederate army, which had crept undetected on Grant’s forces, launched a surprise attack on the Union camp at Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The engagement, which became known as the Battle of Shiloh, saw the Confederates repulsed after two days of savage fighting. The losses inflicted in the battle gave both sides cause for concern. The Union forces suffered some 13,000 casualties and the Confederates around 10,700. Around 3,400 of these were killed outright, a record which was soon surpassed in later battles of the war.’

Abraham Lincoln at the end of the war, had instructed Grant to be generous with the defeated Confederates as he intended a policy of reconciliation to restore the Union. The President also intended repatriation of the Black slaves to Africa or the Caribbean. With his assassination, the Northern floodgates of hate spilled forth against the South. The United States Congress sought revenge through a series of laws known as the Reconstruction Acts with the design to punish the South for everything, including slavery, secession and the war.

The Flag on the right is remarkably similar to the state flag of Georgia and was the first Confederate flag, known as the ‘Stars and Bars’ from 1861 to 1863.

Special Field Order No. 15 had instigated exclusive rights for the freed Blacks in parts of the coastal regions of South Carolina and Georgia; creating Black homelands and enclaves within American borders. This order was remarkably revoked by the incoming President, Andrew Johnson. Not only had the Civil War ended slavery across the entire nation, it also made clear that the federal system of government had won out, in that the government had the right on certain matters to override the individual ‘state’s rights’, as supported by the confederate ideology. 

The war produced devastating loss of life with a total of 610,000 deaths of which 250,000 were from the South. This represented 4.5% of the total population of the South of 5.5 million people, as compared to 1.6% for the North of a population of 19.4 million people. The half tribe of West Manasseh after the Civil War, was not only defeated, it was destroyed and plundered. During the reconstruction, the best of the South left for the western territories. It is there that the vibrancy of the old South was relocated to Texas, California, the Northwest and the Cowboy states. 

Destiny decreed the breaking up of the company of nations, the ‘multitude of people’, the union of states, was not to occur in 1861; for Ephraim and West Manasseh had not come into the fullness of their birthright blessings that would peak exactly one hundred years later during the 1960s. The union of America’s fifty states is what gives it its strength. The opposite condition would erode, diminish and destroy America’s power. 

From Information Warfare to the Break-Up of the USA… Decoding the Work of Dr. Igor Panarin, New Dawn, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘In 2010 Dr. Panarin predicted the USA would balkanise, amidst social conflict, and split into separate states. Certainly the proposition of a ‘United States’ based on constitutionalism rests on weak foundations and has nothing of an organic character about it. There is no defining feature of an American ‘ethnos’, and no basis for a positive symbiotic relationship enduring between the sundry ethnicities. Panarin claims the United States is on course to balkanise due to the stressors of its huge debt, deficit and social protests. “The overlapping financial, economic and social challenges may eventually cause the world’s strongest superpower of the 20th century to collapse,” notes Panarin.

Far from being a fanciful scenario, the US military recently addressed the same problems emerging from rapid urbanisation in ‘megacities’. The US military regards ‘megacities’ (populations of 10,000,000 or more) as an approaching problem of instability. The US Army comments that megacities are a unique environment that they do not fully understand. One of their reports gives a picture of proliferating criminal networks and underground economies, natural disasters and the inability of decaying infrastructures to withstand stressors. A predicted feature is the breakdown of civic order through ethnic and religious conflict among diverse groups that are forced together to share diminishing resources and utilities. 

“As resources become constrained, illicit networks could potentially fill the gap left by over-extended and undercapitalized governments. The risk of natural disasters compounded by geography, climate change, unregulated growth and substandard infrastructure will magnify the challenges of humanitarian relief. As inequality between rich and poor increases, historically antagonistic religions and ethnicities will be brought into close proximity in cities. Stagnation will coexist with unprecedented development, as slums and shanty towns rapidly expand alongside modern high-rises. This is the urban future.”

The report comments on the increasingly heterogeneous populations inherent in a megacity as potentially “explosive.”’ 

“One of the hallmarks of megacities is rapid hetero and homogeneous population growth that outstrips city governance capability. Many emerging megacities are ill-prepared to accommodate the kind of explosive growth they are experiencing. Radical income disparity, and racial, ethnic and sub cultural separation are major drivers of instability in megacities. As these divisions become more pronounced they create delicate tensions, which if allowed to fester, may build over time, mobilize segments of the population, and erupt as triggers of instability.” 

‘The US Army analysis accords with the 2010 analysis of Dr. Igor Panarin.’

Canada possesses one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world. Influenced principally by economic policy and family reunifications. In 2019, a total of 341,180 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia.India, the Philippines and China are the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada, with new immigrants settling mainly in the urban ares of large cities such as Toronto with 5,928,040 people, Montreal with 4,098,927 people and Vancouver with 2,463,431 people. Canada accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over ten percent of the annual global refugee resettlements. Canada resettled more than 28,000 people in 2018.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the country’s largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32 percent of the population), followed by English (18.3 percent), Scottish (13.9 percent), French (13.6 percent), Irish (13.4 percent), German (9.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent), Italian (4.6 percent), First Nations (4.4 percent), Indian (4.0 percent)… Ukrainian (3.9 percent), [Dutch (3.23%) and Polish (3.21%)]. There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. 

The Indigenous population in Canada is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada’s population claimed an Indigenous identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-Indigenous visible minority. In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent) and Black (3.5 percent). Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Canada’s population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations.’ 

Those people identifying as British or Irish amount to 45.6%. Added with the 32% that identify as Canadian, which is primarily English as in the main, they are founding families from which the majority were ‘English’ and have dwelt in Canada for two or three centuries they understandably and logically perceive themselves as Canadians, rather than English, Scottish or Irish. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In Canada, Third World immigrants are called “visible minorities” and according to the 2006 census, their numbers increase at a rate five times the growth in the population as a whole [Genesis 9:27]. In the five years between 2001 and 2006, the Third World population increased 27.2 percent to nearly 5.1 million individuals, with the majority coming from China, the Philippines, and India. In 2009, Third World immigrants made up 42.9 percent of Toronto’s residents, and 41.7 percent of Vancouver’s population. As of 2007, nearly 20 percent of Canada’s population [were] born elsewhere, and official government projections are that by 2031, 33 percent of the country’s population will be of Third World immigrant origin. This figure is most likely an underestimate, as the higher reproduction rate… has not been factored in. In reality, Canada is set to lose its white majority population by 2040.’

The United States though comprising a diverse population demographic still harbours a core British and Irish element that influenced not only the genesis of the American nation but still strongly influences American society today… though, for how long? 

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population. The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members. White Amercians of European ancestry, mostly German, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, form the largest racial group, at 73.1% of the population. African Americans constitute the nation’s largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry group, and are around 13% of the total U.S. population. Asian Americans are the country’s second-largest racial minority (the three largest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Filipino, and Indian).’

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the European-origin element of the American population stood at 64 percent at the beginning of 2010. This is a dramatic decline from 1960, where whites made up 88 percent of the US’s population… In 2009, non-Hispanic whites made up just under half of all children three years old… Just ten years earlier, more than 60 percent of children in that age group were white. According to the 2010 data, nonwhites babies under the age of two outnumbered white babies for the first time… 

Illegal immigration from Latin America is America’s single largest demographic issue, and if allowed to continue unabated, will see much of the US turned into a Third World country within a few decades.

… even though [white Americans] percentage of the total population is set to drop further, their real numbers will remain relatively constant for several decades. After the year 2050 there will be a sudden and dramatic decline, however as old age takes its natural toll (unless the white birthrate increases).’ 

The 2020 Census broke down the United States demographic as the following. White and European – not including Hispanics [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor] – comprised 57.8% of the population of America. The two largest groups are those of German ancestry as well as English. The English percent of 7.1 is bolstered by those old families that now identify as ‘American’ who are mainly of English heritage at 6.1%. This 13.2% is the exact same as the 13.2% who say they are German. 

From a Celtic-Saxon-Viking perspective, including all British and Irish stock who would represent the peoples of Joseph who live in America, one could also add the Irish at 9.7% and the Scottish at 1.7%. Thus the principal descendants of Joseph, would equate to 24.6%. The reality though, is that the peoples of German descent may actually be descendants of Joseph too, and possibly the peoples of Norwegian [1.3%] and Dutch [1.2%] descent. This would produce a grand total of 40.3% of the total population or approximately 135 million people. 

The peak immigration period for Germans was in the mid-nineteenth century, when thousands were driven from their homes by unemployment and unrest. Despite having no successful New World colonies, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the United States in the 1670s and settled principally, in New York and Pennsylvania. Germans were attracted to America for familiar reasons to other immigrants, such as open tracts of land and religious freedom. Their contributions to the nation included establishing the first kindergartens, Christmas trees, hot dogs and hamburgers.

Is there any evidence outside the Bible that when ‘Germans’ as an example, emigrated to the United States, that they were closer ethnically to Israelites in America than Ishmaelites in Germany? Actually, it would seem yes. 

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… many people of Israelite descent remained in Germany, especially in the west, until around the 1800s when there was a massive migration to the USA. The migrants from Germany to America were different physically, sociologically, and ideologically from those who stayed behind. They were… more liberal and independently minded, often of non-conventional, more fundamental religious persuasion and of a different physical type. In Germany they had belonged to groups and social classes that never actually really belonged to the mainstream of historical German society. Similarly, in Britain, the migrants to America either came mostly from the west and north or they belonged to socially distinct elements that had formed a separate grouping alongside the feudal stratifications that had previously existed. 

In the case of Germany we have descendants of Israelites separating themselves from their non-Israelite neighbors and moving out: Often one village would remain and all inhabitants of the community next door emigrate to America. What applies to Britain and Germany has been studied and documented but the same phenomenon appears to have taken place throughout Europe wherever people of Hebrew origin were to be found.’

Researcher Raymond McNair looked into this question and reported the following – emphasis & bold mine. 

Most true Germans are characterized by “Alpine” round skulls... Yet ethnologist Madison grant writes, “In the study of European populations the great and fundamental fact about the British Isles is the almost total absence there of true Alpine round skulls”. Ripley, in The Races of Europe says, “The most remarkable trait of the population of the British Isles is its head form; and especially the uniformity in every respect which is everywhere manifested. The prevailing type is that of the long and narrow cranium, accompanied by an oval rather than broad or round face“. Remember that this is the same type as the northern Celtic type. It is also the same as the Teutonic, Scandinavian type – the Scythian type!’

In a 1915 article – “Are We Cousins to the Germans?” – Sir Arthur Keith wrote that “the Britons and German represent contrasted and opposite types of humanity“. He explained, “The radical difference in the two forms leaps to the eye. In the majority of the Briton – English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish – the hinder part of the head, the occiput, projects prominently backwards behind the line of the neck;the British head is long in comparison with its width”. Keith then pointed out that “in the vast majority of Germans,” the back of the head is flattened” – indicating “a profound racial difference”… “The explanation,” according to Keith, “is easy. With the exodus of the Franks to France and the Anglo-Saxons to Britain in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth centuries of our era, Germany was almost denuded of her long-headed elements in her population”. 

an older study from R.F. Parsons… showed that the German heads were indeed more rounded than the British heads. The study also reported: In 1925 [a sample of] Germans [shows] the glabello-maximal length averages [are] 189 mm and the breadth 155. In 127 British soldiers they are 191 mm and 149 respectively, and in 103 medical students of British parentage, 194 and [152] (Parsons, R.F. Anthropological observations on German prisoners of war. The Journal of the Royal Anthropologic Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 49, January-July 1919, pages 20-35). 

Britannica [11th Edition, Volume 11] The total number of those who sailed for the United States from 1820 to 1900 may be estimated at more than 4,500,000. The greater number of the more recent immigrants was from the agricultural provinces of northern Germany… It is clear then that the Anglo-Saxon peoples are not Germanic – at least in the modern sense of the term.’

The Germans who left Germany to go to America in the 1800s and particularly before, were different from those who stayed behind. German officials who witnessed the emigration remarked on the physical differences and the ethnic distinction. The distinction also included areas of origin in Germany, religious orientation and social outlook. 

Aside from German ancestry, citizens who claim to be English-American are the next largest group. Predominantly found in the northwest, the west and northeast of the United States, the number of people directly claiming to be English-American has dropped by over twenty million people, since the 1980 United States Census because more citizens who originated from the land of Pilgrims have started to identify themselves as simply, American. 

The majority of the founding fathers of the United States were of English ancestry as have been the majority of United States presidents. But by English, it is meant descending from the tribes of Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia:

‘In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, “Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they’ve been a good or a bad thing for this country.” The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%.’

Ethnic composition of the American Colonies
1700 / %1755 / %1775 / %
English / Welsh80.0English / Welsh52.0English48.7
Other European2.0Irish5.0Scottish6.6
Other European2.0Swedish0.6
Twelve*100.0Thirteen100.0 Colonies100.0
(Province of Georgia not included)

The most English states according to the 2000 census in numbers of people were [Southern States in bold]: 1. California 7.4%; 2. Florida 9.2%;3. Texas 7%; 4. New York 6%; 5. Ohio 9.2%; 6. Pennsylvania 7.9%; 7. Michigan 9.9%; 8. Illinois 6.7%; 9. Virginia 11.1%;10. North Carolina 9.5%.

The states with the highest percentages of people with English ancestry [New England states in bold] included: 1. Utah 29%; 2. Maine 21.5%; 3. Vermont 18.4%; 4. Idaho 18.1%; 5. New Hampshire 18.0%; 6. Wyoming 15.9%; 7. Oregon 13.2%; 8. Montana 12.7%; 9. Delaware 12.1%.

The English as discussed, were the first non-Native Americans to settle the eastern seaboard area that became the United States of America. The first permanent colonies established at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay during 1620 to 1622 and also James Oglethorpe’s settlement in Savannah, Georgia, in 1732. 

‘English joint-stock companies, proprietors, and Crown officials sought to create a modified version of their native society in their American colonies. While many Englishmen came to America to exercise their own religion, and others sought liberation from the religious intolerance on both sides of the Atlantic – as did Roger Williams, fonder of Rhode Island – most English settlers were drawn by the economic opportunities and cheap land.’ [S Hanft, English Americans]. 

Between 1820 and 1930 over four million British immigrants chose the United States as their new home. They brought with them technological skills which helped turn the United States into a major industrial nation by the end of the nineteenth century. Cultural alignment and a common language allowed British immigrants to integrate more rapidly, giving rise to a unique Anglo-American culture. 

America and Britain in Prophecy, Raymond McNair, 1996: 

‘Sharon Turner (1768-1842) … says, “Europe has been populated by three great streams of population from the East… The earliest of these… comprised the Cimmerian and Celtic race. The second consisted of the Scythian, Gothic, and Germanic tribes; from whom most of the modern nations of continental Europe descended… third and most recent… Slavonian and Sarmatian nations… who established themselves in Poland, Bohemia, Russia, and their vicinities. 

It is from the first two generations of European population that the ancient inhabitants of England successively descended… The earliest of these that reached the northern and western confines of Europe, the Cimmerians and Celts, may be regarded as our first ancestors; and from the German or Gothic nations who formed, with the Scythians, the second great flood of population into Europe, our Anglo-Saxon and Norman ancestors proceeded”.’

Ezekiel 34:11-12

Amplified Bible

11 For thus says the Lord God, “Behold, I Myself will search for My flock and seek them out. 12 As a shepherd cares for his sheep on the day that he is among his scattered flock, so I will care for My sheep; and I will rescue them from all the places to which they were scattered on a cloudy and gloomy day.

Even though the tribes were so-called lost, they would be sifted through the nations and eventually allotted new homes. It was understood during the apostolic age that the tribes existed under different nomenclature. 

Colossians 3:11

English Standard Version

11 Here there is not Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, free; but Christ is all, and in all.

The Israelites were known as barbarians and Sycthians as they migrated westwards through Europe. This verse is contrasting between Greeks, Jews and Israelite Scythians, whether ethnically or spiritually, because they had responded to the gospel that Paul and the other apostles were preaching. They could be a slave physically, yet still free spiritually. These same Scythians were synonymous with the later peoples called Saxons. 

It was reported in 2010 “that when teams of geneticists led by Professor Bryan Sykes took DNA samples in the Celtic regions of Britain they discovered ancestries in the Caucasus, which lay within ancient Scythia, and Mediterranean Europe”. 

For the most common variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype #3 the Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database has DYS389i, ii values of 13 and 29, and DYS385a, b values of 11 and 14. This Haplotype differs by just one step upward on the most quickly mutating marker. This Haplotype is very interesting, from the perspective of the YHRD database, because most of the top frequencies are not in Europe but in the United States. Of the top twenty, twelve are among United States populations. Two are Hispanic samples, three are African-American – most likely of Anglo-American origin – and the rest are European American

These samples congregate in areas of the United States settled by English, Scottish, Irish, German and French immigrants. This accords with the Western European origin of the AMH. The Republic of Ireland and London in England appear among the top ten European frequencies, along with four separate locations in The Netherlands. Although descendants would have likely acquired this Haplotype through British ‘Celtic’ ancestry, the multiple hits in the Netherlands suggest a Saxon origin is more than likely. 

This confirms observations made by the late Raymond McNair and others that those immigrants who arrived in America, were somehow different than other Europeans such as with the Germans, who lived nearby, but who stayed behind in Europe. This physical evidence supports the proposition that Americans of Western European origin are different to the peoples they left behind in England, Ireland and Germany and that they are in fact a unique tribe of the sons of Jacob. In this case, the tribe of Joseph and his sons Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. 

Based upon the information above on Atlantic Modal Haplotype #3, immigration and other data, Raymond G Helmer concluded: ‘In short – haplotype R1b came to the United States from exactly the immigrants that we would expect to carry it. [R G Helmer, The Blood of Mankind – Part III The Blood of America].

Another group who joined the great story of the United States were the Irish, with the great potato famine of the 1840s sparking mass migration from Ireland. Between 1820 and 1920, some 4.5 million Irish are believed to have moved to the United States and settled in large cities like New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago and San Francisco. Currently, almost ten percent [9.7%] of the total population of the United States claim Irish ancestry, some 32.5 million people – compared with a total population of nearly seven million for the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland today [figures include Scots-Irish]. Irish ancestry citizens of note include John F Kennedy and Neil Armstrong.

Other White & European peoples on the 2020 census include Italian 5.1%, French 3.0% and Polish 3.0%. One of the most influential nationalities to migrate in large numbers to the United States were the Italians. Between 1880 and 1920, more than 4 million Italian immigrants arrived in the United States forming ‘Little Italys’ wherever they went. Italians brought their cuisine, culture and entertainment to the United States. A further large wave of Italian immigrants arrived in the country following World War II. 

Historically, along with the English, the French colonised North America first and most successfully in the North East along the border areas of Quebec and in the south around New Orleans and Louisiana. The largest of the Slavic groups to live in the United States, are Polish Americans, who were some of the earliest Eastern European colonists to the New World. Up to 2.5 million Poles arrived in the United States between the mid-nineteenth century and World War I, flocking to the largest industrial cities of New York, Buffalo, Cleveland, Milwaukee and Chicago. 

According to the 2020 Census, the largest non-white minority group is the Hispanic & Latino American peoples comprising 18.7% of the total population. Dominated by Mexican descent at 10.29%. Other Latinos include Puerto Rican 1.49%, Cuban 0.57% and others at 6.35%. 

From 1990 to 2000, the number of people who claimed Mexican ancestry almost doubled in size. Those with Mexican ancestry are most common along the Southwestern border of the United States and they are the largest ancestry in Los Angeles, San Diego, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio and Phoenix. In many states, the Hispanic population doubled between the 2000 and 2010 census. In New Mexico, Hispanics outstripped whites for the first time, reaching forty-six per cent compared to forty per cent. 

While Hispanic communities cover a swath of states from California to Texas, American Indians are more dispersed, with pockets of populations in states including Arizona, New Mexico, Montana and the Dakotas, with a higher concentration of Alaska Natives in Alaska of the total 0.7% they comprise of the American population. The Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders account for 0.2% of the population. 

The second biggest minority group is the African-American at 12.1%. Black or African-American is a term for citizens of the United States who have ancestry in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of African Americans are descended from slaves from West and Central Africa and have become an integral part of the story of the United States, gaining the right to vote with the 15th amendment in 1870, but struggling with their civil rights for at least another century. Predominantly living in the south of the nation where they were brought to work on the cotton plantations and as slaves in the late eighteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries; Black Americans also have sizeable communities in the Chicago area of Illinois and in Detroit, Michigan. 

The third biggest minority group is the Asian American at 5.9%. It comprises Chinese 1.2%; Filipino 1.1%; Indian 1.0,%; Vietnamese 0.5% and other Asians at 1.8%. Finally Middle Eastern peoples according to the 2010 Census accounted for 3.2% of the total population, of which there were Arab 0.54%; Iranian 0.1501%; Armenian 0.1537% and Jewish at 2.11%. 

The United States has its roots in being a welcoming homeland for immigrants, though that hasn’t always been the case. As waves of new arrivals flooded United States shores in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a movement to restrict who was allowed into the country took hold as well. In 1882, Congress enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first major federal law to put immigration limits in place and the only one in American history aimed at a specific nationality. It came into being in response to fears, primarily on the West Coast, that an influx of Chinese immigrants was weakening economic conditions and lowering wages. This law was extended in 1902. 

Other laws followed. For instance the Immigration Act of 1917, which created an Asiatic Barred Zone to restrict immigration from East Asia and the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which limited the number of immigrants from any country to three percent of those people from that country who had been living in the United States as of 1910. 

The 1924 Immigration Act capped the number of immigrants from a particular country at two percent of the population of that country already living in the United States in 1890. This favoured immigrants from northern and western European countries like Great Britain over immigrants from southern and eastern European countries such as Italy. 

It prevented any immigrant ineligible for citizenship from coming to America. Since laws already on the books prohibited people of any Asian origin from becoming citizens they were completely barred entry. The law was revised in 1952, though retained the quota system based on country of origin in the United States population and still only allowed low quotas for Asian nations. 

‘Speaking to the American Committee on Italian Migration in June 1963, President Kennedy cited the “nearly intolerable” plight of those who had family members in other countries who wanted to come to the U.S. and could be useful citizens, but were being blocked by “the inequity and maldistribution of the quota numbers.” Two years later, in signing into law a replacement system that established a uniform number of people allowed entry to the United States despite national origin, President Lyndon B Johnson said it would correct “a cruel and enduring wrong in the conduct of the American nation.”’ 

As discussed in length in the preceding chapter [Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali] it is next to impossible to find studies on the European component of the English speaking nations outside of the English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish and Irish of the British and Irish Isles. An excellent study is the one presented by Richard Morrill. 

Morrill touches upon the lack of research to draw upon. It is recommended that Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, are read prior to this chapter. What we do know is that the core American, whether they be descended from Manasseh or Ephraim will eventually be shown to have a unique set of Haplogroups, similar yet distinct from other English speaking, Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples. 

The key Y-DNA Haplogroups for the descendants of Jacob are R1b and I1 and to a lesser degree R1a and I2. We would expect to find the same groups and similar ratios within the British descended American peoples. 

Race, Ancestry, and Genetic Composition of the U.S. Richard Morrill, Professor Emeritus of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Washington, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Race and ancestry, or countries/peoples of origin, are popular topics, with large amounts of data attempting to help us understand the ethnic nature of the country. In this paper I attempt a summary description of the intersections of race, ancestry, and genome, at the state level, but I hasten to emphasize that the “findings” are tentative, highly uncertain, and based on astoundingly unreliable data. I hope some readers may point the way to better data or safer interpretations. Table 1 presents a summary of numbers of people by ”race” by broad ancestral/ethnic or countries of origin together with the main Y-DNA (male) genetic haplogroups associated with the racial and ancestral groups. [Note: I have not altered any figures in Tables 1, 2 or 3. I have tidied up the wording in some of the cells]. The haplogroups are male individuals who share a particular mutation or common male ancestor up to 50,000 years ago. All this is uncertain and speculative, for these reasons. The race and ancestral identifications are self-reported, and subject to lying as well as ignorance. But we still can make beautiful detailed maps, down to the county level! The numbers of persons with good DNA analyses are too few to permit highly confident estimates at useful levels of geography. But let’s see what we have.’

Table 1Race, Ancestry, Haplogroups

GroupNumber (millions)Ancestry groupNumber (millions)Haplogroups

White, non-Hispanic192England, Scotland, Ireland87R1bI



France & Belgium12R1b


Eastern Europe16R1aI,J,N

Balkans, Near east2J, G

White Hispanic23Mexico16R1b

Central America,Caribbean7R1b



Asian14Moderate white admixtureO

Native American34US, AK5QR1b

Latin America29

Pacific Islander0.4Hawaii white admixture
up to 50%



‘Well, some 215 million people are probably mainly white (69%), of which 192 million (61%) are self-identified non-Hispanic white. The difference of 23 million are people who identify as white and Hispanic. About 40 million identify as Black or African-American, although there is probably an admixture of 20 percent or more of “whiteness”.  Up to 14 million identify as of Asian origin, but as many as 1 million may be white in genetics and appearance, e.g. people from Afghanistan, NW India or West Pakistan.  Finally less than 1 million identify as Pacific Islanders.’

We have discussed in Chapter XIII Cush & Phut and Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor, the identity of the Indian, Pakistani and the Hispanic-Latino descended Americans and their Hamitic, or equatorial* descent. They are not descended from European or western peoples via Shem.

‘This leaves a large number of 34 million who identify as all or partly Native American, including about 5 million Alaskan or US Native American, about half of whom are clearly Native American, but about half of whom appear to be and are probably genetically mostly white. Then 29 million are “Mexican” or Caribbean, etc., not a race, but a perceived or actual combination of Spanish (some Portuguese) and Native Americans, from the US southwest, central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Even though these people legitimately identify as a mix of Native and Spanish, most are genetically* “white”.

Ancestry, country of origin, or ethnicity are even harder categories. The complexity is incredible. Not only have the “countries” changed again and again over the last few centuries, but persons’ stated identities, which can be multiple, are often bewildering, because of centuries of mixing, often with people who may not know their heritage. For example, some 20 million identify as “American” which is perfectly reasonable, if they are descended from early immigrants (1620 to 1820). People also do reasonably identify with more than one country/people, but these combinations are not tabulated, and it is difficult to claim accuracy from the data on ancestry. Finally, most of our ancestries are European countries, but we know from both history and genetic analysis that people have mingled and moved within “Europe” for thousands of years.’

This is where Haplogroups and the percentages are key as they point towards a European origin that is either more British, Germanic, French, Italian, Iberian, Baltic or Slavic.

‘Given these warnings, what do we almost know? The largest groupings of non-Hispanic whites first the English-Scottish-Irish at some 87 million, 28% of the population, followed by Germans (including Dutch, Austrian, Swiss) at about 50 million, and Scandinavians at 10 million. Others from Western Europe include 16 million from Italy and probably 12 million from France. Eastern Europe is the origin of about 16 million, including 9 million from Poland, 3.5 million from Russia, and 1.5 million from both Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and over 1 million from Greece. About 2 million are from the eastern Balkans and the Middle East.’

A high percentage if not all of those people claiming German, Dutch and Scandinavian ancestry are the same peoples as the British and Irish. A proportion of the French, if they originated from northwestern France may also be included. 

‘As discussed above, self-identified Hispanic whites number some 23 million, people with an African origin perhaps 40 million, of an Asian origin, 13 million, then up to 34 million as from Native American or Native-American-Spanish admixture. Much has been learned about the genetic evolution of humans and of their complex migration… across the globe. Since the majority of Americans are of European ancestry, the genome story of Europe translates to the genetic structure of the United States.  Table 2 summarizes the numbers of persons by haplogroup estimated for the US population. In Table 1 I added an estimate of the haplogroups associated with the racial-ancestral combinations. These are tentative and will be worked on further.’  

Table 2Major haplogroups
GroupPopulation% of populationAreas
R1b15650Western Europe
I4413Central Europe
R1a166Eastern Europe
J145Southeast Europe & Near East
G124Southwest Asia
Q93Native American
N20.7Baltic, Siberia
M0.50.2Pacific Island

‘The relevant haplogroups are:

  • E… still dominant in Africa, and the many descendant groups of equally old
  • F, which developed in south Asia (India-Pakistan)… All F subgroups seem to have differentiated in the same hearth area (India to the Caucasus)…
  • G occurs in modest numbers in Italy, Turkey and the Balkans,
  • N in the Baltic countries and Siberia,
  • I divided into I1, still strongly Scandinavian and I2 in south Italy and the west Balkans
  • J in Greece and the Middle East (includes most Jews).
  • R1b… Europe, dominant from Italy through France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium on through England and Ireland (plus North Africa).
  • R1a is strongest in Eastern Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Russia)
  • O, Asian
  • Q, Native American

In the tables and maps I distinguish between the R1B peoples dominantly English, German or French-Italian, andan R1bh population, which is the self-reported American Hispanic population…

How does this translate to US states (besides with difficulty)? The estimates are based on the self-reported ancestry of people by states and related to the haplogroups of those ancestries. Please see Table 3 and three maps of states the classification is based on the top 2 or 3 relevant haplogroups. [Hawaii] is unique as the only state with a dominant O, Asian, group, and the District of Columbia as the only area dominated by E (African origin).

Four states, KS, ME, NH, and WV are most strongly just R1b (West European – English, German and Italian-French). The largest number of states, 12, the historic south, plus MO, are primarily R1b and secondarily E. Six states are also strong in R1b and E, but also in R1a, eastern Europe, IN, MD, MI, OH, NY (also has Hispanic and Jewish), and PA. Somewhat similar are IL and NJ (notice that many of these are contiguous), with R1b, E, and R1bh.’

Estimated Haplogroups for US states

StateDominant groupShare2nd (share)3rd (share)4th (share)
Rb1 EnglishRb1 GermanRb1 French-Italian
ALR1b50E 25

AKR1b56Q 13I 7R1a 6
AZR1b53R1bh 25E 7R1a 6
ARR1b70E 13

CAR1b37R1bh 30O 14E 7R1a519117
COR1b68R1bh 16R1a 6I 6
CTR1b76R1a 15

DER1b69E 14

DCE43R1b 31

FLR1b52R1bh 20E 15R1a8J 5301210
GAR1b50E 30

HIO 40
R1b  22M 16

IDR1b70I 8

ILR1b56E 15R1bh 12R1a 6
INR1b69E 7R1a 6



KYR1b71E 7

LAR1b55E 25


MDR1b53E 24R1a 8

MAR1b80R1a 8

MIR1b69E 14R1a 11J 5
MNR1b68I 16 +R1a 8

MSR1b44E 28

MOR1b74E 12

MTR1b78I 11Q 7

NER1b79R1a 11I 9

NVR1b51R1bh 20


NJR1b58E 17R1bh 13R1a >12J 8261319
NMR1b55R1bh 35Q >10

NYR1b56E 15R1a 10R1bh 9J 7261317
NCR1b55E 20

NDR1b72I>10R1a 9

OHR1b66E 12R1a >10

OKR1b55Q 10E 7

ORR1b67I 9

PAR1b77R1a 11E 10

RIR1b89R1a 7

SCR1b53E 28

SDR1b70I 20?Q 9R1a6
TNR1b59E 17

TXR1b49R1bh 30E 13

UTR1b65I 13R1bh 12

VTR1b93R1a 5

VAR1b56E 20

WAR1b63I >10O 7R1bh 6

WVR1b77I >10R1a >10

WYR1b80Q 5I >5


‘The [first] map includes a set with the R1b and I1 combination (high in Scandinavian also), ID, IA, and OR, a related pair with a significant R1bh presence, UT and WA, which also has a sizeable O population. Also related are MT and SD, with R1b, I but also Q (Native American). States with R1b, I and also R1a (Eastern Europe) include MN, NE, ND and WI. Three states have R1b, then Q or Q and I:  OK<WY and AK (the highest Q share at 13%).’ 

‘The [second] map shows first four states with R1b and R1a, all in New England: CT, MA, RI and VT. CO and NV have the combination of R1b and R1bh.’ 

CA [California] is quite complex, with only a modest R1b share [Western European], a very large r1bh share [Hispanic], and also a sizeable O [East Asian and Polynesian] and then E [African-American] share. AZ and NM also have R1b, R1bh, but also Q (Native American).  FL is also complex, with R1b, R1bh, but also E, R1a and J.’

California shows a higher Hispanic element in its population as well as Black and Asian compared to European stock. If we contrast New Hampshire and New Mexico with each other; New Mexico has 55% R1b and 35% R1bh as indicative of its Latino element being 35% of the State’s population and 10% Q of its Native American component, either separate or part of the Hispanic proportion. The R1b split shows that its white population have 5% southern European influence, 17% Central European and 33% Western European. 

New Hamphire on the other hand reveals its beginnings with purely European stock of 96% with little or no Black or Hispanic influence. Its R1b split shows that 10% of its population have central European ancestry, 37% have southern European heritage and 50% have western European or British and Irish descent. 

The state of Maine has the highest western European R1b percentage at 56%. Rhode island has the highest southern European R1b percentage at 45% and North Dakota has the highest central European R1b influence at 46%. Connecticut appears to have the highest level of eastern European R1a at 15%, New Mexico the highest Latino R1bh at 35% and Washington DC the highest level of African-American E1b1b at 43%.’

‘I also present a few maps of ancestry combinations. The shares of English (plus Scot and Irish), German (plus Austria, Netherlands and Switzerland) and French-Italian (plus Belgium) – all part of the R1b group, are also shown in Table 3. English and German (19 states) and German and English (7) are the most common ancestries of Americans (Map 4). English and German by themselves dominate most in KS and WV. Scandinavian is added to English-German for ID, OR and WA (which also adds Asian), and to German-English, for IA, MN, ND, SD, then together with East European for NE and WI. These 11 states are the most “northern European”. Native Americans are added most for MT, OK, WY and especially AK (now 15 states) and then a Hispanic component to CO and UT.’

‘The English-German and German-English sets include 8 more states with a sizeable Black population, AR, DE, IL, IN, KY, MI and MO, and OH, then PA with a sizeable French-Italian and East European population as well. The full set is also a contiguous bloc across much of the north, and crossing into the south central. Not surprising (Map 5) is the English Hispanic (AZ, NV) and Hispanic-English, (NM, plus CA and TX, with additional Asian and German, and Black and French-Italian, respectively), covering the southwest, plus FL, adding a Black population). An English-Black combination coves the rest of the southern portion of the country – LA (Black English, French), then AL. GA, MS, NC, SC, TN and even MD.’

‘This leaves, (Map 6) besides HI and DC, a northeastern set of 8 states with a distinctive combination of English and French-Italian, CT, ME, NH, RI, VT, plus MA, adding E European) and complex NY, adding Black and East European. The entire mosaic reveals the fascinating stories of immigration and subsequent migration, still ongoing and becoming ever more complex.’

Regarding Haplogroups, it is recommended for those readers who have not been constant readers to read Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad before the next section; since we lack major MtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroup studies for British Canadian and American citizens. The main mtDNA Haplogroups for the British, Irish and closely related peoples of western Europe are reproduced in the table below. 

                            H       J      T2      K      HV        U5    HV0+V

Wales                60     15       1        8                       4           4

Benelux            47       6        9      12     0.7           3            3

Denmark          47     13       6        9                      6            4

Norway             46     11       8        5      0.2         11            4

Sweden             46      8       4        6      0.5         12            5

Sephardim       46      5                  8         8                         9

England            45    13       6         8                      9            3

Netherlands     45     11      12      10                      8           8

Germany           45      9       8        7     0.5            9           4

Scotland           44    13       6        7      0.2            8           3

Ireland              44    11       5      12          1            8           6

One would expect Canadians and Americans of Celtic-Saxon-Viking stock to be somewhere within this grouping of family nations descended from Abraham; which includes Keturah, Ishmael, Esau and Jacob. The sixty-four thousand dollar question, is where? My guess would be between Ireland and Scotland for Americans and for Canadians, between Scotland and England.

With regard to Y-DNA Haplogroups: “Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.” R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup, in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3% and is carried by over 110 million European men. Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. The time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE – according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106 (S21) is more frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; R-U198 is most prevalent in England, while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula; R-U152 is more frequent in Switzerland, France and Italy, and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. 

It is here that we would obtain proof of how German the descendants of Germans are in the United States, for if they are German as in descending from Ishmael, the dominant R1b they would carry would be U106. If though they are from the tribe of Joseph, then one would expect these German peoples to carry an R1b strain that was either M529 or U198. Until more research is conducted, or studies made apparent, this will remain a tantalising question remaining to be answered. 

We have kept a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we have investigated. 

Turkey            R-M269   14% — R-U106   0.4%

Russia             R-M269   21% — R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269   17% — R-U106      4%

Poland             R-M269   23% — R-U106     8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25% — R-U106     9%

Czech               R-M269   28% — R-U106   14% 

France             R-M269   52% — R-U106     7%

Italy                  R-M269   53% — R-U106    6%

Swiss                R-M269   58% — R-U106   13%

Netherlands    R-M269   54% — R-U106  35%

Denmark         R-M269   34% — R-U106   17%

Austria             R-M269   27% — R-U106   23%

Germany         R-M269   43% — R-U106    19%

England           R-M269   57%  — R-U106   20%

Ireland:           R-M269   80%  — R-U106      6%

USA:                R-M269   46%  — R-U106    15%

With the addition of the United States we can see that its Central European component of R-U106 matches the most closely, the Czechs, Swiss, Danes, Germans and English. Its more western R1b Haplotype R-M269, most closely matches Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and England. Overall, the United States matches Germany the most closely. This is an interesting finding and a little surprising that it does not match England more closely?

The sixty-four thousand dollar question again, is whether this is because the white, western European, British and Irish driven R1b percentages for Americans are truly more aligned with Germany, or whether they very probably, show admixture, that only a comprehensive study of British and Irish descended Americans could answer if there are higher levels of R-M269 and of R-U106 in keeping with the levels of England, in particular for instance. 

Y-chromosome haplogroups in US populations, Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog, 2005 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘For the US population as a whole: The most common haplogroup is R-M269 (37.8%), which is found in all of the ethnic groups. This haplogroup predominates in Western European populations. E-P1 [E1b/E1b1a], the second most frequent haplogroup in the U.S. (17.7%), is the most common haplogroup in West African populations. It is found at high frequencies in our AA samples, and at lower frequencies in HA samples from the Eastern U.S. Three haplogroups that originate in Northern and Western European populations include I-P30 [I1] (6.1%), the third most common haplogroup in our U.S. sample, I-P19  [I2a1] (2.8%) and I-P37 [I2a2] (1.6%). Haplogroups that likely originate in Eastern and Southern European populations are also present in our U.S. database, including R-M17  [R1a] (3.4%), E-M78 [E1b1b] (2.4%), G-P15 [G2a] (2.4%), and J-M172 [J2](1.5%). The fourth and fifth most frequent haplogroups in our database, Q-P36 (5.9%) and Q-M3 (5.8%), along with C-P39 (1.5%), are founding Native-American Y chromosomes. These haplogroups are frequent in our NA and HA samples, and are found at low frequency in our AA, EA, and SA samples. Asian-derived chromosomes, primarily in haplogroups O and N, are extremely rare in all but our SA sample.’

This article presents an overall picture of Y-DNA Haplogroups that is helpful in part, yet still lacking the specific Haplogroup sequencing we require for the original core of the American demographic. Putting this information with the more recent percentage for R-M269 and adding to the table below gives an idea of where the United States sits in relation to its brother and cousin nations, but not a wholly accurate view.

                           R1b      J      E1b1b       G         R1a        I

Ireland               81       2            2           1            3        12

N Ireland           77       2                                       2        20     

Wales                 74    0.5            4           3           1         16

Scotland            73        2            2       0.5           9         14

England             67       4             2           2          5         21

Flanders             61       5             5           4          4        20

France                59       8             8          6           3        16

Netherlands      49       4             4          5           4        25

Germany           45        5             6          5         16        22

United States   46        2           2          2           3         11 

Italy                    39      19           14          9           4        10

Sephardim        30      28          19          8           4        12

The five nations of Britain and Ireland immediately standout as belonging together, as well as separately from their near family members in the western portions of the continent. The English show the greatest levels of admixture. This is not surprising as one, they are the largest nation and two have been geographically placed to be impacted the most by the invading migratory waves of Israelites. A reflected scenario of these factors in England is indicative of the United States, who has also experienced a great inpouring of waves of emigrants over a period of three hundred years. 

The principle Y-DNA Haplogroup percentages aside from R1b and E1b1b are probably a fair reflection. What is not, is the higher level of E1b1b as contributed in the main by the African American population and the lower percentage of R1b that reflects the United States as a whole, but not those people of Israelite descent from the tribes of Ephraim and West Manasseh. 

… and [they] who have lived wisely and well will shine brilliantly, like the cloudless, star-strewn night skies. And those who put others on the right path to life will glow like stars forever. This is… for your eyes and ears only… [a] secret. Put the book under lock and key until the [time of the] end. In the interim there is going to be a lot of frantic running around, [by people] trying to figure out what’s going on.

Daniel 12:3-4 The Message

“An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it.”

Mahatma Gandhi

“With great power there must also come – great responsibility”

Spider Man, Amazing Fantasy No. 15 – 1962

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali – the Antipodean Tribes

Chapter XXXII

We have learned the identities of half the sons of Jacob. So far, all have been located in the British and Irish Isles.  The other half have migrated to the New World and beyond. It is recommended that Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin, and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad are read prior to this chapter. We have also addressed the over defining of the sons of Jacob by researchers in concluding Joseph as all the English speaking peoples and then attributing the other tribes to nations in northwest Europe. Yet these nations are invariably the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, Lot or even Ishmael. Certain tribes were prophesied to not live in the north and west from Canaan as the British and Irish do today. Two were predicted to live in ‘the midst’ of the earth, one was to live in ‘the southwest’ and another was described as a ‘great southern land.’  

Historically, identity adherents have been consistent in identifying Zebulun, Issachar’s younger brother and twin of Dinah as the Dutch of the Netherlands. The description of ports, ships and trade has led to this conclusion. We have addressed the Netherlands previously [refer Chapter XII Canaan, Chapter XXIII Aram and Chapter XXVII Abraham], as the Dutch descend from Abraham’s son Midian. Issachar has been linked to Switzerland due its landlocked position and watch making expertise, though the predominant identification for Issachar has been with Finland. As we learned in Chapter XXIV Arphaxad, Finland is not descended from Abraham or his two brothers, let lone Jacob; but rather possibly from Joktan, the brother of Peleg or more likely judging by Haplogroups, from Arphaxad’s other sons Anar and Ashcol. The Swiss are descended from Haran, Abraham’s brother [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. A key point we will find in identifying Issachar is that they are geographically next to Zebulun and therefore to be found together. A further pairing to add to those we have highlighted already with Judah and Benjamin; Simeon and Levi; Reuben and Gad. Thus, wherever one is located the other will be next to them. The Netherlands and Finland – likewise the Netherlands and Switzerland being separated – are very far apart and could not fulfil this requirement, geographically, genetically or linguistically. Identity expert Yair Davidy comments: 

‘Finland was settled by peoples from the Israelite tribes of Gad [Ireland], Simeon [Wales], and especially Issachar. The earliest written histories of Finland repeat the tradition that they were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Descendants of several Israelite tribes are to be found in Switzerland [Haran]. Issachar judging from tribal names and national characteristics prevails.’ 

Asher has been historically attributed principally with Belgium – because of the blessing of good food or pastries – and more recently as Scotland and Ireland. Naphtali has been attributed to Sweden – because of a love of freedom – as well as with Norway. Yair Davidy adds: ‘Norway was colonized by Naphtalite Huns and other groups of Naphtali.’ We will discover that Yair Davidy is correct initially and that these Naphtalites continued their migration in to Britain and Ireland and then beyond. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Issachar is compared to a “large-boned ass,” Jacob continues: “For he saw a resting-place that it was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and he BOWED HIS SHOULDER TO BEAR, and became a SERVANT UNDER “ASSWORK.” (Genesis 49:14-15.) An ass is not the most intelligent of animals, but it is a willing worker. Such is Finland. Finland is the ONLY nation that has voluntarily taken the full responsibility of her debts. She is today paying off a huge indemnity to Russia. Her land is pleasant and good, not extraordinarily rich. According to Deuteronomy 33:19 she derives wealth from fishing and from hidden treasures of the sand gigantic peat bogs and the finest sand for glass-making. Issachar is not a colonizing people they dwell pastorally “in tents,” said Moses.’

Not the most gracious of comments, though the intent is correct. But, we are searching for a British and Irish descended, or Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples that have shouldered a burden of some kind. They will also be living with Zebulon.

‘Zebulun settled in Holland (The Netherlands). Zebulun dwell at the “shore of the sea, and he shall be a shore for ships, and his flank shall be upon Zidon” a Gentile country. Moses said: “rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out.” She takes also treasures from the sea and the sand, Zebulun, then, is a colonizing people. She is not a pillaging people as Benjamin.’ 

Hoeh is accurate on the colonising aspect of Zebulon as well as drawing attention to their dwelling by Zidon. Recall, we spent time looking at the connection between the Kenites, the Hivites, the Midianite Dutch and their ancient Phoenician association with the city of Sidon. We have now located Zebulun and Issachar. By a strange twist of irony, the very identity ascribed to Zebulun by identity researchers is Holland and it is the Dutch and tribes of Zebulon and Issachar who are in fact entwined. Thus Zebulun comprises the British element, with Issachar of South Africa – and Issachar is also within Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia. In the Bible, this territory that includes Canaanites, Midianites, Issachar and Zebulon is called Sidon [refer Chapter XII Canaan and Chapter XXIII Aram] and is fulfilled in modern day South Africa. 

‘Asher “his bread shall be fat and he shall yield royal dainties” (Genesis 49:20). 

This peculiar expression could have reference alone to Belgium and the kindred state Luxembourg. From Belgium have come the finest Flemish paintings, the royal tapestries which graced the halls of kings, fine cut diamonds, porcelain and Belgian lace. Belgium and Luxembourg are blessed above many [other sons] of Jacob “Blessed be Asher above sons; let him be the favoured of his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil” prosperity. 

Iron and brass shall [be] thy bars; and as thy days, so shall they riches increase. Because of uranium, Belgium’s prosperity will continue to grow.’

Hoeh is correct to highlight Asher’s blessing being disproportionate to his brothers; though after Jospeh and Judah the birthright and sceptre recipients. The blessings are far more, than the nation of Belgium possesses. The people of Belgium being descended from Abraham’s grandsons Sheba and Dedan [refer Chapter XVII Abraham].  

‘Nepthali represents Sweden “satisfied with favor, full with the blessings of the Lord.” She is compared to a prancing hind or deer and “giveth goodly words” (Genesis 49:21). From Sweden, with a well-balanced economy, come the Nobel prizes in token to great world accomplishments. Sweden, during two world wars and the recent trouble in Palestine, sent her emissaries to speak words of conciliation and peace. 

The promise by Moses to possess “the sea and the south” is applicable both to ancient Nepthali and modern Sweden: notice the position of the Sea of Galilee and Baltic relative to the position of this tribe. (It may be of interest to note that the word translated as ‘west’ regarding Napthali is also defined as roaring sea, which is how Herman Hoeh explained it. Sweden is basically on the west border of the Baltic Sea).’

Both Hoeh and Nickels who comments in the parentheses, have missed the reference to the south and west is from Canaan’s perspective. Therefore, the Baltic is a far cry from fulfilling this clue. Naphtali is the nation of New Zealand and Asher is Australia

Genesis 49:13-15

English Standard Version

13 “Zebulun shall dwell [H7931 – shakan: lodge] at the shore of the sea; he shall become a haven for ships, and his border[H3411 – yrekah: flank, quarters, recesses] shall be at [unto] Sidon

Regarding Jacob’s prophecy, the New English Translations says that the verb ‘shakhan means “to settle,” but not necessarily as a permanent dwelling place. The tribal settlements by the sea would have been temporary and not the tribe’s territory.’ This is significant as since 1994 and the handing over of White control of South Africa’s political process to all South African’s, the British descended peoples of Zebulun in particular, have begun to migrate en mass to North America, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and other countries.* We will shortly learn that this was predicted. 

StatsSA, July 2012:

‘…provided a breakdown of demographics, including the estimated shifts among different racial population groups. Black South African estimates increased… the country’s coloured population grew… [and] The Asian/Indian population group… South Africa’s white population, however, declined by 17,311 people between 2020 and 2021… Notably, while South Africa’s white population still maintains its proportionate make-up of the overall population, at 7.8%, this has steadily declined over the years, from 7.9% in 2019, 8.1% in 2016, and 9.0% in 2011. Stats SA pointed to emigration as a key factor in this declining trend.’

South Africa has a population of 60,799,352 people, thus the White population equates to 4,742,349 people. Of which an approximate sixty/forty split divides the Afrikaan speakers from the English as a first language. The British descended people account for approximately 1,896,939 people, less those who have left South Africa and Zimbabwe. In the past, the total White population was nearer eight million people and closer to fifteen to twenty percent of the population. 

British Red Ensign used in South Africa until 1928

The Cape of Good Hope was a welcome stop in any journey going past Africa, east or west. The cape originally was called the Cape of Storms by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in the 1480s.

14 “Issachar is a strong donkey, crouching between the sheepfolds [saddle bags or two burdens]. 

15 He saw [H7200 – ra’ah: perceive, vision] that a resting place was good, and that the land was pleasant, so he bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a [tributary] servant at forced  [slave] labor.

The New English Translation comments – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The verb forms in this verse {“sees,” “will bend,” and “(will) become”} are preterite; they is used in a rhetorical manner, describing the future as if it had already transpired. The oracle shows that the tribe of Issachar will be willing to trade liberty for the material things of life. Issachar would work (become a slave laborer) for the Canaanites, a reversal of the oracle on Canaan [refer Chapter XI Ham].’

The descendants of Issachar have in the main, chosen to stay in the Republic of South Africa; with many having fled from Zimbabwe. The two burdens are the Black Canaanite peoples and the Afrikaans Hivites, descended from Midian and the Kenites [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].  

South African flag 1928 to 1994. The flags in the centre are the Union Jack, The Orange Free State 

and the South African Republic flags. The main flag is based on the flag of the Netherlands, 

before the orange was changed to red.

The connotation is that as Zebulun chose to live by the Sea, such as in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban; Issachar has chosen to dwell inland and landlocked, like most of the Dutch Afrikaans in Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Johannesburg, Zimbabwe and so forth. 

Ezra 3:7

English Standard Version

So they gave money to the masons and the carpenters, and food, drink, and oil to the Sidonians [South Africa] and the Tyrians [Brazil] to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea, to Joppa, according to the grant that they had from Cyrus king of Persia.

Deuteronomy 33:18-19

English Standard Version

18 And of Zebulun he said, “Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out* [H3318 – yatsa’: depart, pull out, spread], and Issachar, in your tents [at home]. 

19 They shall call peoples to their mountain [H2022 – har: hill country]; there they offer right [H6664 – tsedeq] sacrifices; for they draw [H3243 – yanaq: to suck] from the abundance [H8228 – shepha: resources] of the seas and the hidden [H2934 – taman: conceal, bury, secretly] treasures [H8226 – saphan: valuable, covered] of the sand.” 

Flag of South Africa 

Notice Issachar and Zebulun are included together in both verses and are not receiving separate prophecy’s; just different futures within the same oracle from Moses. Much of South Africa is high above sea level. Johannesburg is some 5,600 feet above sea level on a plateau, where the air is thinner than the coast and it apparently takes an egg one minute longer to boil. The Hebrew word for right, tsedeq means ‘righteousness’ but also ‘just, justice’ and a ‘righteous cause.’ Particularly linked with ‘government’ and a ‘vindication’ against ‘controversy’ and ‘victory’ or ‘deliverance’ to bring about an ‘ethically right’ result. This remarkably parallels the monumental political changes in South Africa since 1994. The reference could also be pointing to a Messianic fulfilment.

Matthew 4:13-16; Isaiah 9:1-2, 4.

English Standard Version

13 And leaving Nazareth [Christ] went and lived in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, 14 so that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled:

But there will be no gloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he has made glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations.

15 “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, 16 the people dwelling in [deep] darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling [and walking] in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned [shone].”

For the yoke of his burden, and the staff for his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, you have broken as on the day of Midian.

The Messiah is speaking of Himself as a light in revealing the gospel of the Kingdom of God and He is also speaking of His return. Thus, we learn that at the time of the Son of Man’s second coming, either the earth has spun on its axis and the magnetic north and south poles have reversed or the Lamb approaches earth from the south. For this is where Zebulun [33.9249 S] and Naphtali [36 50’54.4596 S] reside today at a similar latitude in the southern hemisphere of the globe. It is another coincidence that Midian is mentioned in verse four of chapter nine of Isaiah. Not only does Zebulun dwell with a branch of the Midianites in South Africa; New Zealand was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and named after the Dutch province of Zeeland, from Sea-land in 1642.

Southern Rhodesia flag 1924 to 1964

The prediction of mineral wealth from the soil is incredible in its fulfilment and not something that could be attributed to the Netherlands or Finland. Of the world’s top mineral producing countries, South Africa is number one and a mining powerhouse. South Africa’s geographic location is in a continent that is considered the richest in biodiversity and natural resources and it abounds with mineral reserves that are estimated to be worth over $2.5 trillion dollars, according to World Mining Statistics

Flag of Rhodesia 1968 to 1979

This dominant African nation is the largest producer and exporter of important and high in demand minerals and gems in the world, such as platinum [nearly 50% of world production], diamonds of gem quality – as opposed to industrial quality of which Australia, Russia, Zaire and Botswana produce more – chrome, manganese, vanadium and vermiculite. It is the second largest producerof ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. It is also the world’s third largest coal exporter and fifth in the world for gold. South Africa is also a huge producer of iron ore. In 2012, it overtook India to become the world’s third-biggest iron ore supplier to China; the world’s largest consumer of iron ore.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in South African global shipments during 2021.

  1. Gems, precious metals: US$35 billion 
  2. Ores, slag, ash: $18.6 billion 
  3. Vehicles: $10.7 billion 
  4. Mineral fuels including oil: $10.3 billion 
  5. Machinery including computers: $6.6 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $6.3 billion 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $4.5 billion 
  8. Other chemical goods: $2.1 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $1.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $1.7 billion

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 75.3% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales was iron and steel which rose 58.9%. South Africa’s shipments of mineral fuels including oil posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 49.51% year over year.’ 

Flag of Zimbabwe

Judges 5:14-15

English Standard Version

14… from Machir marched down the commanders, and from Zebulun those who bear [H4900 – mashak] the lieutenant’s staff [H7626 – shebet]; 15 the princes [chiefs, rulers] of Issachar came with Deborah, and Issachar faithful to Barak [from the tribe of Naphtali, Judges 4:6]; into the valley they rushed at his heels…

When the majority of Israelite tribes – though not all as we have discovered earlier – aided the Judge Deborah in her war against Jabin the King of the Canaanites, both Zebulun and Issachar were enthusiastic in their support on the battlefield. The Hebrew word mashek means, ‘to draw’ as in a bow, ‘to march’, ‘to be tall.’ The Hebrew word shebet means, a ‘rod, staff, club, sceptre’ as in a ‘mark of authority’ and a ‘shaft of’ a ‘spear’ or ‘dart.’ Its wider application a ‘literally a stick for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling’ and ‘walking.’ The verse could be paraphrased as: ‘… from Zebulon, those with military authority and competency.’ 

Rhodesian Coat of Arms 1924 to 1981

Notice two symbols on the Rhodesian Coat of Arms. Firstly, the prominent Lion of England and Thistles of Scotland, showing the common familial tie with Judah and Benjamin. Even more significant is the pick axe, a tool used for digging and also representative of mining; while indicative of Issachar’s servitude.  

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘As a loyal British colony, Southern Rhodesia called up 5,500 young white men – a significant proportion of that age group in the country at the time – and sent them to fight for Britain on the Western front in France. During World war II, double that number served in the British forces, with eleven Rhodesian Air Force pilots given “ace” status… 

Rhodesia’s superb fighting force was never defeated militarily [raids against Mozambique and Zambia guerrilla forces], but this helped little when the demographic war had been lost.’

We have discussed the significant pairing of Jacob’s sons. Some between blood brothers like Simeon and Levi and now Issachar and Zebulon and other pairings between half-brothers such as Judah, Benjamin, Reuben, Gad and also Asher and Naphtali. The final pairing are the sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim. The odd one out is Dan.

2 Chronicles 30:18

English Standard Version

For a majority of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the Passover otherwise than as prescribed. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, “May the good Lord pardon everyone…”

2 Samuel 24:6-7

English Standard Version

Then they came to Gilead, and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites; and they came to Dan, and from Danthey went around to Sidon and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites… 

1 Chronicles 12:38-40

English Standard Version

38 All these, men of war, arrayed in battle order, came to Hebron with a whole heart to make David king over all Israel. Likewise, all the rest of Israel were of a single mind to make David king. 39 And they were there with David for three days, eating and drinking, for their brothers had made preparation for them. 40 And also their relatives, from as far as Issachar and Zebulun [2 Chronicles 30:10] and Naphtali, came bringing food on donkeys and on camels and on mules and on oxen, abundant provisions of flour, cakes of figs, clusters of raisins, and wine and oil, oxen and sheep, for there was joy in Israel. 

Coat of Arms of Zimbabwe 

These verses confirm the closeness of Zebulon and Issachar as one people; albeit spread in part over two countries. The third passage highlights that in the past as it is today, that Zebulon and Issachar, with Naphtali once lived furthest north in Canaan and today – South Africa and New Zealand are – furthest south below the equator. An interesting verse regarding Issachar.

1 Chronicles 12:32

English Standard Version

32 Of Issachar, men who had understanding [H998 – biynah: ‘wisdom, knowledge’] of the times [H6256 – eth: ‘season, occasion’], to know [H3045 – yada: ‘percieve, understand’] what Israel ought to do [H6213 – asah: ‘offer, prepare’]… 

Former South African Coat of Arms

Notice the more Dutch or Midianite looking Lion than an English one; though there is homage to seafaring and trade represented by the figure of Britannia and the anchor. The Hebrew word for understanding means, ‘discernment, perfectly.’ The word for know means, ‘to discriminate, distinguish’ ‘to make known, declare.’ The Hebrew word for ought means, ‘to attend to, put in order, to observe, celebrate, appoint, ordain’ and ‘institute.’ The Tribe of Issachar were given the responsibility and skills to perform the function of regulating the calendar, so that the dates for the Holy Days, Sabbaths and new Moons were observed correctly. This was a function that in time, the Levite priesthood took over responsibility. 

Remarkably, in Cape Town there is the southern suburb of Observatory where the world renowned South African Astronomical Observatory [SAAO] is located and where the McClean Dome is situated. Another dome onsite houses the Victoria telescope, built in 1897. The Southern African Large Telescope [SALT] has the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere based in Sunderland – some two hundred and fifty miles to the north – though they conduct research in astronomy and astrophysics at SAAO. In the library are two clocks. The first shows normal South African time and the second shows sidereal time – ‘based on the Earth’s rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars – something like the time kept by a sundial, so roughly four minutes slower than an average day.’

South Africa’s current Coat of Arms, including observations on its symbols

Genesis 30:17-20

English Standard Version

17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son [1742 BCE]. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant [Zilpah] to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar [there is reward, there is recompense]. 19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son [1740 BCE]. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun [honour, dwelling].

Genesis 46:13-15

English Standard Version

13 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puvah, Yob [Job], and Shimron

14 The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, together with his daughter Dinah [Zebulun’s twin]…

Recall in Chapter XXIX Esau, how Job’s second wife was possibly a descendant of Dinah. And here we see that Job is a family name in Dinah’s brother’s line. The name is also listed in Genesis 10:29 as a son of Joktan. The Book of Jasher also refers to this Jobab of Genesis 10:29 and to the Job [Iob] listed here. 

Book of Jasher 45:5-7: 

5… Issachar went to the land of the east, and… took [for himself a wife from]… the daughters of Jobab the son of [Joktan], the son of Eber; and Jobab the son of Yoktan had two daughters… and the name of the younger was Aridah. 6… Issachar took Aridah, and… came to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house… 7 And Aridah bare unto Issachar Tola, Puvah, Job [Iob or Jashub Numbers 26:24, 1 Chronicles 7:1] and Shomron, four sons; 

Job married an equivalent of an eastern European. The identity of Jobab is not clear, though an example of a Czech may not be far amiss* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Recall, Levi also married Aridah’s elder sister. The Book of Jubilees records Issachar’s wife’s name as Hezaqa.

Book of Jubilees 34:20-21

And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives… the name of Issachar’s wife, Hezaqa: and the name of Zabulon’s wife, Ni’iman… and the name of Naphtali’s wife, Rasu’u, of Mesopotamia… and the name of Asher’s wife, ‘Ijona

The Book of Jasher continues regarding the wives of Naphtali, Asher and Zebulun.

Book of Jasher 45:9-10, 12-20

9… Naphtali went to Haran and took from thence [a daughter] of Amuram the son of Uz, the son of Nahor… 10… the name of the elder was Merimah… and Naphtali took Merimah… and brought [her] to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house. 11 And Merimah bare unto Naphtali Yachzeel, Guni, Jazer and Shalem, four sons…

12 And Asher went forth and took Adon the daughter of Aphlal, the son of Hadad, the son of Ishmael,for a wife, and he brought her to the land of Canaan. 

13 And Adon the wife of Asher died in those days: she had no offspring; and it was after the death of Adon that Asher went to the other side of the river and took for a wife Hadurah the daughter of Abimael, the son of Eber, the son of Shem. 14 And the young woman was of a comely appearance, and a woman of sense, and she had been the wife of Malkiel the son of Elam, the son of Shem. 15 And Hadurah bare a daughter unto Malkiel, and he called her name Serach, and Malkiel died after this, and Hadurah went and remained in her father’s house. 16 And after the death of the wife [of] Asher he went and took Hadurah for a wife, and brought her to the land of Canaan, and Serach her daughter he also brought with them, and she was three years old, and the damsel was brought up in Jacob’s house. 17 And the damsel was of a comely appearance, and [Serach] went in the sanctified ways of the children of Jacob; she lacked nothing, and Yahweh gave her wisdom and understanding. 18 And Hadurah the wife of Asher conceived and bare unto him Yimnah, Yishvah, Yishvi and Beriah; four sons.

19 And Zebulun went to Midian, and took for a wife Merishah the daughter of Molad, the son of Abida, the son of Midian [the son of Abraham and Keturah], and brought her to the land of Canaan. 20 And Merushah bare unto Zebulun Sered, Elon and Yachleel; three sons.

Naphtali like his half brother Gad, married from the line of Nahor [Italian] as his father Jacob and his grandfather Isaac had done. Asher took a first wife from Ishmael [German] who died childless and Asher’s second wife Hadurah was descended from Eber, which could mean Peleg or Joktan* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Fascinatingly, the strong link between Zebulon and Midian – the British and Dutch South Africans – continues, with Zebulon taking his wife Merishah from the line of Abraham’s son Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].

Numbers 1:28-31, 41, 43

English Standard Version

28 Of the people of Issachar, their generations, by their clans, by their fathers’ houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, every man able to go to war: 29 those listed of the tribe of Issachar were 54,400.

31 those listed of the tribe of Zebulun were 57,400… 41 those listed of the tribe of Asher were 41,500… 43 those listed of the tribe of Naphtali were 53,400.

1 Chronicles 7:1-5

English Standard Version

The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron, four. 2 The sons of Tola: Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their fathers’ houses, namely of Tola, mighty warriors of their generations, their number in the days of David being 22,600. 

3 The son of Uzzi: Izrahiah. And the sons of Izrahiah: Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah, all five of them were chief men. 4 And along with them, by their generations, according to their fathers’ houses, were units of the army for war, 36,000, for they had many wives and sons. 5 Their kinsmen belonging to all the clans of Issachar were in all 87,000 mighty warriors, enrolled by genealogy.

Strangely, further sons or grandsons for Zebulon are missing from the 1 Chronicles genealogical lists. 

Genesis 30:7-13

English Standard Version

7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son [1742 BCE]. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali[wrestlings of God, my struggle, cunning].

9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife… 12 Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a second son [1744 BCE]. 13 And Leah said, “Happy am I! For women have called me happy.” So she called his name Asher[happy, happy one].

Genesis 46:17, 24

English Standard Version

17 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, with Serah their sister. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel… [1 Chronicles 1:31-32: who fathered Birzaith. Heber fathered Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua…]

24 The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. 

Australian Flag

In Asher’s family there is the family name of Heber [Eber, Hebrew, Iberia, Hiberi, Hibernia, Hebrides] and Naphtali has a son, Jahzeel similar to Zebulon’s son Jahleel.

Genesis 49:20-21

English Standard Version

20 “Asher’s food shall be rich [H8082 – shaman: plenteous, lusty, robust], and he shall yield  [be granted or permitted] royal [H4428 – melek: (fit for a) king] delicacies.

21 “Naphtali is a doe [deer] let loose [H7961 – shalach: let free], that bears [granted, given] beautiful [beauty, goodness] fawns [(offspring) or confusingly, ‘he gives beautiful words’].

Australian Coat of Arms

Notice the strong link with the tribe of Judah in the symbols of Crowns, Lions and the St Georges Cross. The Good News Translation for Asher says: ‘Asher’s land will produce rich food. He will provide food fit for a king.’ Australia is one of the bread basket nations of the world, with the market opening up to its neighbours in East Asia infinitely. A more helpful paraphrase of verse 21: ‘Naphtali is a female deer running free, that has been bestowed beauty and goodness.’ This verse explains itself for anyone who has been able to visit New Zealand.

Deuteronomy 33:23-29

English Standard Version

23 And of Naphtali he said, “O Naphtali, sated with favor [H7522 – ratsown: pleasure, delight], and full of the blessing [prosperity] of the Lord, possess [inherit] the lake and the south [H3220 – yam: west (47 times KJV), south (1)].”

24 And of Asher he said, “Most blessed of sons [or blessed with children] be Asher; let him be the favorite [acceptable, a pleasure, delight] of his brothers, and let him dip [plunge] his foot in oil.

25 Your bars shall be iron and bronze, and as your days, so shall your strength be.

It is clear from these verses that Asher considerably and Naphtali in large part, have been granted special favour above their brothers – aside from Joseph and Judah. Both Australia and New Zealand regularly make the top ten lists for best or safest countries to live in. The CEV says: ‘The Lord is pleased with you, people of Naphtali. He will bless you and give you the land to the west and the south.’ The nation furthest from the original land of Canaan – as well as from the British and Irish Isles – in a southwest direction is, New Zealand. It is also separated by vast oceans and sea. Even taking its name from the word Sea-land inherited from the Netherlands and Denmark before that. 

The original Hebrew says that Asher would be blessed with children, a favourite amongst his brothers and possess immeasurable wealth beneath his feet. After North America and England, Australia has the highest population of the sons of Jacob with 26,077,567 people. It is a very popular destination to visit or emigrate and has a high level of wealth relative to its population. Though Belgium is a blessed nation, it does not match the oracle as given by Moses, like Australia does. Australia has the highest average wealth in the world, passing Switzerland in 2018. 

Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world with a GDP of $1.40 trillion in 2019.Australia combines an open domestic economy, with an extensive network of free trade arrangements with trading partners principally around the Asia-Pacific Rim. Australia ranks at number ten in the nations with the most natural resources. Australia, which is similar in size to the continental United States, is known for its large reserves of coal, timber, copper, iron ore, nickel, oil shale and rare earth metals. Australia is also one of the world leaders in uranium and gold mining. The country has the largest gold reserves in the world, supplying over fourteen percent of the world’s gold demand and forty-six percent of the world’s uranium demand; while being the top producer of opal and aluminum. 

If that wasn’t enough, it is number three in the world for mineral producing nations. It is interesting that Australia is called the ‘lucky country’ especially as this if the meaning of his blood brother’s name, Gad. The link with Ireland doesn’t stop there. Some thirty percent of Australians claim Irish descent and they share a love of the unique yet similar sports of either Gaelic football and Australia or Aussie Rules football. 

The nation continent of Australia has approximately $737 billion worth of seaborne ore reserves alone. It also houses massive reserves of important minerals, such as bauxite – twenty-three percent of the world’s total reserves – and nickel, with some thirty-five percent of the world’s total reserves. It may not exceed the scale of South Africa and Russia in terms of mineral reserves, but Australia is more popular among international mining investors due to its government’s credibility and track record of performance in protecting the mining industry. As Russia [2] and the Ukraine [4] are top five mineral powers, the counter balance to the mighty Assyrians and Orphir of Joktan, is Sidon-Midian-Zebulon, South Africa and Asher, Australia. 

A coincidence is that Asher of Jacob and Asshur of Shem have similar names and both possess enormous countries of mineral wealth, with allies also possessing huge reserves.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Australian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Ores, slag, ash: US$132.1 billion 
  2. Mineral fuels including oil: $91 billion 
  3. Gems, precious metals: $20.7 billion 
  4. Meat: $11.6 billion 
  5. Cereals: $10.1 billion 
  6. Inorganic chemicals: $6.4 billion 
  7. Machinery including computers: $4.8 billion 
  8. Aluminum: $4.7 billion 
  9. Copper: $3.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $3.7 billion 

Cereals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 164.1% since 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aluminum which was up by 52.6%. Australia’s shipments of ores, slag and ash posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 45.6% year over year. The most modest advance among Australia’s top 10 export categories was for gems and precious metals thanks to its 5.6% gain.’

Judges 5:17-18

English Standard Version

17 … Asher sat still at the coast of the sea, staying by his landings. 18 Zebulun is a people who risked their lives to the death; Naphtali, too,on the heights of the field.

Judges 4:10 

English Standard Version

And Barak called out Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh. And 10,000 men went up at his heels, and Deborah went up with him.

We learn that Asher like Reuben, Dan, Gad, Simeon, Levi and Judah was reticent to get involved in a war that didn’t directly impinge on their territory. Meanwhile, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin, Zebulon, Issachar and Naphtali took part. With Zebulon, Naphtali was the most courageous. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘ANZAC [Australia and New Zealand Army Corps] Day is still celebrated on April 25th each year to honour New Zealand’s military dead. An astonishing 103,000 New Zealander’s served in the armed forces during the First World War – out of a total population of one million. Of this number, 16,697 were killed. This meant that 1.6 percent of all New Zealanders died in the conflict… the highest death [rate] per capita of any country in the war. An even greater number of New Zealanders served in World war II. Some 140,000 soldiers fought overseas in Europe, North Africa, and in the Pacific… 11,928 were killed, or just under 1 percent of the total population… in 1939.’

It can be no small coincidence that the two greatest Rugby Union teams in the world consistently for over one hundred years with three Rugby world cups each out of a possible nine are the New Zealand All Blacks and the South African Springboks. For what is rugby, but a battle without the weapons or result of death. Blood and injury though are par for the course in the most brutal sport in the world outside of cage fighting, boxing and American Football. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, Hitler’s commander in North Africa during World War II insightfully said about the Australians and New Zealanders after facing their infantry divisions [ANZACs]: “If I had to take hell, I would use the Australians to take it and the New Zealanders to hold it.”

Judges 7:23

English Standard Version

And the men of Israel were called out from Naphtali and from Asher and from all Manasseh, and they pursued after Midian.

When the Judge Gideon fought the Midianites, his main allies apart from his own tribe of Manasseh, were Naphtali, with their neighbour Asher, in the far north of Canaan.

Joshua 19:24-29

English Standard Version

24 The fifth lot came out for the tribe of the people of Asher according to their clans. 

25 Their territory included Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, 26 Allammelech, Amad, and Mishal. On the west it touches Carmel and Shihor-libnath, 27 then it turns eastward, it goes to Beth-dagon, and touches Zebulun and the Valley of Iphtahel northward to Beth-emek and Neiel. Then it continues in the north to Cabul, 28 Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, as far as Sidon the Great. 29 Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre…

The inheritance of Asher in Canaan is described in the Book of Joshua. It is interesting, as it a condensed description of their current neighbours today. Zebulun and Sidon equating to South Africa in the African continent to their west, separated by a vast expanse of sea and similarly to the west; Tyre equates to Brazil in the South American continent [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. A curious prophetic verse is in the Book of Isaiah, which describes where certain tribes of Israel were dispersed.

Isaiah 49:12

Christian Standard Bible

See, these will come from far away, from the north and from the west, and from the land [H776 – ‘erets: land without return (under) [the] world] of Sinim.

We know the north and west relates to the British and Irish Isles. The counterpoint to that is Sinim, which is inferred as the opposite direction of, southwards [and far away]. Some researchers propose that Sin-im relates to China [as the Arabs called the Chineses Sin(a)] or to Canaan’s son Sin; but both these options are an incorrect interpretation. The Jerome translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible for Isaiah 49:12 says: ‘ecce isti de longe venient et ecce illi ab aquilone et mari et isti de terra australi.’ The key phrase being: isti de terra australi. 

By a strange turn, the word Australia is derived from the Latin word australis, meaning ‘southern.’ Australia has been colloquially referred to as Oz, slang for Aus’ since the early twentieth century. It is the ‘land down under’ and literally the great ‘southern land.’ Australia has been called ‘the Oldest Continent’, ‘the Last of Lands’ and ‘the Last Frontier.’ Australia is the last of lands, in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica to be explored by Europeans. 

The term Terra Australis Incognita, or an ‘unknown land of the South’ dates back to Roman times. After European discovery, names included Terra Australis. An online quote: 

‘The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in “A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt”, published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name “Tierra Austral del Espíritu Santo” (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit) for an island in Vanuatu. The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. 

Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur. Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771.’  

The name Sinim [סינים siyniym] occurs nowhere else in the Bible and it is evident that it is a remote country; remarkable in that it is the only such land specified by name in the Bible. The Chaldee also interprets it as Jerome has done: of the south. Whereas the Syriac has not translated it but retained the name Sinim… In Origin, Yair Davidiy adds:

‘The Egyptians referred to the southernmost known area of land as “sin-wur”. This corresponds to the Land of “Sinim” meaning Australia. There are reports of Egyptian and Phoenician remains being found in Australia.’ 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Another large mass of people, the Yue­chi, was being pushed out of inner Asia toward Scythia and Parthia. Early Chinese chronicles record that the “Ephthalites” were one of the tribes of the Yue­chi. The Ephthalites were also called “White Huns” because they were “fair­skinned” (indicating a Semitic origin). 

Other names for the Ephthalites include the “Hephthalites” or “Nephthalites,” although the Encyclopaedia Britannica adds that “the initial N… is believed to be a clerical error.” It should be easy for anyone with a knowledge of biblical history to identify this tribe as the Israelite tribe of Naphtali! The consonants of Ephthali (or Nephthali) precisely match Naphtali, one of the ten tribes of Israel.’ 

New Zealand Coat of Arms

‘It is interesting that the Encyclopaedia Britannica observed that the ancient historians who recorded that this tribe’s name began with an “N” are “believed… (to have made) a clerical error.” No evidence is offered to support a claim that it was a clerical error, but it is “believed” to be one. Why? The reader must realize that “establishment” histories have a strong bias against “finding” any of the “lost” ten tribes of Israel (doing so would draw interest toward the Bible). While many Israelite tribal names can be found in Asia, this similarity between the “Nephthalites” and an Israelite tribe (the Naphtalites) is glaringly obvious.

The presence of a tribe in Asia bearing a Hebrew name unchanged from biblical times is an academic “hot potato”! A “belief” that the “N” is an ancient “clerical error” helps to obscure the Israelite nature of this tribe. Indeed, if establishment histories were to examine Scythian or Parthian history in much depth at all, their identity as the ten tribes of Israel would be impossible to miss. Perhaps that is why their history (prominently cited by Greek and Roman historians) is mostly ignored in the modern world. 

The fact that the Ephthalites were “fair­skinned” further verifies their identification as Israelites (since the Israelites were of the Semitic, or “white” race). The fact that the Ephthalites were called “White Huns” indicates that while they came out of Asia, they were differentiated from the rest of the Huns, who were not fair­skinned or white. Indeed, the Encyclopaedia Britannica itself refers to the Sakas (or Sacae Scythians), the Yue­Chi and the Ephthalites as being related “Indo-Scythian” tribes. 

In chapter eight, it was documented that the Nephthalites were undoubtedly the Israelite tribe of Naphtali which went into Asia in 741 B.C. as captives of the Assyrians. Since the tribe of Naphtali did not go into captivity in a piecemeal fashion, but rather in one complete mass (II Kings 15:29), they retained their original Israelite tribal name longer than the other tribes. 

The Ephthalites waged war on the Sassanian Persians (which was natural since the Ephthalites were kinsmen of the Parthians and Scythians). As late as 484 A.D., the Ephthalites defeated the Persians and extended their control into India, establishing a capital as Sakala (which bore the name of Isaac). 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica cites the Greek writer, Procopius, as stating the Ephthalite Huns were “far more civilized than the Huns of Attila.” Ephthalite power in Asia was not broken until 557 A.D. when they were beaten by the Persians and Turks… the Ephthalites, as a whole, simply disappeared from Asia. Where did they go? They were likely pushed toward Europe, arriving in a later migration. This would make the tribe of Naphtali one of the first to go into Asia and the last to leave it.’ 

Origin, Yair Davidiy – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the very far east of Scythia in what is now eastern Siberia and western China a good portion of the Naphtalite horde had remained. In the 450-500 CE period the Naphtalites began to move west eventually entering Scandinavia in the 500’s and 600’s CE. The Naphtalites themselves settled mainly in Norway.’ 

As we have discussed in the previous two chapters, the waves of invaders into Britain and Ireland match the sons of Jacob and their tribal groupings. Though ultimately the twelve sons became fourteen tribal splits, they were to form ten nations in the modern world. The tribal divisions being Reuben, Gad, Benjamin, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Ephraim, the half tribe of West Manasseh and the half tribe of East Manasseh. 

These fourteen tribes became the ten English speaking nations of England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States of America. Levi was scattered which leaves thirteen. Issachar and Zebulun are together as one, which leaves twelve. Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh are together as one and are called either Ephraim or Joseph in the Bible, which leaves eleven… and Dan the enigma, remains unidentified until later, which leaves ten. 

The waves of invaders also follows the pattern of ten, rather than fourteen arrivals. They are the Britons, the Cruithni, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha de Dannan, the Hiberi or Goidels, the Jutes, the Frisians, the Angles, the Norsemen and the Danes. Sandwiched in between those are the Royal Milesians who were a branch of Judah from Zarah and the Normans who were predominantly a branch of Judah from Pharez. 

The ancient Britons were the Cymru and are the Simeon Welsh; the Cruithni from Benjamin were Picts and became Scottish; the Fir Bolg became the Ulaid and Reuben Northern Ireland; the Dannan are simply the tribe of Dan; the Goidels or Gaedhals of Gad became Gaels and are now the Irish; the Jutes from true tribe of Judah are the English; the Frisians from Zebulun and Issachar became the British South Africans and Rhodesians; the Angles – to be yet revealed – became known as Americans and Canadians; the Norsemen or Norwegians from Naphtali, became New Zealanders [notice all the Ns]; and the Danish Vikings became Australians from Asher. 

Just as the Norwegians, Danes and Normans were known as Vikings and the earlier tribes to arrive were called Celts, so too were the tribes of Jutes, Angles and Frisians collectively known as Saxons. The term ‘Anglo-Saxon’ is made up and is somewhat misleading as it implies two separate peoples, when in fact the Angles were Saxons. It is interesting to note that the first letter of many of Jacob’s son’s names have survived either to the present day or at least until their arrival in Ireland or Briton. Especially noticeable, with the tribe of Naphtali. 

Both Collins and Davidy’s comments are informative regarding Naphtali who had remarkably, kept his identity for some fifteen hundred years. An important point to understand is that as peoples migrated they pushed against those in front of them and in turn were pressed from behind. The Naphtalite Huns made their way to Scandinavia as had many of the tribes before them. They with the Danes and the Normans were the last to vacate Scandinavia. The Normans had dwelt in Brittany and Normandy for two centuries before they invaded Kent and Sussex. Meanwhile, the Danish Vikings had the numbers to establish a capital at York and to inject their royal line into the British Saxon kings. The Norwegian Vikings raided and then settled the north of England, Scotland and Ireland. Though there is some overlap between the two Viking peoples.

A handful of interesting similarities are that the Vikings were expert sailors and navigators who had designed practical yet fast open going vessels, known as longboats. This interest and ability is mirrored today by the Australians and New Zealanders in the love of sailing and yachting. The biggest city in New Zealand, Auckland is known as the City of Sails, as there are more yachts per head of population than anywhere else in the world. Both Australia and New Zealand have shook up the most famous Yachting regatta in the world, the America’s Cup in recent decades, with New Zealand leading the innovation within the competition. 

The Vikings were known for living near water outlets and on the coast. Today Australians and New Zealanders live principally within striking distance of a beach and have built their largest cities all on the coasts. An interesting correlation is just as the Vikings either established or grew the five main coastal cities of Ireland: Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick and Cork; they then went onto Australia and built the famous and thriving five cities of Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. 

Though Norwegian and Danes today claim to be Vikings, they in reality as descendants of Abraham and Keturah have inherited the name. The true vikings have either been assimilated within Britain and Ireland as the the Norman aristocracy, or ventured on to Australia and New Zealand, the Danes and Norsemen now Aussies and Kiwis. 

The United Tribes of New Zealand flag from 1834 to 1840

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Phoenicians also mined tin and other ores in Britain, and exported them to other nations in the Mideast. George Rawlinson states: 

“The Phoenicians had one more colony towards the west… Phoenician ships from Gadeira… crossed the mouth of the English Channel… to the Scilly Isles and conveyed thither a body of colonists who established an emporium. The attraction which drew them was the mineral wealth of the islands and of the neighboring Cornish coast… It is reasonable to suppose that the Phoenicians both worked the mines and smelted the ores.”

Historical evidence points to the Israelite tribe of Asher as being directly involved with the mining of tin in early Briton. William Camden, a British historian who lived from 1551 to 1623, states in his historical work, Britannia, that: 

The merchants of Asher worked the tin mines of Cornwall, not as slaves, but as masters and exporters.” A British historian of the nineteenth century, Sir Edmund Creasy, also noted that: “The British mines mainly supplied the glorious adornment of Solomon’s Temple.”

Notice the tribe of Asher were involved in mining, just as Australians are heavily involved today. The tribe of Asher took on the Danish name which may or may not have derived from the name of Jacob’s son, Dan as discussed previously. By coincidence the peoples today now called Danes in Denmark are the descendants of Me-dan. The Denes or Danes are thought to have had a female leader called Danu or Dana, that they worshipped the Goddess Dana, or that Dan is the legendary founder of the ancient Danish kingdom, as he is mentioned in medieval Scandinavian texts. 

Unrest in Scania led to war and a new order, represented by the Scyldings and the Healfdena. They led the migration of Danes from Sweden into the Cimbric Peninsula, thus putting pressure on the Jutes in the north. This may have resulted in feuds and local power struggles, which would have in turn impacted the sizeable tribe of the Angles. In 420 CE a man named Hoc seemed to be allied to the Scyldings by blood or marriage. The Danish side of his parentage is covered by the epic poem, Beowulf, which describes him as the son of Beowulf the elder, while the other side is probably Jutish or Anglian. 

New Zealand Flag

In 448 CE Hnaef a prince of a group of Danes called the Hocingas, and as a Sæ-Dene [Sea Dane], is involved in the struggle for power in the North Sea. His family is likely to have settled in modern Jutland. Hnaef winters with his elder sister, Hildeburh, who is married to Finn, king of the Frisians. Fighting appears to be sparked by a feud between the Jutish allies of either side, as those with the Frisians are angry that some of their people have sworn loyalty to the Danes who are ‘stealing’ Jutish territory. 

Hnaef is killed during the Freswæl, the ‘Fight at Finnesburg’. Finn is then killed in revenge by Hengist, Hnaef’s Jutish comrade in arms. As his duty is done to his deceased lord Hnaef, Hengist with his brother Horsa leads his people to Britain to take up temporary service under another lord, the high king of Britain, but this soon turns into a conquest of the southeastern territory of England in 455 CE. Large numbers of Jutes and Angles follow Hengist and this has the effect of leaving Jutland almost deserted for the incoming Dene. 

The Danish migration was complete by about the sixth century, but a single, fully unified kingdom took approximately three more centuries to emerge. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Danes, along with the Norwegians, became the scourge of Britain and Ireland. The Danes staged a major invasion of the English kingdoms during 879 to 880 CE, conquering a swathe of eastern and northern territory Britain. The Danish army under Guthrum formalised its rule under the Peace of Wedmore in 879. Guthrum secured the Danish kingdom of East Anglia, which was founded to exist alongside the Scandinavian kingdom of York. 

By 918 CE the failure to apply a concentrated force meant that the Danes were defeated. They lost a large number of men, particularly at Bedford, where the besieged English garrison inflicted a severe defeat upon them, putting their army to flight. The Danish kingdom in England fell to Edward the Elder of Wessex, as he began to unify the country under one king. At the very end of the tenth century a Danish dynasty took the English throne, heralding a new Anglo-Scandinavian period which was ended with the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and the arrival of the other Scandnavians, the Normans. The Danes also settled in Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. 

The Frisians as Issachar and Zebulun and being a smaller tribal unit are invariably lost as part of the larger Saxon tribe of the Angles from an historical perspective. This is not surprising as in the Bible, Issachar and Zebulun are often quoted with Ephraim and Manasseh. Zebulun and Issachar are also the younger brothers of Judah and so their close association with the Jutes explains the Jutish, Angle and Frisian triangular nucleus of the Saxon peoples. 

The word viking became associated with someone who goes on a ‘pirate raid’, a predatory ‘sea robber’ but this is a later interpretation of the word based on their reputation for attacking the medieval kingdoms of England and France. The word was originally used to denote a trader. Indo-European languages contain cognates of the root word for trader, such as the Latin vic [vicus: village, habitation], along with the Saxon wic and the Germanic wich.

All of these relate to the Scandinavian vik, from theOld Norse, vikingr. A Vikingr or Viking was someone who went on expeditions, usually abroad and usually be sea and usually in a group with other Vikingar [plural] to wics or wichs to trade. Norway is called the North Way as it was the north way or sea path. Without roads the only reliable travel was by water, so trading centres would be sited in protected inlets. The use of vik became transferable from the trade location or village to its location on inlets. In England, this double usage did not apply, but many Saxon villages still retain their trading names, such as Harwich, Ipswich, and Norwich, while Hamptonwic was modified to Southampton. 

The Norse feminine vik, means an inlet, small bay or creek. As the Vikings dwelt beside creeks that fed to the sea, the name also incorporates the fact that viking means a ‘creek dweller.’ The origin of this interpretation though may go back to earlier etymology that derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, meaning ’sea mile’. This was originally ‘the distance between two shifts of rowers’, from the root weik or wik, as in the Proto-Germanic verb wikan, meaning ‘to recede’ and the Proto-Nordic verb, meaning ‘to turn’, The Old Icelandic equivalent is vikja, meaning ‘to move, to turn’, with a nautical usage. 

Linguistically, this explanation is probable as the term predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of Northwestern Europe, as the Old Frisian spelling Witsing or Wising shows that ‘the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before…’ If such is the case, that the tired rower moved aside for the rested rower on long sea journeys, a vikingr would originally have been a rower; so that the ‘word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas.’ 

When the Norsemen were invaded by the Roman Catholic soldiers, they asked the people who their king was, and they replied “Viking,” which means; “We’re King.”  A very antipodean response. Coincidently, the Vikings were known as Ascomanni, or ash-men’ by the Germans for the Ash wood of their boats. The Gaels called them Lochlannaich, ‘people from the land of lakes’, the Saxons called them Dene and the Frisains called them Northmonn

As mentioned previously, most Australians and particularly New Zealanders do not live very far from water. In Australia, Vickers and Vickermans are popular surnames. The Vikings imprint on history is less piratical raider and more, sea-faring traders, fishermen, farmers and craftsmen; with their own laws, art and architecture. 

Dutch explorer Captain Willem Janszoon landed in Australia in 1606, though it was in 1770 when Captain James Cook maps the eastern coast and claims the continent for Great Britain. The first British settlement was founded in 1788. In 1824 the Island is called Australia, changed from New Holland – coined by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 – at the request of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. 

In 1841, New Zealand became its own colony separate from Australia. The year 1868 saw the end of convicts being sent to Australia. Some one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were shipped to Australia between 1788 and 1868.

Six colonies were formed in Australia: New South Wales, 1788; Tasmania, 1825; Western Australia, 1829; South Australia, 1836; Victoria, 1851; and Queensland, 1859. These same colonies later became the states of the Australian Commonwealth. In 1911, the Northern Territory became part of the Commonwealth and the city of Canberra was founded. It was named as the Australian Capital Territory or ACT. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 and a national flag was adopted. Even though it was adopted one year before New Zealand, the New Zealand flag of 1902 had originally been designed earlier in 1869. 

In 1986, Australia became fully independent from the United Kingdom. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and the biggest island, though as it is officially a continent, Greenland is deemed the biggest island in the world. In 2021, Australia signed a significant security treaty with the United Kingdom and the United States [AUKUS] aimed at countering the growing threat of China in the region. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Australian and New Zealand participation in the disaster of the Gallipoli Campaign – which was an attempted invasion of the Turkish mainland during World war I – forged the antipodean nations into a heightened sense of national consciousness [and camaraderie]. The brutality of the battle… ended in an Allied defeat…’ 

New Zealand is called by the indigenous Maori: Aotearoa, translated as ‘land of the long white cloud.’ Maori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Maui, ‘the fish of Maui’ for the North Island and Te Waipounamu, ‘the waters of  greenstone’ or Te Waka o Aoraki, ‘the canoe of Aoraki’ for the South Island. New Zealand also has some seven hundred smaller islands, covering an area of 103,500 square miles and a population of 4,900,310 people. 

By comparison, Japan has an area of 145,937 square miles and a population of one hundred and twenty-five million people. The area of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland is 93,628 miles with a population of sixty-eight million people. Naphtali was prophesied to be free as a deer let loose and so it is for the small population of New Zealand compared to its area. Saying that, there are still two nations in the world who could increase their population sizes dramatically as they have enough land – unlike Australia say, that has a vast interior of desert and only coastal regions suitable for the bulk of their population – to be able to sustain them satisfactorily. Those nations are New Zealand and Canada; both of which are under-populated and have potential for massive growth. We will look more into this when we study Canada in the next chapter. 

Due to their remoteness, ‘the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable landmass to be settled by humans.’ Approximately 1000 CE, Maori had become the dominant Polynesian culture and society. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted and officially recorded New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, declaring British sovereignty. A year later, New Zealand became a colony of the British Empire and by 1907 it had become a self-governing dominion. New Zealand gained full independence in 1947, with the British Monarch remaining head of state. 

In 1951 the United Kingdom increasingly focusing on its European interests, led to New Zealand joining Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty. A variety of ethical conflicts, particularly New Zealand’s nuclear free policy led to the United States’s suspension of ANZUS obligations. The treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend of close political cooperation, free trade agreements and mutual citizen rights between the two nations, so that citizens can visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. 

New Zealander’s, consistent with their identity as Naphtali have been involved and contributed man power in many conflicts – including: Vietnam, the two World Wars, the second Boer War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has also contributed forces to numerous several regional and global peacekeeping missions since World war II. 

New Zealand has an advanced market economy, ranked 14th in the Human Development Index and 3rd in the Index of Economic Freedom. New Zealand is identified as one of the world’s most stable and well governed nations. As of 2017, the country was ranked fourth in the strength of its democratic institutions and first in government transparency and lack of corruption. 

It was the ascent of Mount Everest by New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay in 1953 that was one of the defining moments of the 20th century. Hillary stated: “In some ways, I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.”

The British diaspora in Sub-Saharan Africa includes British and Irish descended people not just in South Africa but also in lesser numbers in counties such as Zimbabwe, Namibia [formerly South West Africa, a German colony and then administered by South Africa from 1946 to 1966], Kenya, Botswana and Zambia. 

Though Great Britain had settlements and ports along the West African coast to facilitate the Atlantic slave trade, British settlement in Africa began in earnest at the end of the eighteenth century, at the Cape of Good Hope and following the second British occupation of the Dutch Cape Colony in 1806. 

British settlers were encouraged to Albany [Settler Country], in 1820 to bolster the Cape’s eastern frontier against the Xhosa. Natal was added as a colony in 1843. After defeating the Boers in 1902, Britain also annexed the Boer Republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.

Map showing population density of the Black Africans in South Africa

The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand in 1886 after diamonds in Kimberly in 1866, encouraged additional settlement not just by the British but also Australians, Americans and Canadians. Mining magnate and empire builder, Cecil Rhodes [1853-1902] envisioned a British Africa linked from Cape Town to Cairo in Egypt. Cecil Rhodes was the founding chairman of the board of directors of De Beers Mining Company, funded by Nathaniel, the first Lord Rothschild. 

Rhodes foundered the British South Africa Company in 1889 which controlled the territory named after him from 1895 to 1911 and then as Southern – first used in 1898 – Rhodesia from 1911 to 1964. The region had originally been known as Zambesia. Later called Rhodesia from 1964 to 1979 and then finally Zimbabwe. Northern Rhodesia is now known as Zambia. Meanwhile, British East Africa became Kenya. In 1923, the company’s charter was revoked and Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. 

With the exception of South Africa, the British populations of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Kenya are relatively small, with approximately 30,000, 40,000 and 32,000 people respectively. These peoples may or may not be descended in part from Issachar. 

Zimbabwe is next to South Africa and large numbers of Zimbabwean British White people have left, especially to live in South Africa. The Republic of Zimbabwe shares a one hundred and twenty-five mile border on the south with South Africa. 

Map showing population density of White Africans in South Africa

The rapid decolonisation of Africa in the 1950s and 1960s alarmed a proportion of Southern Rhodesia’s white population. In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, the white Southern Rhodesian government issued its own declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965. At first seeking recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth, it instead reconstituted itself into a republic in 1970. Hostility between Black political factions and the White government, led to war weariness, diplomatic pressure and an extensive trade embargo imposed by the United Nations. These pressures prompted Rhodesian prime minister Ian Smith to concede to majority rule in 1978. 

Rhodesia was once known as the Jewel of Africa for its great prosperity. The name Zimbabwe derives ‘from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city (Masvingo) in the country’s south-east whose remains are now a protected site.’ Zimbabwe may stem from ‘dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as “houses of stones”. Archaeologist Peter Garlake says that Zimbabwe represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means venerated houses in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs’ houses or graves.’ 

The modern equivalent of the Aramean Phoenicians discovered Southern Africa in 1488, when Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. It was many years later in 1652, when the modern equivalent of the Midianite Phoenicians via the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Dutch Cape Colony; with the intent to be a small port town for ships traveling to India, that eventually became a full settlement of German, French, Dutch and British settlers [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. 

The Dutch Colony in 1795 was occupied by British forces after the Battle of Muizenberg. In 1802, the Dutch regained control of Cape Colony with the Peace of Amiens agreement. Then in 1806, the British again gained control after the Battle of Blaauwberg. By 1814, the Dutch formally agreed that the colony was to be part of the British Empire. 

The British outlawed slavery in 1833 and so began the Great Trek inland by the Dutch Boers, who founded two republics. The republic of Transvaal formed in 1856 was annexed by the British in 1877, sparking the first Boer War in 1880. The Boers won and gained independence for Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1889, the Second Boer War began, with the British winning and taking over Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1910 the Union of South Africa was formed – within the British Empire – from the four colonies of Cape Colony; Natal Colony; Transvaal Colony; and the Orange Colony. In 1912, the African National Congress (ANC) party was formed. 

In 1931, the Union became fully sovereign from the United Kingdom. Three years later, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United party. They sought reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speaking White people. Then in 1939, the party split over the entry of the Union into WWII as an ally of the United Kingdom; as the National Party followers strongly opposed the decision. 

In 1948 the ethnic Afrikaners of the National Party were voted into power and they initiated the apartheid policy of separating White people and Black people based on their race and entrenching a system of segregation in the land. 

Many of the British diaspora had voted ‘No’ in a 1960 referendum on South African independence, but it was approved by a narrow margin. The Natal majority voted against the republic and some residents called for secession from the Union after the referendum. In 1961, South Africa was declared a republic and became a fully independent nation, ending the British Monarch as the head of State with Queen Elizabeth II losing the title Queen of South Africa. Pressured by other Commonwealth nations, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961, to later rejoin in 1994. 

It is at this time that ANC leader Nelson Mandela formed an armed branch of the ANC to fight against apartheid. He was arrested in 1962 and jailed. Mandela was incarcerated for twenty-seven years while fighting for equal rights; becoming a worldwide symbol against apartheid. 

Frederik Willem de Klerk was elected president in 1989. He immediately began to work to end apartheid, with Public facilities desegregated. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison. Subsequently, Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and by 1994 Apartheid had been fully repealed. Equal rights were attained and Black people voted; electing Nelson Mandela as South African president. 

Constant readers will appreciate this is the point where we study the Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups. As mentioned in the previous chapter [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad], the assumption by geneticists is that the White Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, are composite peoples of the English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish and Ulster Scots. In other words, their Haplogroups will be the same as these five antecedent lines from Britain and Ireland. Though they will be similar, the contention proposed here is that the percentages for R1b, I1, I2a1, I2a2 and R1a will be slightly different as these five nations are individual, separate and distinct tribes descending from different sons of Jacob. 

The Biblical identity community has also arrived at the same erroneous conclusion as scientists, in that these nations are all the descendants of Joseph and hence the exact same peoples. The difference in facial features, national characteristics, social mores, administrative processes, spoken accents, cultural and sporting interests seems to have completely bypassed everyones attention and perception to see and acknowledge the differences that clearly point to different family members, of the same family group. As there are no studies known to this writer to enlist as support, we will look at some of the individual demographics and statistics for each tribe. As it is possible that Issachar and even Zebulun have spilled over into Rhodesia we will include the British White people from Zimbabwe. 

Of significance amongst the White community of Rhodesia was its transience. Settlers were as likely to leave Rhodesia after a few years as permanently settle. For example, of the seven hundred British immigrants who were the first white settlers in 1890, only fifteen were still living in Rhodesia in 1924. As the white population of Rhodesia had a low birth rate [18 per 1,000 people] it was dependent upon immigration, which accounted for sixty percent of the growth of the white Rhodesian population between 1955 and 1972. 

American historian Josiah Brownell noted: ‘the turnover rate for white residents in Rhodesia was very high, as Rhodesia took in a total of 255,692 white immigrants between 1955 and 1979 while the same period a total of 246,583 whites emigrated.’ During the boom of the late 1950s Rhodesia took in an average of ’13,666 white immigrants per year, mostly from the United Kingdom and South Africa’ but conversely, an average of 7,666 whites emigrated annually.  Between 1961 and 1965, Rhodesia took in an average of 8,225 white immigrants per year, yet lost more people each year with an average white emigration of 12,912 people. 

Most people arriving were uninterested in settling in Rhodesia permanently and did not apply for Rhodesian citizenship, despite a 1967 campaign urging them to do so.Brownell explains that ‘patriotism in the white community was “shallow” due to its essentially expatriate character.Brownell also claimed that the majority of white immigrants in the late 1960s and early 1970s were unskilled laborers who competed with the country’s black African workforce and did not contribute badly needed technical or professional skills to the country. He argued that this was due to a government policy aimed at making white immigration as “unselective as possible” and guaranteeing every white immigrant a job.’ 

White Zimbabweans make up about 0.22% the total population today and are mostly of British origin, though there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch enclaves. The white population peaked at around 278,000 people, or 4.3% of the population in 1975, though it was 7.3% of the population in 1960 with some 223,000 people. What is interesting is that in 1890 the Black population was only about 150,000 people, yet in fifty years it had exploded into the millions. This was due to what the White settlers brought: food, medicine and employment. In 1921, Rhodesia had a total population of 899,187 people, of which, 33,620 were European, 1,998 were mixed race, 1,250 were Asiatic and 761,790 were Bantu natives and 100,529 people were Bantu aliens [not native to the territory]. Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom, then South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique,Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 

White South Africans are split in two from a descent, linguistic, cultural and historical perspective, into the Afrikaans speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company’s original settlers the Afrikaners and the Anglophone descendants of the colonial Britons. White Afrikaners trace their ancestry to the mid-seventeenth century, developing a separate cultural identity and distinct language; whereas the English speaking South Africans trace their ancestry to the settlers of 1820. The remainder of the White South African population consists of immigrants who arrived later from Europe, including Germans, Italians, Greeks and Jews, of which many left when apartheid was abolished. Portuguese immigrants arrived after the collapse of the Portuguese colonial administrations in Mozambique and Angola. 

In 1911, White people comprised 22.7% of the population. By 2020, they numbered just 7.8% of the total population. Just under a million white South Africans also live as expatriate workers abroad, the majority of South Africa’s brain drain. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016:

‘Australia and New Zealand were unique among the European colonies because they were the only areas of the New World where nonwhite slaves were never imported as part of the colonization process. The result of this significant difference was that the new colonies in Australia and New Zealand were homogenous in their early years and for this reason, established a record for stability and progress virtually unmatched in history.  

[Their] racial history… is therefore focused on the interaction between the white immigrants and the native populations of the Aborigines… and the Maori… It was only in the last part of the twentieth century that significant numbers of nonwhites… entered… [and] that development, even more… [is altering] the racial dynamics of Australia and New Zealand – and not in favour of the Europeans.’

Australians of European – including Celtic-Saxon-Viking – descent are the majority, estimated at seventy-six percent of the population. The vast majority of early settlers came  from their own free will, with the convict – and prison guard – element very much the minority; some twenty percent, while the majority were of British and Irish descent. Many of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands, the North of England and Ireland; then from the southeast and the southwest of England and also Scotland. 

In 1888, sixty percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. From the remaining forty percent, thirty-four percent had been born in the British isles and six percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia. In the 1840s, Scottish born immigrants constituted twelve percent of the Australian population. The European population grew from 0.3% of the population of the continent in 1800 to 58.6% in 1850. Germans constituted the largest non-British community for most of the nineteenth century. ‘The census of 1901 showed that [98%] of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins, and [were] considered as “more British than Britain itself”.’ 

During the 1950s, Australia was the destination of thirty percent of Dutch emigrants and the Netherlands born became numerically Australia’s second largest non-British group. ‘Abolition of the White Australia Policy in 1957 led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, primarily from Asia and the Middle East. This is ironic as the White Australia policy was enacted after gold was discovered in the 1850’s bringing an influx of peoples, including Chinese. With them came Triad gangs, smuggling and other crimes that led to public agitation and eventually the State of Victoria in 1856 passed a law forbidding Chinese to enter. The exclusion law was then adopted by every other colony. 

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia. Chinese Australians constituted 5.6% of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8% at the 2016 census. In 2019, 30% of the Australian resident population, were born overseas. 

New Zealand is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Most European New Zealanders have British or Irish ancestry, with smaller percentages of other European ancestries such as Germans, Poles [historically noted as ‘Germans’ due to partitions of Poland], French, Dutch and Scandinavians. Lesser minorities include: Greek, Turkish, Italian, Lebanese, Arab and South Slavs. 

The ethnic makeup of the New Zealand population is undergoing a process of change because of waves of immigration, higher birth rates and increasing interracial marriages which are resulting in the New Zealand population of Māori, Asians and Pacific Islanders growing at a higher rate than those of solely European descent. Over one million New Zealanders recorded in the 2013 Census were born overseas. 

Most New Zealanders are resident in New Zealand, though there is also a significant diaspora, estimated at around 750,000 people. Of these, around 640,800 live in Australia and others are heavily concentrated in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. In 1961 the European element in New Zealand comprised 92% of the population and the Maori 7%. By 2018 the Whites comprised 72% of the total, the Maori 17% and others 11%. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand’s immigrant population, with around a quarter of all overseas born New Zealanders born in the United Kingdom. Other major sources of New Zealand’s overseas born population include: China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa. 

Despite their reputation for raping the Vikings left little trace of their DNA, Mail Online, November 1, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

Analysis of thousands of DNA samples from the UK, continental Europe and Scandinavia revealed a surprising lack of Viking genes in England, despite the Norsemen once occupying much of the country. The international team led by scientists from Oxford University and the Wellcome Trust… [and their] research, published in the journal Nature, did not find any obvious genetic footprint from the Romans or Danish Vikings. However, this is not down to a lack of virility – merely that they were not here in large enough numbers to have had enough children for their genes to live on today. Study co-leader Sir Walter Bodmer said: 

“You get a relatively small group of people who can dominate a country that they come into and there are not enough of them, however much they intermarry, to have enough of an influence that we can detect them in the genetics… At that time, the population of Britain could have been as much as one million, so an awful lot of people would need to arrive in order for there to be an impact.”

‘His colleague Professor Peter Donnelly added: 

“Genetics tells us the story of what happens to the masses. ‘There were already large numbers of people in those areas of Britain by the time the Danish Vikings came so to have a substantial impact on the genetics there would need to be very large numbers of them leaving DNA for subsequent generations. The fact we don’t get a signal is probably about numbers rather than the relative allure or lack thereof of Scandinavians to English women.”

‘Others said that the Danes may actually have been more attractive to local women because their habit of washing weekly meant they were seen as cleaner. Even in Orkney, which was a part of Norway from 875 to 1472, the Vikings contributed only about 25 per cent of the current gene pool. It suggests that the Vikings mixed very little with the indigenous population they initially terrorised and then conquered.’

On the surface, this is a valid point it would seem, but the reality is that the vast bulk of ‘Danish Vikings’, the tribe of Asher – and probably some of Naphtali too, as many ‘Australians’ from Britain later moved to New Zealand had left the United Kingdom. As they are 1. related to the English, Welsh and Scots and 2. though a different tribe have left en masse; one would not expect to find genetic ‘evidence’ of them in the United Kingdom. 

It is not about size of people and impact. The Angles were the biggest tribe of Saxons, far outnumbering the Picts, Cymru, Frisians, Jutes, Norsemen, Danes and Normans. Their genetic footprint is also negligible. This only makes sense if the vast bulk left British shores. The Romans, mainly soldiers would have intermarried some and so their DNA is likely still in Britain. The key piece of information is that as the Romans are the Germans [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], with similar Haplogroup sequencing, spotting their DNA is like looking for a needle in a haystack. It is there, but not going to be visibly distinct. 

‘The Vikings, from Norway, Sweden and Denmark, carried out extensive raids and occupations across wide areas of northern and central Europe between the eighth and late 11th centuries. Danish Vikings in particular took over large parts of England, eventually settling in an a region stretching from Essex to County Durham which was ruled by ‘Danelaw’. 

The findings support previous research from the University of Oslo suggesting that Viking men were family-orientated and not particularly bothered about the British women they conquered. Rather than Viking raiding parties consisting wholly of testosterone-charged men, researchers found that significant numbers of women, and possibly whole families, travelled on the longboats. DNA extracted from 45 Viking skeletons showed that women played an integral part in establishing settlements in the UK.’

The other salient point is that comparing DNA from the UK with ‘continental Europe and Scandinavia’ will not add anything useful as the original Vikings left Scandinavia and now live in Australia and New Zealand. Not only are the Antipodeans unlike the English, the Scots and Welsh they are also not the same as the Swedes, Norwegians and Danes who are children from Abraham and his second wife Keturah [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. Added to this, is that fact that the ‘Vikings’ that swarmed out of Sweden and colonised the vast tracts of Russia were not the same peoples as now in Britain or Scandinavia [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. 

Recall in Chapter II Japheth, we looked at the prophecy in Genesis chapter nine, verse twenty-seven regarding Japheth ‘dwelling in the tents of Shem.’  We also detailed the global agenda to ‘water-down’ the European nations in the drive towards eliminating particularly, the pure White stock of the nations of Israel [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

In Australia, between the years 1984 to 1995, forty percent of all migrants were of Asian origin. In 2003, a report revealed that fourteen percent of the residents of Perth were born in Southeast Asia, principally Vietnam. Demographic trends are that Australia will be twenty-seven percent Asian by 2025. Considering Third world reproduction rates and the natural shrinkage of the First World population, Australia will be close to a Third World majority population well before 2050. 

An example of an irony of the savage kind is that the largest mosque in Australia, located in Sydney, New South Wales is called the Auburn Gallipoli. This is in reference to the World War I battle where thousands of Australian troops were killed and defeated in an attempt to invade the Islamic Ottoman Empire [refer Chapter XVIII Elam]. 

The First World element of New Zealand’s population is projected to drop to less than sixty percent by 2026; with the Asian population set to increase by 145%, between 2001 and 2021. Predictions from the 2001 census include European children making up 63% of all children in New Zealand in 2021 compared with 74% in 2001. The 2006 census showed that the Asian ethnicity had overtaken the Pacific Polynesian peoples into third palace and that by 2026, they will overtake the second place Maori. These stats show that it is highly likely that New Zealand will lose its majority First World population status before the year 2050. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

The lesson of Rhodesia proves that no matter how technologically proficient, no matter how militarily-capable, no matter how determined, no minority can indefinitely resist the power of demographics… The White Rhodesians failed to understand the relationship between demographics and political power… Rhodesian whites were imbued with the nineteenth century white supremacist belief that they had a paternalistic right to rule over nonwhites “for their own good”… white rule caused an explosion in black numbers as Western medicine, education, and technology boosted black numbers way beyond their natural reproduction levels. As a result, white supremacism created a racial demographic time bomb which swept away all vestiges of Western rule. 

This reality underlines the truth that demographic replacement is the sole driver of cultural change and that the majority of the population determines the nature of the society. It is a lesson that the Western world, which has imported vast numbers of nonwhites through mass immigration policies which started in the last part of the twentieth century, must learn. Failure to do so will result in them sharing the same fate of the white Rhodesians.’

There is a time to look for something and a time to stop looking for it. There is a time to keep things and a time to throw things away… There is a time… to speak… The Teacher was very wise and taught the people what he knew. He very carefully thought about, studied, and… looked for just the right words to write what is dependable and true. Words from wise people are like… nails that have been driven in firmly… that come from one Shepherd. So be careful, my son, about other teachings. People are always writing books, and too much study will make you tired.

Ecclesiastes 3:6-7; 12:9-12 New Century Version

“The overwhelming majority of people never think and those who think never become the overwhelming majority. Choose your side.” 

Elif Shafak

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad – the Celtic Tribes

Chapter XXXI

In the last chapter, we briefly mentioned Wales identity as Simeon. Wherever Judah is, Simeon will not just be next to them, but part of them. Only one nation and former Principality, could fulfil this role. [Since 1542, Wales have with England, constituted the Kingdom of England. Though Wales ceased being a Principality between 1535 to 1543, it was only in 2011 that its status as a country was made official by the ISO].

Scotland has its own law, distinct from English law, its own issued bank notes and currency of pound sterling and its parliament has law making powers beyond that of the Welsh Parliament. The Welsh have the same law as England and as we learned in the preceding chapter [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin], they constitute with England, the Kingdom of England. 

The ‘lost ten tribes’ is a misnomer as all thirteen tribes were lost. The separating of the tribes into ten for the Kingdom of Israel and two for the Kingdom of Judah is misleading, as not just the House of Benjamin was united with the House of Judah, but many from the family of Kohath from Levi and the tribe of Simeon were also integral to the United Kingdom of Judah; as these four are the core of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Today, Northern Ireland is part of that United Kingdom, though for how long – for its destiny is to join its Israelite brothers. 

It is ironically, ten tribes if we include Joseph as split into three, Ephraim, the half tribe of West Manasseh and the half tribe of East Manasseh. If we don’t split them, as identity researchers would, then it would technically be the ‘eight’ lost tribes: Joseph, Reuben, Issachar, Zebulon, Gad, Asher, Dan and Naphtali. 

As Judah is typically ascribed to the Jews and Benjamin either to the Jews or to Abraham and Keturah’s children of Norway or Iceland; Simeon is ascribed to either Scotland or rightfully, Wales. One identity expert presents a case for the American Irish. In my investigation, Northern England was considered as well. 

Reuben and Gad had a historical relationship, which we will see replicated by other brothers; in that half brothers lived next to each other instead of with their full blood brother. In this case Gad from Leah’s handmaid Bilhah and Reuben from Leah both crossed the River Jordan to settle on the eastern border lands of Israel in Canaan. They lived next to East Manasseh, Ammon and Moab. Today, they live next to each other and share the land of the Emerald Isle. They are in juxtapostion with the three nations on the British mainland and to their west is the half tribe of East Manasseh as would be expected. 

Gad is the Republic of Ireland and Reuben is Northern Ireland, dominated by the Province of Ulster. As the brothers Reuben, Simeon and Levi with their half brother Gad are all intertwined in their histories and within the islands of Ireland and Britain it is logical to discuss them within the same chapter. We will probably revert back to Benjamin and the Picts at times because of their shared history of living in Northern Ireland, prior to settling in Alba. 

Genesis 29:31-34; 30:9-10

English Standard Version

31 When the Lord saw that Leah was hated [loved less than Rachel], he opened her womb, but Rachel was barren. 

32 And Leah conceived and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben [see a Son], for she said, “Because the Lord has looked upon my affliction; for now my husband will love me.” 33 She conceived again and bore a son, and said, “Because the Lord has heard that I am hated, he has given me this son also.” And she called his name Simeon [heard]. 34 Again she conceived and bore a son, and said, “Now this time my husband will be attached to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore his name was called Levi [attached]… 9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife. 10 Then Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, “Good fortune has come!” so she called his name Gad [good fortune].

Reuben’s name derives from the verb ra’a, ‘to see’ or ‘understand’ and the noun ben, ‘son’ meaning ‘behold a son, son of vision, a son who’s seen.’ Reuben was Jacob’s first son and first by Leah, born in 1752 BCE. Recall that the Reu prefix is a family name for Arphaxad. Reu was a son of Peleg. There is a Reuel a son of Esau, a Reuel associated with Moses’s father-in-law, a Benjamite [1 Chronicles 9:8] and a chief of Gad, Eliasaph who was the son of a Reuel [Numbers 2:14]. 

Simeon was the second born to Jacob and Leah in 1750 BCE and his name comes from the verb shama’ ‘to hear.’ Levi was Jacob and Leah’s third son, born in 1748 BCE and his name stems from the verb lawa, ‘to join’ or ‘connect.’ Gad meanwhile was born in 1744 BCE to Leah’s handmaid Zilpah. 

Gad was Jacob’s seventh son, Leah’s fifth including Zilpah’s sons and Zilpah’s eldest of two. Gad’s name derives from the verb gadad, ‘to cut, invade’ and ‘expose.’ Jones’s Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names says: ‘Good luck.’ Everyone has heard of “the luck of the Irish.” 

This saying is applicable to the Irish of the Republic. The nation of Ireland is Gad. Reuben equates to the Protestant peoples of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has a unique status, and so he is ‘a son who’s seen, or behold a son’, as in a people… not a sovereign state; not a province, as it is comprised of six of the total nine counties of Ulster; not a nation; though it is both a region and constituent country of the United Kingdom. 

Gad is invariably ascribed to Switzerland and one identity expert offers Sweden. Reuben is unanimously identified as France. We have discussed the Swiss from Haran and the French from Moab & Ammon in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon and the Swedes from Keturah in Chapter XXVII Abraham.

Genesis 34:1-31

English Standard Version

Now Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to see the women of the land. 2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he seized her and lay with her and humiliated her. 3 And his soul was drawn to Dinah the daughter of Jacob. He loved the young woman and spoke tenderly to her. 

4 So Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this girl for my wife.”

5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah. But his sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob held his peace until they came. 6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. 7 The sons of Jacob had come in from the field as soon as they heard of it, and the men were indignant and very angry, because he had done an outrageous thing in Israel by lying with Jacob’s daughter, for such a thing must not be done.

Shechem had a strange way of showing his love for Dinah, through rape. Shechem became obsessed with Dinah. Dinah must have been alluring in personality as well as in looks. One wonders what seeing ‘the women of the land’ means. Did Shechem mis-read Dinah and then afterwards, realise she was unique and that he wanted her as his wife. We have discussed the fact that Dinah was Zebulun’s twin. This means she was Leah’s last of seven children. Leah was thirty-four in 1740 BCE when she had Dinah. After Jacob had left his father-in-law, Laban and reconciled with Esau in 1720 BCE, he settled in Shechem. Thus Dinah visiting the women of the land, must have been locally where they were living. Recall in Chapter XXIX Esau, we studied Job and the possibility his second wife was a descendant of Dinah.

8 But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter. Please give her to him to be his wife. 9 Make marriages with us. Give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves. 10 You shall dwell with us, and the land shall be open to you. Dwell and trade in it, and get property in it.” 11 Shechem also said to her father and to her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you say to me I will give. 12 Ask me for as great a bride-price and gift as you will, and I will give whatever you say to me. Only give me the young woman to be my wife.”

We have studied the Hivites and the different peoples that went by that name: the original Hivites from Canaan’s son Hiv [refer Chapter XII Canaan], Nephilim [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega] and the fact that certain descendants of Shem also became known by Canaanite names after the original sons of Canaan had migrated to North Africa [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. These Hivites fall into the third category and their link with the Midianites and Kenites was explored in chapter XXVII Abraham. What is also interesting is that these circumstances of the Israelites living adjacent to the Hivites and the Hivite’s willingness to share has been replicated in South Africa – modern day Sidon [refer Chapter XXIII Aram] – between the Dutch Afrikaans and the British. We will also find that Dinah’s connection with the Hivite, Shechem and that fact her brother is Zebulun, much more than a passing coincidence. 

13 The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and his father Hamor deceitfully, because he had defiled their sister Dinah. 

14 They said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised, for that would be a disgrace to us. 15 Only on this condition will we agree with you – that you will become as we are by every male among you being circumcised. 

16 Then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters to ourselves, and we will dwell with you and become one people [a bold faced lie]. 17 But if you will not listen to us and be circumcised, then we will take our daughter, and we will be gone.”

18 Their words pleased Hamor and Hamor’s son Shechem. 19 And the young man did not delay to do the thing, because he delighted in Jacob’s daughter [they may have been married at this point]. Now he was the most honored of all his father’s house. 20 So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city and spoke to the men of their city, saying, 21 “These men are at peace with us; let them dwell in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters as wives, and let us give them our daughters. 22 Only on this condition will the men agree to dwell with us to become one people – when every male among us is circumcised as they are circumcised. 23 Will not their livestock, their property and all their beasts be ours? Only let us agree with them, and they will dwell with us.” 24 And all who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.

25 On the third day, when they were sore, two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, took their swords and came against the city while it felt secure [at night] and killed all the males. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the sword and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house and went away. 27 The [other] sons of Jacob came upon the slain and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister. 

It was a cruel trick that began with a lie and ended in murder; though none less than Shechem deserved. For Shechem had abused his position of authority to do as he liked, assuming Jacob’s family would accept his whims. It would have been enough to stop there, particularly as Shechem wished to make amends and do right by Dinah. It is here that we learn more about Simeon and Levi. If Dinah was about twenty-five – it may have happened earlier – it would have been 1717 BCE and Simeon would have been thirty-three and Levi, thirty-one. 

It is apparent that Simeon and Levi were very similar, they were both emotional and impetuous and they acted in one accord, believing a savage act of retribution was moral. It is admirable that they sought justice for Dinah’s shame, though it was a step too far. It circumnavigated the future that the Creator may have preferred for Shechem, Dinah and not forgetting Simeon. Note that Simeon’s brothers supported him and Levi in following up what they had started. Intriguingly, it did not seem to deter the Eternal from giving Levi’s descendants the responsibility of the priesthood.

28 They took their flocks and their herds, their donkeys, and whatever was in the city and in the field. 29 All their wealth, all their little ones and their wives, all that was in the houses, they captured and plundered.

30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me by making me stink to the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites.My numbers are few, and if they gather themselves against me and attack me, I shall be destroyed, both I and my household.” 31 But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?”

The chapter ends abruptly, though the trouble Jacob envisioned either didn’t happen or didn’t amount to much. As they were living near the Hivites, it makes sense Jacob was concerned. Jacob is displaying his customary worry; a trait of his – that we have witnessed previously – and not always relying on the Eternal as much as he could. The Hivites and their allies may have deemed the Israelites too dangerous and decided to let it lie. 

Previously, we read the Genesis account of Joseph in Egypt when his brothers visited in 1687 BCE during the seven years of famine that occurred during 1689 to 1682 BCE. We have discussed Jacob’s, Judah and Benjamin’s involvement. Reuben and Simeon are also discussed in the narrative. 

Genesis 42:18-37; 43:16-23

English Standard Version

18 On the third day Joseph said to them, “Do this and you will live, for I fear God: 19 if you are honest men, let one of your brothers remain confined where you are in custody, and let the rest go and carry grain for the famine of your households, 20 and bring your youngest brother [Benjamin] to me. So your words will be verified, and you shall not die.” And they did so. 21 Then they said to one another, “In truth we are guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when he begged us and we did not listen. That is why this distress has come upon us.” 22 And Reuben answered them, “Did I not tell you not to sin against the boy? But you did not listen. So now there comes a reckoning for his blood.” 23 They did not know that Joseph understood them, for there was an interpreter between them. 24 Then he turned away from them and wept. And he returned to them and spoke to them.And he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes. 25 And Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain, and to replace every man’s money in his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. This was done for them.

35 As they emptied their sacks, behold, every man’s bundle of money was in his sack. And when they and their father saw their bundles of money, they were afraid. 36 And Jacob their father said to them, “You have bereaved me of my children: Joseph is no more, and Simeon is no more, and now you would take Benjamin. All this has come against me.” 37 Then Reuben said to his father, “Kill my two sons [Hanoch and Pallu were the eldest and second born of four sons] if I do not bring him back to you. Put him in my hands, and I will bring him back to you.” 

16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house, “Bring the men into the house, and slaughter an animal and make ready, for the men are to dine with me at noon.” 17 The man did as Joseph told him and brought the men to Joseph’s house. 18 And the men were afraid because they were brought to Joseph’s house, and they said, “It is because of the money, which was replaced in our sacks the first time, that we are brought in, so that he may assault us and fall upon us to make us servants and seize our donkeys.” 

19 So they went up to the steward of Joseph’s house and spoke with him at the door of the house, 20 and said, “Oh, my lord, we came down the first time to buy food. 21 And when we came to the lodging place we opened our sacks, and there was each man’s money in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight. So we have brought it again with us, 22 and we have brought other money down with us to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks.” 23 He replied, “Peace to you, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has put treasure in your sacks for you. I received your money.” Then he brought Simeon out to them.

Recall that Reubens’s secret plan was to release Joseph so that he wouldn’t die. Judah resorted to a plan that also meant Jospeh wouldn’t die, but unlike Reuben’s plan it meant pretending he had died. Reuben again, feels honour bound to make a bad situation better by offering at that time, both his sons. It is not clear why Simeon is selected to be held as a prisoner. It poses a series of questions. The only matter we know about Simeon is his act of vengeful violence. Could this have been on Joseph’s mind? Dinah is never spoken of again after Simeon and Levi’s atrocity. Some offer that Dinah may have died with her husband during the chaos of that night. If so, circa 1717 BCE meant Joseph would have been nine or ten years of age. Joseph may have held Simeon accountable if Dinah had been lost. If Job married a descendant of Dinah [refer Chapter XXIX Esau] as alleged, did she have a child by Shechem? 

Genesis 48:5

English Standard Version

5 And now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, as Reuben and Simeon are.

Jacob is speaking to Joseph and in a dramatic turn of events, takes or adopts his two grandsons as his very own sons. This means they would share in the birthright blessings promised to Joseph. The birthright if you will, skipped a generation, or, that Manasseh and Ephraim were elevated to actual sons of Jacob. Twelve sons became thirteen. What is very interesting is that Reuben and Simeon are stated together. Was the original intention to split the birthright blessing? 

Recall the Sceptre of Rulership and Royalty was given to Jacob’s fourth son Judah. The Priestly line of service was given to Levi, Jacob’s third born son. It appears credible that Reuben and Simeon were to be the recipients of a split blessing. If so, this means one of the peoples that became the Welsh and the Northern Irish would have instead become a great nation and the other would have become an even greater nation comprised of many peoples. All four sons were born to Jacob’s wife Leah and all four sons were caught out in compromising acts of weakness of character. Judah’s were discussed in length in Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin.

The descriptions of Jacob’s sons, with future prophecies are addressed by Jacob, Moses and the Ephraimite Judge Deborah.

Genesis 49:5-7

English Standard Version

5 “Simeon and Levi are [close] brothers; weapons of violence are their swords. 

The Message: Simeon and Levi are two of a kind, ready to fight at the drop of a hat.

Simeon and Levi were joined at the hip as they say and were obviously close brothers. Historically, a sword is a symbol for Simeon as are fortifications or castles. Interestingly, there are far more castles in Wales than any other country in the world per square mile; some six hundred, with some having been lived in for over a thousand years. The King James version says that they were ‘instruments of cruelty.’

6 Let my soul come not into their council [their discussions]; O my glory, be not joined to their company [their plans]. For in their anger they killed men, and in their willfulness [H7522 ratsown: ‘pleasure, desire, self-will’] they hamstrung [H6131 aqar: cut]oxen. 

The Hebrew word means to cut or hamstring, hobble a creature. Simeon and Levi took pleasure in maiming animals regularly for sport.

7 Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce, and their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel.

The punishment for their actions was to diminish their standing as sons of Jacob and strip them of tribal status, absorbing them into the remaining eleven tribes. The key reason for this was because Simeon and Levi misused the circumcision rite, which was an act of setting people apart as sanctified before the Eternal. The brothers had misused it as a weapon of war and revenge. The Creator relents for both brothers and lessens their sentences. In the last chapter it was mentioned that Levi and his descendants were given the role of the Priesthood and ministration as well becoming in today’s parlance, the teachers, lawyers and civil servants of society. Though, they were still to be scattered amongst the Israelite nations. The majority of which as Levi means, attached themselves to the tribes associated with the Kingdom of Judah. Today they equate to the nations of England, Scotland and Wales.

In Judges chapter five, Deborah addresses eleven of the fourteen Tribal splits. The three not mentioned, are Simeon, Levi and Judah who did not take part in the war against the kings of Canaan. In Deuteronomy chapter thirty-three, Moses adds additional prophecies to Jacob’s. The only omission, is Simeon. This is because they were going to be closely aligned with the tribe of Judah. Levi on the other hand, has a more lengthy discourse than some of his brothers.

Joshua 19:1, 9

English Standard Version

The second lot [first lot, Benjamin] came out for Simeon…  according to their clans… The inheritance of the people of Simeon formed part of the territory of the people of Judah. Because the portion of the people of Judah was too large for them, the people of Simeon obtained an inheritance in the midst of their inheritance.

Deuteronomy 33:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And of Levi he said, “Give to Levi your Thummim, and your Urim to your godly one,
whom you tested at Massah, with whom you quarreled at the waters of Meribah;

The account of Massah and Meribah is given in Exodus 17:1-7. The people were thirsty from lack of water when they camped at Rephidim in the wilderness of Sin. Rephidim was Nephilim territory. It is ironic symbolism that the land had no water [Jude 1:12 “. waterless clouds…”] They quarrelled with Moses and tempted the Eternal by saying: “Is the Lord among us or not?” Hence Massah means tempted and Meribah, quarrel. The Eternal did provide water, through a miracle of water gushing from a large rock, after Moses struck it with his staff. 

The Urim and Thummim was a priestly device for obtaining oracles on decisions. The high priest’s ephod – an apron-like garment – had a breast piece, which was an inlaid pouch with twelve precious stones engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel [Exodus 28:15–30; Leviticus 8:8]. 

Finding the Will of God, Dr Bruce Waltke, page 62-64 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The priest could use the urim and thummin to determine God’s will in a particular situation… the priest carried in his breastplate perhaps two… stones, one white and the other black, that would give a yes or no answer to a specific question. Should Israel be preparing for battle, they would somehow shake or toss the [stones]. If they turned up black the Israelites would not go to battle, and if they turned up white they would proceed into battle with the knowledge that they were in the will of God. We read in Exodus 28:30, “Also put the Urim and the Thummin in the breastpiece, so they may be over Aaron’s heart whenever he enters the presence of the Lord. Thus Aaron will always bear the means of making decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.”

1 Samuel 28:6 makes clear a definite answer was not always obtainable, so it may not have been as simple as tossing two stones on [the] ground. Moses never used them; they were given for the high priest in aiding those who could not find God’s guidance any other way. 

Some translate the words urim and thummin to mean “curse” and “blessing,” others simply “dark” and “light,” although the literal translation [from the Hebrew is]… “light” and “perfections.” 

The Old Testament seems to indicate that the urim and thummin faded from use during the early days of Israel’s monarchy, and are only referred to once after the Babylonian exile. This may be so because the institution of monarchy God inaugurated the office of prophet. The prophets now participated in God’s heavenly court and communicated God’s messages to the courts in Jerusalem and Samaria. Apparently prophets who revealed God’s word to the king replaced the urim and thummin, through which He revealed His mind to the priest. Nevertheless, we still find Ezra using this device to determine the ancestry of the priests who returned from the exile in Ezra 2.63. After this the Bible never mentions the urim and thummin again.’ 

9 who said of his father and mother, ‘I regard them not’; he disowned his brothers and ignored his children. Forthey observed your word and kept your covenant.

This appears to be speaking of Levi, yet it is ultimately Aaron who would have the responsibility of carrying the Thummim and Urim on his breast plate and of casting them in decisions. We have read of this ceremony regarding the Azazel, the sacrificial goat on the Day of Atonement [refer Chapter XXI Nimrod].

10 They shall teach Jacob your rules and Israel your law; they shall put incense before you and whole burnt offerings on your altar. 

Many Levites and all the Priests did not have an easy task. It was hard work maintaining the Tabernacle in their forty year trek through the wilderness and during this time from 1446 to 1400 CE and beyond until 70 CE, the sacrificing of so many animals on a daily basis as well as the ceremonial seven times a year for the annual Feasts was both burdensome and bloody. This is one significant reason why the Son of Man’s sacrifice was liberating. It ended all the ritualistic statutes, judgements and laws that pertained to the levitical sacrificial system. It wasn’t so much a blessing to Levi and his descendants, but a burden of responsibility. Even so, Moses calls for the Creator to bless* and protect Levi and his descendants, in a statement remarkably echoing the one given to Judah regarding his enemies.

11 Bless, O Lord, his substance, and accept the work of his hands; crush the loins of his adversaries, of those who hate him, that they rise not again.”

Book of Jubilees 31:12-17

12 And the spirit of prophecy came down into [Isaac’s] mouth, and he took Levi by his right hand and Judah by his left. 13 And he turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said to him: May the Almighty of all, the very Yahweh of all the ages, bless you and your children throughout all the ages. 

14 And may Yahweh give to you and to your seed greatness and great splendor, and cause you and your seed, from among all flesh, to approach Him to serve in His sanctuary…15 And they shall be judges and princes, and chiefs of all the seed of the sons of Jacob; They shall speak the word of Yahweh in righteousness, And they shall judge all His judgments in righteousness. And they shall declare My ways to Jacob And My paths to Israel. The blessing of Yahweh shall be given in their mouths To bless all the seed of the beloved. 16 Your mother has called your name Levi, And justly has she called your name; You shall be joined to YahwehAnd be the companion of all the sons of Jacob[scattered in Israel]; Let His table be yours, And do you and your sons eat thereof; And may your table be full unto all generations, And your food fail not unto all the ages. 17 And let all who hate you fall down before you, And let all your adversaries be rooted out and perish; And blessed be he that blesses* you, And cursed be every nation that curses you.’ 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Simeon received no blessing from Moses. In fact, he does not even mention the tribe! Jacob said God would scatter them throughout Israel. How? Take a map of Palestine for the time of the division of the land. Notice that Simeon did have an inheritance South of Judah. When Judah separated from Israel, Judah occupied that territory, yet Simeon went with Israel! The only explanation is that Simeon migrated into Israel generally, but no new territory was assigned to Simeon.This tribe became scattered. It is possible that the small scattered tribes in Western Europe, variously called the Senones or Semaones or Sennones, represented the fragments of the tribe of Simeon.’ 

It isn’t the only explanation as we have learned. Simeon didn’t go with Israel immediately; instead, it was an integral part of Judah and Benjamin.

‘Levi, the priestly tribe, was to be scattered in Israel (Genesis 49:5-7). God never gave them land to inherit as the other tribes. Therefore, we should not expect them to be given territory today. Nothing is said in Deuteronomy 33 about inheriting land. Among the Jews today we find many bearing the names: Levi, Levy, Levine. Others bear the name “Cohen” and its variations. The Hebrew word “Kohen” means priest and is so translated 725 times in the King James version. Here then, we have the great bulk of Levi scattered among Judah because they left their priestly functions in Israel almost totally (I Kings 12:31).’ 

Agreed, that the priestly Levites of Kohath, from Aaron were associated with the true tribe of Judah and not the Jews. Though they are not to be equated with ‘the great bulk of Levi.’ Levi was scattered amongst all the tribes, as all priests were Levites, but not all Levites were priests. 

Certain Simeonites are named who went up against Sier and defeated them, living in part of their land. 1 Chronicles 4:42-43 ESV:  ‘And some of them, five hundred men of the Simeonites, went to Mount Seir, having as their leaders Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi. 

And they defeated the remnant of the Amalekites who had escaped…’ Numbers 13:5 ESV gives the name of the Simeonite sent with others to spy out Canaan before they invaded: ‘from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori [remarkably similar to Sier’s forbear Hor, as in Horite].’ A selection of verses supporting the close bond Judah and Simeon shared geographically and politically; as England and Wales exhibit today.

1 Chronicles 6:65

English Standard Version

They gave by lot out of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin these cities that are mentioned by name.

Joshua 21:9

English Standard Version

Out of the tribe of the people of Judah and the tribe of the people of Simeon they gave the following cities mentioned by name…

Judges 1:3, 17

English Standard Version

And Judah said to Simeon his brother, “Come up with me into the territory allotted to me, that we may fight against the Canaanites. And I likewise will go with you into the territory allotted to you.” So Simeon went with him… 17 And Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they defeated the Canaanites who inhabited Zephath and devoted it to destruction…

In the Book of Jubilees we learn of the names of the wives of Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Gad, with the Book of Jasher offering further details.

Book of Jubilees 34:20-21

And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives. The name of Reuben’s wife is ‘Ada; and the name of Simeon’s wife is ‘Adlba’a, a Canaanite; and the name of Levi’s wife is Melka, of the daughters of Aram, of the seed of the sons of Terah [Nahor] … and the name of Gad’s wife, Maka… And Simeon repented, and took a second wife from Mesopotamia as his brothers.

Book of Jasher 45:1-3,5-6,9-10

1… Reuben the son of Jacob went to Timnah and took unto him for a wife Eliuram,the daughter of Avi the Canaanite, and he came to her. 2 And Eliuram the wife of Reuben conceived and bare him Hanoch, Palu, Chetzron and Carmi, four sons…

2… Simeon his brother took his sister Dinah for a wife, and she bare unto him Memuel, Yamin, Ohad, Jachin and Zochar, five sons. 3 And he afterward came to Bunah the Canaanitish woman, the same is Bunah whom Simeon took captive from the city of Shechem, and Bunah was before Dinah and attended upon her, and Simeon came to her, and she bare unto him Saul.*

5… Levi… went to the land of the east, and… took… for [a wife a daughter] of Jobab the son of Joktan, the son of Eber; and Jobab the son of Yoktan had two daughters; the name of the elder was Adinah… 6 And Levi took Adinah, and… came to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house, and Adinah bare unto Levi, Gershon, Kehath and Merari; three sons.

9… Gad… went to Haran and took… [a daughter] of Amuram the son of Uz, the son of Nahor… 10… and the name of the [youngest daughter] Uzith… and Gad took Uzith; and brought [her] to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house. 11… Uzith bare unto Gad Zephion, Chagi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi and Arali, seven sons.

It is not clear who the identity of Reuben’s wife is. As his brothers, Judah and Simeon had a propensity for marrying Canaanite women, a women of Black descent cannot be ruled out. It seems unlikely that Simeon took his sister Dinah as a wife, though the question would remain who his first wife was if his second Canaanite wife gave him only his son S[h]aul.* Levi either took a wife from Joktan’s line – which today equates to the predominantly Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe, though also includes the peoples of Baltic and Balkans descent – or from the same line as his father and grandfather had before him. Gad is stated as marrying from the line of Nahor, as Isaac and Jacob had done before him as well.

In Numbers chapter one, census numbers for the tribes two years after they left Egypt are listed. The Levites are not included in the census figures. These are the numbers for the tribes we have covered this far, including Judah and Benjamin which weren’t included in the previous chapter.

The Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month [New Moon, April/May], in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt [1444 BCE], saying, 2 “Take a census of all the congregation of the people of Israel, by clans, by fathers’ houses, according to the number of names, every male, head by head. 3 From twenty years old and upward, all in Israel who are able to go to war, you and Aaron shall list them, company by company. 

21 those listed of the tribe of Reuben were 46,500 [4].

23 those listed of the tribe of Simeon were 59,300 [2].

25 those listed of the tribe of Gad were 45,650 [3].

27 those listed of the tribe of Judah were 74,600 [1].

37 those listed of the tribe of Benjamin were 35,400 [5].

But the Levites were not listed along with them by their ancestral tribe. 48 For the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 49 “Only the tribe of Levi you shall not list, and you shall not take a census of them among the people of Israel. 50 But appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of the testimony, and over all its furnishings, and over all that belongs to it. They are to carry the tabernacle and all its furnishings, and they shall take care of it and shall camp around the tabernacle… And if any outsider comes near, he shall be put to death. 52 The people of Israel shall pitch their tents by their companies, each man in his own camp and each man by his own standard. 53 But the Levites shall camp around the tabernacle of the testimony… And the Levites shall keep guard over the tabernacle of the testimony.”

Notice that Judah is by far the biggest tribe of these five – as England has a sizeable population today – and note Simeon is second. The respective sons and clans of the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Gad.

Genesis 46:8-

English Standard Version

8 Now these are the names of the descendants of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons. Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, 9 and the sons of Reuben [4]: Hanoch [inaugarated], Pallu [distinguished], Hezron [enclosure], and Carmi [vinedresser]. 

10 The sons of Simeon [6]: Jemuel [God’s day], Jamin, Ohad [to praise] , Jachin [established] , Zohar [tawny], and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman* [Exodus 6.15]. 

11 The sons of Levi [3]: Gershon [exiled], Kohath [congregation], and Merari [bitter]. 

16 The sons of Gad [7]: Ziphion [hidden], Haggi [festive], Shuni [silence], Ezbon [undertsand], Eri [focused], Arodi, and Areli [lion of God]. 

Gad’s son Eri may have an etymological link with Eri-n and Ire for Ireland. Hanoch was also the name of one of Midian’s five sons, a son of Abraham and Keturah [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. Another census was taken as they were entering Canaan some forty years later, circa 1404 BCE.

Numbers 26:1-65

English Standard Version

After the plague, the Lord said to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron, the priest, 2 “Take a census of all the congregation of the people of Israel, from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers’ houses, all in Israel who are able to go to war.” 3 And Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho… 

These are the clans ofthe Reubenites, and those listed were 43,730. 8 And the sons of Pallu: Eliab. 9 The sons of Eliab: Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram. These are the Dathan and Abiram, chosen from the congregation, who contended against Moses and Aaron in the company of Korah, when they contended against the Lord 10 and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died, when the fire devoured 250 men, and they became a warning. 11 But the sons of Korah did not die.

14These are the clans of the Simeonites, 22,200.

18 These are the clans of the sons of Gad as they were listed, 40,500.

51 This was the list of the people of Israel, 601,730.

Did the reader spot the slight decrease in Reuben and Gad’s numbers between the two censuses? More importantly, the huge decrease in the Simeonite number? They went from one of the biggest tribes to the smallest. We will look at this anomaly shortly.

58 These are the clans of Levi: the clan of the Libnites, the clan of the Hebronites, the clan of the Mahlites, the clan of the Mushites, the clan of the Korahites. And Kohath was the father of Amram. 59 The name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt. And she bore to Amram Aaron and Moses and Miriam their sister. 60 And to Aaron were born Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 61 But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered unauthorized fire before the Lord. 62 And those listed were 23,000, every male from a month old and upward. For they were not listed among the people of Israel, because there was no inheritance given to them among the people of Israel.

63 These were those listed by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who listed the people of Israel… 64 But among these there was not one of those listed by Moses and Aaron the priest, who had listed the people of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had said of them, “They shall die in the wilderness.” Not one of them was left, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.

The extended family and clans for Simeon are listed in the Book of Chronicles. 

1 Chronicles 4:24-43

English Standard Version

24 The sons of Simeon: Nemuel [Jemuel], Jamin [the right hand], Jarib [he contends], Zerah, Shaul [jackal, fox]; 25 Shallum [retribution] was his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son. 26 The sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimei [famous] his son. 27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers did not have many children, nor did all their clan multiply like the men of Judah.28 They lived in… five cities, 33 along with all their villages that were around these cities as far as Baal. These were their settlements, and they kept a genealogical record.

34 Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah the son of Amaziah, 35 Joel, Jehu the son of Joshibiah, son of Seraiah, son of Asiel, 36 Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, 37 Ziza the son of Shiphi, son of Allon, son of Jedaiah, son of Shimri, son of Shemaiah – 38 these mentioned by name were princes in their clans, and their fathers’ houses increased greatly. 39 They journeyed to the entrance of Gedor, to the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks, 40 where they found rich, good pasture, and the land was very broad, quiet, and peaceful, for the former inhabitants there belonged to Ham [Canaan].

Three of Simeon’s six sons have had a name change between the Book of Genesis and the Book of Chronicles. Either that, or they have died and Simeon had another three sons. Ohad, Jachin and Zohar are the original names and the new names are Jarib, Zerah – a family name of Judah] and Shallum.

1 Chronicles 5:1-26

English Standard Version

The sons ofReuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn, but because he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, so that he could not be enrolled as the oldest son; 2 thoughJudah became strong among his brothers and a chief came from him, yet the birthright belonged to Joseph), 

3 the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 4 The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog [high] his son, Shimei his son, 5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal [Lord, possessor] his son, 6 Beerah his son, whom Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria carried away into exile; he was a chief of the Reubenites. 10 And in the days of Saul they waged war against the Hagrites [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], who fell into their hand. And they lived in their tents throughout all the region east of Gilead.

Two of Reuben’s descendants are worth noting. The first is Gog and the second is Baal. Both formidable names. We touched on the giants in British history named Gog and Magog, or it may have been one giant and also the record of giants in Northern Ireland. This name is quite a coincidence. The name Baal is associated with worship of the Prince of Darkness. It is of even more interest because as we have covered in other chapters, Baal is the storm god and his symbol includes the Bull from the constellation Taurus. Ulster has a plethora of names that include the prefix Baal. Two that standout are Bel-fast and Bal-lymena. Others include: Belleek, Belalt, Ballycastle, Ballygowen and Ballyward. Reuben has left many such names throughout Ireland as well: Ballyshannon, Ballina, Balbriggan and Ballybunnion for example.

11 The sons of Gad lived over against [Reuben] in the land of Bashan… 12 Joel the chief, Shapham the second, Janai, and Shaphat… 13 And their kinsmen according to their fathers’ houses: Michael, Meshullam, Sheba [family name of Abraham, Joktan and Cush], Jorai, Jacan, Zia and Eber [family name of Arphaxad], seven. 14 These were the sons of Abihail the son of Huri, son of Jaroah, son of Gilead [family name of Manasseh], son of Michael, son of Jeshishai, son of Jahdo, son of Buz [family name of Nahor]. 

15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, son of Guni [family name of Naphtali], was chief in their fathers’ houses, 16 and they lived in Gilead, in Bashan and in its towns, and in all the pasturelands* of Sharon [great plain]* to their limits.

The words sharon and shannon may be linked, as shannon in Hebrew means fertile plain* and in Irish it means ‘old river’. A plain is fertile because it is close to a river or water. Ironically, there is a renowned Irish musician called… Sharon Shannon.

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of [East] Manasseh had valiant men who carried shield and sword, and drew the bow, expert in war… 19 They waged war against the Hagrites [sons of Hagar, refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and he granted their urgent plea because they trusted in him. 21 They carried off their livestock: 50,000 of their camels, 250,000 sheep, 2,000 donkeys, and 100,000 men alive.

… 26 the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan… [Media].

Many from the tribes of Reuben and Gad were taken into captivity together, after living next to each other for some six hundred and seventy years. It is no surprise if they migrated across Europe following each other and if they are now living adjacent to each other, across an expanse of water – the Irish Sea – from Judah, Benjamin and Simeon, who had also shared a geographical proximity. Replicated today in England, Scotland and Wales.

In Luke 3.23-38 we read of Christ’s adoptive father Joseph’s lineage from Judah to David and included are men who are called related family names of the tribes:

29… Matthat, the son of Levi, 30 the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim, 31 the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David… 

In Ezekiel chapter forty-eight, Ezekiel describes a future city and the portions the twelve tribes will occupy. For Manasseh and Ephraim as included together. Four gates on each of the four sides are described:

Ezekiel 48:30-35

English Standard Version

30 “These shall be the exits of the city: On the north side, which is to be 4,500 cubits by measure, 31 three gates, the gate of Reuben, the gate of Judah, and the gate of Levi, the gates of the city being named after the tribes of Israel. 32 On the east side, which is to be 4,500 cubits, three gates, the gate of Joseph, the gate of Benjamin, and the gate of Dan

We will discover that the grouping of Joseph, Benjamin and Dan is no coincidence. Their historical and genetic link a profound part of the Israelite story, coupled with sizeable prophetic outcomes and importance.

33 On the south side, which is to be 4,500 cubits by measure, three gates, the gate of Simeon, the gate of Issachar, and the gate of Zebulun. 34 On the west side, which is to be 4,500 cubits, three gates, the gate of Gad, the gate of Asher, and the gate of Naphtali. 35 The circumference of the city shall be 18,000 cubits. And the name of the city from that time on shall be, The Lord Is There.”

Returning to the dramatic decrease in the Simeonite tribe, identity researcher and expert, Steven Collins provides a logical answer. He also concluded that the Simeonites were the historical Spartans, though we have investigated an alternative identity in Chapter XXIX Esau.

The Missing Simeonites, Steven M Collins – emphasis & bold mine:

A logical explanation for the sudden drop in several tribes’ population is that most of the tribe of Simeon and varying contingents of the other tribes literally “walked out” of the camp and left the main body of Israelites to strike out on their own. Where did they go?

In the book of Numbers, we find that the Israelites under Moses undertook a first and second census of the tribes of Israel while they were in the Wilderness. The results of those enumerations of the tribes of Israel reveal some surprising results. In Numbers 1:1-3 and verse 18, we see that the census tallied the number of males “twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel.” Therefore, we should keep in mind that the entire population of Israel’s tribes in the Wilderness consisted of far more than the tally in Numbers 1. 

As a guideline, one would ordinarily double the numbers to allow for one wife per man of military age. Given the polygamous culture at that time, some of the men may have had a number of wives. It is difficult to make an estimate of the number of children, but we should keep in mind that large families were very common at that time. Numbers 1:46 records that 603,550 adult males were numbered in the census. Based on some of the above rough methods of estimating the number of the entire nation of Israel at that time, we can see that the Israelites can be conservatively estimated to be body of approximately 3,000,000 people. For American readers, that number would equal the approximate population of Oregon. The actual number of Israelites was likely higher as the tribe of Levi wasn’t included in this census, nor were the people of the “mixed multitude” which accompanied the Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus 12:38).

Listed below are the populations of adult males per tribe, given in the order listed in Numbers 1.’


‘Modern readers will notice that the tribe of Judah was, at that time, the largest tribe. The three smallest tribal figures are the three tribes which descended from Jacob and Rachel: Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. However, when the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh are totalled together, they numbered 72,700, showing the actual total of Israelites descended from Joseph constituted the second largest grouping in Israel. Notice that the tribe of Simeon was the third largest tribe in this census…

Now, let’s examine the census taken approximately 40 years later… For purposes of comparison, listed below are the totals from each census and the change in the total of adult males in each tribe. The second census is listed in Numbers 26. Numbers 26:2 confirms that it is the sum of males “twenty years old an upward… all that are able to go to war in Israel,” so each census was conducted with the same criteria.’

TRIBE1st Census2nd CensusChange

The national totals indicate the number of Israelites enumerated under Moses had dropped very slightly, but the tribal totals reveal something very different had transpired. The most evident change is that over half the tribe of Simeon inexplicably “disappeared” from the census totals. What happened? Simeon, the third largest tribe in Israel in the first census, had plummeted to be the smallest tribe of all in the second census! Another anomaly leaps out at the reader.

The tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh shared the birthright blessing of the Abrahamic covenant, which included being blessed with large population growth. Manasseh had, indeed, risen dramatically in population, going from 32,200 to 52,700, a gain of 20,500 people, by far the largest increase in any tribe. However, its brother tribe which shared this birthright blessing, Ephraim, dropped 8,000 people to join Simeon at the bottom of the population totals of the tribes in Israel. Even the tribe of Benjamin outnumbered the Ephraimites at that time. Judah was still the largest tribe, but Manasseh’s explosive growth resulted in the tribe of Joseph being the largest tribe if Manasseh and Ephraim were added together. As many readers might observe, something “doesn’t add up” in these figures. As commentator Paul Harvey says here in America, let’s examine what happened to determine “the rest of the story.”

I believe the key to what happened in Numbers 26 is found in the previous chapter. In Numbers 25, we learn that Phineas, a Levite, executed “a prince of a chief house among the Simeonites” (verses 7-14). Phineas leaped to execute this Simeonite prince for his audacity in rebelling against God by taking a Midianite woman into his tent at a time when god was punishing Israel for such deeds. Indeed, God sent a plague among the Israelites which killed 24,000 people, and that plague was stayed by the action of Phineas.’

More violence from the explosive brothers of Simeon and Levi; this time it is between themselves. 

‘The Bible does not record which tribes suffered the most from that plague. Even if one assumes the Simeonites bore the brunt of this plague, it does not begin to account for the drop in population of approximately 56,000 males of 20 years and older among the tribes which lost population between the two censuses. Also, Numbers 25:9 records that 24,000 people died in the plague, it does not state that all those slain were “males 20 years of age and older.” This indicates that 24,000 men, women and children of all ages died in the plague, and that perhaps 6,000 of that total were males 20 years and older. Where did the rest go?

It is my belief that after the execution by a Simeonite prince by a Levitical priest, there was a great dissension in the camp of Israel. We know from the accounts in the Torah of their wanderings in the Wilderness that the Israelites were very prone to revolting against Moses over various provocations. We know from Genesis 34:25 that Simeon and Levi were the two most impulsive sons of Jacob, the two most likely to settle a matter “by the sword.” To put it in modern American terms, they were the kind who “shot first and asked questions later.” Genesis 49:5-7 prophesies that impulsive wrathfulness leading to violence would characterize both Simeonites and Levites through all the millennia up to and including the “latter days.”

In the episode of Phineas the Levite unilaterally executing a Simeonite [prince], the two most violent tribes were likely at loggerhead[s],and a civil war among the tribes was not improbable. God usefully directed the Levites’ propensity to violence into becoming a tribe of butchers, killing, cutting up and sacrificing innumerable animals under the system of animal sacrifices established in ancient Israel. Simeon had no such outlet.

I believe a logical explanation for the sudden drop in several tribes’ population is that most of the tribe of Simeon and varying contingents of the other tribes literally “walked out” of the camp and left the main body of Israelites to strike out on their own. The huge drop in the number of Simeonites indicates that the Simeonites led this partial “exodus” from the Israelite camp. The Simeonites were impulsive and the execution of one of their chieftans (however just) could easily have provoked such an action.

The census figures indicate that the tribes of Ephraim and Napthali contributed most of the remaining Israelites who accompanied most of the tribe of Simeon as it left the Israelite encampment. The census data indicates that the entire tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Issachar and Benjamin stayed with Moses as their second census totals reflect normal demographic growth.

Would God or Moses have allowed so large a mass of Israelite to leave the camp? I think the answer is yes. Indeed, they may have encouraged it as a way to end the dissension in the camp. There was no commandment of God that forbade any Israelites to leave the camp in the Wilderness, so the only penalty that exiting Israelites would bear would be that their children would not enter the Promised land with the children of those who stayed. Remember that every adult (except Caleb and Joshua) were under a death sentence in the Wilderness. For their rebellion, they would wander till the entire generation who refused to go into the Promised Land at first was dead! Under such circumstances, many could have thought: “If my choice is stay and die in this desert or leave and trust to my wits and sword to make a living, I’ll choose the second option.”

The tribe of Simeon, naturally impulsive, would likely have led such a mini-exodus. The fact that Manasseh grew greatly between the censuses and that Ephraim dropped dramatically argues that this can only be explained if a large number of Ephraimites left the camp. Both tribes were the birthright tribes, and they shared the same promises. If no one had left the camp, the population figures of Ephraim and Mansseh should have reflected the same growth.

If we limit our number of exiting Israelites to only those tribes who had net reductions in their tribal totals, we have about 50,000 males above age twenty and all their wives and children (perhaps 200,000 people). The tribes whose populations stayed static indicates that some of the natural growth of those tribes was deleted from the census because contingents of their tribes also joined the exodus. The total of those leaving the camp may have been larger than 200,000. If such an event occurred, there would have been a powerful stimulus to conduct the second census to “see who we have left.” Indeed, Numbers 26:1-2 shows that right after the events described above, God told Moses to take a census of all the tribes.

Where did the departing Israelite go?’

Members from the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Ephraim were early arrivals in Ireland, though there were two other tribes who were the very first to arrive in the British Islands of firstly Erin and later Albion. Those two tribes were Dan and Simeon. Both would then enter Britain to explore it, with Simeon making their permanent home there instead of Ireland. It was the Simeonites who moved completely to Britain and were the first Britons with the distinction of the status as the first tribe to settle there, known as Cymry and later as Welsh. Whereas Dan was likely the first to explore Britain, they like the tribe of Benjamin and unlike Simeon had a foothold in both Britain and Ireland; before Benjamin moved entirely to the northern reaches of Britain in Pictavia and later Scotland. The Tribe of Dan’s story is somewhat more complicated. 

 Origin, Yair Davidiy – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Sennacherib recorded having exiled more than 200,000 people from Judah. The Bible mentions him having captured all of the unfenced cities in Judah (2 Kings 18:13) and Midrashim also speak[s] of Sennacherib deporting vast numbers from Judah and Simeon. These exiles joined the deported Tribes of northern Israel and shared their destiny. Sennacherib… intermittently besieged Jerusalem over a number of years but his army was stricken by an angel and 185,000 Assyrians died. Sennacherib returned to Nineveh where he was assassinated by two of his sons who fled to Ararat (Urartu) [refer Chapter XVII Lud] (2 Kings 19:37). 

The Ten Tribes before their exile had been called by the Assyrians, “Khumri”. This term* in Assyrian could also be rendered “GUMRI”. A similar name, “Gimiri” in Babylonian can connote “tribes” and a related term “gamira” can mean mobile exiles. At all events most authorities agree that the Cimmerians of history were composed of several peoples of differing origins. All signs indicate that at least some of these peoples were Israelite! 

The Cimmerians had first been reported of by the Assyrians at the earliest in 714 though the more accepted date is ca.707 BCE. The Scythians though originally part and parcel with the Cimmerians had separated from the main body and were acting independently. Cimmerians and Scythians essentially consisted of the same elements though in different proportions. The king of the Cimmerians was referred to in an Assyrian inscription as “King of the Amurru”. The name “Amuru” was sometimes applied to Israelites and geographically the land of “Amurru” had encompassed the former Israelite areas of “Syria and Palestine”. 

The Celts were believed to have come from the east and to have advanced via the Danube Valley. Welsh Legend stated that their ancestors, the Cymry, had been led by Hu Gadarn from Drephane opposite Byzantium (on the Bosporus) across the sea to Britain. The Welsh call themselves “Gomeru”. In Welsh tradition, they (i.e. Cimmerians) were led by Hu from Drephrobane opposite Byzantium across the sea to Defene in Wales. The name Defene is sometimes rendered as “Daphne” and there was a port named Daphne opposite Byzantium. Daphne of Antiochea was one of the places to which the Ten Tribes were taken into exile.’ 

Ancient Gaul or Gallia in Latin, was a vast region of western Europe that spread far beyond the modern borders of France. The Greek term Galatia is the same as Gallia. The Greeks connected the word Galatai to the ‘milk white’ skin of the Gauls and Galatians, as gala means milk. In turn, the word is related to the Welsh word gallu which means ‘to be able (can)’. 

Even so, Gaul is not related to Gallia, but rather stems from the French Gaule or Waulle, which derives from the Old Frankish word Walholant, meaning ‘land of the foreigners.’ The Old English word Wealh, or Wealas derives from the Proto-Germanic, walhaz – meaning an outlander, foreigner, Celt. An exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin speaking people indiscriminately. It is cognate with the names Wales, Wallonia of Belgium and Wallachia of Romania. Whereas the Irish word Gael – derived from Goidel and Gaidheal – superficially similar with Gaul, are two distinct words and not derived from each other. 

Interestingly, an old Welsh name for Wales was Gwalia and the modern French name for Wales is Pays de Galles; matching the similar Romanian translation of ‘country of the Gauls’. Germanic peoples called the Gauls, Volcae and the Old English word for native Britons was Vahls, which in time become Wales. It must be remembered, these are descriptions of the Welsh by others. The Cymry have always called themselves and their country Cymru and in Gaelic, Gymru.* 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 469 – 471 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… ancient Britons migrated from Troy, from tribes led by a Trojan hero named Britu, one of many nomatives from which Britain derived… legends suggest London’s Celtic name from antiquity was Lloegress, which owned an even more mystical name dating even further back into antiquity, documented as Troja Newydd, or New Troy. 

Brutus of Troy was the grandson of Aeneus, founder of the Romans in Greek mythology. Brutus was the hero of legend who rebelled against the Greeks three generations after the fall of Troy, escaping the wrath of the Greeks by sailing with his people past the Pillars of Hercules to an island known today as Britain. They freed Britain from a race of giants led by Gog, Magog, and Albion… Brutus and his victorious followers settled along the banks of the Thames River, naming it Troia Nova (New Troy), or Trinovantum. Brutus’s ancient kingdom of Britain became identified as Albion… the earliest name by which Britain was known… 

Ancient Welsh legends… record three waves of… immigration that were made up first of the tribe of Cymrey… second invasion came from the tribe of the Lloegrians, and the third invasion derived from the Brython tribe of Llydaw. All three were of the same language, culture, and race. Lloegres was the ancient appellation for southern and central England, while Cymrey was the name given for Wales, northern England, Cornwall and the Scottish border region. After the death of Brutus, Britain split into three kingdoms under the rule of his three sons. The names of those three kingdoms became known as Lloegres, Cymry, and Albyne. 

… the region of Troy, was known in antiquity as Galatia… the Black Sea region is the originating home of the Celts… and home of the Scythians and Sarmatians. The Greeks knew the Celts as Keltoi or Galatia, while the Romans… knew the Celts as the Celtae and Galatai. Julius Caesar… referred to the Celts first as Gauls… they referred to themselves in their own language as Celts. Some scholars think Celt derived from the root key, the Old Irish celim, meaning “hidden,” suggesting they were the hidden people or people that concealed things. Celt, in another version, is thought to have derived from the European root quel, meaning “elevated,” which then evolved to Old Irish as Celthe. The Celts regarded themselves as the elevated or noble race. The noble Celt was… blond, blue-eyed [including] the Irish, British, Welsh, and Scottish… [Celts] had red hair and pale green eyes… [possessing] strikingly similar characteristics to the Tuatha Denaan… Galatea translates as “milky white”… The Celts of Galatia were the very same people to whom [the Apostle] Paul preached.’

Britain’s Trojan History, Bernard Jones – emphasis & bold mine:

Homer, in his epic the Iliad, tells us that Aeneas led the Dardanians in the war against the Greeks whilst Hector led the Trojans. Aeneas was a cousin to Hector, who was killed by the great Achilles. It was said that Hector was the ‘heart’ of Troy whereas Aeneas was its ‘soul’. Aeneas survived the war and led his people in exile to found a new Troy. The voyage of Aeneas had taken seven years when, eventually, he brought his fleet to rest. 

Here, he was received honourably by Latinus the king who, because of an oracle, pledged his daughter in marriage to the Trojan prince. His daughter, however, was already betrothed to a king of the Rutuli and he immediately went to war against the Trojans because of the insult. The war was a bloody affair but ended when the king of the Rutuli was killed by the Trojan prince. Aeneas had a son by his first wife, Creusa, and they called him Ascanius. 

Sadly, Creusa had perished at Troy on the night that the city fell. In due course Aeneas married Lavinia, the daughter of king Latinus and the Trojans built a city and it was called Lavinium, after her.

Brutus the Trojan was the great grandson of Aeneas of Troy. He accidentally killed his father when they were both out hunting and, as a result, was exiled for committing such a crime. He ended up in a certain part of Greece where he discovered descendants of Trojan captives, taken there by the Greeks after the Trojan War. Brutus stayed in the country for quite a time and became known for his skills, his courage and wisdom. 

In due course Brutus was prevailed upon to become the leader of all the Trojans, in order to free them from thralldom under the Greek king. After a number of battles, and against all odds, Brutus captured the Greek king. To save himself from being killed the king agreed to give his daughter to Brutus as his wife, and to let the Trojans depart in peace for another country. The Greeks supplied Brutus with a large number of ships and the Trojans departed, landing eventually in Totnes, in Devon.’

For further information on the identity of Brutus and his entourage, refer Chapter XXX Judah and Benjamin. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘“… the people of Waels call themselves, in ancient Welsh, ‘Bryth y Brithan,’ or ‘Briths of Briton,’ which means ‘The Covenanters’ of the ‘land of the Covenant.’ The first form of this phrase is almost vernacular Hebrew.” The fact that these “Brythonic Celts” who migrated to the British Isles bore the Hebrew B­R­T root word for “covenant” confirmed their Israelite origin. 

It is also unmistakably recorded in British history that the earliest settlers in Wales and southern England were called Simonii. They came by the way of the sea in the year 720 B. C. At this time there was the greatest influx of the Tuatha de Daanan to Ireland, and this synchronizes with the deportation of the Israelites of the commonwealth of Ephraim to Assyria, and the flight of Dan and Simeon from the seaports and coast country of Palestine. That Simonii is the plural of Simeon we need scarcely mention. 

It has been made clear to our readers that Omri, the sixth king of Israel, built the city of Samaria, the third and permanent capital of Israel, and that eventually the entire country, formerly called “All Israel,” became known as Samaria, because that was the name of its capital also that Samaria became one of the national names of Israel, and is so used in some prophecies concerning them. Hence Omri is regarded as the real founder of the kingdom of Samaria, and Samaria-Israel was often referred to by other nations as the House of Omri. 

When Shalmanesar, the king of Assyria, who led Israel into captivity, made a record of that captivity on the tablets of Assyria, he called them the House of Omri (Beth Khumree); also when Israel was confederate with Resin, king of Syria, and went against the Jews, and the Jews besought Tiglath-Pilesar, who was at that time king of Assyria, to become their confederate, he also in his records referred to Israel as the Beth-Khumree. In the annals of Sargon, who was also a king of Assyria (Isaiah 20:1), successor of Shalmanesar, and predecessor of Senacharib, Israel is called Beth Khumree (House of Omri), and their capital city Khumree. On the Nimroud obelisk, “Jehu, the son of Omri,” is written “Yahua-abil-Khumree.” 

Professor Rawlinson, who does not believe this truth we are enforcing, says: “Jehu is usually called in the Bible the son of Nimshi – although Jehosaphat was his actual father (2 Kings 9:20), but the Assyrians, taking him for the legitimate successor to the throne, named as his father, or rather ancestor, “Omri,” the founder of the Kingdom of Samaria – Omri’s name being written on the obelisk, as it is in the inscriptions of Shalmanesar, where the Kingdom of Israel is always called the country of “Beth Omri.” Dr.Hincks also says: “The title, ’Son of Omri,’ is equivalent to that of King of Samaria, the city which Omri built, and which was known to the Assyrians as Beth Omri, or Khumri.” 

The tribes of both Dan and Simeon belonged, of course, to the Beth Khumree, when used as meaning the Kingdom of Omri, or Samaria. Simeon seems to have clung to this name far more tenaciously than did Dan, for they still call themselves and their country Kymry. Saville says: “This name Kymri, or Cymry, as it is more commonly written, is in reality the plural of Kymro, meaning a Welsh-man, and the country of the Kymry is called by themselves Khymru, which has been Latinized into the well-known name of Cambria. The letter V in the Welsh language has two powers, and both these powers are active in the word Kymry. This letter V sounds as U, except when it stands in the last syllable of CL word, and then it has the sound of the Italian i or the English ee! Hence, the correct pronunciation of the country of Wales, or land of the Cymry, in its ancient tongue would be as near as possible to the names Kumree, Khumree, or Kumri.” 

Thomas Stephens, in the preface to his “Literature of the Kymry,” says: “On the map of Britain, facing St. George’s Channel, is a group of counties called Wales, inhabited by a people distinct from, and but very imperfectly understood by, those who surround them. Their neighbors call them Welsh-men. Welsh or Walsch is not a proper name, but a Teutonic term signifying ‘strangers,’ and was applied to all persons who were not of that family: but the proper name of these people is Kymry. They are the last remnant of the Kimmerioi of Homer, and of the Kimry (Cimbri) of Germany. From the Cimbric Chersonesus (Jut-land) a portion of these landed on the shores of Northumberland, gave their name to the county of Cumberland, and in process of time followed the seaside to their present resting-place, where they still call themselves Kimry, and give their country a similar name. Their history, clear, concise and authentic, ascends to a high antiquity. Their language was embodied in verse long before the languages now spoken rose into notice, and their literature, cultivated and abundant, lays claim to being the most ancient in modern Europe.” 

Thus we find that the Khumree, Kumri, Kimry, Cumbre, Cimbri, or Cambrians, as the name is variously called in different tongues, were strangers and wanderers among the nations until they settled in the isles of the sea with the rest of their brethren, the Brith-ish or covenant people. 

“Herodotus, the ‘Father of History,’ tells us much about the Khumbri, a people who, in his day, dwelt in the Crimean peninsula and thereabout. He particularly notes that they had come into that territory from Media, which he remarks was not their original home or birthplace.” – Our Race. 

We have thus conclusively followed the word Khumree, for the reason that the people who are known as Angles, Saxons, Danes, Celts or Kelts, Jutes, Scots, Welsh, Scyths (or Scythians), or Normans can trace themselves back to Media-Persia, but no further, and find their ancestors in the Khumree, at the place, and at the very time, when Israel was losing her identity and was actually known in the history of that country as the Beth Khumree.’  

Somewhat out of context – as it relates to Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega – but because it is Welsh based, I have included interesting aspects relating to Dragons. Dragons being akin to Seraphim which are themselves, described as fiery flying serpents. The Dragon is a powerful Welsh symbol and is also representative of the Tribe of Dan. 

After the Flood, William Cooper, 1995 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The early Britons, from whom the modern Welsh are descended, provide us with our earliest surviving European accounts of reptilian monsters, one of whom killed and devoured king Morvidus (Morydd) in ca 336 BC. We are told in the account translated for us by Geoffrey of Monmouth, that the monster ‘gulped down the body of Morvidus as a big fish swallows a little one.’ Geoffrey described the animal as a Belua. Peredur, not the ancient king of that name (306-296 BC), but a much later son of Earl Efrawg, had better luck than Morvidus, actually managing to slay his monster, an addanc (pr. athanc: var. afanc), at a place called Llyn Llion in Wales. At other Welsh locations the addanc is further spoken of along with another reptilian species known as the carrog. The addanc survived until comparatively recent times at such places as Bedd-yr-Afanc near Brynberian, at Llyn-yr-Afanc above Bettws-y-Coed on the River Conwy (the killing of this monster was described in the year 1693), and Llyn Barfog. A carrog is commemorated at Carrog near Corwen, and at Dol-y-Carrog in the Vale of Conwy. 

Moreover, ‘dinosaurs’, in the form of flying reptiles, were a feature of Welsh life until surprisingly recent times. As late as the beginning of the present century, elderly folk at Penllin in Glamorgan used to tell of a colony of winged serpents that lived in the woods around Penllin Castle. As Marie Trevelyan tells us: 

‘The woods around Penllin Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. An aged inhabitant of Penllyne, who died a few years ago, said that in his boyhood the winged serpents were described as very beautiful. 

They were coiled when in repose, and “looked as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow”. When disturbed they glided swiftly, “sparkling all over,” to their hiding places. When angry, they “flew over people’s heads, with outspread wings, bright, and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock’s tail”. He said it was “no old story invented to frighten children”, but a real fact. His father and uncle had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry. The old man attributed the extinction of the winged serpents to the fact that they were “terrors in the farmyards and coverts”.’

‘This account is intriguing in many respects, not the least being the fact that it is not a typical account of dragons. The creatures concerned were not solitary and monstrous beasts, but small creatures that lived in colonies. Not at all like the larger species of winged reptile that used to nest upon an ancient burial-mound, or tumulus, at Trellech-a’r-Betws in the county of Dyfed, for example. 

But whilst we are in Wales, it is worth noting that at Llanbardan-y-Garrag (is Garrag a corruption of carrog?), the church contains a carving of a local giant reptile whose features include large paddle-like flippers, a long neck and a small head. Glaslyn, in Snowdon, is a lake where an afanc was sighted as recently as the 1930s. On this occasion two climbers on the side of a mountain looked down onto the surface of Glaslyn and they saw the creature, which they described as having a long grey body, rise from the depths of the lake to the surface, raise its head and then submerge again. 

One could multiply such reports by the hundred. In England and Scotland, again until comparatively recent times, other reptilian monsters were sighted and spoken of in many places. The table at the end of this chapter lists eighty-one locations in the British Isles alone in which dinosaur activity has been reported (there are, in fact, nearly 200 such places in Britain), but perhaps the most relevant aspect of this as far as our present study is concerned is the fact that some of these sightings and subsequent encounters with living dinosaurs can be dated to the comparatively recent past. 

… in the 15th century, according to a contemporary chronicle that still survives in Canterbury Cathedral’s library, the following incident was reported. On the afternoon of Friday, 26th September, 1449, two giant reptiles were seen fighting on the banks of the River Stour (near the village of Little Cornard) which marked the English county borders of Suffolk and Essex. One was black, and the other ‘reddish and spotted’. After an hour-long struggle that took place ‘to the admiration of many [of the locals] beholding them’, the black monster yielded and returned to its lair, the scene of the conflict being known ever since as Sharp fight Meadow.

In 1867 was seen, for the last time, the monster that lived in the woods around Fittleworth in Sussex. It would run up to people hissing and spitting if they happened to stumble across it unawares, although it never harmed anyone. Several such cases could be cited, but suffice it to say that too many incidents like these are reported down through the centuries and from all sorts of locations for us to say that they are all fairy-tales. 

For example, Scotland’s famous Loch Ness Monster is too often thought to be a recent product of the local Tourist Board’s efforts to bring in some trade, yet Loch Ness is by no means the only Scottish loch where monsters have been reported. Loch Lomond, Loch Awe, Loch Rannoch and the privately owned Loch Morar (over 1000 ft deep) also have records of monster activity in recent years. Indeed, there have been over forty sightings at Loch Morar alone since the end of the last war, and over a thousand from Loch Ness in the same period. However, as far as Loch Ness itself is concerned, few realise that monstrous reptiles, no doubt the same species, have been sighted in and around the loch since the so-called Dark Ages…

As recently as the 18th century, in a lake called Llyn-y-Gader in Snowdon, Wales, a certain man went swimming. He reached the middle of the lake and was returning to the shore when his friends who were watching him noticed that he was being followed by: ‘…a long, trailing object winding slowly behind him. They were afraid to raise an alarm, but went forward to meet him as soon as he reached the shore where they stood. 

Just as he was approaching, the trailing object raised its head, and before anyone could render aid the man was enveloped in the coils of the monster…’ It seems that the man’s body was never recovered.’ 

The Flag of Wales

Leading into Levi and an important identifying sign of the sons of Jacob, is the fact that the Creator gave ancient Israel dietary guidelines. This would appear to be for good reason. Some animals just weren’t meant for human consumption. Certain sea creatures which are scavengers and look just like big bugs, such as prawns, shrimp, crayfish and lobster, as if these two points weren’t enough of a deterrent in eating them; they then often cause people to develop painful stomach aches after their consumption. Likewise, the pig is an animal that possesses the flesh anatomy rather akin to a human and while under a microscope, can be observed to be teeming with unpleasant and harmful microbes. In eating them, it is the next thing to human cannibalism.

The Eating of human flesh regularly is known to make the eater over time, crazy. As if they weren’t already to even try. People may wonder why some people are not always rational. One aspect not considered, is a diet which consumes a lot of pork, ham and bacon. This may well be a little understood factor, which science will corroborate in the future. Apparently, according to those who abhorrently know, pork is the closest meat in flavour and taste to human flesh and while cooked pork smells like human flesh; conversely, incinerated human flesh has a similar aroma to pork. 

It was more than a coincidence that George Orwell chose the pig as the leading animal in his landmark novel Animal Farm, for they are one of the most highly intelligent species on the Earth – one wonders why? For information on the shocking origin of the  domesticated pig, refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega.

Leviticus 11:1-8

New Century Version

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2 “Tell the Israelites this: ‘These are the land animals you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has split hoofs completely divided and that chews the cud. 4 “‘Some animals only chew the cud or only have split hoofs, and you must not eat them… 

Now the pig has a split hoof that is completely divided, but it does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you [because it is not a true herbivore, but rather an omnivore]. 8 You must not eat the meat from these animals or even touch their dead bodies; they are unclean for you.

We find considerable evidence of the Levitical influence in ancient Britain. There has also been much written linking the Levitical system with the Druids, who practised a combined pagan and Hebrew tradition. 

Yair Davidy has put together a number of quotes showing historical documentation adapted from his work The Israelite Origin of the Celtic Races, 1996 – emphasis & bold mine. Donald MacKenzie in 1935, examined food prohibitions in Scotland.

“There are still thousands of Highlanders and groups of Lowlanders who refuse to keep pigs or to partake of their flesh”. MacKenzie quotes from Sir Walter Scott (“The Fortunes of Nigel”): “Sir Munko cannot abide pork, no more than the King’s most sacred majesty, nor my Lord Duke Lennox, nor Lord Dalgarno… But the Scots never eat pork strange that! Some folk think they are a sort of Jews.” “The Scots till within the last generation disliked swine’s flesh as an article of food as much as the Highlanders do at  present”. Also from Sir Walter (“The Two Drovers”) we have an account of execration in Gaelic of a Highlander cursing some Englishmen who had been ridiculing him: “A hundred curses on the swine eaters, who know neither decency nor civility!” 

‘James VI of Scotland “hated pork in all its varieties”. In the English Civil War, a song against Scottish partisans of the Rump Parliament (1639-1661) went: “The Jewish Scots that scorns to eat The Flesh of Swine, and brewers beat, ’twas the sight of this Hogs head made ’em retreat, Which nobody can deny.” Dr.Johnson (1773): “The vulgar inhabitants of Skye, I know not whether of the other islands, have not only eels but pork and bacon in abhorrence; and accordingly I never saw a hog in the Hebrides, except one at Dunvegan”. Dean Ramsay (1793-1872): “The old aversion to the `unclean animal’ still lingers in the Highlands… I recollect an old Scottish gentleman who shared this horror, asking very gravely, `Were not swine forbidden under the law and cursed under the gospel?’”.’  

John Toland (1714): “You know how considerable a part of the British inhabitants are the undoubted offspring of [Judah and Levi] and how many worthy prelates of this same stock, not to speak of Lords and commoners, may at this time make an illustrious figure among us… A great number of ’em fled to Scotland which is the reason so many in that part of the Island have a remarkable aversion to pork and black puddings to this day, not to insist on some other resemblances easily observable.” 

‘D. A. MacKenzie… claimed that the taboo preceded Christianity and that the coming of Christian missionaries to Scotland actually weakened the prohibition. Mackenzie stated that after examination it appeared to him that in ancient Scotland there were two different cults or attitudes, one of which regarded the pig with abhorrence while the other revered it. Ancient pictures of wild boars have been found engraved on rocks. A first century BCE grave in Scotland contained what appears to have been a pig offering and other finds indicate the consumption of swine. 

MacKenzie connects the pig taboo with the Galatians… These were a small group of Galatians (also called “Galli”) who had gravitated to Anatolia (modern Turkey), conquered Phrygia and formed their own kingdom called Galatia in which they ruled over the natives. Lucian (“De Dea Syria”) wrote concerning the Galli of Galatia: “They sacrifice bulls and cows alike and goats and sheep; pigs alone which they abominate, are neither sacrificed nor eaten. Others look on swine without disgust, but as holy animals”. 

Mackenzie brings numerous sources showing that in Gaul, in Ireland, in other parts of Britain, pigs were both plentiful and respected. The boar was a favorite symbol. Pigs were reared for meat all over the Celtic area and the Continental Celts even had a developed industry curing swine meat which they sold to the Romans and were famous for. 

Eels, hare, and pike are also forbidden by the Mosaic code and the Scots had prejudices against all of these and refused to eat them though they are popular foods amongst the neighboring English. The obvious place to look for the source of these prohibitions is in a past exposure to and acceptance of the Mosaic Law and this was the source to which observers in the past usually traced them. It is interesting to note that from time to time certain fish and fowl which the Mosaic Code (of Ancient Israel) does permit came under a ban but only in the case of those expressly prohibited by the Law of Moses did the taboo last or become widely accepted.’ 

“Julius Casar found that the ancient Britons tabooed the hare, the domestic fowl and the goose. The hare is still taboo to many Scots”. 

‘It should be noted that abstaining from foods prohibited by the Mosaic Law may have physiological advantages conducive to long-term physical and emotional stability. Our examination of the religious practices of the early Christian Celts revealed that not only food taboos but also a large number of other practices were taken directly from the Mosaic Law and also that there existed a conscious identification with the Jews and ancient Levis. 

Some of these practices had proven parallels in ancient Druidical pre-Christian custom which taken together with other facts proves that at least a portion of these people were of Israelite descent. 

When the Celts became Christian they carried over into Christianity some of the customs of the Druids. There were Biblical Laws among the customs of the Druids that the British and Irish Celts continued to practice after becoming Christians. This explains in part why the original Celtic Christians of Britain adopted many “Old Testament” practices of the Law of Moses. Concerning the Druids: Julius Caesar (in his book “The Conquest of Gaul”) wrote: 

“The Druidic doctrine is believed to have been found existing in Britain and thence imported into Gaul; even today those who want to make a profound study of it generally go to Britain for the purpose… 

It is said that these pupils have to memorize a great number of verses so many, that some of them spend twenty years at their studies. The Druids believe that their religion forbids them to commit their teachings to writing, although for some other purposes, such as public and private accounts, the Gauls use the Greek alphabet”. 

‘The Romans persecuted the Druids and many Druids fled to Scandinavia according to Welsh tradition and this has been confirmed by archaeological finds… Those Druids who remained in West Britain and Ireland founded colleges and communal settlements… When the Celts were converted to Christianity… [these] were transformed into monasteries. 

T. W. Rolleston, (“Myths And Legends of the Celtic Race”, 1911, London) quotes from Bertrand (“L’Irlande Celtique”) – The Druids like the Hebrews… had an Oral Law that it was forbidden to write. They gave tithes and first fruits. Their sacrificial modes were similar to Biblical ones. They practiced ritual purity in ways that are reminiscent of Laws in the Bible about purification. Traditions exist that some of the Celts of Britain and Ireland practiced the Mosaic Law before the coming of Christianity. 

Leslie Hardinge says that the Celtic Christians of the British Isles placed a “strong emphasis on the legal aspects of the Old Testament”. An Irish work (“Liber ex Lege Moisi”) from ca. 800 CE uses Old Testament Law as “a prime directive, for the proper conduct of everyday life”. It is said that the Celtic Church was closer to Judaism than any other branch of Christianity. Harding says: 

“The shared elements include the keeping of the Saturday Sabbath, tithing, the definition of “first fruits” and offerings… inheritance of religious office, and fasting and dietary restrictions. It also appears that the Celts kept Easter by older methods of reckoning, one of which caused Easter to coincide with the Passover. Other scholarship suggests that Irish Churchmen of the seventh and eighth centuries actually considered themselves to be Priests and Levites, as defined under Old Testament law”. 

MRS. Winthrop Plamer Boswell, (“The Roots of Irish Monasticism”, California, 1969) adds to the above listed Jewish features of Celtic religion: 

“…the prominence of Hebrew features in Irish canon law collections (including Biblical cities of Refuge and Jubilee Years) together with Mosaic prohibitions on diet and injunctions on tithes… There was also a Hebrew treatment of the sanctuary… and finally there were many Hebrew words occurring in cryptographic monastic Irish works such as Hisperica Famina”. 

‘… the Celtic Church kept Saturday as the Sabbath Day. Incidentally,John Brand (“Observations on the Popular Antiquities of Great Britain”, London, 1841) describes the great lengths the Church went to, to extinguish all possible traces of 7th-day Sabbath keeping amongst the English. An article tracing the early observance of Saturday as the Sabbath noted:

‘[In the 500s CE Scotland]: “In this latter instance they seem to have followed a custom of which we find traces in the early monastic church of Ireland, by which they held Saturday to be the Sabbath on which they rested from all their labours” Columba specifically referred to Saturday as the Sabbath and this was the custom of that early church on Iona, an island off the coast of Scotland. [Scotland and Ireland 600s CE]: “It seems to have been customary in the Celtic Churches of the early times in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday as a day of rest from labour. They observed the fourth commandment (that you should not work on the seventh day) literally on the seventh day of the week.” [In the 900s CE Scotland]: “They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a Sabbatical manner.” [In the 1000s CE Scotalnd]: “They held that Saturday was properly the Sabbath on which they abstained from work.” During the 11th century the Catholic Queen of Scotland, Margaret, tried to stamp out those that kept Saturday as the Sabbath Day and who refused to honor Sunday as the Sabbath Day.’

W M Stukeley, in his book Abury, affirms after a close study of the evidence: “I plainly discerned the religion professed by the ancient Britons was the simple patriarchal faith.” [Cited in The Drama of the Lost Disciples, G F Jowett, 2009, page 44]. 

The Book of Chronicles records the main clans from the three sons of Levi.

1 Chronicles 23:1-

English Standard Version

When David was old and full of days, he made Solomon his son king over Israel.

2 David assembled all the leaders of Israel and the priests and the Levites. 3 The Levites, thirty years old and upward, were numbered, and the total was 38,000 men. 

“Twenty-four thousand of these,” David said, “shall have charge of the work in the house of the Lord, 6,000 shall be officers and judges, 5 4,000 gatekeepers, and 4,000 shall offer praises to the Lord with the instruments that I have made for praise.”And David organized them in divisions corresponding to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

7 The sons of Gershon were Ladan and Shimei. 8 The sons of Ladan: Jehiel the chief, and Zetham, and Joel, three. 9 The sons of Shimei: Shelomoth, Haziel, and Haran, three. These were the heads of the fathers’ houses of Ladan. 

10 And the sons of Shimei: Jahath, Zina, and Jeush and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei. 11 Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second; but Jeush [family name of Esau] and Beriah did not have many sons, therefore they became counted as a single father’s house.

12 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, four. 13 The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses. Aaron was set apart to dedicate the most holy things, that he and his sons forever should make offerings before the Lord and minister to him and pronounce blessings in his name forever. 14 But the sons of Moses the man of God were named among the tribe of Levi. 

15 The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer. 16 The sons of Gershom: Shebuel the chief. 17 The sons of Eliezer: Rehabiah the chief. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very many. 18 The sons of Izhar: Shelomith the chief. 19 The sons of Hebron: Jeriah the chief, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth. 20 The sons of Uzziel: Micah the chief and Isshiah the second.

21 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and Kish [family name of Benjamin]. 22 Eleazar died having no sons, but only daughters; their kinsmen, the sons of Kish, married them. 23 The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth, three.

24 These were the sons of Levi by their fathers’ houses, the heads of fathers’ houses as they were listed according to the number of the names of the individuals from twenty years old and upward who were to do the work for the service of the house of the Lord. 25 For David said, “The Lord, the God of Israel, has given rest to his people, and he dwells in Jerusalem forever. 26 And so the Levites no longer need to carry the tabernacle or any of the things for its service.”… 28 For their duty was to assist the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the Lord, having the care of the courts and the chambers, the cleansing of all that is holy, and any work for the service of the house of God. 29 Their duty was also to assist with the showbread, the flour for the grain offering, the wafers of unleavened bread, the baked offering, the offering mixed with oil, and all measures of quantity or size. 30 And they were to stand every morning, thanking and praising the Lord, and likewise at evening, 31 and whenever burnt offerings were offered to the Lord on Sabbaths, new moons, and feast days, according to the number required of them, regularly before the Lord. 32 Thus they were to keep charge of the tent of meeting and the sanctuary, and to attend the sons of Aaron, their brothers, for the service of the house of the Lord.

The Book of Chronicles also records which Levite families settled in various cities, of the various tribes throughout ancient Israel. The sons of Levi being Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Most of the Kohathites, of which Aaron descended lived in the territories of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin and the tribes that later constituted the Kingdom of Judah.

1 Chronicles 6:54-64

English Standard Version

54 These are their dwelling places according to their settlements within their borders: to the sons of Aaron of the clans of Kohathites, for theirs was the first lot, 55 to them they gave Hebron in the land of Judah and its surrounding pasturelands, 56 but the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh. 57 To the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of refuge: Hebron, Libnah with its pasturelands… 

60 and from the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon, Geba with its pasturelands… All their cities throughout their clans were thirteen. 61 To the rest of the Kohathites were given by lot out of the clan of the tribe, out of the half-tribe, the half of [West] Manasseh, ten cities. 62 To the Gershomites according to their clans were allotted thirteen cities out of the tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali and [East] Manasseh in Bashan. 63 To the Merarites according to their clans were allotted twelve cities out of the tribes of Reuben, Gad,and Zebulun. 

64 So the people of Israel gave the Levites the cities with their pasturelands. 65 They gave by lot out of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin these cities that are mentioned by name.

The Prophet Malachi gives a powerful prophecy about the time of the end and the Messianic return; with the majority of people who doubt and the few who exhibit faith.  Included, is a return by the Levites to Godly worship. Maimonides stated that during this time each Israelite would be informed of which tribe he belongs to.

Malachi 3:1-18

New Century Version

The Lord All-Powerful says, “I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way for me. Suddenly, the Lord you are looking for will come to his Temple; the messenger of the agreement, whom you want, will come.” 2 No one can live through that time; no one can survive when he comes. He will be like a purifying fire and like laundry soap. 3 Like someone who heats and purifies silver, he will purify the Levites and make them pure like gold and silver.Then they will bring offerings to the Lord in the right way. And the Lord will accept the offerings from Judah and Jerusalem, as it was in the past. 5 The Lord All-Powerful says, “Then I will come to you and judge you. I will be quick to testify against those who take part in evil magic, adultery, and lying under oath, those who cheat workers of their pay and who cheat widows and orphans, those who are unfair to foreigners, and those who do not respect me.

“I the Lord do not change. So you descendants of Jacob have not been destroyed. Since the time of your ancestors, you have disobeyed my rules and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you,” says the Lord All-Powerful.

13 The Lord says, “You have said terrible things about me.

“But you ask, ‘What have we said about you?’

14 “You have said, ‘It is useless to serve God. It did no good to obey his laws and to show the Lord All-Powerful that we were sorry for what we did. 15 So we say that proud people are happy. Evil people succeed. They challenge God and get away with it.’”

This is highly reflective of our modern age. Many people, not just the world’s elite, use their wealth to take an unfair advantage of the majority of the world, in keeping them impoverished. 

It certainly looks like they are all getting away with their selfishness  and cruelty; particularly as each century passes by with not retribution. But, their own day of reckoning beckons and justice will be served. 

16 Then those who honored the Lord spoke with each other, and the Lord listened and heard them. The names of those who honored the Lord and respected him were written in his presence in a book to be remembered. 17 The Lord All-Powerful says, “They belong to me; on that day they will be my very own. As a parent shows mercy to his child who serves him, I will show mercy to my people. 18 You will again see the difference between good and evil people, between those who serve God and those who don’t.

An odd story concerning Reuben, is his giving mandrakes to his mother Leah, when he was still very young and possibly only ten years of age.

Genesis 30:14-23

English Standard Version

14 In the days of wheat harvest Reuben went and found mandrakes [H1736 – duwday: basket, mandrake] in the field and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 15 But she said to her, “Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?” Rachel said, “Then he may lie with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”  

16 When Jacob came from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must come in to me, for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” 

So he lay with her that night. 17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar. 19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun. 21 Afterward she bore a daughter and called her name Dinah.

22 Then [later] God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.”

Reuben may or may not have known that the mandrake contains aphrodisiac and fertility properties. If he was a child, probably not; though what led him to find the mandrakes for Leah? Did Leah have a liking for them? Was Reuben inspired by the Eternal to look for them? Leah had a temporary barren period from the birth of Judah in 1746 BCE until Issachar in 1742 BCE. It is ironic that she gives the mandrakes to Rachel and conceives herself that night, yet Rachel who likely has the plant root does not bear Joseph until 1726 BCE. Some versions incorrectly call the plant a love apple, that is, a tomato.

The Mandrake is common in Palestine and flourishes in the spring, ripening at the time of the wheat harvest as Genesis states. The mandrake, also known as Satan’s apple, is the fruit – a potent root that somewhat resembles the human form – of the Mandragora officinarum, a member of the Solanaceae order [potato]. 

There is also a British version, the Bryonia Alba. They are said to have mystical and magical properties. It is a member of the Nightshade family, used primarily for its anaesthetic properties and closely allied to the Atropa belladonna or deadly nightshade of southern Europe. If ingested in sufficient quantities it can cause delirium and hallucinations. It is native to the Mediterranean and tellingly, the Himalayas [refer Chapter I Noah]. 

Next we read again of Reuben in Genesis thirty-five, in one small verse sandwiched between the death of Rachel and the death of Isaac. Isaac died in 1697 BCE and Rachel died giving birth to Benjamin circa 1699 BCE. Assuming it is 1698 BCE, Reuben is fifty-four years of age. Reuben is still young, not even middle aged; for he dies at the age of one hundred and twenty-five in 1627 BCE.

Genesis 35:21-22

English Standard Version

21 Israel journeyed on and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Eder. 22 While Israel lived in that land, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine. And Israel heard of it.

Bilhah was Rachel’s handmaid and someone that Reuben would have known very well. Further details are given in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 33:1-9

33.1 And Jacob went and dwelt to the south of Magdaladra’ef. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new month [New Moon the 1st] of the tenth month [January/February]. 2 And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel’s maid, the concubine of his father, bathing in water in a secret place, and he loved [lusted after] her. 3 And he hid himself at night, and he entered the house of Bilhah [at night], and he found her sleeping alone on a bed in her house. 4 And he lay with her, and she awoke and saw, and behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, and she uncovered the border of her covering and seized him, and cried out, and discovered that it was Reuben. 5 And she was ashamed because of him, and released her hand from him, and he fled. 

6 And she lamented because of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it to any one.7 And when Jacob returned and sought her, she said to him: ‘I am not clean for you, for I have been defiled as regards you; for Reuben has defiled me, and has lain with me in the night, and I was asleep, and did not discover until he uncovered my skirt and slept with me.’8 And Jacob was exceedingly wroth with Reuben because he had lain with Bilhah, because he had uncovered his father’s skirt. 9 And Jacob did not approach her again because Reuben had defiled her. And as for any man who uncovers his father’s skirt his deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before Yahweh.

A tragic experience of rape for Bilhah; coupled with not being able to be close to Jacob ever again. The condemnation against Reuben is severe and one realises the prophesies regarding his offspring are a punishment, as Canaan’s children were punished even though it was Canaan’s sin [refer Chapter XI Ham and Chapter XII Canaan]. It is curious that this incident is a sexual act after the sexual aspect of the mandrake story. It is in part because of this, that identity adherents have labelled France as Reuben. Though we have already discovered their rightful identity [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. 

Reubens Ravishing of Bilhah: A Parallel Account, Dr Rabbi David Frankel – bold his, emphasis mine:

‘We may compare the short original story [refer Chapter XI Ham] of the son (Canaan or Ham) molesting his [grand]father (Ham or Noah) and being cursed with the similarly curt story of Reuben’s sin with his father’s concubine, Bilhah, as related in Genesis 35:21-22, Then Israel traveled on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder. While Israel was living in that land, Reuben had sexual relations with Bilhah, his father’s concubine, and Israel heard about it.

Once again, we have a brief story about a son who sexually disgraces his father, though in this case it is the eldest son rather than the youngest son, and the disgrace to the father is done indirectly through incest with the father’s concubine, an act that the incest laws in the Torah call “revealing your father’s nakedness”:

Leviticus 18:8 Do not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife; it is the nakedness of your father. Leviticus 20:11 If a man lies with his father’s wife, it is the nakedness of his father that he has uncovered… Deuteronomy 27:20 Cursed be he who lies with his father’s wife, for he has revealed what his father has covered

Many have noted that the ending of the Reuben and Bilhah story is truncated. What happened when Israel “heard about it”? The story could hardly have simply ended there! The parallel with the Noah story suggests that the original continuation may be found in the “blessings” of Jacob before his death in Genesis 49:3-4…

Just as Noah immediately cursed his youngest son for taking sexual advantage of him, so Jacob, upon hearing about the act of his oldest son with his concubine, immediately pronounced the demotion of his status vis-a-vis his brothers. If this conjecture is accepted, the similarity between the two stories is even greater. Note that brothers play no active role in the story of Reuben’s sin just as they play no active role in the reconstructed story of Ham and Canaan. And, at least if we follow the reconstruction of that narrative suggested above, it too ended with the father’s denunciation of the sinful son alone.   

Incidentally, another parallel between the narratives should not be missed: just as the biblical editor sought to “sanitize” the sexual sin in the Noah story so did the Rabbis suggest that Reuben did no more than move his father’s bed from Bilhah’s tent to his mother Leah’s tent.’

Genesis 49:3-4

English Standard Version

3 “Reuben, you are my firstborn, my might, and the firstfruits of my strength [H202 – ‘own: vigour, generative power], preeminent in dignity [loftiness, exaltation] and preeminent in power. 4 Unstable as water, you shall not have preeminence, because you went up to your father’s bed; then you defiled it – he went up to my couch!

This is the only time that Jacob inserts his own opinion or feelings amongst the oracles concerning his sons – “he went up to my couch.”  It cost Reuben dearly, as the birthright or at least the lions share, if it was to be split with Simeon, was lost, forever; as Esau had also lost the birthright. Today, Northern Ireland – as a country, that is not a nation – is caught in a no-mans-land, between the lions of Judah and Gad – England and Ireland. It’s past checkered, violent and unstable as predicted. Like water that is never truly calm or still, so has the volatile history of Northern Ireland been between the Catholic, Republican Irish and the Protestant, Loyalists who reside in the majority of Ulster’s  nine Counties.

The Hebrew word for unstable is H6349 pachaz, meaning, as in ‘recklessness, wantoness, unbridled license, frothiness’ – to froth. The word for water is H4325 mayim and has the connotation for ‘danger, violence, transitory.’ It can mean ‘water of the feet’ that is literally, urine. The word preeminence is the Hebrew word H3498 yathar, meaning ‘excel.’ Reuben was not going to have an excess, say like Joseph, but rather a very much smaller inheritance. 

It is interesting to note that the Northern Irish are staunchly loyal and royal in their mindset and policy. Only Canada – apart from the obvious English – rivals them for their patriotism towards the Monarchy figurehead that is Queen Elizabeth II. It is as if they are over-compensating for what might have been as the eldest and even possibly the recipient of the sceptre and orb of rulership. In Northern Ireland the reminder of this is in the use of the frequent use of the word ‘royal as in the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the  title for the Northern Irish police force, from 1922 to 2001.

Deuteronomy 33:6

King James Version

Let Reuben live, and not die [H4191]; and let [H1961] not his men [H4962] be few [H4557].

Moses predicts that Reuben would have a lot of descendants… or did he. The King James version – with many others – misleadingly says Reuben would have many offspring. This is in part why identity teachers have unanimously taught Reuben as France. The Interlinear shows that the word not is added. The Hebrew word in question H4962 math, is translated as men [14], few [2], number [1] and small [1]. The connotation is to have less sex and less males. The English Standard version translates  this verse accurately: “Let Reuben live, and not die, but let his men be few.” 

Other translations with the correct context and meaning include:

HCSB: Let Reuben live and not die though his people become few.

CEV: Tribe of Reuben, you will live, even though your tribe will always be small.

MSG: Reuben: “Let Reuben live and not die, but just barely, in diminishing numbers.”

It is clear that Reuben though severely punished, in that he would be a very small tribe; he would still live and not cease to exist. France, aside from its genetic Haplogroup sequencing that shows they are related to the Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of Britain and Ireland; they are still not the same, they have a large population and a preeminence of power. France does not fulfil the prophecies for Reuben. Northern Ireland does… and its relationship with Gad from Ireland, makes it the only plausible answer.

Judges 5:15-16

Common English Bible

15… Among the clans of Reuben there was deep soul-searching. 16 “Why did you stay back among the sheep pens, listening to the music for the flocks?” For the clans of Reuben there was deep soul-searching.

The Reubenites were reluctant to get involved in the combined Israel war against the Canaanites during Deborah’s judgeship. In fact they didn’t participate at all. The other tribe that didn’t either was the tribe of Dan. This is a strange coincidence as we will discover when we study Dan. The word used for soul-searching in verse sixteen is different from the one in verse fifteen. The idea is said twice, so the strength of their reticence has been underlined for it to be stated in such a way. 

The first Hebrew word is H2711, cheqeq meaning ‘thoughts, decrees, resolve, statute, action prescribed, an enactment, a resolution.’ It looks like they took so long to deliberate and make an official decision that the war was begun and finished before they could make up their minds. This is indicative of the Northern Irish government’s policy making, as it is not known for its decisiveness. The second word is H2714, cheqer meaning ‘a search, investigation, enquiry, examination, enumeration, deliberation.’ Just the definitions of the word sound painful. Therefore the procrastination of the Reubenites in making a decision, meant they did not get involved at all. 

Genesis 49:19

Amplified Bible

“As for Gad [H1410 – a troop] – a raiding troop [H1416 – gduwd: ‘band, army, company’] shall raid [H1464 – guwd: overcome, invade (with troops)] him, But he shall raid [H1464] at their heels and assault them (victoriously).

NLV: “A group of soldiers [the English] will go against Gad. But he will go against them at their heels [Northern Ireland].

Gad would be attacked but will have the last word. In this verse and context, Gad’s name means a ‘raiding troop’, yet in Genesis 30:11, his name means ‘good fortune’ from H1409 gad. Both definitions are correct and in the Hebrew definition of the name Gad  in Genesis chapter forty-nine, there is a play on the word Gad, as in ‘Gad, a Gad shall Gad.’ The mentioning of raiding at the heels of their enemies is another interesting coincidence, as in the preceding verses, Jacob speaks of Dan as a venomous serpent that with its fangs will bite the ‘horses heels so that his rider falls backward.’ Worth noting is that the tribe of Dan has a primary relationship with Reuben, a secondary one with Benjamin and tertiary connections with both Simeon and Gad.

In Judges five and the war against the Canaanites, we observed that Judah, Simeon and Levi were not involved and Reuben and Dan did not participate. Gad, like Judah and company is not mentioned either. These tribes all have one thing in common and that is that they are on the periphery of the action and war zone so-to-speak. The exception being Machir of the half-tribe of East Manasseh, who also dwelt on the east side of the River Jordan with Reuben and Gad. In Moses’s prophecy Gad chose the best land for himself.

Deuteronomy 33:20-21

English Standard Version

20 And of Gad he said, “Blessed [H1288 – barak: ‘bless oneself, be adored’] be he who enlarges [H7337 – rachab: ‘grow wide, grow large, make room’] Gad! Gad crouches like a lion; he tears off arm and scalp [Guerrilla and terrorist warfare]. 21 He chose the best of the land for himself, for there a commander’s portion was reserved; and he came with the heads of the people, with Israel he executed the justice of the Lord, and his judgments for Israel.”

It could be argued that the Emerald Isle is the best of the land of the two British Isles and even of all the Israelite nations. The identifications of Switzerland or Sweden as Gad fall short in two ways. Arguably, they both have great landscapes and countryside. It is more difficult to assign armies or invaders for either one and their chances of enlarging their territories is highly unlikely. 

Ireland on the other hand had to endure extreme measures while the English occupied their land. The saga of the English interaction and treatment of the Irish is brutal and uncomfortable reading. The Irish eventually won back their nation and became an independent Republic. As a Lion themselves, they stood up to the powerful Lion of Judah. With regard to enlarging their territory, I first considered the massive Irish immigration to the United States of America. Many millions fled the potato famine, which was in large part induced by the English. Only English and German descended Americans outnumber those of Irish descent in America. 

A more accurate interpretation, which in the past may have seemed unlikely, though with the United Kingdom having withdrawn from the European Union and Scotland sabre rattling its intention to leave the union; an Ulster separating itself from England and Scotland and forming an agreement with Ireland does not seem so far fetched. A federated Ireland with either the two capitals of Dublin and Belfast, or a new neutral location working together would be seen as a victory for the Republic. The religious population divide of Ulster could also be a genetic split; in that the Protestants are Reuben and the Catholics are not Reuben, but actually Gad. This could be another interpretation of Gad ‘enlarging his territory.’ 

As the tribes of Israel are all in the process of distancing themselves from Judah and the hold its monarchy exerts; then Northern Ireland leaving the United Kingdom could be inevitable. And before Scotland or Wales would be a sensational political event. The big question of course is whether Scotland or Wales would actually leave the United Kingdom as they historically were the integral tribes comprising the Kingdom of Judah – Judah, Benjamin and Simeon. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950:

‘Reuben, unstable as water and [not] having the excellency of greatness, we have recognized as France. Southern France, settled by the descendants of Javan (the Greeks), is gentile … is unstable, yet sets the styles for the world, has the form of real excellency, and has the same sex weakness as Reuben, is France… And is it not significant that the very country at war with England around 1800 should be France (Reuben), who would lose the birthright in the Napoleonic war? (Napoleon was Italian.)’ 

This identification appears to fit quite well, superficially. Though it unravels when we understand who the French are [refer Chapter VII Javan and Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon] and that Reuben was to be the smallest Tribe.

‘Gad, which means “the troop” certainly designates Switzerland the only Israelite nation in which every man is mobilized for defense. Against Gad would come the foreign troops, said Jacob, but he will “trod upon their heel.” Moses declared that Gad does NOT “leap,” a characteristic of the colonizing or pillaging tribes. Gad “teareth the arm, yea, the crown of the head” of the Holy Roman Empire, in whose territory “he chose a first part for himself, and there a portion of a ruler was reserved.” To Gad come “the heads of the people” as they do today to Geneva. No other nation on earth so perfectly fits this description of a nation of troops. Switzerland, Geneva particularly, has had a history of being an “international lawgiver.” Note: Even though the migrations of some of the ancestors of Switzerland and Germany are similar, while some have erroneously taught that Germany is Gad, Germany has no history of being a recognized lawgiver – but instead primarily descended from Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur and Chapter XXVIII Ishmael].’

No example is given in evidence of the Swiss being tread upon in fulfilment of prophecy; yet a leap is taken for Gad in assigning the Holy Roman Empire a role. A misinterpretation of scripture is applied by assigning a meaning of Gad as having many troops rather than the ordeal of being invaded and ruled, as Ireland endured. Also missed, is the close relationship between Reuben and Gad in dwelling together across the River Jordan. We will find that all the sons of Jacob had a close relationship with one other tribe. It is a startling coincidence, yet all the sons of Jacob paired off, though not always with a full brother, more times it was with a half brother. The exception is Dan, who from the get go was a lone wolf, a maverick and unlike his brothers and more like his cousin Esau or his uncle Ishmael. So far we have the close ties between Judah and Benjamin; between Simeon and Levi and between Reuben and Gad. 

The early history of Ireland is shrouded in the mists of mystery and myth. What is apparent is that there has been an overlapping of various waves of people. We will endeavour to sift through the legends and histories and glean what is relevant to Reuben and Gad. In so doing, we will bump into Benjamin and Zarah from Judah that we have already investigated as well as the tribe of Dan, who will be studied separately in a later chapter [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Ireland’s history is ‘based largely upon the pseudo-historical Lebor Gabala, translated into English as the “Book of Invasions”, and Cath Maige Tuired, or the “Second Battle of Maige Tuired”.’ One of the first peoples recorded in Ireland are the Partholians, after their leader Partholon. An intriguing word as it is remarkably similar to the Israelite Parthians we discussed in Chapter XXX Judah and Benjamin. They are supposed to have ruled for three hundred years and then became extinct due to disease. A gap of thirty years separated them and the next peoples, the Nemedians. 

In the Annals of Clonmacnois, written circa 1408 CE, Bartholome is mentioned as arriving in Ireland during the time that Abraham was alive. What is interesting is that the Partholians are thought to have arrived in Ireland circa 2044 BCE. Abraham lived between 1977 and 1802 BCE. An old English version by Roberts of this same tradition said that the people who were led by Bartholomew, sailed to Ireland from Israel via Spain. Bartholome[w] is sometimes given as Partholomew and this may be a representation of the Partholonians. David Hughes in The British Chronicles, 2007, says: ‘the Partholonians were prominent in Ulster and in Scotland where they were referred to as “Parthi”.’ Due to the timing – Jacob being born in 1817 BCE – the Partholonians were not the sons of Jacob [tradition says they descended from Noah’s son Japheth], as the later Nemedians undoubtedly were. 

The Nemedians arrived in approximately 1714 BCE, ruling Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years, to 1497 BCE. Their journey began possibly from Spain with a fleet of thirty-two ships and a thousand people. Only one ship with about thirty people is said to allegedly have survived the journey, which included Nemed and his four sons. The name Nemed in Hebrew means ‘sanctified’ or ‘separated’ and is synonymous with the Hebrew name Peresh, given to the son of Machir from the half tribe of East Man9hasseh [1 Chronicles 7:16]. The Nemedians are claimed ‘to be descendants of Sru, Sera and Isru. 

These names… are all forms of the name Israel.’ Sera-[li] is how the Assyrians rendered the name Israel in at least one inscription.

Another ancient peoples in Ireland, were the Fomorians. The Fomorian origins are reputed as being from North Africa. They worshipped a goddess, Domnu and their leader was Balar or Balor, a form of the word Baal. They were in essence, sea-going – possibly female dominated – pirates. They are not considered as Celtic or permanent as they were a strange race of ugly, misshapen giants who lived on Tory Island off the coast of Donegal in Northwest Ireland. 

The ancient Annals of Clonmacnois records that the Fomorians were: “descended from Cham, the sonne of Noeh, and lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world.” Previously mentioned, the Giant’s Gateway in Ireland – Cloch-an-na-bh-Fomharigh: ‘causeway or stepping-stones of the Fomorians’ – was associated with giants and hence is also commonly called the Giant’s Causeway. 

The Fomorians were cruel and violent as they would repeatedly raid the mainland. The Fomorians had once fought the Partholanians. Once the numbers of the Nemedians had grown, they were at first successful against the Fomorians, with four decisive victories; but a pestilence decimated the population so that less than two thousand Nemedians survived. Thus the Fomorians ruled over the Nemedians for a while and then later also the Dananns, extracting heavy tributes and taxes from them. 

The Fomorian giants were undoubtedly Elioud descendants of Nephilim [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. They were an ancient inhabitant of the land and very possibly the first. The Irish Province of Ulster derives its name from them. For they would have been known as the Ulaid or Ulaidh and singularly as the Ulad or Uladh. This is the old Irish spelling for the Hebrew word Elioud also transliterated Eljo; the second generational offspring and beyond, of the Nephilim. The Irish name Uladh being pronounced as Ulla, would then become Ula-ster and hence Ulster. 

An online commentator states – emphasis & bold mine:

The etymology of the… word Elioud is composed of the words, El, Io, and Ud. You will also find this name in Welsh charters, which it is clear it is not originally a Welsh word, but it was Hebrew and taken to the Welsh. The Welsh etymology is also very similar, where it is said the meaning of el is many and iud is lord. I believe that this is a mistranslation, and it has the same meaning as the Hebrew.

The word El is a generic name for God… found in the word Elohim. The word Io is related to the words wisdom and knowledge. Sir Godfrey Higgins had written, “in Syriac Io, was the God of Wisdom or Knowledge… The God of Wisdom was the spiritual fire…” 

The meaning of the word Ud is “brand or branded.” Therefor, the meaning of Elioud would be something like “branded with the spiritual fire of Godly wisdom, or wisdom branded by the spirit fire of God.” Hence, they were [like] the sons of Cain, the accursed and branded by God as it is said in the scriptures when God confronted Cain about Abel’s death; God responded, “Not so; if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over”, and God “set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him” (Gen. 4:15).’

As an aside, in the genealogy of Christ through his father Joseph, should he have been born physically from his seed, one of His ancestors is a certain Eliud [Matthew 1.14–15], the great-great-grandfather of Joseph. The name Eliud is G1664, Elioud and means: ‘God his Praise’ or ‘God of Majesty.’ 

Finally, three Nemedian chieftains led their people in revolt. Attacking the Fomorian stronghold of Tory Island, the Nemedians managed to kill one of the Fomorian kings and captured one of their towers. In the process, the Nemedians were again almost totally annihilated, with purportedly only thirty Nemedians surviving the battle. These survivors fled from Ireland. 

According to legend, one branch of the Nemedians under Fergus Lethderg, fled with his son Briottan [from which ‘Britain’ may be linked] Maol to Alba [Scotland], where the whole island was named after him. This is more probable than Britain being named after Brutus some four hundred years later. These were related peoples to the British peoples who became known as Cymry descended from Simeon. A second branch of the Nemedians were led by Semeon, Semion or Simon Brec a son of Erglan son of Beoan son of Starn son of Nemed. They supposedly fled to Greece, where their descendants would later return to Ireland after being slaves for a long time; now known as the Fir Bolg

According to some versions, Semeon had never been in Ireland only his descendants were. The name Semeon equates to the name Simeon, the son of Jacob. Though it is not the same person rather a shared family name. For this branch of the Nemedians are the tribe of Reuben, who are later known as the Fir Bolg or Firbolgs, one and the same as the Belgae. The Fir Bolge or sons of Bolge are also referred to ‘Ffirvolge.’ Related names include: Firvolgian, Firbolgian, Belgarian and Belgian. 

Ptolemy describes the Tribe of Semoni on the southeast coast of Britain. They adjoined the Iceni whose name according to Yair Davidy “may be understood to be a Phoenician (or North Israelite) form of the appellation Jachin [fourth] son of Simeon (Genesis 46;10). The Welsh in their own and in Irish Literature were referred to as Semoni.” This is an important point, for the Semoni as Simeonites, were also known as Cymru. 

Five sons of Dela, a descendant of Semeon brought their people out of slavery from Greece and Thrace. This was two hundred and thirty years later in 1267 BCE, after they had departed Ireland in 1497 BCE and also prior to the Milesian Scotti – tribe of Zarah-Judah and Gad’s – arrival in 1046 BCE. The sons of Dela divided Ireland into their original five provinces, Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Meath. Their rule was short lived for a mere thirty-seven years and nine kings, until the Tuatha de Danann – tribe of Dan – arrived circa 1230 BCE. Some versions have that the tribe of Dana’s ancestor was Bethac who had left Ireland with the other Nemedians and later returned. The Milesian Scots arrived to find the Tuatha de Danaan had been ruling for one hundred and seventy-four years after the Second Battle of Moytura in 1220 BCE. The Firbolgs were perceived ‘as inferior people, and strangely, quite primitive in comparison to the Tuatha De Danann, and also the later Milesians.’ 

The ancient Book of the Genealogies by MacFirbis states – emphasis & bold mine: 

“Every one who is white (of skin) and brown (of hair), bold, honourable, daring, prosperous, bountiful in the bestowal of property, wealth, and rings, and who is not afraid of battle or combat: they are the descendants of Milesius in Erinn… Every one who is black-haired, who is a tattler, guileful, tale-telling, noisy… the disturbers of every council and every assembly, and the promoters of discord among the people, these are the descendants of the Firbolgs.”

The Firbolgs did not seem to have any trouble with the Fomorians, however they did not like the Tuatha De Danann and fought the First Battle of Moytura with them before they were defeated, circa 1230 BCE. 

The Story of the Irish Race, – emphasis & bold mine:

“The Irish race of today is popularly known as the Milesian Race, because the genuine Irish (Celtic) people were supposed to be descended from Milesius of Spain, whose sons, say the legendary accounts, invaded and possessed themselves of Ireland a thousand years before Christ. 

The races that occupied the land when the so-called Milesians came, chiefly the Firbolg [Reuben] and the Tuatha De Danann [Dan], were certainly not exterminated by the conquering Milesians [Gad and Zarah-Judah]. Those two peoples formed the basis of the future population, which was dominated and guided, and had its characteristics moulded, by the far less numerous but more powerful Milesian aristocracy and soldiery. All three of these races, however, were different tribes of the great Celtic family, who, long ages before, had separated from the main stem, and in course of later centuries blended again into one tribe of Gaels – three derivatives of one stream, which, after winding their several ways across Europe from the East, in Ireland turbulently met, and after eddying, and surging tumultuously, finally blended in amity, and flowed onward in one great Gaelic stream. 

The possession of the country was wrested from the Firbolgs, and they were forced into partial serfdom by the Tuatha De Danann (people of the goddess Dana), who arrived later. Totally unlike the uncultured Firbolgs, the Tuatha De Dannann were a capable and cultured, highly civilised people, so skilled in the crafts, if not the arts, that the Firbolgs named them necromancers, and in course of time both the Firbolgs and the later coming Milesians created a mythology around these. 

In a famed battle at Southern Moytura (on the Mayo-Galway border) it was that the Tuatha De Danann met and overthrew the Firbolgs. The Firbolgs noted King, Eochaid was slain in this great battle, but the De Danan King, Nuada, had his hand cut off by a great warrior of the Firbolgs named Sreng. The battle raged for four days. So bravely had the Firbolgs fought, and so sorely exhausted the De Dannann, that the latter, to end the battle, gladly left to the Firbolgs, that quarter of the Island wherein they fought, the province now called Connaught. And the bloody contest was over. 

The famous life and death struggle of two races is commemorated by a multitude of cairns and pillars which strew the great battle plain in Sligo – a plain which bears the name (in Irish) of “The plain of the Towers of the Fomorians”. The Danann were now the undisputed masters of the land. So goes the honoured legend.” 

The Firbolgs lost the battle because the Dananns had superior ‘technological’ weapons. Tailtiu was the daughter of King of the Mag Mor, “Great Plain”, from the Land of the Dead, which was a poetic name for Spain. Tailtiu married the last Firbolg king, Eochaid Mac Eirc, who died at Moytura. At her husband’s death, she married Eochaid Garb Mac Duach, a Danann warrior. Eventually, Lugh Lamfada led the Danann to overthrow the Fomorian tyranny and oppression and annihilate them, circa 1220 BCE in the Second Battle of Moytura. Balor was their last leader and Lugh killed him. Since Tailtiu was the foster mother of Lugh, she was held in honour by the Tuatha de Danann. The Tribe of Dana subsequently intermarried with the Fomorian giants. 

Fir means ‘man or men’ and Bolg is thought to have derived from the Hebrew Bela[gh] from either the son of Benjamin [Genesis 46:21]; or just as likely, a family head in the tribe of Reuben [1 Chronicles 5:8], who interestingly hailed from Aroer, near Baal-meon. A symbol of Reuben is a Man, which is linked to the water carrier [water from Jacob’s prophecy in Genesis 49:4] and the zodiacal sign of Aquarius [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

Yair Davidy comments – emphasis & bold mine: 

The Fir Bolg are identified by researchers with the Belgae who in the 100s BCE sent colonists from their base in North Gaul into southern Britain where they were reported by Ptolemy. T.F. O’Rahilly idenfitied the Belgae in Ireland with the Erain (Iverni in the southwest) [and the] Ulaid (Ulster)… The Belgae gave their name to Belgium. Within the Land of Israel the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half Menasseh at an early stage had formerly expanded their territories up to and perhaps even beyond the Euphrates River. Sections of other Israelite tribes, including Benjamin, were also to be found in the Israelite areas between the Jordan and Euphrates Rivers. Ptolemy in his map of “Arabia” records the existence of Israelite clan and territorial names in areas adjoining the Euphrates. Amongst these names are Balagea and Belginaea which appellations relate to the Belgae descendants of Bela(g)h from Benjamin and/or Reuben.’

As both Benjamin and Reuben lived in Northern Ireland, the link to Bela* could relate to both of them. Ultimately, it was the tribe of Reuben who settled there as the ancient Ulaid, becoming the modern Ulster. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902:

‘Israel, as we know, was cast out of her land for idolatry, and Baal-ism* was one of her chief idolatries. Before she was cast out she seems to have acquired the habit of attaching the name of the god Baal to places and cities, for on the ancient maps of Palestine we find Baal-meon, Baal-gad, Baal-ath, Baal-shalisha, Baal-Tamar, Baal-peor, Baal-hazor, Baal-zephon, Mt. Baalah, and others. 

But surely these people carried that same proclivity with them to the islands, for in Ireland this name of the god Baal is found just as frequently, if not more frequently, a circumstance which shows that this idol was honored and worshipped by her eastern colonists. 

The Rev. T. R. Howlett furnishes us with the following list of Baal-it-ish names found in Ireland: Baa-y-Bai, Baal-y-gowan, Baal-y-Nahinsh, Baal-y- Castell, Baal-y-Moni, Baal-y-ner, Baal-y-Garai, Baal-y-nah, Baal-y-Con-El, Baal-y- Hy, Baal-y-Hull-Ish, Baal-NahBrach, Baal-Athi, Baal-Dagon. 

Regarding the evidence given by these names, Howlett says: 

“These certainly are memorials of the Baal worship once prevailing in Ireland. In them we have not only the name of Baal, but its conjunction also with other Hebrew names. How can this be accounted for, except as they were so called by emigrants from Phoenicia and Palestine? One thing that particularly marks the Hebrew origin of these names is their attachment to places but not to persons. The Canaanites and Phoenicians, attached the names of their gods, Baal, Bal, Bel to persons, as Eth-Baal, Itho-bal, Asdru-bal and Han-i-bal. These were family names among the heathen nations surrounding Israel. In like manner, we find among the chosen people the names of their God associated with and forming a part of family and personal names; as “El” and “Jah,” in Isra-el, Ishma-el, Lemu-el, Samu-el, Ezeki-el, El-isha El-ijah.. Baal never found favor among the Hebrews as a personal name, though used freely for localities They gave it to their towns, but not to their children. Its use in Ireland is proof of the Israelitish origin of the earliest settlers – philological evidence of racial unity.”

Linked with the Firbolgs time frame are the Galioin, also associated with the Lagin and Domain and all part of the Gabair peoples who came from Brittany or Amorica in France. Their name is considered a cognate to that of the Galli and Gauls. Yair Davidy states: ‘these names in Hebrew connote both “Exile” (“Goli”, “Gali”) and [the Sea of] Galilee.’ The Domain may be linked to the tribe of Dana and or the Fomorians and their goddess Domnu. As the Tuatha de Danann and Fomorians intermarried it is highly likely. The related Dumnonii were a British tribe found in Devon, Cornwall and also as far north as Scotland. 

The migration of the Dal Riata – the Dalriada Scots – to the West coast of Scotland is expertly and succinctly presented, in the following article. 

The Ulster Kingdoms: 3 – Dalriada (Causeway Coast and Glens Districts), Dr Ian Adamson OBE – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Linguistic and genealogical evidence associates ancestors of the Dál Riata with the prehistoric Iverni [Simeon](Erainn) [Reuben] and Darini, suggesting kinship with the Ulaid [Reuben] of Ulster and a number of Belgic [Reuben?] kingdoms in Munster. The bulk of the inhabitants in County Antrim would have been the Cruthinic Robogdii [Benjamin**], relatives of the Epidian Cruthin [Picts**] across the Sea of Moyle. Ultimately the Dál Riata over-lords [Zarah-Judah], according to the earliest genealogies, are descendants of Deda mac Sin, a prehistoric king or deity of the Belgic Érainn [Reuben].

Dalriada was founded by Gaelic-speaking people from Ulster, including Robogdian Cruthin, who eventually Gaelicised the west coast of Pictland, according to the Venerable Bede, by a combination of force and treaty. The indigenous Epidian [Caledonian Picts of Benjamin] people however remained substantially the same and there is no present archaeological evidence for a full-scale migration or invasion. The inhabitants of Dalriada are often referred to as Scots (Latin Scotti), a name originally used by Roman and Greek writers for the Irish who raided Roman Britain. 

Later it came to refer to Gaelic-speakers in general, whether from Ireland or elsewhere. The name Dál Riata is derived from Old Gaelic. Dál means “portion” or “share” (as in “a portion of land”) [Genesis 49:27, Deuteronomy 33:6] and Riata or Riada is believed to be a personal name. Thus, Riada’s portion.’

‘The kingdom reached its height under Áedán mac Gabráin (r. 574–608), but its growth was checked at the Battle of Degsastan in 603 by Æthelfrith of Northumbria. Serious defeats in Ireland and Scotland in the time of Domnall Brecc (d. 642) ended Dál Riata’s “golden age”, and the kingdom became a client of Northumbria, then subject to the Picts (Caledonian Cruthin). There is disagreement over the fate of the kingdom from the late eighth century onwards. 

Some scholars have seen no revival of Dalriada after the long period of foreign domination (after 637 to around 750 or 760), while others have seen a revival of Dalriada under Áed Find (736–778), and later Kenneth Mac Alpin (Cináed mac Ailpín, who is claimed in some sources to have taken the kingship there in c. 840 following the disastrous defeat of the Pictish army by the Danes). Some even claim that the kingship of Fortriu was usurped by the Dalriadans several generations before MacAlpin (800–858). The kingdom’s independence ended in the Viking Age, as it merged with the lands of the Picts to form the Kingdom of Alba.’

The salient points are 1. the similarity between Robo-gdii and possibly Reube-n. Even so, the link between the Cruthins and Picts is stronger 2. the indigenous Cruithnic Epidians of Caledonia remained unchanged because they were the larger body of people, the Picts from Benjamin 3. the Riada’s portion was either small, with the kingdom not lasting long as is fitting with the small tribe of Reuben. Or alternatively and far more likely it is applicable to Benjamin being the ‘son of the right hand’ and ‘sharing the spoil’.

Though the Dal Riada Scots – an amalgamation of peoples including Zarah-Pharez from Judah, Benjamin and Dan – temporarily assimilated with the Picts to form the new nation of Scotland, these people included a number of those that migrated back to Ulster during its plantation by England. We will investigate the identity of these people in a subsequent chapter. The ruling class of the Dal Riada Scots were those of the Red Hand of Zarah, intermarried with Pharez as discussed [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The settlements of the Phoenicians in Spain were originally named after several Hebrew names. One principal settlement was named Gades, Gadir or Gadeira, and today this city is known as Cadiz. 

Located on the Atlantic Ocean, it surely served as a major port for Phoenician expeditions to [Britain] and North America. The prominent historian, George Rawlinson, cites the Phoenician word for “enclosure” or “fortified place” as the source for the name of this ancient port city . He could just as easily have credited ancient Hebrew as the source of its name as the Hebrew word “gadar” means “enclose,” “fence up” or “make (a wall).”  Since the Hebrew word “gadar” would have been written without vowels at that ancient time, its consonants G­D­R serve precisely as the root word for the names Gadir or Gadeira. 

Another historian, L.A. Waddell, states Gades could be rendered “House of the Gads.”Gad was the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, and could easily have given its name to the colony of Gades. The tribe of Gad was prophesied by Moses in Deuteronomy 33:20 to “be enlarged” (i.e. “have a large population”). As their population expanded over the centuries, it is consistent with this biblical prophecy that Gad would have been one of the tribes most needing to export part of its population to some of Israel’s colonies. 

Another historian, Philip Hitti, cites that Gades was founded as a colony of the Phoenicians around 1000 B.C. , while the Encyclopaedia Britannica states that Cadiz was founded “as early as 1100 B.C.” This time frame for Cadiz’s founding is in the era of Israel’s rise to empire status under Kings David and Solomon, when we would expect to see Israel’s dominance in what is traditionally called the “Phoenician” Empire. That “Gades” bore the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel (Gad) strongly indicates that it was given that name by Israelites rather than by inhabitants of Tyre or Sidon. 

Also, an ancient name of Ireland was Ibheriu or Iberiu, and ancient Gaelic histories record that the ancestors of the Gaelic settlers of Ireland came from Iberia (“Phoenician” Spain). Ancient Ireland was also called Hibernia, a name which also preserved the Hebrew root word “Eber.” Note how closely the words Ibheriu and Iberiu coincide phonetically with the pronunciation of the word Hebrew. 

One other possibility exists for these early names in the British Isles. It was noted earlier that early histories of [Britain] record that the tribe of Asher operated the ancient mines in Cornwall. One of the clans of Asher was named the Heberites (Numbers 26:45), and this Hebrew name also serves as a precise root word for such names as Hibernia and the Hebrides. 

As this large group of Israelites resettled in the Black Sea region, they assumed new identities, but many key factors made them readily identifiable as Hebrews. The region to the east of the Black Sea (and north of Armenia) came to be known as Iberia,  confirming the presence of Hebrews from the ten tribes in that region. The Hebrews had given the old Phoenician/Israelite colony in Spain the name Iberia (after Eber, the namesake of the Hebrews),and it has long been called the Iberian Peninsula. 

The name of a modern Spanish river (the Ebro) still preserves the name of Eber, and is a reminder of the Hebrew (“Phoenician”) presence in the ancient Iberian Peninsula. The appearance of the same Hebrew name (Iberia) in the region north of Armenia verifies that this region became an area of Israelite resettlement for those who escaped Assyrian captivity by voluntary flight.’ 

The Goidels from Gaed-hals are Gaels and are also known as the Hiberi, Milesians and Scots. Their leader was called Gad-elus and they arrived in Ireland according to tradition some four hundred years – in the year 1046 BCE – after the Exodus. Recall, Niul had married an Egyptian princess named Scota, their son’s name Goid-el Glas a contemporary of Moses and the Israelites who were still living in slavery in Egypt. Moses had healed the infant Goidel Glas from a snakebite, and foretold that Goidel’s descendants would one day live in a land with no serpents. Few nations have noe snakes; though Ireland is one with Iceland and New Zealand. Notice the name Glas is the same as the prefix glas, for the city ofGlasgow. 

The name Scotti or Scot is linked to the Hebrew word Succoth which means a dwelling or booth, as in a temporary shelter. Gael is similar to the word Gaul, though does not derive from it. Portugal, is a word that is broken down into port-of-the-Gael; just as H-iber-nia is linked to the Iber-ian Peninsula. The Gaels gave Ireland its name Hibernia from their name the Hiberi, which is derived from the name Hebrew and that stems from Eber, the grandson of Arphaxad. The U’Neills, from which O’Neil derives are descended from the Gaels. The Gaels also gave their name Gaeli, to their language, Gael-ic. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902:

‘It is a remarkable fact that Young in his “Analytical Concordance” gives us the word Leag, as the original Hebrew word, while Strong in his “Exhaustive Concordance” gives us the equally correct word Gael, from the same Hebrew word. But be it Leag to the Hebrew or Gael to the Saxon, it is the same word to the same people, which they have reversed and given to their newer language, which is called the Gael, or Gael-ic tongue… spoken in its primitive simplicity in many places in Wales, Scotland and the north of Ireland. Wa-els is only another form of Gaels…’

Genesis 10:24

English Standard Version

24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber.

Similar to Eber, the name Shelagh is popular in Ireland. According to the website Celtic Female Names of Ireland other derivations are: “Sile – [Shee-la]… Sheela, Sheelah, Sheila, Shelagh, Sheelagh, Shiela, Sheilag, Cicily, Celia, Selia, Sissy.” 

Genesis 46:16

English Standard Version

16 The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.

Numbers 26:35-36

English Standard Version

35 These are the sons of Ephraim according to their clans: of Shuthelah, the clan of the Shuthelahites; of Becher, the clan of the Becherites; of Tahan, the clan of the Tahanites. 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the clan of the Eranites.

Ireland was anciently called Erin, Eran and Aran. A number of Ephraim’s and Manasseh’s descendants migrated to Ireland and from there, nearly five million Irish travelled to America between 1820 and 1930. For four decades the Irish constituted one third of all immigrants to the United States. In 2019, thirty-two million Americans identified as having Irish ancestry; ten percent of the total population. The link with Gad’s sixth son Eri is obvious with the name E-ire or Eir-e and the prefix ire. To this day, the Republic of Ireland is called Eire.

Yair Davidy:

“Roberts” in what is described as “one of the oldest histories in the English language” speaks of Israelites led by a certain Bartholome (Numbers 23:36, Eran son of Ephraim son of Joseph) who were driven from Spain and settled in Ireland: “Gwrgan(r)t….directed them (Bartholomew and company)… to go to Ireland, which at that time lay waste and uninhabited… and there they settled… and there their descendants are to this day in Ireland.” “He Bartholome… had his name from a river of Spain called Eirinnal, on the banks of which they had lived… they had arrived from Israel their original country and… their ancestors dwelt in a retired part of Spain, near Eirnia, from whence the Spaniards drove them to sea…”

One Gaelic tribe was known as Syths and the Welsh historian Gildas, records ‘the Skythic Vale’ from which the Clyde and Forth rivers originate. An area they occupied is the Isle of Skye which became known as Sgia or Syiath. In Gaelic it is called ‘Ant-Eilean Sgiathanach’ and later as Scotia. The Scots were also known as Scithae, Scitae, Scuitae and Scotae to the writers of old; as the Greeks called the Scythians, Skuthes. 

Ireland enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity after Lugh Lamfada, a Danite defeated the Fomorians. Lugh ruled Ireland for forty years from 1220-1180 BCE. One of his four wives was called Eri-u. Another wife had an affair with Cermait, the son of Dagda. Lugh killed Cermait for seducing his wife and Dagda is said to have wept tears of blood over the death of his son. Cermait had three^ sons: Sethor MacCuill, Cethor MacCecht and Tethor MacGreine. At Uisnech, the sons of Cermait ambushed and killed Lugh to avenge their father. Dagda succeeded Lugh as king. Dagda had received a mortal wound from Caitlin the wife of the Fomorian king Balor, during the Second Battle of Moytura in 1220 BCE, but did not die until he had reigned for a further eighty years till 1100 BCE. 

Next, the reign of Delbaeth lasted for ten years, before his son Fiachna succeeded him and also ruled for ten years. Fiachna died fighting Eogan of Inber Mor. Fiachna was succeeded by the sons^ of Cermait and they ruled Ireland for twenty-seven years. The three Danite brothers were married to the daughters of Fiachna. The brothers divided the land between themselves. It wasn’t until some seven years later that Ith arrived in 1046 BCE, with some of his companions. Ith was the son of Breogan and brother of Cualnge and Fuat. Ith was most notably, the uncle of Mil Espaine. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Breoghan (or Brigus) was king of Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, and Portugal – all which he conquered. He built Breoghan’s Tower or Brigantia in Galicia, and the city of Brigansa or Braganza in Portugal – called after him; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called after him Brigia. It is considered that “Castile” itself was so called from the figure of a castle which Brigus bore for his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a colony into Britain, who settled in that territory now known as the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after him, were called Brigantes; whose posterity gave formidable opposition to the Romans, at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain. Bilé was king of those countries after his father’s death; and his son Galamh [galav] or Milesius succeeded him. This Bilé had a brother named Ithe.’ 

The Milesians were the sons of Mil or Miled. His ancestors had originally come from Scythia, but Mil had brought them out of Scythia and later Egypt, before they settled in Spain, which was known as the Land of the Dead. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 455-456, 458 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mils… known also as Millessius died in Spain, but his… descendants later conquered Ireland… [including] Hyber and Hymec, that later… [claimed] the land for themselves, renaming the island the land of Scota… a son named Eire-Ahmon… became the ancestral forbearer of the [Scot] kings of Ireland… Ireland… was derived from Hyber land, which in Latin was Hibernia and in old English was Iberland, which eventually changed to Iverland and then Ireland. The Irish heritage of Scota eventually migrated to Scotland, with Mor McErc of Dalriada as their leader in the fifth century CE… until 843 CE, when Kenneth McAlpin won and united the Scots with the Picts… [reuniting] two related but separate strains of bloodlines… the Picts migrated to Scotland in 600 BCE. Ireland is additionally the land where the lost eleven tribes of Israel were whispered to have migrated after their defeat at the hands of the Assyrians around 721 BCE.’ 

Irish Pedigrees. John O’Hart:

‘Milesius, in his youth and during his father’s life-time, went into Scythia, where he was kindly received by the king of that country, who gave him his daughter in marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. In this capacity Milesius defeated the king’s enemies, gained much fame, and the love of all the king’s subjects. His growing greatness and popularity excited against him the jealousy of the king; who, fearing the worst, resolved on privately despatching Milesius out of the way, for, openly, he dare not attempt it. 

Admonished of the king’s intentions in his regard, Milesius slew him; and thereupon quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of sixty sail. Pharaoh Nectonibus, then king of Egypt, being informed of his arrival and of his great valour, wisdom, and conduct in arms, made him General of all his forces against the king of Ethiopia then invading his country. Here, as in Scythia, Milesius was victorious; he forced the enemy to submit to the conqueror’s own terms of peace. By these exploits Milesius found great favour with Pharaoh, who gave him, being then a widower, his daughter Scota in marriage; and kept him eight years afterwards in Egypt. During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed the most ingenious and able persons among his people to be instructed in the several trades, arts, and sciences used in Egypt; in order to have them taught to the rest of his people on his return to Spain. 

The original name of Milesius of Spain was… “Galamh” (gall: Irish, a stranger; amh, a negative affix), which means, no stranger: meaning that he was no stranger in Egypt, where he was called “Milethea Spaine,” which was afterwards contracted to “Milé Spaine” (meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to “Milesius” (mileadh: Irish, a hero; Latin miles, a soldier).

At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and steered towards Spain; where he arrived to the great joy and comfort of his people, who were much harasssed by the rebellion of the natives and by the intrusion of other foreign nations that forced in after his father’s death, and during his own long absence from Spain. With these and those he often met; and, in fifty-four battles, victoriously fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. 

In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in Spain, of twenty-six years’ continuance, occasioned, as well by reason of the former troubles which hindered the people from cultivating and manuring the ground, as for want of rain to moisten the earth; but Milesius superstitiously believed the famine to have fallen upon him and his people as a judgment and punishment from their gods, for their negligence in seeking out the country destined for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear their Druid or magician… the time limited by the prophecy for the accomplishment thereof being now nearly, if not fully, expired. 

To expiate his fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, with the general approbation of his people, sent his uncle Ithe, with his son Lughaidh (Luy), and one hundred and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those western islands; who, accordingly, arriving at the island since then called Ireland, and landing in that part of it now called Munster, left his son with fifty of his men to guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the island. 

Informed, among other things, that the three sons of Cearmad, called Mac-Cuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine, did then and for thirty years before rule and govern the island, each for one year, in his turn; and that the country was called after the names of their three queens – Eire, Fodhla, and Banbha, respectively: one year called “Eire,” the next “Fodhla,” and the next “Banbha,” as their husbands reigned in their regular turns; by which names the island is ever since indifferently called, but most commonly “Eire,”because that MacCuill, the husband of Eire, ruled and governed the country in his turn the year that the Clan-na-Milé (or the sons of Milesius) arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further informed that the three brothers were then at their palace at Aileach Neid, in the north part of the country, engaged in the settlement of some disputes concerning their family jewels, Ithe directed his course thither; sending orders to his son to sail about with his ship and the rest of his men, and meet him there.’ 

Ith with his nephew’s blessing, decided to travel and explore this beautiful, new land Erin he had been told much about. Ith arrived peacefully in Ireland with his followers. The tribe of Dan welcomed Ith to Erin at first, though became suspicious of Ith’s motives for coming to Erin. Through misunderstanding of Ith’s comment about the land, the Danite kings murdered Ith and his two brothers. The Milesians escaped with Ith’s body. 

When his body was brought back to his family in Spain, the sons of Mil sought to avenge their great uncle’s death. They embarked with their warriors and families to Erin in sixty-five ships. A bard named Amairgin who was the son of Mil, led the warriors to Erin. The Danites chose to avoid a confrontation with the Milesians, so they used their magic to hide Erin in a fog. The Danites also cast a spell of straying on the Milesian fleet. Amairgin then used his own magic to dispel the spell. Eber Donn, a son of Mil, wanted to exterminate all the tribe of Dan, so the Danites sent a magical storm against the Milesian ships, whereby Eber Donn fell overboard and drowned in the raging sea. Amairgin managed to guide his ships to safety and land in Ireland. 

The three wives of MacCuill, MacCecht and MacGreine: Banba, Fodla and Eri-u sought out the Milesian leaders. Each queen asked the Milesians to name Ireland after her. It was Eriu who won the honour. Ireland became known as Erin or Erinn. All three Danite kings and their three queens were killed in the Battle of Tailtiu. The Tuatha de Danaan were defeated and forced to retreat. They did not leave Erin, but continued to live in Northern Ireland. Myth continues with Manannan placing a powerful spell of invisibility over many parts of Ireland – magical palaces were hidden under mounds and these places were called Sidh or Sidhe

With their magic, the Danites were believed to be able to appear or vanish from sight and were considered immortal. We will return to the this aspect of the Danites in Chapter XXXV Dan. Two other sons of Mil, Eber Finn or Heber and Eremon or Heremon partitioned Ireland into north and south and became their respective kings. Heremon ruled northern Ireland and Heber the south. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘When Ithe arrived where the (Danan) brothers were, he was honourably received and entertained by them; and, finding him to be a man of great wisdom and knowledge, they referred their disputes to him for decision. That decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithe exhorted them to mutual love, peace, and forbearance; adding much in praise of their delightful, pleasant, and fruitful country; and then took his leave, to return to his ship, and go back to Spain. 

No sooner was he gone than the brothers began to reflect on the high commendations which Ithe gave of the Island; and, suspecting his design of bringing others to invade it, resolved to prevent them, and therefore pursued him with a strong party, overtook him, fought and routed his men and wounded himself to death (before his son or the rest of his men left on ship-board could come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and his name, Magh Ithe or “The plain of Ithe” (an extensive plain in the barony of Raphoe, county Donegal); whence his son, having found him in that condition, brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his friends and relations to avenge his murder. 

And here I think it not amiss to notify what the Irish chroniclers, observe upon this matter… that all the invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, Partholan, Neimhedh, the Firbolgs, Tuatha-de-Danans, and Clan-na-Milé, where originally Scythians, of the line of Japhet, who had the language called Bearla-Tobbai or Gaoidhilg [Gaelic] common amongst them all; and consequently not to be wondered at, that Ithe and the Tuatha-de-Danans understood one another without an Interpreter – both speaking the same language, though perhaps with some difference in the accent. 

The exposing of the dead body of Ithe had the desired effect; for, thereupon, Milesius made great preparations in order to invade Ireland – as well to avenge his uncle’s death, as also in obedience to the will of his gods, signified by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid. But, before he could effect that object, he died, leaving the care and charge of that expedition upon his eight legitimate sons by his two wives… 

Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior, and fortunate and prosperous in all his undertakings: witness his name of “Milesius,” given him from the many battles (some say a thousand, which the word “Milé” signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously fought and won, as well in Spain, as in all the other countries and kingdoms he traversed in his younger days. 

The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent in the execution of their father’s command; but, soon after his death, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan’s Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or Inis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danans, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called Muc-Inis or “The Hog Island”); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. 

That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danan Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danan) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na- Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe, gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past…’

The beginning of the Milesians allegedly begins some four hundred and forty years earlier with a Scythian named Phoeniusa Farsaidh, or Fennius Farsa, who was a King of Scythia and a wise and learned man. Phoeniusa Farsaidh erected a school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of Æothena or Athens. Having continued there with his younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to his eldest son Nenuall; leaving him no other patrimony other than his learning and the benefit of the school. Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at Æothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh. The king gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea to inhabit and his daughter Scota in marriage. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart elaborates: 

‘Gaodhal [or Gathelus], the son of Niul, was the ancestor of the Clan-na-Gael, that is, “the children or descendants of Gaodhal.” In his youth this Gaodhal was stung in the neck by a serpent, and was immediately brought to Moses, who, laying his rod upon the wounded place, instantly cured him: whence followed the word “Glas” to be added to his name, as Gaodhal Glas (glas: Irish, green; Latin glaucus; Greek glaukos), on account of the green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his life, remained on his neck after the wound was healed. And Gaodhal obtained a further blessing, namely – that no venemous beast can live any time where his posterity should inhabit; which is verified in Creta [Crete] or Candia, Gothia or Getulia, Ireland, etc. 

The Irish chroniclers affirm that from this time Gaodhal and his posterity did paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on their banners and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs, in imitation of the Israelites; and that a “Thunderbolt” was the cognizance in their chief standard for many generations after this Gaodhal.’ 

‘The following is a translation of an extract from the derivation of this proper name, as given in Halliday’s Volume of Keating’s Irish History, page 230.’ 

“Antiquaries assert that the name of Gaodhal is from the compound word formed of ‘gaoith’ and ‘dil,’ which means a lover of learning; for, ‘gaoith’ is the same as wisdom or learning, and ‘dil’ is the same as loving or fond.”

Some versions of these legends also say that they kept the Laws of Moses, including unclean meats. The Goidels wandered for forty-two years in North Africa, the land of the Philistines, Syria and onwards to Spanish Galatia in northwestern Iberia. Some records also include ‘Miletus in ancient Caria on the west coast of Anatolia and Messina in Sicily’ as locations of their sojourn.

‘Heber Scut (scut: Irish, a Scot), after his father’s death and a year’s stay in Creta, departed thence, leaving some of his people to inhabit the Island, where some of their posterity likely still remain; “because the Island breeds no venemous serpent ever since.” He and his people soon after arrived in Scythia; where his cousins, the posterity of Nenuall (eldest son of Fenius Farsa, above mentioned), refusing to allot a place of habitation for him and his colony, they fought many battles wherein Heber (with the assistance of some of the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), being always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from the other, and settled himself and his colony in Scythia, who continued there for four generations. (Hence the epithet Scut, “a Scot” or “a Scythian,” was applied to this Heber, who is accordingly called Heber Scot.) Heber Scot was afterwards slain in battle by Noemus the former king’s son.’ 

Regarding Caleb, Yair Davidy states:

‘Historically the Kings of Egypt very rarely gave their daughters to outsiders but it is recorded that Solomon king of Israel married a daughter of Pharoah. Also Moses the deliverer and Lawgiver of Israel as a child had been adopted by a daughter of Pharoah. 

In Talmudic tradition the foster-mother of Moses was the same “Batya” daughter of Pharoah who later married Mered (1 Chronicles 4:18) from the Tribe of Judah.’ 

1 Chronicles 4:13-18

English Standard Version

13 The sons of Kenaz: Othniel and Seraiah… and Seraiah fathered Joab, the father of Ge-harashim, so-called because they were craftsmen. 15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the son of Elah: KenazThese are the sons of Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered married; and she conceived and bore Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah, the father of Eshtemoa. 18 And his Judahite [not Jewish] wife bore Jered the father of Gedor, Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah.

‘According to Talmudic tradition “Mered” is another name for Caleb, son of Yefunei, the Kenazzi, a Prince of Judah (Numbers 13:6). Caleb, says the Talmud, married “Batya” the daughter of Pharoah who had rescued and raised  Moses.’ 

Recall we studied Caleb in Chapter XXVII Abraham. Davidy has additional details of interest. The account of Caleb being Mered or marrying Pharaoh’s daughter is difficult to align, as Moses was born in 1526 BCE and Caleb was born in 1478 BCE. Moses flees Egypt in 1486 BCE, some eight years before Caleb is born. Caleb was also a slave at the time; his marrying Moses adoptive mother, Queen Sobeknefru is unlikely.

‘Some descendants of Caleb, the “Chelubai” (1 Chronicles 2;9) are traceable to Chalybonitis and to the “Chalybe” people. Chalybonitis was in northwest Syria. Chalybonitis in northern Syria was in an area associated with the Iari descendants of Yair who himself (1 Chronicles 2:22) was a son of Segub son of Hezron ancestor (or “father”) of Caleb (Chaleb): The eponymous ancestor IAR was later recalled in place-names of Ireland and Scotland. The family name of Caleb was “Kenazi” which name connotes “metalworker”. In the Pontus (on the southeast shores of the Black Sea) and Caucasus the Chalybes were famous metallurgists. The Chalybes were considered as of Cimmerian origin.  They are recalled by Greek Chroniclers such as Xenophon. A people of similar name (i.e. the “Calybes”) who were also famous as metal-workers were later reported of in the Galatian area of northwest Spain. Justin (44:3) said that the Calybes were skilled metallurgists. From Galatia (“Galacia”) in Spain Celts identified with the Milesian-Hiberi migrated to Ireland and from there to Britain. The legend of the Milesians that one of their ancestors had been married to the daughter of Pharoah may be connected with the presence of “Chalybes” (or “Calybes”) descendants of Caleb from Judah amongst them.’ 

An interesting point raised by Davidy – emphasis & bold mine:

Gildas said that the British Celts were “Truly Israel of the Exodus”. Gildas wrote about 540 CE. He lived in Britain at the time that it was being conquered by the pagan Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. As a Christian priest and a Celt he was horrified by what he saw. He attributed the calamity to the sins of the native British people and upbraided them. He used Biblical expressions and several times addressed the British princes as Israel and referred to Britain as “a treacherous lioness of Gad” though why he chose Gad out of all the 12 Tribes of Israel is unknown.’

A curious thing for Gildas to say, seeing as the tribe of Gad were well ensconced in Ireland at this time. Yair Davidy says: ‘In 1581 Vincenzio Galilei (father of the astronomer, Galileo Galilei) wrote that the Irish [Royal Milesians] believed themselves descended from David, King of Israel, and that was why they used a harp as their symbol.   

‘Ptolemy listed numerous place and historical ethnic names proving that Israelite tribes once ruled over all the area of northern Syria reaching at least to the Euphrates. Examples are the areas called RAHABENI (i.e. Reuben), MASANI (Menasseh), CAUCHABENI (i.e. Sons of Chauchi, i.e. of Haggi son of Gad), BATHANAEI (Bashan in Aramaic), CHALYBONITIS (Chalybes of Judah), and the cities of Belginaea and Belagaea (Belgae from Bela-g-h), and GABARA from Geber in the region of Bashan (Bathanaei) close to Masani (Menasseh). The “House of Gabbar” were the ruling dynasty of “Yadi”. Yadi was a Judaean enclave in northwest Syria (“Hamath which belonged to Judah” 2-Kings 14:28) known as “Yadi” (i.e. “Judah” in Assyrian) and also garrisoned by the “Dananu” from the Tribe of Dan and somehow associated with the neighbouring Tribe of Gad since its other name “Smal” is synonymous with Zephion a clan of Gad.

The Lagin people gave their name to Leinster in east Ireland. They were also known as GABAIR. After being conquered by the Milesian Goidels, the Lagin Gabair joined forces with them and participated in raids on, and settlement in, Scotland. They have been equated with the Gailian or Galioin, which names may well derive from the Golan in the Land of Israel since GEBER or GABAR appears to have once been an important family name in that general area.  To the northeast of Eboracum (York) and the Parissi in Britain were the GABRANTOVICES. Further north in the Caledonian region (of Scotland) of the Gadeni (Otadeni) was the settlement of Gabrosentas. 

From Gilead (“Galaad”) of Israel emerged the Galatae or “Galadi” of northern Gaul, the Galadon of northern Wales and southern Britain, and the Caledonians of Scotland. These groups had ethnic migratory connections with the Gaels of Ireland. An example of genuine Historical tradition mixed with literary additions and imaginations is found in the Chronicles of Eri. ‘The Chronicles of Eri, being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber, or the Irish People, translated from the Phoenician dialect of the Scythian language’, by Roger O’ Connor were published in London in two volumes in 1822. 

The Chronicle says that the Gaali had been in Armenia, and the Caucasus. They were traders and metallurgists, and archers. They were oppressed by the Assyrians and fled via Hamath in northern Syria. Hamath adjoined ‘Daphne of Antiochia’ which in effect was a suburb of Hamath. Hamath in Northern Syria or rather ‘Daphne of Antiochia’ was considered by the Talmud as one of three regions through which the Lost Ten Tribes were taken into exile. The Chronicles tells how the Gaali sailed to Spain which was then ruled by the Phoenicians who in turn were directed from Hamath. In Spain the Galli moved from the southern area of Tartessos to Galatia in the northwest. They shook off Phoenician control. Together with the Phoenicians from their base in Spain they had established mining operations in Cornwall, in Britain. 

Some of them moved to Aquitaine in Gaul. Due to war and famine, those of the Galli who were in Spanish Galatia emigrated to Ireland. Though not Phoenicians they worshiped God under the form of baal, received instruction in Phoenician ways, bore Hebrew-sounding names and they had Israelite-values such as an aversion to images and other characteristics. 

The Chronicles connect up with a verse in Isaiah: ‘They shall lift up their voice, they shall sing for the majesty of the LORD. They shall cry aloud from the sea. Wherefore, glorify the LORD in the fires, even the name of the LORD God of Israel in the isles of the sea’ (Isaiah 24:14-15). ‘Cry aloud from the sea’: In Hebrew the word ‘from the sea’ (‘me-yam’) also means ‘from the west’. The major sea was to the West. The Aramaic Translation and Commentators say it means the exiles who will be in the West in the Last Days. Then it goes on to speak of the isles of the Sea meaning Britain. 

According to “The Chronicles of Eri” the Gaali of Sciot (the people he is speaking of) had the custom of lighting beacon fires on the coasts. 

‘All the headlands and promontories belonging to the Gaal of Sciot on the northwest coast of Spain were called in the Phoenician language Breoccean, that is, The Land of Flaming Fires, because of the blaze that was kept up and could be seen at a great distance out to sea. The same custom was observed on the coast of Cornwall and Devonshire after the Gaal of Sciot joined with the Phoenicians in their mining operations there, and that land was called Breotan, Breo meaning Flaming Fire’ (‘BIAR’ = burn in Hebrew).’ 

‘We thus find that the people known as the Gaal of Sciot, the people whom the Chronicles claim were the ancestors of the Irish and Scots… had the custom of lighting fires that could be seen out to sea. They practiced this custom when they were in northwest Spain and later on the southwest coast of [England] when they set up mining operations in that area. We find elsewhere that this practice was known throughout Britain. 

A Polish Linguist named Piotr Gasiorowski reports that the ancient British were in the custom of lighting fires on the hilltops that could be seen out to sea: Piotr Gasiorowski: 

‘I think the tradition of erecting hilltop cairns and mounds as orientation marks, and of using beacon fires for long-distance communication was very strong in Celtic (also Roman) Britain; the landscape of much of the country is as suitable for this purpose as could be. One trace of that is the occurrence of the Brythonic element tan- ‘fire’ (Welsh tan) in hill names (there are many Tan Hills in England). – not only in ancient times but all through history down to the invention of the telegraph. 

For example, a network of beacons set up on hilltops was used in England in 1588 to signal the approach of the Spanish Armada, and once it was spotted off the Scillies (islands southwest of Cornwall in southwest Britain) the news reached the English commanders in no time at all.’

Returning to King Heremon some four hundred years later in 1046 BCE. Heremon was the seventh son of Milesius or Mil; though only the third of the three sons who left any issue. From him were descended the kings and nobility of the Connaught and Dalriada Kingdoms. Heremon with his eldest brother Heber were the joint first Milesian and Gael monarchs of Ireland. The date given in the Library of Ireland, Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart, 1892, is that they began to reign in 1699 BCE. This is too early, for Judah and Gad were born in 1746 and 1744 BCE respectively and it does not take into account the period of the Nemedians of 217 years, the gap until the Fir Bolgs returned of 230 years, their rule of 37 years, the approximate time the Fomorians ruled the Danites of 10 years and lastly, the Tuatha de Danaan 174 or 197 years kingship of Ireland. 

Heber is recorded as being killed a year later – in the unconventional chronology this equates to 1045 BCE. Heremon then reigned for fourteen years until 1031 BCE. ‘During which time a certain colony – called by the Irish, Cruithneaigh, in English “Cruthneans” or Picts – arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called “Alba,” but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland.’ 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign, Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mor MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon – so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time.’ 

‘Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardcath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King’s County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon.’

Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber’s four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir’s only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh Galian, now called Leinster, he gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber’s sons. 

From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the [Royal] Milesian Irish of Ireland andScotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. 

From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory – the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). 

From Heremon, the youngst of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus. Mor MacEarca down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to the present time. 

The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland, and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly. 

Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and standard, for the following reasons; namely, that, in his travels in his younger clays into foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions on his shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they did the country: each of them bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to this day: some with additions and differences; others plain and entire as they had it from their ancestors.’ 

The thirteenth monarch of Ireland was Tigernmas ot Tiernmas and he reigned seventy-seven years; though according to Keating, he reigned only fifty years; of which he fought twenty-seven battles with the family of Heber Fionn, all which he won. It was during his reign that gold was mined near the Liffey and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. Tigernmas also ‘made a law that each grade of society should be’ ranked and ‘known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel’ – believed to have been the origin of the Scottish plaid. ‘According to Keating, one colour was used in the dress of a slave; two colours in that of a plebeian; three, in that of a soldier or young lord; four, in that of a brughaidh or public victualler; five, in that of a lord of a tuath or cantred; and six colours in that of an ollamh or Druid, or chief professor of any of the liberal arts, and in that of the king and queen.’ 

He died in 890 BCE ‘on the Eve of 1st of November or Halloween, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght [Field of Adoration], in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring his Sun-God idol, Crom Cruach [the crooked heap].’ Tigernmas was the first to introduce image worship in Ireland. This idol was worshipped up to the time of St. Patrick, by whom it was destroyed. The sun worship was a throwback to the Magi or wise me from the East – the empire of Parthia – who were led to Bethlehem by divine inspiration to see the infant Messiah. 

During his son Smiomghall’s reign, the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch. Later, King Fiacha Labhrainn, slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber at the battle of Carman. 

During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the twentieth Monarch, Aongus Olmucach. In 796 BCE, the Picts had again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them by Heremon, but the Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute. 

Crimthann-Niadh-Nar was the one hundredth Monarch of Ireland, and styled ‘The Heroic.’ It was in his reign that the Saviour was born in 3 BCE. ‘Crimthann’s death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, dau of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland). Tuathal Teachtmar was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms…’ 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Partholan and his followers, called in Irish Muintir Phartholain, meaning “Partholan’s People.” 

2. The Nemedians [Reuben, Simeon & Dan]. 

3. The Fomorians [Giants], 

4. The Firbolgs or Firvolgians, who were also called Belgae or Belgians [(Reuben) Northern Ireland]. 

5. The Tuatha-de-Danans [Dan]. 

6. The Milesians or Gaels [(Hiberi) Gad]. 

7. The Cruthneans or Picts [Benjamin (Scotland)]. 

8. The Danes and Norwegians (or Scandinavians) [Vikings]. 

9. The Anglo-Normans [Judah]. 

10. The Anglo-Saxons (or English) [(Jutes) Judah]. 

11. The Scots from [Benjamin and Zarah-Pharez] North Britain. 

The Nemedians came from Scythia in Europe, and were located chiefly in Ulster at Ardmacha (or Armagh), and in Derry and Donegal; and in Leinster at the Hill of Uisneach, which is situated a few miles from Mullingar, in the county Westmeath. 

The Fomorians are represented as a race of giants, and were celebrated as having been great builders in stone. They were located principally along the coasts of Ulster and Connaught, mostly in Antrim, Derry, Donegal, Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo, and had their chief fortress (called Tor Conaing or Conang’s Tower) on Tor Inis or the Island of the Tower, now known as “Tory Island,” which is off the coast of Donegal; and another at the Giants’ Causeway, which in Irish was called Cloghan-na-Fomoraigh or the Causeway of the Fomorians, as it was supposed to have been constructed by this people, who, from their great strength and stature, were, as above mentioned, called giants: hence the term “Giants’ Causeway” – a stupendous natural curiosity of volcanic origin, situated on the sea-coast of Antrim, and consisting of a countless number of basaltic columns of immense height, which, from the regularity of their formation and arrangement, have the appearance of a vast work of art; and hence were supposed to have been constructed by giants. 

After the Fomorians became masters of the country, the Nemedians (neimhedh: Irish, dirt, filth of any kind), were reduced to slavery, and compelled to pay a great annual tribute on the first day of winter – consisting of corn, cattle, milk, and other provisions; and the place where these tributes were received was named Magh Ceitne, signifying the Plain of Compulsion, and so called from these circumstances. This plain was situated between the rivers Erne and Drabhois (drabhas: Irish, dirt, nastiness), between Ballyshannon and Bundrowes, on the borders of Donegal, Leitrim, and Fermanagh, along the sea-shore. – See Connellan’s “Four Masters.” 

Three bands of the Nemedians emigrated with their respective captains: one party wandered into the north of Europe [Dan]; others made their way to Greece [Reuben], where they were enslaved, and obtained the name of “Firbolgs” or bagmen, from the leathern bags which they were compelled to carry; and the third section took refuge in England [Simeon], which obtained its name Britain, from their leader “Briottan Maol.” – See Miss Cusack’s “History of Ireland.” 

The Firbolgsor Firvolgians, who were also Scythians, divided Ireland amongst the five sons of their leader Dela Mac Loich: “Slainge [slane] was he by whom Teamor (or Tara) was first raised.” (Four Masters). One hundred and fifty Monarchs reigned in Tara from that period until its abandonment in the reign of Diarmod, son of Fergus Cearrbheoil, who was the 133rd Monarch of Ireland, and King of Meath. 

The Firvolgians ruled over Connaught down to the third century, when King Cormac Mac Art, the 115th Monarch of Ireland, attacked and defeated the forces of Aodh or Hugh, son of Garadh, King of Connaught, who was the last King of the Firbolg race in Ireland; and the sovereignty of Connaught was then transferred to the Milesians of the race of Heremon – descendants of King Cormac Mac Art. The Firbolg race never after acquired any authority in Ireland, being reduced to the ranks of farmers and peasants; but they were still very numerous, and to this day a great many of the peasantry, particularly in Connaught, are considered to be of Firbolg origin. 

The Tuatha de Danans, also of the Scythian family, invaded Ireland thirty-six years after the plantation by the Firbolgs. According to some annalists, they came originally from Persia, and to others, from Greece; and were located chiefly at Tara in Meath, at Croaghan in Connaught, and at Aileach in Donegal. The Danans being highly skilled in the arts, the Round Towers of Ireland are supposed to have been built by them. The light, gay, joyous element of the Irish character may be traced to them. They were a brave and high-spirited race, and famous for their skill in what was then termed Magic: hence, in after ages, this wonderful people were considered to have continued to live in hills or raths, as the “good people” long so commonly believed in as fairies, in Ireland. But their “magic” consisted in the exercise of the mechanical arts, of which those who had previously invaded Ireland were then ignorant. It is a remarkable fact, that weapons of warfare found in the carns or gravemounds of the Firbolgs are of an inferior kind to those found in the carns of the Tuatha-de-Danans: a proof of the superior intelligence of the latter over the former people. 

The inventor of the Ogham [owam] Alphabet (ogham: Irish, “an occult manner of writing used by the ancient Irish”) was Ogma, father of one of the Tuatha-de-Danan Kings. In McCartin’s Irish Grammar it is stated that there were no less than thirty-five different modes of writing the Ogham, which has hitherto defied the power of modern science to unravel its mysteries. But the truth of our ancient history is strangely confirmed by the fact that the letters of this Alphabet are all denominated by the names of trees and shrubs indigenous to Ireland! According to the “Book of Leinster,” it was “Cet Cuimnig, King of Munster, of the royal line of Heber, that was the first that inscribed Ozam [or Ogham] memorials in Erinn.” This extract gives a clue to the period when Ogham stones were first erected, and why the most of them are to be found in the Province of Munster; for, according to the Septuagint system of chronology, that King of Munster reigned about the year 1257 before the birth of Christ! 

The Milesiansinvaded Ireland one hundred and ninety-seven years later than the Tuatha de Danans; and were called Clan-na-Mile [meel], signifying the descendants of Milesius of Spain. 

The Cruthneansor Picts were also Scythians, and, according to our ancient historians, came from Thrace soon after the arrival of the Milesians; but, not being permitted by the Milesians to remain in Ireland, they sailed to Scotland and became the possessors of that country, but tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. In after ages colonies of them came over and settled in Ulster; they were located chiefly in the territories which now form the counties of Down, Antrim, and Derry. 

The Danesand Norwegians(or Scandinavians), a Teutonic race of Scythian origin, came to Ireland in great numbers, in the ninth and tenth centuries, and were located chiefly in Leinster and Munster, in many places along the sea-coast: their strongholds being the towns of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick. 

The Anglo-Normans came to Ireland in the twelfth century, and possessed themselves of a great part of the country, under their chief leader, Richard de Clare, who was also named Strongbow. They were a Teutonic race, descended from the Normans of France, who were a mixture of Norwegians, Danes, and French, and who conquered England in the eleventh century. The English invasion of Ireland was accomplished ostensibly through the agency of Dermod MacMorough, King of Leinster; on account of his having been driven from his country by the Irish Monarch for the abduction of the wife of Tiernan O’Ruarc, Prince of Breffni. For that act, Roderick O’Connor, the Monarch of Ireland, invaded the territory of Dermod, A.D. 1167, and put him to flight. King Dermod was obliged, after many defeats, to leave Ireland, in 1167; throw himself at the feet of King Henry the Second, and crave his assistance, offering to become his liegeman. Henry, on receiving Dermod’s oath of allegiance, granted by letters patent a general license to all his English subjects to aid King Dermod in the recovery of his Kingdom. Dermod then engaged in his cause Richard de Clare or Strongbow, to whom he afterwards gave his daughter Eva, in marriage; and through his influence an army was raised, headed by Robert Fitzstephen, Myler Fitzhenry, Harvey de Monte Marisco, Maurice Prendergast, Maurice Fitzgerald, and others; with which, in May, 1168, he landed in Bannow-bay, near Wexford, which they reduced, together with the adjoining counties – all in the kingdom of Leinster. In 1171, Earl Strongbow landed at Waterford with a large body of followers and took possession of that city. He then joined King Dermod’s forces, marched for Dublin, entered the city, and made himself master. 

King Dermod died in his castle at Ferns, county Wexford, A.D. 1175, about the 65th year of his age. Of him Holingshed says – “He was a man of tall stature and of a large and great body, a valiant and bold warrior in his nation. From his continued shouting, his voice was hoarse; he rather chose to be feared than to be loved, and was a great oppressor of his nobility. To his own people he was rough and grievous, and hateful unto strangers; his hand was against all men, and all men against him.” 

The Anglo-Saxons or English, also a Tuetonic race, came from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. The Britonsor Welsh came in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These English colonies were located chiefly in Leinster, but also in great numbers in Munster and Connaught, and partly in Ulster.’ 

These ‘English’ and ‘Welsh’ were peoples that as the ‘Irish’ emigrated to America and Canada; being another and different set of people – distinct tribes – as we will discover.

The Scots, who were chiefly Celts of Irish descent, came in great numbers from the tenth to the sixteenth century, and settled in Ulster, mostly in Antrim, Down, and Derry; but, on the Plantation of Ulster with British colonies, in the seventeenth century, the new settlers in that province were chiefly Scotch[Scots Irish], who were a mixture of Celts and Saxons.’ 

These peoples known as Scots Irish and ,Scotch-Irish in America are a separate peoples that we will address in another chapter. Needless to say, they are not from the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, Levi, Reuben or Gad.

‘Thus the seven first colonies that settled in Ireland were a mixture of Scythians, Gaels, and Phoenicians; but the four last were mostly Teutons, though mixed with Celts; and a compound of all these races, in which Celtic blood is predominant, forms the present population of Ireland. 

Inis-Fail: Thomas Moore, in his Irish Melodies, commemorates this circumstance in the “Song of Inisfail”: 

“They came from a land beyond the sea And now o’er the western main
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly, From the sunny land of Spain. 

“Oh, where’s the isle we’ve seen in dreams, Our destined home or grave?”
Thus sang they, as by the morning’s beams, They swept the Atlantic wave. 

And lo! where afar o’er ocean shines A spark of radiant green, As though in that deep lay emerald mines, Whose light through the wave was seen.

” ‘Tis Innisfail – ’tis Innisfail!” Rings o’er the echoing sea; While, bending to heaven, the warriors hail That home of the brave and free.

Then turned they unto the Eastern wave, Where now their Day-god’s eye A look of such sunny omen gave As lighted up sea and sky.

Nor frown was seen through sky or sea, Nor tear o’er leaf or sod, When first on their Isle of Destiny Our great forefathers trod.”

After the Flood, William Cooper, 1995:

‘… the early Irish chroniclers were most emphatic in their insistence that the Irish were of Scythian stock. And there is good etymological evidence for this. The Irish were long referred to as Scots even before some of them migrated to the country that today bears their name, and as Brewer tells us: 

Scot (is) the same as Scythian in etymology; the root of both is Sct. The Greeks had no c, and would change t into th making the root skth, and by adding a phonetic vowel we get Skuthai (Scythians), and Skodiai (Skoths). The Welsh disliked s at the beginning of a word, and would change it to ys; they would also change c or k to g, and th to d; whence the Welsh root would be Ysgd, and Skuth or Skoth would become ysgod. Once more, the Saxons would cut off the Welsh y, and change the g back again to c, and the d to t, converting the Ysgod to Scot.’ 

‘It would be no strange thing to find Scythian peoples as far west as Ireland. After all, the land in Asia Minor known of old as Galatia, was populated by a migrating colony of Gallic Celts from whom the country got its name. St Paul wrote his famous epistle to their descendants. Many other examples from history are known of nations seemingly popping up in places where one would normally not expect to find them, so it requires no great stretch of the imagination to accept what the early Irish chroniclers so often insisted upon, namely their descent from the Scythian races. 

Of added interest are certain details that have been handed down to us by Geoffrey of Monmouth. We are told by him how Partholan’s colony consisted of thirty ships. Interestingly, Nennius makes no mention of the number of ships, but does tell us that the colony consisted of 1000 souls, which indicates that he and Geoffrey were working from different sources. 

However, Geoffrey also tells us that the colony had recently. been expelled from the Spanish mainland, and moreover that they were called ‘Basclenses’, or Basques. Now, we know that the present-day Basques of northern Spain are of an entirely mysterious origin, and we also know that they speak a language that is quite unrelated to any known Indo-European tongue. In which context, it is interesting to note what Professor Mackie has written concerning the language of the early Picts who had more than a passing influence on both the early and later history of the Irish: 

The Picts certainly used a form of P-Celtic (the mother of Welsh, Cornish and Breton), with traces of Gaulish forms. However, it is clear, from the few scraps of evidence which survive, that the Picts also used another language, probably unrelated to any “Indo-European” tongue and therefore so different from modern European languages as to be incomprehensible to us.’ 

Presumably, this information would not have been available to that allegedly incorrigible forger, Geoffrey of Monmouth, but it is instinctive to compare Mackie’s remarks with a comment by Cusack, when she says: 

‘…those who have maintained the theory of a Gaulish colonisation of Ireland, have been obliged to make Spain the point of embarkation.’

The next recorded invasion (or settlement) of Ireland took place, according to the chronicles, in Anno Mundi 2859, or ca 1145 BC in our terms. This colony was led by Nemedius (see genealogy), or Nemedh, and it is recorded that the people of Nemedh were credited with having built certain types of fort as well as clearing the land for a particular method of cultivation. A later outbreak of plague took its toll on the population, the remainder of whom are recorded as having fought off an invasion of Ireland by the Formorians, who, according to the Annals of Clonmacnois: 

‘…were a sept descended from Chain (i.e. Ham), the son of Noeh, …(who) …lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world.’ 

This is of particular interest to us, as we know from the chronicles of the early Britons that the British mainland was at this time being settled by Brutus and his people in ca 1104 BC according to the British chronology. Now, although Brutus is said to have been the first coloniser of Britain, the chronicles do emphatically state that he had to displace an indigenous race of ‘giants’. Whether physical giantism is here intended cannot be certainly resolved, as the early British word ‘gawr’ (like the Hebrew gibbor) could mean simply a great warrior as well as a giant man. 

But we do know from the biblical record that giantism was a particular physical trait amongst certain of Ham’s descendants, Goliath of Gath being the best known example, which lends both the British and Irish accounts a degree of hitherto unsuspected corroboration. The Formorians, it seems, were the displaced natives of Britain who were trying to seek a foothold on the Irish mainland only to be repelled by the Nemedians, thereafter having to live, like many other displaced peoples, by scavenging and piracy. 

After the repulsion of the Formorians, the few Nemedian survivors settled further inland, presumably for safety while they consolidated their numbers. They are then recorded as subsequently dividing themselves into three ‘bands’, each with their respective leaders. One of these groups migrated to northern Europe, where they founded a nation known later to the Irish as the Tuatha de Danann [tribe of Dan]. A second group settled, intriguingly, in the northernmost parts of Britain, apparently the first Pictish settlement [tribe of Benjamin] of what is now Scotland. This settlement of Picts [tribe of Benjamin] from ‘Scythia’ (so states the British record – note etymological derivation given above of Scot from Scythian) into Albany, is recalled in the early British chronicles as having taken place under the Pictish king Soderic. The British chronology seems to have slipped somewhat at this point, but the event is real enough and accurately portrayed [circa 1030 – 1000 BCE]. 

The third group are named as the Firbolgs [Reuben], who migrated to Greece and then returned to Ireland which they subsequently divided up into five provinces. However, in Anno Mundi 3303, or ca. 701 BC in our terms, the Firbolgs were subdued in their turn by the returning colony of Tuatha de Danaun. 

The last colonisation of Ireland is then recorded under Anno Mundi 3500 (i.e. ca 504 BC): 

‘The fleet of the sons of Milidh came to Ireland at the end of this year, to take it from the Tuatha de Danann, and they fought the battle of Sliabh Mis with them on the third day after landing.’

The children of Milidh, known to us as the Milesians [tribe of Gad], had landed unobserved in the mouth of the river Slaney in what is today the county of Wexford, from where they marched to Tara, the central seat of government. 

The word Milesian is still used (though with increasing rarity) to denote the Irish people themselves, or things pertaining to Ireland. And of further interest to our enquiry is the fact that the Milesians were newly arrived (via the Spanish peninsula) from the city of Miletus, whose ruins still stand on the Turkish mainland, and which was finally destroyed by the Persian army in the year 494 BC. Given that the Irish records state ca 504 BC for the landing of the Milesian colony in Ireland [1046 BCE], this is a spontaneous and unexpected chronological correlation that is close enough to give us serious pause for thought. For there’s many an Egyptologist who wishes that he could get that close with Egyptian chronology! 

The lives of the people of Miletus had been made precarious for decades prior to the fall of their city due to the increasingly threatening ambitions of the Persian army, and nothing would have been more natural than that a colony of Milesians should decide to flee in search of a safe haven. They would seek a land that was sufficiently far away to be safe, was fertile, and which was well known to the Phoenician mariners of the eastern Mediterranean, as was Ireland. And that the city of Miletus should also be known to us as an Ionian outpost whose population consisted of, amongst other races, Scythians and Phoenicians, tells us that we should take the claims of the early Irish chroniclers very seriously indeed. 

Moreover, with regard to the equally often stated Phoenician element of Irish descent, we should also note that the ancient Greeks once held that Phoenicia was founded by one Phoenix, whose brother Cadmus had invented the alphabet. Likewise, the early Irish recalled the time when they lived under a king named… Phenius, ‘who devoted himself especially to the study of languages, and composed an alphabet and the elements of grammar.’ So it is clear that at the very least, the early Irish chroniclers were passing on an account, albeit garbled in places, of authentic historical events and personages, and of the equally historic descent of their own race from Phoenician and Scythian stock. And on the subject of that descent, Cusack adds yet again to our store of knowledge: 

‘As the Milesians were the last of the ancient colonists … only their genealogies, with a few exceptions, have been preserved. The genealogical tree begins, therefore, with the brothers Eber and Eremon, the two surviving leaders of the expedition, whose ancestors are [incorrectly] traced back to Magog, the son of Japhet. The great southern chieftains, such as the MacCarthys and O’Briens, claim descent from Eber; the northern families of O’Connor, O’Donnell, and O’Neill, claim Eremon as their head. There are also other families claiming descent from Emer, the son of Ir, brother to Eber and Eremon; as also from their cousin Lugaidh, the son of Ith. From these four sources the principle Celtic families of Ireland have sprung…’ 

As we see in the genealogy, Eber and Eremon were able to trace their own descent from Gadelas, the father of the Gaels and the Gaelic languages, but just how seriously did the early Irish take the question of pedigree? Were they serious enough to take the trouble to keep accurate records over long periods of time? Once more, Cusack answers the question for us: 

‘The Books of Genealogies and Pedigrees form a most important element in Irish pagan history. For social and political reasons, the Irish Celt preserved his genealogical tree with scrupulous precision. The rights of property and the governing power were transmitted with patriarchal exactitude on strict claims of primogeniture, which claims could only be refused under certain conditions defined by law… and in obedience to an ancient law, established long before the introduction of Christianity, all the provincial records, as well as those of the various chieftains, were required to be furnished every third year to the convocation at Tara, where they were compared and corrected.’ 

The beginning of Gad’s ordeal of ‘troops’ treading on them as per prophecy was with the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169. Since then, it was an endless cycle of political resistance to English rule and military campaigns to rid the Isle of their oppressors; who’s aim seemed to be to turn the Irish into the English. Most of Ireland gained independence following the Anglo-Irish war from 1919 to 1921 as the Irish Free State in 1922; with full independence as the Republic of Ireland in 1949, with Northern Ireland part of the United Kingdom as a ‘constituent country.’

Irish history can be broken down into periods of the invasion by England and the Lordship of Ireland from 1171 to 1542; the Kingdom of Ireland from 1542 to 1800 and its being conquered by England during 1536 to 1691. The period known as the Protestant Ascendancy lasted from 1691 to 1801 until the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, when Ireland merged with the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1922.

Though the Normans had invaded Britain in 1066, it was a century later that they landed in Ireland. In 1169, Anglo-Norman mercenaries set foot in Ireland at the request of Diamait mac Murchada [Dermot MacMurragh], the deposed King of Leinster; who sought their help in regaining his kingship. They Normans achieved this within weeks as well as raiding neighbouring kingdoms. This military intervention was sanctioned by King Henry II of England. In return, Diarmait swore loyalty to Henry, promising land to the Normans and in turn altering the course of Irish history forever. 

During much of the Middle Ages Ireland was ruled as a separate kingdom under the British Crown. Not the whole country, just the eastern half. The English ‘knew that the best way to defeat the cunning Irish was to suppress the entire country, which would have cost a fortune… or they could just build a big wall around the greater Dublin area… they decided on the less painful latter option and called the walled area The Pale.’ It was not till 1603, with victory over the Irish in Ulster that Britain gained complete control of Ireland. 

True(ish) History of Ireland, Garvan Grant:

‘When Elizabeth I ascended to the English throne in 1558, she took a more lenient attitude towards Ireland. She even let the people of Ireland carry on being Catholic, speak their own language and live, which was dead nice of her. In return, all she wanted from the various chieftains who had divided the country up between them was ‘unconditional loyalty’, the swearing of an odd oath and bucket-loads of cash. This suited everyone – until some of the Irish fellas got greedy and started scrapping with their neighbors over bits of land. This led to Elizabeth showing her not so lovely side and coming down quite hard on the Irish. 

Tired of fighting, the English then decided the best way to ‘civilize’ the Irish were to send some nice English, Scottish and Welsh people to live on their lands, so the Irish could see just how brilliant being British was. These ‘Plantations’ might have worked too, except that a lot of the planters weren’t very brilliant – or very nice. They hadn’t signed up for it because they loved the Irish and wanted to make them better people; they came because they were given free land with free peasants (or ‘slaves’) to work on it. It was lovely in theory, but probably not a recipe for success on the ground.’ 

The province of Ulster was troublesome, thus land was confiscated – from members of the Gaelic nobility of Ireland who then fled Ulster – and given to small Scottish farmers, so that they remained and did not sell the land back to the native Irish. Thus Scots migrated to Ireland in large numbers under the government sanctioned Plantation of Ulster and its planned process of colonisation during the reign of James I. The success of this policy was the foundation of the problems Northern Ireland faced until 1998 and in reality till this day. Cromwell after the English Civil War was short of cash to pay his troops, so he confiscated eighty percent of the land for his troops in lieu of money. The dispossessed landowners were offered poor quality land in Connaught in exchange. 

‘Until the seventeenth century war in Ireland had been mainly about unimportant things such as land, money, and power, but after the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, it became more about good, old-fashioned religion. How God felt about this change was anyone’s guess. In 1649, when the latest war in England ended and Charles I lost his head and couldn’t find it anywhere, the English sent over a lovely chap by the name of Oliver Cromwell. He was only in Ireland for nine months but managed to get in more violence than many other English people had done in decades. His theory of how to win a war – and it has yet to be proved wrong – was to kill everybody. He and his army – they were originally going to call it the New ‘Slaughter Everybody’ Army but eventually decided on the much catchier New Model Army – basically attacked anyone they met who wasn’t one of their soldiers.’ 

The British attempt to solve the ‘Irish Problem’ by creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, was a solution that pleased nobody in Ireland; the protest ant ruling class did not want to lose their independence and the Catholics felt betrayed when George III refused to grant Catholic emancipation. 

Within a United Kingdom, Ireland started to struggle for reform. O’Connell and his Catholic Association founded in 1823 led the struggle for Catholic emancipation. The Potato Famine in the years 1845 to 1848 caused enormous upheavals as the population of Ireland fell from nine Million to three million through famine and emigration. No doubt, a London government would not have let this tragedy happen in mainland Britain.

The Easter Rising of 1916 was put down quickly by Westminster. Crass mishandling by the British resulted in many of the leaders of the Easter Rising being shot by firing squad, with the extremists acquiring the status of martyrs. In the 1918 election, seventy-three of the one hundred and six Irish seats went to Sinn Fein. They refused to go to Westminster and set up a provisional government in Ireland. Three years of bitter guerrilla warfare with atrocities on both sides ensued; before a truce was finally signed in 1921. The ‘final solution of the Irish Problem’ was partition. The Irish stalemate continues: Northern Protestants feel they have a right to determine their own future democratically on the basis of being in the majority. Northern Catholics feel they have the right to be part of a united Ireland. 

There are a number of flags associated with Northern Ireland and Ulster. The only official flag is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom. The Ulster Banner [Red Hand Flag, Ulster Flag] was used by the government officially, from 1953 until the parliament was abolished in 1973 – it had received a royal warrant for use in 1924 – has no official status since then, though some loyalists, unionists and sports team have adopted it. It is not to be confused with the similar flag with yellow background, which is the provincial flag of Ulster.

The Saint Patrick’s Saltire resents Northern Ireland indirectly as Ireland in the Union Flag. It is flown during St Patrick’s Day parades in Ulster and some northern Irish royal events.

The term Ulster Scots is used for those peoples residing in Northern Ireland, while those who emigrated to North America are known as Scotch-Irish. We will learn that the peoples who left Ulster for America are not the tribe of Reuben like the Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland. Their ancestors were mostly Protestant Presbyterian Scottish colonists originating from principally Galloway and then Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, the Scottish Borders and parts of Northern England that bordered Scotland. A minority came from further north in the Lowlands or from the Highlands. 

Ulster Scots emigrated onwards from Ireland in considerable numbers to what is now the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. It was just a few generations after arriving in Ulster sizeable numbers of Ulster Scots emigrated to the North American colonies of Great Britain. Between 1717 and 1775, an estimated two hundred thousand migrated to the United States. Ulster Scots also travelled to Britain’s acquisition of New France, becoming Scotch-Irish Canadians. 

In the United States 2000 Census, ‘4.3 million Americans (1.5% of the population of the United States) claimed Scotch-Irish ancestry. Author and former United States Senator Jim Webb suggests that the true number of people with some Scots-Irish heritage in the United States is [more likely over 27 million;] possibly because contemporary Americans with some Scotch-Irish heritage may regard themselves as either Irish, Scottish, or simply American instead.’ This is an important point as these Scots Irish are not the same as the Ulster Scots remaining in Northern Ireland. Nor are they the same as Americans and Canadians of standard Scottish, or Irish stock; though conversely, are the same as those from English, Welsh or German descent. 

Not only do Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and Cornwall have a very different genetic make-up from each other, they are also the most different to the rest of England. Proving that the four constituent nations from the United Kingdom are four distinct and separate peoples. England as Judah, Scotland as Benjamin, Wales as Simeon and Northern Ireland as Reuben. Tests reveal that the Welsh have the most DNA of the original settlers in the British Isles. Or in other words, the Welsh have the most undiluted DNA of the British Isles and were the first tribe of peoples to permanently settle in Britain. 

This is underscored by three reasons. first, as we learned from the two census’s of the Israelite’s during their forty year sojourn, the vast majority of Simeon left and struck out on their own. Second, we also know that even if they spent time in Ireland very early on, the tribe of Simeon were based in Britain. Only Dan shared the island with them, for Benjamin arrived later and Reuben and Gad stayed in Ireland. Third, due to its westerly location and mountainous landscape, few invaders such as the Saxons, Romans and Vikings ventured into the Welsh lands.

An article described the Welsh as “the true pure Britons, according to the research that has produced the first genetic map of the UK. Scientists were able to trace their DNA back  to the first tribes that settled in the British Isles… This means the DNA of people living there has not experienced the influx of ‘foreign’ genes like other parts of Britain. The research found that there is no single ‘Celtic’ genetic group.” The Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish are all different and not the same. The term Celtic is clearly a cultural and a historical time frame reference, not an ethnic one. 

The research confirmed that the people of Orkney are the most distinct, ‘a result of 600 years of Norwegian rule’ and that ‘the Welsh are the next most distinct. But even within Wales there are two distinct tribes, with those in the north and south of the principality  [nation] less similar genetically than the Scots are to the inhabitants of Kent.’ This is and isn’t a surprise, as Scotland and Kent share the same father Jacob, yet different mothers. Rachel for Scotland and Leah for Kent. If the southern Welsh have the same mother as Judah or England, that is Leah because they are Simeon, then north Wales must have a different mother again. This would lend itself to the North Welsh having one of the Handmaids as their mother. We will return to this conundrum.* 

Khazaria, Welsh – emphasis & bold mine:

Bryan Sykes, professor of human genetics at the University of Oxford and founder of Oxford Ancestors, showed that people from North Wales and Mid-Wales are more genetically interlinked with each other than either are with people from South Wales. 

Y-DNA haplogroups carried by members of “The Wales Cymru DNA Project” include E1b1a1 (E-L117), E1b1a1a1b1a (E-V13), E1b1a1b2a1a (E-M34), G1a1a1, G2a1, I1 (I-M253), I1d1a1a, I2c2a (I-M223, I-P37, etc.), J1, J2, R1a1a (R-M512, R-M198, R-M173, R-Z280), R1b1a (R-M269, R-M173, R-L21), and R1b1a1a1a1a (R-P312), among others.

The SNP subclade Z138+ (also known as Z139+) of the Y-DNA haplogroup I1 is found at low frequencies in Germanic-speaking populations including England and Wales, but also in Portugal, southern Italy, and Romania. STR (short tandem repeats) analysis reveals a western subgroup of I1 where GATA-H4 ≥ 11 that’s most common in Wales that exists at lower frequencies in English and other European populations.’

Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration, Molecular Biology and Evolution,multiple authors, 2002, pages 1008-1021:

They studied English, Welsh, Norwegian, and Frisian men and genetically compared them to each other. Samples included males from 2 towns in North Wales (Abergele and Llangefni) and 5 towns in England as far east as North Walsham in East Anglia. The sampled men from Central English towns genetically resembled each other closely, in contrast to the North Welsh men who “differed significantly both from each other and from the Central English towns.” They found common Germanic roots of the English and Frisian males in the study, confirming that the Anglo-Saxons (but not the Welsh) are largely descended from people not indigenous to the British Isles. Excerpts from the article:

“Our results indicate the presence of a strong genetic barrier between Central England and North Wales and the virtual absence of a barrier between Central England and Friesland… The best explanation for our findings is that the Anglo-Saxon cultural transition in Central England coincided with a mass immigration from the continent. Such an event would simultaneously explain both the high Central English-Frisian affinity and the low Central English-North Welsh affinity… Anglo-Saxon settlements and culture appeared throughout England but, importantly, did not extend into North Wales, where many of the original Celtic Britons living in England are thought to have fled…

‘Extraordinary’ genetic make-up of north east Wales men, BBC News, July 19, 2011: 

Dr. Andy Grierson of the University of Sheffield comments on the finding of E1b1b1 in a large percentage (the article states approximately 30 percent) of men from northeast Wales (the town of Abergele). (Most of the men specifically carry E1b1b1a2, also known as E-V13).This is found in a much higher frequency than populations in the rest of the United Kingdom, which average 1 percent. The sample size was 500 people. Grierson said, 

“This type of genetic makeup is usually found in the eastern Mediterranean which made us think that there might have been strong connections between north east Wales and this part of Europe somewhere in the past. 

But this appears not to be the case, so we’re still looking to find out why it’s happened and what it reveals about the history of the region.”

The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population, Nature 519, multiple authors, 2015, pages 309-314: Welsh form part of this intensive evaluation of autosomal DNA. Excerpts from the Abstract:

“… We use haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a carefully chosen geographically diverse sample of 2,039 individuals from the United Kingdom… The regional genetic differentiation and differing patterns of shared ancestry with 6,209 individuals from across Europe carry clear signals of historical demographic events… in non-Saxon parts of the United Kingdom, there exist genetically differentiated subgroups rather than a general ‘Celtic’ population.”

Welsh people could be most ancient in UK, DNA suggests, BBC News, June 19, 2012:

This is another article about Professor Donnelly’s team’s research. Excerpts from the article:

”… DNA samples were analysed at about 500,000 different points. After comparing statistics, a map was compiled which showed Wales and Cornwall stood out. Prof Donnelly said: ‘People from Wales are genetically relatively distinct, they look different genetically from much of the rest of mainland Britain, and actually people in north Wales look relatively distinct from people in south Wales.’ While there were traces of migrant groups across the UK, there were fewer in Wales and Cornwall. He said people* from south and north Wales genetically have ‘fairly large similarities with the ancestry of people from Ireland on the one hand and France [Moab & Ammon] on the other…’ He said it was possible that people came over from Ireland to north Wales because it was the closest point, and the same for people coming to south Wales from the continent, as it was nearer. However he added: ‘We don’t really have the historical evidence about what those genetic inputs were…’ 

Because of its westerly position and mountainous nature, Anglo-Saxons who moved into central and eastern England after the Romans left did not come that far west, and neither did the Vikings who arrived in around 900AD… The mountains were also the reason why (Welsh) DNA may have remained relatively unchanged, as people would have found it harder to get from north to south Wales or into England compared with people trying to move across the flatter southern English counties, making them more likely to marry locally and conserve more ancient DNA… ”

DNA links Welsh men to Scotland, Helen McArdle, Herald Scotland, November 24, 2014: 

The team of Alistair Moffat of CymruDNAWales and Scotland’s DNA discovered that 1 percent of Welsh males carry a Y chromosome variety that descends from ancient Picts from Scotland and is related to the modern Scottish variety of this lineage. Excerpts from the article:

“Some 10 per cent of all Scottish men belong to this ‘Pictish’ lineage compared to just 0.8 per cent of Englishmen. It is particularly concentrated in Perthshire, Fife, Angus and Grampian, regions of Scotland with known Pictish heritage. The discovery of shared ancestral ties between men in Scotland and Wales is at the centre of a new theory that this one per cent of Welsh men are direct descendents* of a small band of ancient Scottish aristocrats, who fled the Old Welsh-speaking kingdom of Strathclyde in the ninth century to escape a Viking invasion. They are thought to have headed south, by sea, to find refuge in north Wales after the Viking kings Ivar and Olaf led their dragonships up the Clyde in 870, laying siege to the fortress on Dumbarton Rock and eventually capturing Artgul, the king of Strathclyde.”

DNA survey reveals 25% of Welsh men directly descended from ancient kings and warlords, Nathan Bevan, Wales Online, December 18, 2014: 

Alistair Moffat of CymruDNAWales is interviewed as saying 25 percent of Welsh men whose grandparents were all Welsh inherited their Y chromosomes from about 20 medieval Welsh royals, nobles, and warlords who had many descendants. Moffat also spoke about what the team learned so far about the earliest immigrants to Wales, thousands of years ago. He said, 

“We all suspected that Wales was a Celtic country but no-one was prepared for just how muchthe classic Celtic Y chromosome marker R1b S145 being carried by a whopping 45% of Welsh men, as opposed to just 15% over on the other side of Offa’s Dyke. We have always known that Wales [Simeon] is different from England [Judah], but now here is a statistic that shows there is no question about it.”

‘The Welsh television presenter Angharad Mair had her DNA tested by CymruDNAWales [in 2015]. Upon examining her mitochrodrial DNA, they found that her maternal lineage came from the Levant region (eastern Mediterranean) thousands of years ago. Excerpts:

“… These particular mitochrodrial DNA markers… appear with very high frequency in Wales – at around 11%… However, they are most commonly found among Ashkenazi Jews of Europe, where a third of all maternal bloodlines are Levantine… ‘I was very excited to discover that I had Jewish ancestry – which might’ve only developed in the last two centuries…’ ”

Khazaria, Irish – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The “Celtic” Irish people of the emerald isle of Ireland are closely related to the Scottish people of nearby Scotland, and Irish and the partly Frisian-Anglo-Saxon English people from England are also significantly related. This shows the limitations of assuming we know everything about somebody’s ancestry merely based on what language their ethnic group traditionally spoke (in this case, Irish Gaelic versus English). Also, some Irish people moved to Iceland and are thus partly related to modern Icelanders.

R1b, which originated in western Europe, is the most common Y-DNA haplogroup among Irish men, at a frequency of about 81.5%. I1 is the second most common with 6%, followed by I2b at 5%, R1a at 2.5%, and E1b1b at 2%. G2a is found in only about 1%. Also rare are I2a (1%)and J2 (1%).

According to The ALlele FREquency Database, 8.4% of the 226 Irish people studied carry at least one T allele in the R151C (rs1805007) gene where TT usually causes red hair. That isn’t the only red hair allele that Irish people sometimes carry. Between 4-6% of 23andMe’s Irish customers carry the T red hair allele on the R160W (rs1805008, Arg160Trp) gene, while 4-6% of their Irish customers carry the C red hair allele on the D294H (i3002507) gene… Irish people carry red-hair gene variants including Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, and Asp294His. There are also correlations between these and light skin.

The Irish DNA Atlas: Revealing Fine-Scale Population Structure and History within Ireland, multiple authors, Scientific Reports 7, December 8, 2017, article number 17199:

‘The “Irish DNA Atlas” project is run by the Genealogical Society of Ireland, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, and the University of Leicester. They sought people whose 8 great-grandparents were all born in Irish towns within 30 kilometers of each other. This major autosomal DNA study includes 194 Irish people who told 4 generations of their ancestry and linked their ancestors to specific regions within Ireland. They were compared to 2,039 people from the “Peoples of the British Isles” (PoBI) dataset, to 6,760 people from throughout Europe, and to two ancient Irish individuals. The scientists managed to divide the Irish population into “10 distinct geographically stratified genetic clusters; seven of ‘Gaelic’ Irish ancestry [Ireland], and three of shared Irish-British ancestry [Northern Ireland].” 

They also “demonstrate high levels of North-West French-like and West Norwegian-like ancestry within Ireland.” It has long been known that Norse (Viking) people settled in Ireland during the Middle Ages so this makes sense. They did not, however, interpret the French-like DNA to be a signal of medieval Norman French ancestry since people in northwestern France are related to other Celtic peoples. They also detected some Scottish ancestry that came into Ulster in northern Ireland in the 16th-17th centuries. This again conforms to what we know about the religious and ethnic divide between the substantially Protestant and British communities of Northern Ireland [Reuben] and the traditionally Catholic Republic of Ireland [Gad].’

‘The genetic landscape of Scotland and the Isles, multiple authors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, September 3, 2019:

‘Irish people were among those who participated in this autosomal DNA study of 2,544 people. The Irish people from County Donegal in northwestern Ireland are shown to represent “the most genetically isolated region of Ireland observed to date. This isolation shows little evidence of the migrations that have impacted the rest of Ulster.” Using admixture analysis, the researchers concluded that “Norwegian (as well as Danish/Swedish) ancestry is also markedly low in Ireland (average 7%) compared with previous estimates”. It is no surprise that the researchers determined that Irish, Welsh, and Scottish people inherited a majority of their ancestry from the ancient “Celts”.’

This due to the fact that the Viking element are contributions from two separate sons of Jacob, two different tribes – of which they then left** to migrate to new lands. 

‘… researchers studied the Y-DNA of Irish men with surnames considered to be of Norse origin. They examined both unique event polymorphisms and short tandem repeat (STR) markers. They found that these Irish men actually didn’t usually have paternal roots from Scandinavia, nor do Irish men in the general population of modern Ireland… “the findings are consistent with a relatively small number of Norse settlers (and [descendants]) migrating to Ireland during the Viking period (ca. AD 800-1200) suggesting that Norse colonial settlements might have been largely composed of indigenous Irish…

Those peoples who have remained** in Scotland and Ireland are the tribes of Benjamin and Gad, with Reuben in Ulster.

Insular Celtic population structure and genomic footprints of migratiuon, PLoS Genetics, January 25, 2018:

…structural clustering for the autosomal DNA of 1,035 Irish individuals. The authors found 23 Irish clusters. The abstract says that these clusters “segregate with geographical provenance.” Excerpts from the Abstract:

“… Cluster diversity is pronounced in the west of Ireland but reduced in the east where older structure has been eroded by historical migrations. Accordingly, when populations from the neighbouring island of Britain are included, a west-east cline of Celtic-British ancestry is revealed along with a particularly striking correlation between haplotypes and geography across both islands. A strong relationship is revealed between subsets of Northern Irish and Scottish populations, where discordant genetic and geographic affinities reflect major migrations in recent centuries. Additionally, Irish genetic proximity of all Scottish samples likely reflects older strata of communication across the narrowest inter-island crossing. Using GLOBETROTTER we detected Irish admixture signals from Britain and Europe and estimated dates for events consistent with the historical migrations of the Norse-Vikings, the Anglo-Normans and the British Plantations. The influence of the former is greater than previously estimated from Y chromosome haplotypes… ”

A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland, multiple authors, American Journal of Human Genetics 78, February 2006, pages 334-338:

The researchers used 17-marker simple tandem repeat (STR) analysis on the Y chromosomes of samples obtained from Irish men. They discovered that 16.9% of men from northwestern Ireland, and 8.2% of men from Ireland as a whole, descend from a single male ancestor from early-medieval times from the family dynasty of the Uí Néill, since the haplotype is often found in people holding surnames associated with this dynasty. Their abstract calls this a “modal haplotype”.

Population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in Ireland and Britain, multiple authors, European Journal of Human Genetics 18, 2010, pages 1248-1254:

The researchers studied the genetics of 3,654 including people from Ireland, the United Kingdom (including Aberdeen, Scotland), Sweden, Portugal, Bulgaria, and the American state of Utah (whose people are largely of English descent). Haplotype diversity was found to be lower in Ireland and Scotland than in southern Europe. Also, Irish people have higher levels of linkage disequilibrium and homozygosity compared to other Europeans. The results showed that the population of Ireland has been relatively isolated throughout the millennia. The article notes that Scottish people are “intermediate between the Irish and English cohorts” in principal component analysis. British and Irish people are predominantly “Northwestern” European in origin but also partly “Scandinavian” (more so for English people than Irish people) and have relatively small amounts of “Iberian” and “Balkan” ancestry.

Admixture results based on the Dodecad Ancestry Project showed, at K=11, that Irish are mostly “Northwest European” (as we’d expect), also partly “Northeast European” and “Basque”, with a small slice of “Sardinian”, and a little bit of “West Asian”. The Irish are very similar to British, which is also shown by their clustering together in two main groups.’

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentaion in Four European Populations, multiple authors, PLoS ONE 7, October 31, 2012): 

As expected, Irish people were found to have overall lighter skin pigmentation than continental Europeans. The article also confirmed that, on average, the hair colors of Irish and Polish people (northern Europeans) are lighter than Italian and Portuguese people (southern Europeans). Within Ireland, Irish females have a pronounced tendency toward lighter hair than Irish males; a sexual dimorphism of this magnitude wasn’t detected in the Poles.Northern Europeans also have, on average, lighter eyes than southern Europeans. Furthermore, both Irish males and females tend to have lighter eyes than even Poles do. Excerpts from the Abstract:

“Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations… Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland [Gad], Poland [Havilah-Joktan], Italy [Nahor & Uz-Aram], and Portugal [Hul-Aram]. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. 

In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women… ”

DNA blueprint of the Irish revealed, Damian Corless, Irish Independent, September 11, 2010:

This article is based on research by Brendan Loftus of University College Dublin, whose “research team… mapped the complete genetic code of an Irish person for the first time.” Researchers hope that analysis of the Irish genome will help to explain why Irish people are susceptible to particular disorders and try to find preventative measures and cures for those disorders. Excerpts from the article:

“… Ireland’s geography has had a huge part to play in shaping the nature of our society and our closest family ties. According to Loftus: ‘The geographic isolation of Ireland over generations would affect the size of the gene pool by limiting the type and number of potential mating partners.’ Major genetic surveys of Ireland and Britain have established that the gene pool of both islands is amongst the least diluted in Europe. The genetic evidence shows that three quarters of the ancestors of the Irish and British people were the pioneering settlers…’

So much for the widely held, propagandised belief that the British and especially the English are a hybrid, mongrel people.

The inescapable upshot of this is that the Irish are not Celts, any more than the English are Anglo-Saxons. In fact, both the Irish and the British are Basques, with the Irish significantly more Basque than our neighbours across the pond, who’ve absorbed more migrations from Europe over the centuries. The dilution rate for Ireland is estimated at a tiny 12%, against 20% for Wales and Cornwall, 30% for Scotland and 33% for England… 

Ancient Irish legends say that there were six invasions or migrations from the south many generations before the Celts arrived around 300BC. The evidence suggests that the Celtic language, fashions and technologies which are supposed to define our Irish heritage, were acquired as cultural accessories… The Irish and Basques share by far the highest incidence of the R1b gene in Europe, which has a frequency of over 90% in Basque country and almost 100% along parts of Ireland’s western seaboard. 

If further proof were needed, there’s the physical fact that the Basques are distinguished by a very high incidence of fair (and some reddish) hair, pale skin, blue eyes, and, apparently, sticky-out ears. Sound like anyone you know?” [Refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]

English, Irish, Scots: They’re All One, Genes Suggest, Nicholas Wade, The New York Times, March 5, 2007:

Geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer of the University of Oxford used genetic evidence to disprove the traditional historical narrative that the Irish people are mainly Celts and that they’re very distinct from Englishmen. Oppenheimer suggested, rather, that most of the ancestors of Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English peoples came from Spain and that their original language was related to Basque. Excerpts:

“… In Dr. Oppenheimer’s reconstruction of events, the principal ancestors of today’s British and Irish populations arrived from Spain… speaking a language related to Basque… Although the Celtic immigrants may have been few in number, they spread their farming techniques and their language throughout Ireland and the western coast of Britain. Later immigrants arrived from northern Europe [who] had more influence on the eastern and southern coasts. They too spread their language, a branch of German… As for subsequent invaders, Ireland received the fewest; the invaders’ DNA makes up about 12 percent of the Irish gene pool, Dr. Oppenheimer estimates, but it accounts for 20 percent of the gene pool in Wales, 30 percent in Scotland, and about one-third in eastern and southern England… ”

In the previous section [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin], we looked at the top mtDNA Haplogroups for England and Scotland and compared them with near family. Flanders, the Netherlands, Germany and France. That is, Sheba, Midian, Ishmael and Lot.

England: H [44.7%] – J [11.5%] – U5 [9.1%] –

K [7.8%] – T2 [6.2%] – H5 [4.1%] – I [4%] –

HV0+V [3.2%] – U [2.7%]

Scotland: H [44%] – J [12.7%] – U5 [8.1%] –

K [6.9%] – T2 [5.9%] – H5 [3.1%] –

HV0+V [3%] – U4 [2.8%] – X [2.5%] 

Belgium: H [46.9%] – K [12.1%] – T2 [ 9.4%] –

H5 [6%] – J [6%] – U [5.4% ] – U5 [3.4%] –

W [3.3%] – HV0+V [2.7%] 

Netherlands: H [45%] – T2 [12%] – J [11%] –

K [10%] – HV0+V [8%] – U5 [7.5%] –

U4 [6.5%] – I [2.5%] – W [2.5%]

Germany: H [45%] – J [9%] – U5 [8.8%] –

T2 [7.8%] – K [6.6%] – H5 [4.8%] –

HV0+V [4%] – U4 [2.9%] – T1 [2.8%] 

France: H [44.3%] – K [8.7%] – U5 [8.2%] –

J [7.7%] – T2 [6.2%] – HV0+V [5%] –

H5 [3.1%] – U4 [2.5%] – I [2%] 

England:         H – J – U5 – K – T2 – H5 – I – HV0+V – U

Scotland:        H – J – U5 – K – T2 – H5 – HV0+V- U4 – X

Germany:       H – J – U5 – T2 – K – H5 – HV0+V – U4 – T1 

France:           H – K – U5 – J – T2 – HV0+V – H5 – U4 – I 

Belgium:         H – K – T2 – H5 – J – U – U5 – W – HV0 + V 

Netherlands:  H – T2 – J – K – HV0 + V – U5 – U4 – I – W

The comparison of the mtDNA Haplogroups showed that England and Scotland were more closely related as expected. Germany mirrored their sequence most closely, then France, then Flanders and the Netherlands the least similar of the six close family members of Judah, Benjamin, Ishmael, Moab & Ammon, Sheba and Midian.

Wales: H [59.8%] – J [15.3%] – K [7.6%] – U5 [4.4%] –

HV0+V [4.3%] – I [3.3%] – T1 [2.2%] –

T2 [1.1%] – X [1.1%] 

Ireland: H [44.1%] – K [12%] – J [10.7%] – U5 [8.4%] –

HV0+V [5.7%] – T2 [5.4%] – I [3%] –

W [2.3%]

Wales:             H – J – K – U5 – HV0+V – I – T1 – T2 – X 

Ireland:           H – K – J – U5 – HV0+V – T2 – I – W 

Adding Ireland – including Northern Ireland – and Wales reveals what we have observed previously with cousins often having more in common with each other than with their siblings. The Irish in sequence at least, are closer to the French than the English and Scots on their mtDNA maternal side. Of the top mtDNA Haplogroups, Ireland shares nine with England and France and eight with Scotland and Germany. Wales reveals a sequence that doesn’t seem to match anyone too closely.

                           H       HV0+V      J          K          T2         U4       U5        T1

Scotland          44            3           13           7           6            3          8          2

England           45            3           12          8           6            2           9          2

Germany         45            4             9           7          8             3          9          3

France             44            5             8           9          6             3          8          2

Ireland            44            6            11         12          5              1          8          1

Netherlands   45            8            11         10        12             7          8          3     

Sephardic       46            9              5          8

Benelux           47            3              6        12          9             3          3          2 

Denmark        47            4             13         9          6              2          6          2

Norway           46            4             11          5         8              3         11          2

Sweden           46            5              8          6         4              3         12          3

Wales              60            4            15          8          1                          4           2

The addition of Ireland and Wales with their near and extended family members is highly revealing. It is only when we study the percentages of the most frequent mtDNA Haplogroups more closely, that we confirm the Irish do have a closer affinity with their French cousins, than with their half-brothers England and Scotland on the maternal side. The Welsh Haplogroups prove categorically that they are the most ancient of Britons and have the least maternal dilution in the British Isles as all the studies have shown. 

The Welsh mtDNA Haplogroup snap shot is a great glimpse into the distant past for what probably all the other nations on the table would have once looked like with a very high majority percentage of H and then perhaps possessing J, K, T and U from 5% to 20% of their total mtDNA inheritance. All other Haplogroups probably additions in the gene pool from admixture and inter-marriage. 

Ireland shares similarity with England and Scotland in Haplogroups H, J, U5 and T2. Wales shares similarity with England and Scotland in Haplogroups J and K and not much with the Irish, except possibly Haplogroup J. What has to be accounted for is that Ireland’s Haplogroups are for both countries. Separating Ireland and Northern Ireland would provide a different picture.

Colour code: Green – Nahor and Haran; Blue – Keturah and Ishmael; Yellow – Esau; Red – Jacob.

                            H       J      T2      K      HV        U5    HV0+V

Wales                60     15       1        8                       4           4

Switzerland      48     12      9        5       0.5          7            5

Benelux            47       6        9      12     0.7           3            3

Denmark          47     13       6        9                      6            4

Norway             46     11       8        5      0.2         11            4

Sweden             46      8       4        6      0.5         12            5

Sephardim       46      5                  8         8                         9

England            45    13       6         8                      9            3

Netherlands     45     11      12      10                      8           8

Germany           45      9       8        7     0.5            9           4

Austria              45      9       8        9     0.8            9           2

Scotland           44    13       6        7      0.2            8           3

Ireland              44    11       5      12          1            8           6

Brazil                 44    11                            2                        11

Portugal            44      7       6        6      0.1           7            5

Spain                 44      7       6        6          1           8           8

France               44     8       6         9         3           8           5

Poland               44     8       7        4                     10           5

Greece               41     10       7        5                     6            2

Russia               41      8        7        4          2        10           4

Italy                  40      8        8       8           3        5             3

Ukraine            39      8        8        5                    10           4

Iceland             38    14      10      10          2         8            2

Romania          37     11        5        8                      7            4

Finland            36      6        2        5                    20            7

Turkey              31      9        4        6          5          3            1

Ashkenazim    23      7        5       32          5          2            4

Iran                   17     14        5         7         7          3            1

Adding Ireland and Wales to our growing table of European nations is revealing. The Swiss who have bookended the western side of the mtDNA Haplogroups for some time are now replaced by the Welsh. Though it is an extreme westerly position as akin to Iran who bookend the eastern end of the table.

Previously: ‘A pattern has emerged showing the percentage levels of the main European mt-DNA Haplogroup H, increasing as one heads west across Europe…’ The addition of  three more of Jacob’s sons, Reuben, Simeon and Gad, places Ireland next to Scotland. Again, the combined Haplogroups for Ireland mean the connection between Northern Ireland and Scotland influences the figures. It would be Northern Ireland who would sit nearer to Scotland and Ireland somewhere between England and Wales. We will explore the Northern Irish and Scottish connection further in a later chapter. Therefore, Ireland joins Scotland and England in going against the pattern of increasing level of Haplogroup H as one heads westwards. 

Now regarding Y-DNA Haplogroups; a recap from the last chapter: “Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.” R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup, in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3% and is carried by over 110 million European men. Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. The time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE – according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE. 

The sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106 (S21) is more frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; R-U198 is most prevalent in England, while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula; R-U152 is more frequent in Switzerland, France and Italy, and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. 

 We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from Central Europe westwards.

Italy was the first nation with their main Y-DNA Haplogroup being R1b and shows a marked difference with eastern Europe. The north to south axis is as important as the east to west and this explains why for instance Poland has slightly higher percentages of both clades of R1b than Russia as it is further west. Comparably, the Czech Republic displays a higher level of R-U106 than Italy which is further south; yet less R1b [M269] overall as it is the descendants of Peleg, Aram and the mixed line of Caphtor that have the highest levels of R1b [refer Chapters XV Casluh & Caphtor and XXIII Aram].’

Turkey            R-M269   14% — R-U106   0.4%

Russia             R-M269   21% — R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269   17% — R-U106      4%

Poland             R-M269   23% — R-U106     8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25% — R-U106     9%

Czech               R-M269   28% — R-U106   14% 

France             R-M269   52% — R-U106     7%

Italy                  R-M269   53% — R-U106    6%

Swiss                R-M269   58% — R-U106   13%

Netherlands    R-M269   54% — R-U106  35%

Denmark         R-M269   34% — R-U106   17%

Austria             R-M269   27% — R-U106  23%

Germany         R-M269   43% — R-U106   19%

England           R-M269   57%  — R-U106   20%

Ireland:           R-M269   80% — R-U106      6%

When we added England, it was clear that the English are closely related to all these nations. Clarity is intensified when one appreciates that they equate to Judah, Ishmael, Medan, Midian, Haran, Nahor, Moab and Ammon; all of Abraham’s direct or extended family tree. Now with the addition of Ireland and Gad, we can see the result of less mixing over the millennia with an incredible percentage of R-M269 for the Republic. 

Notice the more Germanic, Central European R-U106 percentage for Ireland is closer to those nations of Eastern and Southern Europe, rather than Ireland’s western neighbours. Again highlighting Ireland’s ancient and isolated position in Europe. R1b clades associated with Ireland include: M37, specific to the Irish; L226/S168 in Central and Western Ireland; and M222 in Northwestern Ireland and also associated with the Scots Irish. We will study M222 in more depth in a later chapter. R1b clades associated with the Welsh include: M167, shared with the Cornish and Basques and L371 specific to the Welsh. 

Y-DNA Haplogroups for Ireland, Wales, Ireland and Northern Ireland:

Wales: R1b [74%] – I1 [12%] – E1b1b [4%] – I2a2 [3%] – G2a [2.5%] –

R1a [1%] – I2a1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – J2 [0.5%] 

Ireland: R1b [81%] – I1 [6%] – I2a2 [5%] – R1a [2.5%] – E1b1b [2%] –

I2a1 [1%] – J2 [ 1.5%]  – G2a [1%] 

Northern Ireland: R1b [76.5%] – I2a2 [10%] – I1 [9%] – R1a [ 1.5%] –

J2 [1.5%] – I2a1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Wales:         R1b – I1 – E1b1b – I2a2 – G2a – R1a – I2a1 – T1a – J2

Ireland:       R1b – I1 – I2a2 – R1a – E1b1b – I2a1 – J2 – G2a 

N Ireland:   R1b – I2a2 – I1 – R1a – J2 – I2a1 – Q

The difference between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland is clear. They are two different peoples and ethnically divided, not just by nationality or religion. It is interesting to note that Wales and Ireland are similar in Haplogroups, I2a1, I2a2, E1b1b and G2a; whereas Ireland and Northern Ireland have a closer match only in J2. All these are admixture groups and it is in the two main Haplogroups that the full blood brothers of Simeon, Wales and Reuben, Northern Ireland have a closer match in R1b and arguably in I1.

Comparing Irish and Welsh Y-DNA Haplogroups with their related near neighbours.

England:  R1b [67%] – I1 [14%] – R1a [4.5%] – I2a2 [4.5%] – J2 [3.5%] –

I2a1 [2.5%]  – E1b1b [2%] – G2a [1.5%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Scotland: R1b [73%] – I1 [9%] – R1a [8.5%] – I2a2 [4%] – J2 [2%] –

E1b1b [1.5%] – I2a1 [1%] – G2a [0.5%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Flanders: R1b [61%] – I1 [12%] – E1b [5%] – I2a2 [4.5%] – R1a [4%] –

G2a [4%] – J2 [4%] – I2a1 [3%] – J1 [1%] – T [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] – L [0.5%]

Netherlands: R1b [49%] – I1 [17%] – I2a2 [7%] – G2a 4.5%] – R1a [4%] –

E1b1b [3.5%] – J2 [3.5%] – I2a1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – J1 [0.5%] 

Germany: R1b [45%] – R1a [16%] – I1 [16%] – [E1b1b [5.5%] – G2a [5%] –

I2a2 [4.5%] – J2 [4.5%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – T1a [1%] – N1c1 [ 1] –  Q [0.5]

France: R1b [59%] – I1 [9%] – E1b1b [8%] – J2 [6%] – G2a [5.5%] –

I2a2 [3.5%] – I2a1 [3%] – R1a [3%] – J1 [1.5%] – T1a [1%] – Q [0.5%] 

Italy: R1b [39%] – J2 [15.5%] – E1b1b – [13.5%] – G2a [9%] – I1 [4.5%] –

R1a [4%] – I2a1 [3%] – J1 [3%] – I2a2 [2.5%] – T1a [2.5%]

Sephardic Jew: R1b [29.5%] – J [28.2%] – E1b1b [19.2%] – I [11.5%] –

G [7.7%] – R1a [3.9%]

Recall, that R1b is indicative of Western Europe and includes all of Abraham’s descendants as well as that of his two brothers. Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a is distinctly related to the peoples of Eastern Europe and is in considerably lower levels heading from Central to Western Europe. Haplogroup I1 is strongly attached to north western Europe and hence the higher levels in all four countries of the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Germany:        R1b – R1a – I1 – E1b1b – G2a – I2a2 – J2 – I2a1 – T1a – N1c1

– Q 

England:          R1b – I1 – R1a – I2a2 – J2 – I2a1 – E1b1b – G2a – T1a – Q

Scotland:          R1b – I1 – R1a – I2a2 – J2 – E1b1b – I2a1 – G2a – T1a – Q

Netherlands:   R1b – I1 – I2a2 – G2a – R1a – E1b1b – J2 – I2a1 – T1a – J1

Ireland:            R1b – I1 – I2a2 – R1a – E1b1b – I2a1 – J2 – G2a 

Wales:               R1b – I1 – E1b1b – I2a2 – G2a – R1a – I2a1 – T1a – J2

Flanders:          R1b – I1 – E1b1b – I2a2 – R1a – G2a – J2 – I2a1 – J1 – T1a

– Q – L

France:             R1b – I1 – E1b1b – J2 – G2a – I2a2 – I2a1 – R1a – J1 – T1a – Q

N Ireland:         R1b – I2a2 – I1 – R1a – J2 – I2a1 – Q

Italy:                  R1b – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – I1 – R1a – I2a1 – J1 – I2a2 – T1a 

Sephardim:      R1b – J1/J2 – E1b1b – I – G2a – R1a

                           R1b      J      E1b1b       G         R1a       I

Ireland               81       2            2           1            3        12

N Ireland           77       2                                       2        20     

Wales                 74    0.5           4           3            1         16

Scotland            73       2            2       0.5            9         14

England             67      4            2           2            5         21

Flanders            61       5            5           4            4        20

France               59       8            8          6             3        16

Netherlands     49       4            4          5             4        25

Germany           45       5            6          5           16        22

Italy                    39     19           14          9            4        10

Sephardim        30     28          19          8            4        12

The five nations of Britain and Ireland immediately standout as belonging together; as well as separately from their near family members in the western portions of the continent. We learn a number of things. The English show the greatest levels of admixture. This is not surprising as one, they are the largest nation and two have been geographically placed to be impacted the most by the invading migratory waves of Israelites. The higher levels of J are likely attributable to the influx of non-white peoples. Though England’s R1b is lower because of this, notice the higher percentage for Haplogroup I – similar to its full brothers Simeon, Wales and Reuben, Northern Ireland and yet higher than its half brothers Benjamin, Scotland and Gad, Ireland.

Scotland’s higher percentage of R1a stands out. Is this linked to Benjamin’s ancient past and the acquiring of different wives early in their history, or more recent admixture with Scandinavians? Wales has a higher percentage of E1b1b, as this has been added at some point; when and where? Northern Ireland, very much and then Ireland have a purer Haplogroup identification than the other three, if the principle R1b and I are taken together; bearing out their isolation. Then Wales, Scotland and England. Northern Ireland’s percentage of Haplogroup I is high, similar to England’s. The uniqueness of Northern Ireland will be investigated in a subsequent chapter.

Colour code: Green – Nahor and Haran; Blue – Keturah and Ishmael; Yellow – Esau; Red – Jacob.

                        R1b    E1b1b   J1 & J2   I1 & I2    G2a     R1a    T1a   N1C1

Ireland            81        2                2           12           1          3          

N Ireland        77                          2           20                      2         

Wales              74         4           0.5            16          3          1          1

Scotland         73         2              2            14       0.5          9      0.5

Spain              69          7            10             7            3         2        3

England         67          2             4             21          2          5      0.5      

Luxembourg 61          5            11             12          6          3        

Flanders         61           5             5          20            4         4        1            

Wallonia         60           6             2          18            6          7       4            

France             59           8            8          16            6          3        1      

Portugal          56         14           13            7            7          2        3

Brazil               54         11           10            9            5          4      

Switzerland    50           8           4           24           8           4        1        1

N Italy             50         11           12           12           8          5        2

Netherlands   49          4             5          25            5          4        1   

Germany         45         6             5           22            5        16        1        1

Iceland            42                                      33                      23                  1           

Italy                 39         14           19           10           9          4        3

Denmark        33           3             3           42          3         15                   1              

Austria            32          8           10          22            8        19         1        1

Norway           32           1             1            41           1        26                   7                

Sephardim     30          9           28           12         [8]         5                  

S Italy              28         19          26             7          11          3        3

Sweden           22           3            3           43            1        16                   7       

Turkey             16         11           33             6          11          8        3          

Greece             16         21           26           15           6         12        5  

Romania         16         14           15           34           3         18        1        2

Poland             13          4             3            16           2         58       1        4

Ashkenazim   12         20          36             4        [10]       10       3     0.2

Iran                   10          7         32              1          10          16       3        1 

Ukraine             8           7           5            26           3          44       1        6

Russia                6           3           3           20           1           46              23

Finland              4           1                         30                          4              62

Placing Wales, Ireland and Northern Ireland into our progressing European Nations table of Main Y-DNA Haplogroups, confirms the striking difference from not just their family members descended from Abraham but also from all other Europeans. Scotland has temporarily bookended the western half, now to be replaced by Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland at the extremity with the highest percentage of R1b. 

It is worth noting that though R1b may fluctuate markedly amongst Abraham’s descendants and R1a as well, it is Haplogroup I and specifically I1, that remains consistently higher than with other European nations. A case in point, are the nations of Aram: Spain, Portugal and Brazil, who all in turn have high levels of R1b Haplogroup but not Haplogroup I1. For R1b is a western European marker and I1 is a northern European marker and the two combined together, decidedly form a British and Irish marker. One that distinguishes the sons of Jacob from their own near relatives, such as: Ishmael, Germany; Midian, Netherlands; Medan, Denmark; Haran, Switzerland and Moab and Ammonite, France.

These people were more willing to listen than the people in Thessalonica. The Bereans were eager to hear what Paul and Silas said and studied the Scriptures every day to find out if these things were true… Most of all, you must understand this: No prophecy in the Scriptures ever comes from the prophet’s own interpretation. No prophecy ever came from what a person wanted to say, but people led by the Holy Spirit spoke words from God.

Acts 17:11 & 2 Peter 1:20-21 New Century Version

“Most of the time, we see only what we want to see, or what others tell us to see, instead of really investigate to see what is really there. We embrace illusions only because we are presented with the illusion that they are embraced by the majority… And like obedient schoolchildren, we do not question their validity… Because since the earliest days of our youth, we have been conditioned to accept that the direction of the herd, and authority anywhere – is always right.” 

Suzy Kassem 

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Judah & Benjamin – the Regal Tribes

Chapter XXX

For the constant reader, those reading the chapters in order, you may have a good idea now, on what is to be unfurled on the next several pages, let alone the remaining chapters. For others, the information that follows will undoubtedly challenge, annoy or disturb, without a background of a comprehensive context. Cries of racism and simple mindedness could be the thoughts of many. The weight of proof thus far for the identities we have studied, means there is little room to manoeuvre in trying to deny the palpable truth. For truth is singular and any other versions of it, whether it be our own or someone else’s, is still, but a mis-truth. Thus, it is a hopeless and forlorn endeavour indeed, to try and support old errors over new evidence, but alas it is a given that many will continue along a path that is comfortable, yet restrictive rather than one that is challenging, yet enlightening. 

Judah is the fourth son of the Patriarch Jacob and was his fourth son with first wife, Leah. It is interesting to learn that of all his twelve sons, it is Judah that is most like his father, Jacob. For all this, Jacob favours his second youngest son Joseph; the eldest son by his favourite wife, Rachel. It is to Joseph that Jacob passes the birthright blessings – normally given to the literal eldest son – the blessing that was passed from Abraham to Isaac and then Isaac to Jacob. Yet, the most similar son is not ignored, in that Judah was promised a unique and separate blessing of his own, the royal orb and sceptre of kingship. 

This was not just any royal kingly line, for it has two distinct components not possessed by other nations’ royalty. First, someone from Judah and particularly from his descendant King David, would always be alive in qualification of being able to sit on the throne. 

The massive spin on this and one that many Israelite identity believers have missed, is that the Creator did not promise that someone from Judah would always sit on the throne; just that the throne would perpetually exist and there would be a descendant of Judah and David, eligible to rule. This throne does exist today and those that sit on it are not true descendants of Judah, but usurpers [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

The second component of Judah’s blessing was that the throne given him was on loan; that those that sit on it are temporarily holding it for someone else. The identity of that person means the incumbent King or Queen is behooved to reign justly and to be righteous themselves. 

For the seat belongs to the Son of Man and it is to Him that it will be given at His second coming. A throne He qualified for – and one that He will rule the whole world from – when He defeated sin and death; the two main instruments of weaponry, Samael uses in his ongoing war of enslavement against humankind.

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, June 2, 1953, Westminster Abbey, London, England

Israelite identity or British Israelite proponents have failed to interpret the Bible, history and world events for they they have mis-identified Judah. We have seen the disastrous results of this in Chapter XXIX Esau. Esau is the second most mentioned identity in the scriptures – some 30%, of all biblical identity references. The tribe of Judah is stated the most – some 60%, of all Biblical identity references – with the remaining 10% accounting for all the sons of Japheth, Ham and the other descendants of Shem, even including Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim. Yet the identities ascribed to both Edom and Judah, as well as Joseph have been incorrect for some five hundred years as the subject gained universal knowledge and appeal. Granted, most understand half of Joseph, that is his eldest son Manasseh, yet even here the identities of Joseph’s two sons have been in continual error until the early 1970’s, when it was first highlighted that the identity for Manasseh was incorrect. 

So, the four main peoples in the Bible, Judah, Edom, Ephraim and Manasseh have been incorrect since the subject was first addressed hundreds of years ago. The truth on Ephraim – to my knowledge – first came to light nearly fifty years ago, yet has remained very much in the shadows. The truth on Edom has been known far longer in some circles outside of the identity movement, particularly amongst the Jews, though it too has only been discussed and revealed since the 1970’s. Unlike Ephraim, a number of works have been written on Edom and the truth has been available to the public for some time. 

Given the many, clear and distinctive clues available in the scriptures, it is baffling how blindness has afflicted it would seem, nearly everyone to the real identities of Joseph and Edom. More puzzling still, are the profound verses surrounding the tribe of Judah and how they have remained hidden while in plain sight all along. We will learn that the identity of Judah is the key… the Key, that unlocks the whole third of the Bible that is prophetic. Judah is the key that unlocks the second third of the Bible that is historical. Finally, the remaining third of the Bible, though written by extension, to the whole world – as Gentiles can be grafted in to the family of Israel – and generally written to the remaining tribes of Israel, it is to Judah that it primarily pertains. 

Matthew 10:5-6

Common English Bible

5 Jesus sent these twelve out and commanded them, “Don’t go among the Gentiles or into a Samaritan city. 6 Go instead to the lost sheep, the people of Israel.

Matthew 15:24

New Century Version

Jesus answered, “God sent me only to the lost sheep, the people of Israel.”

I appreciate this is unpalatable to some readers and maybe abhorrent to others, as it appears to be a statement that is both racist and anti-Semitic all at once. The reader must understand and appreciate two points. First, the Jews as studied in Chapter XXIX Esau, are not the tribe of Judah. 

Abraham of Ur, David A Snyder, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It is very seldom that a father admits that he learned something from his son. But in my case, in a roundabout way that is what happened several years ago on our annual fishing trip to Alaska. One night after dinner at Redoubt Mountain Lodge on Crescent Lake, we were discussing the Incarnation. He asked why God chose the tiny country of Israel over the highly advanced cultures of China or India to send His son to mankind. Even with my Miller Light induced keen insight, I found I could not answer the question to his or my satisfaction. I must admit that this question has haunted me ever since. 

Little did I know at the time that this question is known by theologians as The Scandal of Particularity and has been asked by theologians for centuries. Fortunately I think I have answered it, at least to my satisfaction, at the end of this book when I give my theories as to what part Abraham played in God’s plan of salvation. So, I must thank my son Paul for spicing my life with this riddle that had so much to do with the writing of this book.’ 

I found David Snyder’s book very helpful in my research on Abraham. The author highlights a major concern, that we looked at in chapter XXIX Esau. The Messiah was sent to His Father’s people, albeit small, of the tribe of Judah in the north of Judea [which included Idumea (Edom) in the southern portion]. It was not about the size of the populace, but the fact they were the Creator’s chosen people. Second, we shall learn that the Creator chooses whom He wills. If this is racist by our own individual definition, then it runs contrary to His. 

In Acts 17:26 NIV it says: 

‘From one man [Adam, via Noah] he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands.’

If one thinks this world is marked by national boundaries that are either happenstance or merely the creation of Humankind, then this is not what has occurred. There is a curious verse in Deuteronomy 32:8 NET:

‘When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided up humankind, he set the boundaries of the peoples, according to the number of the heavenly assembly.’

The footnotes in the New English Translation says: 

‘The Hebrew term (ʿelyon) is an abbreviated form of the divine name El Elyon, frequently translated “God Most High”… This full name (or epithet) occurs only in Genesis 14, though the two elements are parallel in Psalm 73:11; 107:11; etc. Here it is clear that Elyon has to do with the nations in general whereas in verse 9, by contrast, Yahweh relates specifically to Israel. The title depicts God as the sovereign ruler of the world, who is enthroned high above his dominion. The idea, perhaps, is that Israel was central to Yahweh’s purposes and all other nations were arranged and distributed according to how they related to Israel… a Qumran fragment has “sons of God,” while the LXX reads (angelōn theou, “angels of God”)… “Sons of God” is undoubtedly the original reading; the MT and LXX have each interpreted it differently. MT assumes that the expression “sons of God” refers to Israel (Hosea 1:10), while LXX has assumed that the phrase refers to the angelic heavenly assembly (Psalm 29:1; 89:6; Psalm 82). The phrase is also attested in Ugaritic, where it refers to the high god El’s divine assembly. According to the latter view, which is reflected in the translation, the Lord delegated jurisdiction over the nations to his angelic host (Daniel 10:13-21), while reserving for himself Israel, over whom he rules directly [via the Archangel Michael].’

Thus, the nations and peoples of the world are actually allotted to and governed by, invisible higher authorities and powers – Angels. The Creator has reserved Israel – the twelve sons of Jacob for Himself. Verse eight is translated a number of ways in different versions.

English Standard Version

When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he divided mankind, he fixed the borders of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God.

New International Version

When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided all mankind, he set up boundaries for the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel.

New Century Version

God Most High gave the nations their lands, dividing up the human race. He set up borders for the people and even numbered the Israelites.

The latter two have based their translation on the subject of verse nine, though the interlinear does not use the word Israel or God in verse eight: ‘When most High divided nations their inheritance, where separated sons of Adam, set bounds people, according to number children…’ The word ‘children’ is the word ben [H1121] and is translated in the KJV as: son [2978], children [1568], old [135], first [51], man [20], young [18], stranger [10]. Used as sons, it does mean sons of God or angels. The following verses clarify that the context is speaking of the sons of God, as the Creator is included.

Deuteronomy 32:8-12

Common English Bible

8 When God Most High divided up the nations – when he divided up humankind – he decided the people’s boundaries based on the number of the gods.Surely the Lord’s property was his people; Jacob was his part of the inheritance. 10 God found Israel in a wild land – in a howling desert wasteland – he protected him, cared for him, watched over him with his very own eye. 11 Like an eagle protecting its nest, hovering over its young, God spread out his wings, took hold of Israel, carried him on his back. 12 The Lord alone led Israel; no foreign god assisted.

The Message verses 8-9

When the High God gave the nations their stake, gave them their place on Earth, He put each of the peoples within boundaries under the care of divine guardians. 

But God himself took charge of his people, took Jacob on as his personal concern.

Living Bible verse 8

When God divided up the world among the nations, He gave each of them a supervising angel!

There are further verses that support angelic governance of specific nations and the Creator’s participation in this process.

Psalm 47:7-9

Common English Bible

7… God is king of the whole world! Sing praises with a song of instruction! 8 God is king over the nations. God sits on his holy throne. 9 The leaders of all people are gathered with the people of Abraham’s God because the earth’s guardians belong to God; God is exalted beyond all.

Psalm 2:1-2

New Century Version

Why are the nations so angry? Why are the people making useless plans? 2 The kings of the earth prepare to fight, and their leaders make plans together against the Lord and his appointed one [the Son of Man].

Isaiah 41:9, 14

New English Translation

9 … you whom I am bringing back from the earth’s extremities, and have summoned from the remote regions [the antipodes, southern Africa, northern America and the British Isles] – I told you, ‘You are my servant.’ I have chosen you and not rejected you… 14 Don’t be afraid, despised insignificant Jacob, men of Israel. I am helping you,” says the Lord, your Protector, the Holy One of Israel.

Daniel 10:1-6, 20-21

English Standard Version

In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a word was revealed to Daniel, who was named Belteshazzar. And the word was true, and it was a great conflict. And he understood the word and had understanding of the vision… 5 I lifted up my eyes and looked, and behold, a man [an angel] clothed in linen, with a belt of fine gold from Uphaz around his waist. 6 His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the sound of a multitude… 20 Then he said, “Do you know why I have come to you? But now I will return to fight against the prince of Persia; and when I go out, behold, the prince of Greece will come. 21 But I will tell you what is inscribed in the book of truth: there is none who contends by my side against these except Michael, your prince [the Prince of Israel].

Before we delve into Judah and his half-brother Benjamin, we will complete our discussion on Jacob that began in Chapter XXVII Abraham and continued in Chapter XXVIII Ishmael and Chapter XXIX Esau; for Jacob and Judah are much alike… though first; after we address the British Israelite Identity movement itself. British Israelism also known as Anglo-Israelism is the belief that the peoples of the British Isles are “genetically, racially and linguistically” the direct descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. There is an error right here already, in that we will learn that all twelve tribes – actually thirteen – were ‘lost’ and all thirteen after migrations through Europe, converged on the islands of Britain and Ireland. 

The movement’s roots were in the sixteenth century, gaining increased popularity in the 1800s, with its formal beginning and works by John Wilson [1799-1870] and Edward Hine [1825-1891]; continuing on till the present day. A well known online encyclopaedia with a palpable bias, states that these central tenets of British Israelism ‘have been refuted by evidence from modern archaeological, ethnological, genetic and linguistic research.’ It would be fascinating to learn of all this supposed evidence. It would also be spellbinding to know from this particular contributor, who then, are the descendants of ancient Israel today? 

Any reader who has undertaken the dedicated and unswerving journey of reading every chapter in this quest, will now know that we have convincingly and undeniably found a modern counterpart for every Biblical identity. There only remains a handful of nations around the world that could be the sons of Jacob. Anyone not blinded, hard-hearted or dishonestly upholding a crooked agenda, would be severely exposed in seeking to refute the massive body of evidence now compiled and presented. 

One of the earliest expressions of the Biblical identity doctrine was by a French Huguenot magistrate M le Loyer, in a work published in 1590, entitled, The Ten Lost Tribes. This may well be where the erroneous label Ten Lost Tribes originated, as well as presenting the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples as also sons of Jacob; when in fact, they are descendants of Abraham, just not through his son Isaac. Apparently James the VI of Scotland, [James I of England] believed he was the King of Israel. In 1919 the British Israel World Federation was founded in London and Covenant Publishing in 1922. The Federation has its headquarters in Bishop Auckland in County Durham. 

From the 1930s Herbert Armstrong [1892-1986], founder of the Radio and later, Worldwide Church of God, promoted the doctrine to its widest appeal, as one of his central teachings in understanding Biblical prophecy. Much of is own book on the subject – The United States and Britain in Prophecy – was heavily based or copied from the earlier work in 1902 by J H Allen, Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright

Criticisms of the movement by current scholars, include amateur research and scholarship in theology, anthropology, history and linguistics and of course the catch-all, sink the whole boat tactic, ‘its anti-semitic.’ As we have already addressed, the term anti-semitic is used in a linguistic context not a racial one and thus has been misleadingly misappropriated by opponents. One critic states: ‘the overwhelming cultural, historical and genetic evidence [is] against it.’ The presentation of this evidence would be enlightening. Granted, the link between Hebrew and English has shown to be a flawed argument – but not in every case. What no one seems to have considered, is the similarity between English and the germanic/teutonic languages it evolved from, revealing not just other language family members, but that they may be other genetic family members also [refer point three in the Introduction]. 

English has evolved from Old English and Old English evolved from Low German. As Germany is Ishmael [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], the Germans and English are closely related cousins. Not as closely related as Scotland and England who are half brothers, but still a family kinship as evidenced by not only the link in philology, but also the migration of the Saxon hordes from Northern Germany to England and the fact that from the east coast of England to the western border of Germany, it is only two hundred miles. 

Today there are provinces in both Germany and in Britain which are named after the Saxons and the primary tribe, the Angles. In Germany there are the federal states of Niedersachsen [Lower Saxony], Sachsen-Anhalt [Saxony-Anhalt], and Sachsen [Saxony]. In Britain there are the provinces Wessex [West Saxony], Sussex [South Saxony], and Essex [East Saxony]. Immediately south of the German-Danish border, in the German part of Schleswig, is the province Angeln [Anglia]. Until 1800, the primary language in Angeln was Danish, but during the first part of the nineteenth century German became the primary language. In eastern England there is a region called East Anglia. The name England itself is derived from Angle-land. In everyday language Anglo-Saxon is another name for the English speaking peoples, regardless of how many of their ancestors were Saxon Angles. 

There is another movement called Christian Identity – a 1920s offshoot of British Israelism – which has a racial interpretation of Christianity and a theology focus including white supremacist, racist and anti-Semitic stances, as well as fundamentalist teachings. This writer confirms that no connection exists between themselves and the Christian Identity or even the British Israel Federation. Nor has any of the material presented in this work been inspired or influenced by either organisation or its beliefs. Any similarity of suppositions, points or teachings are purely coincidental and could not be perceived as the same or linked in either its formation or explanation. 

Genesis 27:26-29

Christian Standard Bible

26 Then his father Isaac said to him, “Please come closer and kiss me, my son.” 27 So he came closer and kissed him. When Isaac smelled his clothes, he blessed him and said:

Ah, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field that the Lord has blessed. 28 May God give to you – from the dew of the sky and from the richness of the land – an abundance of grain and new wine. 29 May peoples serve you and nations bow in worship to you. Be master over your relatives; may your mother’s sons bow in worship to you. Those who curse you will be cursed, and those who bless you will be blessed.

Isaac’s blessing to Jacob said he would inherit rich lands, be prosperous and have power over other nations, including his relatives: Edom, Ishmael and Hagar, Midian – and the other sons of Keturah – Haran, Moab, Ammon and Nahor – the Chaldeans. Today, they equate to the Jews and Israel, Germany and Austria, the Netherlands, Scandinavia and Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, France, French Quebec in Canada and Italy. The non-Israelite countries descended from Abraham and his two brothers – the nations of principally northwestern Europe. We learned in chapter XXIX Esau, that Edom has turned the table on Jacob as prophesied. 

Aside from any other information, once we understand who Abraham’s other descendants are, we would have to objectively look throughout the world and say honestly which nations have had dominion over all these nations for the past five hundred years. There are only two nations that could answer to that enquiry and now, the reader will have worked out who they are. What has alluded those who have already understood this mystery, is the exact identity of these two primary leading nations from the sons of Jacob. For the first time, they can be explained. 

Recall that Rebekah had been blessed by her family in Genesis 24:60 NKJV: “Our sister, may you become The mother of thousands of ten thousands; And may your descendants possess The gates [doors, cities] of those who hate them.” Some by extension teach this includes pivotal sea-gates around the globe. If so, then Great Britain and the United States have shared the lion’s share of strategic ports: the Straits of Malacca, Singapore, the Suez Canal, Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Cape of Good Hope, Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands; plus the Panama Canal and other locations throughout the Pacific ocean. 

Jacob receives additional blessings. One from Isaac when Jacob hastily departs from home to escape a wrathful Esau and again, in a vision while sleeping.

Genesis 28:1-17

Christian Standard Bible

So Isaac summoned Jacob, blessed him… 3 May God Almighty bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you so that you become an assembly of peoples.4 May God give you and your offspring the blessing of Abraham so that you may possess the land where you live as a foreigner, the land God gave to Abraham.” 

10 Jacob left Beer-sheba and went toward Haran. 11 He reached a certain place and spent the night there because the sun had set. He took one of the stones from the place, put it there at his head, and lay down in that place. 12 And he dreamed: A stairway was set on the ground with its top reaching the sky, and God’s angels were going up and down on it. 13 The Lord was standing there beside him, saying, 

“I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac. I will give you and your offspring the land on which you are lying. 14 Your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out toward the west, the east, the north, and the south. All the peoples on earth will be blessed through you and your offspring. 

The promise of Jacob’s offspring being a blessing to all nations is a an echo of what the Creator spoke to Abraham. Genesis 22:18 NKJV: ‘In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.’ The apostle Paul explains that the fulfilment of this promise was through the Son of Man. Galatians 3:8, 16 ESV: And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles [all nations] by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, “In you shall all the nations be blessed” … Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, “And to offsprings,” referring to many, but referring to one, “And to your offspring,” who is Christ. 

Hebrews 2:10-18

Common English Bible

10 It was appropriate for God, for whom and through whom everything exists, to use experiences of suffering to make perfect the pioneer of salvation. This salvation belongs to many sons and daughters whom he’s leading to glory. 11 This is because the one who makes people holy and the people who are being made holy all come from one source. That is why Jesus isn’t ashamed to call them brothers and sisters… 14 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, he also shared the same things in the same way. He did this to destroy the one who holds the power over death – the devil – by dying. 15 He set free those who were held in slavery their entire lives by their fear of death. 16 Of course, he isn’t trying to help angels, but rather he’s helping Abraham’s descendants. 17 Therefore, he had to be made like his brothers and sisters in every way. This was so that he could become a merciful and faithful high priest in things relating to God, in order to wipe away the sins of the people. 18 He’s able to help those who are being tempted, since he himself experienced suffering when he was tempted.

It is vital to grasp, that a two-fold promise was given, material prosperity and spiritual salvation. This is not something that very many people understand.

15 Look, I am with you and will watch over you wherever you go. I will bring you back to this land, for I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.” 16 When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he said, “Surely the Lord is in this place, and I did not know it.” 17 He was afraid and said, “What an awesome place this is! This is none other than the house of God. This is the gate [stairway] of heaven.”

Jacob’s offspring were to be numerous and spread in all directions of the globe, north, south, east and west. In modern times this has been fulfilled as the British and Irish peoples have spread abroad to all continents, as well as making permanent homes in the antipodes, southern Africa and the Americas. 

Verse three is worth looking at. An assembly of peoples hints at more than one nation. The Hebrew word qahal [H6951], is translated by the KJV, as congregation [86], assembly [17], company [17] and multitude [3]. The Hebrew word before it is rabah [H7235], which the KJV translates as multiply [74], increase [40], many [28], great [8], exceedingly [2] and abundance [2]; to be many and numerous. 

Thus, Jacob’s children were to become numerous, while also more than one nation. Other versions translate in some insightful ways that assist in identifying the Israelite nations today.

NCV: … and may you become a group of many peoples.

NET: … and give you a multitude of descendants! Then you will become a large nation.

TLB: … may you become a great nation of many tribes!

NIRV: … May he make your family larger until you become a community of nations.

NLT: … And may your descendants multiply and become many nations!

VOICE: … and multiply your descendants so that you will give rise to nation after nation!

Genesis 29:1-35

English Standard Version

Then Jacob went on his journey and came to the land of the people of the east. 2 As he looked, he saw a well in the field, and behold, three flocks of sheep lying beside it, for out of that well the flocks were watered. The stone on the well’s mouth was large, 3 and when all the flocks were gathered there, the shepherds would roll the stone from the mouth of the well and water the sheep, and put the stone back in its place over the mouth of the well.

4 Jacob said to them, “My brothers, where do you come from?” They said, “We are from Haran .” 5 He said to them, “Do you know Laban the son [grandson] of Nahor?” They said, “We know him.” 6 He said to them, “Is it well with him?” They said, “It is well; and see, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep!” 

7 He said, “Behold, it is still high day; it is not time for the livestock to be gathered together. Water the sheep and go, pasture them.” 8 But they said, “We cannot until all the flocks are gathered together and the stone is rolled from the mouth of the well; then we water the sheep.”

9 While he was still speaking with them, Rachel came with her father’s sheep, for she was a shepherdess. 10 Now as soon as Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother’s brother, Jacob came near and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother. 11 Then Jacob kissed Rachel and wept aloud. 12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s kinsman, and that he was Rebekah’s son, and she ran and told her father.

It was love at first sight for Jacob, just as it had been for his father Isaac, when he saw Rebekah for the first time.

13 As soon as Laban heard the news about Jacob, his sister’s son, he ran to meet him and embraced him and kissed him and brought him to his house. Jacob told Laban all these things, 14 and Laban said to him, “Surely you are my bone and my flesh!” And he stayed with him a month.

15 Then Laban said to Jacob, “Because you are my kinsman, should you therefore serve me for nothing? Tell me, what shall your wages be?” 16 Now Laban had two daughters. The name of the older was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. 17 Leah’s eyes were weak [H7390 raw, meaning: tender, soft, delicate as in soft of words, delicate of flesh, shy],but Rachel was beautiful [H3303 yapheh, meaning: comely, fair] in form [body] and appearance [face]. 18 Jacob loved Rachel. And he said, “I will serve you seven years for your younger daughter Rachel.” 19 Laban said, “It is better that I give her to you than that I should give her to any other man; stay with me.” 20 So Jacob served seven years for Rachel, and they seemed to him but a few days because of the love he had for her.

21 Then Jacob said to Laban, “Give me my wife that I may go in to her, for my time is completed.” 22 So Laban gathered together all the people of the place and made a feast. 23 But in the evening he took his daughter Leah and brought her to Jacob, and he went in to her. 24 (Laban gave his female servant Zilpah to his daughter Leah to be her servant.) 25 And in the morning, behold, it was Leah! And Jacob said to Laban, “What is this you have done to me? Did I not serve with you for Rachel? Why then have you deceived me?” 26 Laban said, “It is not so done in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn. 27 Complete the week of this one, and we will give you the other also in return for serving me another seven years.” 28 Jacob did so, and completed her week. 

Then Laban gave him his daughter Rachel to be his wife. 29 (Laban gave his female servant Bilhah to his daughter Rachel to be her servant.) 30 So Jacob went in to Rachel also, and he loved Rachel more than Leah, and served Laban for another seven years.

31 When the Lord saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb, but Rachel was barren [like her grandmother, Sarah].32 And Leah conceived and bore a son [1], and she called his name Reuben [See, a son], for she said, “Because the Lord has looked upon my affliction; for now my husband will love me.” 33 She conceived again and bore a son [2], and said, “Because the Lord has heard that I am hated, he has given me this son also.” And she called his name Simeon [heard]. 34 Again she conceived and bore a son[3], and said, “Now this time my husband will be attached to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore his name was called Levi [attached]. 35 And she conceived again and bore a son [4], and said, “This time I will praise the Lord.” Therefore she called his name Judah [praise].Then she ceased bearing[for the time being, as Leah had two more sons and a daughter].

Jacob fled from his brother Esau in 1760 BCE. The Seder Olam Rabba states that Leah and Rachel were themselves also twins and were twenty-two [or twenty-one in another version] when they married Jacob. In 1753 BCE, Jacob would have been sixty-four years old. His working for seven years makes sense if Rachel had been only fifteen when they first met. Laban certainly knew what he was doing and had his plan regarding his daughters, unbeknown to Jacob. Reuben was born in 1752 BCE, Simeon 1750 BCE, Levi 1748 BCE and Judah was born in 1746 BCE.

Genesis 30:1-43

English Standard Version 

When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, she envied her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children, or I shall die!” 2 Jacob’s anger was kindled against Rachel, and he said, “Am I in the place of God, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?” 3 Then she said, “Here is my servant Bilhah; go in to her, so that she may give birth on my behalf, that even I may have children through her.” 4 So she gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob went in to her. 5 And Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son. 6 Then Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son.” Therefore she called his name Dan [judged].7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali [wrestling].

It is worth noting that when we investigate Dan [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan], we learn he was a troublesome son. Dan was conceived in an atmosphere of a marital argument, where Rachel was consumed with envy towards her sister and Jacob was angry. This maybe in part, due to further controversy surrounding Dan’s birth.

9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife. 10 Then Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, “Good fortune has come!” so she called his name Gad [good fortune]. 12 Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a second son. 13 And Leah said, “Happy am I! For women have called me happy.” So she called his name Asher [happy].

Dan was born later the same year as Judah in 1746 BCE and his brother Naphtali in 1744 BCE. Gad was also born in 1744 BCE and his brother Asher in 1742 BCE.

14 In the days of wheat harvest Reuben went and found mandrakes in the field and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 15 But she said to her, “Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?” Rachel said, “Then he may lie with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.” 16 When Jacob came from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must come in to me, for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” So he lay with her that night. 17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar [wages or hire]. 

19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun [honour]. 21 Afterward she bore a daughter and called her name Dinah. 

Issachar was born in 1742 BCE and his name may have been in part a homage to his grandfather Isaac. Zebulon and Dinah are thought to have been twins as it does not say Leah conceived Dinah, but rather she followed Zebulon – the Book of Jubilees corroborates twins. Leah was thirty-four when she had her last children; seven children in the space of twelve years. Additional information is provided in the Book of Jubilees reading Leah and her sons – with the spacing between the births given.

Book of Jubilees 28:11-23

28:11 And Yahweh opened the womb of Leah, and she conceived and bare Jacob a son, and he called his name Reuben, on the fourteenth day of the ninth month [November/December]… Yahweh saw that Leah was hated and Rachel loved. 13 And again Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob a second son, and he called his name Simeon, on the twenty-first of the tenth month [December/January], 14 And again Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare him a third son, and he called his name Levi, in the new month [1st – New Moon] of the first month [March/April]… 15 And again Jacob went in unto her, and she conceived, and bare him a fourth son, and he called his name Judah, on the fifteenth [Sabbath] of the third month [May/June]… 

17 And when Rachel saw that Leah had borne four sons to Jacob… she said to him: ‘Go in unto Bilhah my handmaid, and she will conceive, and bear a son unto me.’ 18… and she conceived, and bare him a son, and he called his name Dan, on the ninth of the sixth month [August/September]… 19 And Jacob went in again unto Bilhah a second time, and she conceived, and bare Jacob another son, and Rachel called his name Napthali, on the fifth of the seventh month [September/October]… 

20 And when Leah saw that she had become sterile and did not bear, she envied Rachel, and she also gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob to wife, and she conceived, and bare a son, and Leah called his name Gad, on the twelfth of the eighth month [October/November]… 21 And he went in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare him a second son, and Leah called his name Asher, on the second of the eleventh month [January/February]…22 And Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Issachar, on the fourth of the fifth month [July/August]…and she gave him to a nurse. 23 And Jacob went in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare two (children), a son and a daughter, and she called the name of the son Zebulon, and the name of the daughter Dinah, in the seventh of the seventh month [September/October]…

Confirmation of Zebulon and Dinah being twins, with Zebulon the eldest. Levi was born on the New Moon or first day of the month. A day that was celebrated like a Sabbath and Judah was actually born on the second Sabbath day of the month, according to the lunar cycle calendar.

22 Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 And she called his name Joseph [may he add], saying, “May the Lord add to me another son!” [this was fulfilled literally, with the birth of Benjamin and also figuratively, when Joseph became two, by having his sons Manasseh and Ephraim] 25 As soon as Rachel had borne Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Send me away, that I may go to my own home and country. 

26 Give me my wives and my children for whom I have served you, that I may go, for you know the service that I have given you.” 27 But Laban said to him, “If I have found favor in your sight, I have learned by divination that the Lord has blessed me because of you. 28 Name your wages, and I will give it.” 29 Jacob said to him, “You yourself know how I have served you, and how your livestock has fared with me. 30 For you had little before I came, and it has increased abundantly, and the Lord has blessed you wherever I turned. But now when shall I provide for my own household also?” 31 He said, “What shall I give you?” Jacob said, “You shall not give me anything. If you will do this for me, I will again pasture your flock and keep it: 32 let me pass through all your flock today, removing from it every speckled and spotted sheep and every black lamb, and the spotted and speckled among the goats, and they shall be my wages. 33 So my honesty will answer for me later, when you come to look into my wages with you. Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats and black among the lambs, if found with me, shall be counted stolen.” 34 Laban said, “Good! Let it be as you have said.” 35 But that day Laban removed the male goats that were striped and spotted, and all the female goats that were speckled and spotted, every one that had white on it, and every lamb that was black, and put them in the charge of his sons. 36 And he set a distance of three days’ journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob pastured the rest of Laban’s flock.

37 Then Jacob took fresh sticks of poplar and almond and plane trees, and peeled white streaks in them, exposing the white of the sticks. 38 He set the sticks that he had peeled in front of the flocks in the troughs, that is, the watering places, where the flocks came to drink. And since they bred when they came to drink, 39 the flocks bred in front of the sticks and so the flocks brought forth striped, speckled, and spotted. 40 And Jacob separated the lambs and set the faces of the flocks toward the striped and all the black in the flock of Laban. He put his own droves apart and did not put them with Laban’s flock. 41 Whenever the stronger of the flock were breeding, Jacob would lay the sticks in the troughs before the eyes of the flock, that they might breed among the sticks, 42 but for the feebler of the flock he would not lay them there. So the feebler would be Laban’s, and the stronger Jacob’s. 43 Thus the man increased greatly and had large flocks, female servants and male servants, and camels and donkeys.

Book of Jubilees 28:25-30

28:25 And in the days when Joseph was born… Jacob’s possessions multiplied exceedingly, and he possessed oxen and sheep and asses and camels, and menservants and maid-servants. 30 And Laban and his sons envied Jacob, and Laban took back his sheep from him, and he observed him with evil intent. 

Joseph was born quite sometime after Zebulon and Dinah, fourteen years later in fact, in 1726 BCE. A real battle of wills, mind games and trying to out smart the other is the core of Laban and Jacob’s relationship. This must have grown wearysome to say the least for Jacob after thirty-four years. It is though, another six years in 1720 BCE before Jacob finally has had enough and the call to return home to his parents has grown irresistible. 

At some point, Jacob’s mother Rebekah dies and whether this influences Jacob’s return is not known. There are two schools of thought from Rabbis. The first is that Rebekah died at the age of 133 years, [1724 BCE], twenty-seven years before Isaac. Her death would have occurred prior to Jacob’s return to his parents’ home; ‘and it was [possibly] coincident with that of Deborah’ [Genesis 35:8]. Her decease is not mentioned because Jacob had not arrived in time; so Esau was the only son present to attend to her burial. 

Tradition holds the ‘ceremony was performed at night out of shame that her coffin should be followed by a son like Esau.’ Alternatively, according to the Book of Jubilees 31:8-11, 48, Jacob, when he arrived home, found his mother alive; and she afterward accompanied him to Beth-el to accomplish his vow [Genesis 28:19-20]. This would mean Rebekah died at the age of 155 in 1702 BCE, some five years before Isaac’s death [Jubilees 35:1, 41], thus determining that her age when she married was twenty years old – while Isaac was forty. It is this version, I would consider the more accurate. 

Most readers assume that Jacob worked for Laban for twenty years, though the biblical math does not support this premise. An unknown author helpfully provides the correct explanation: 

‘In Genesis chapter 30 we find the entire account of Laban talking Jacob out of leaving Haran following the birth of Joseph, and Jacob agreeing to stay on and work for some of Laban’s livestock. But note the statement in Genesis 30:36, where it is noted that Laban separates himself from Jacob by 3 days journey. Now if Jacob is separated 3 days journey from Laban then he is certainly no longer in Laban’s house (Genesis 31:41).  And so the 20 years mentioned in Genesis 31:41 cannot include the 6 years in which Jacob lived 3 days journey from Laban. Thus, it appears that there were two separate 20 years periods, one in which Jacob lived in Laban’s house (verse 41), and another in which Jacob lived in Haran but outside of Laban’s house (verse 38), which included the 6 years in which Jacob lived 3 days journey from Laban.  

In all likelihood, the 20 years in Haran but outside Laban’s house included the 14 years working for Laban’s daughters as well as the 6 years working for Laban’s livestock.  All together this would mean that Jacob was in Haran for a total of 40 years, not just 34 years, and certainly not just 20 years.  And so Jacob would have come to Haran at 57 years old (6 years before Ishmael died), and stayed until 97 years old before returning to Canaan. Now recall one of the difficulties of Jacob being in Haran for only 20 years is that this forces him to have 12 children in just 7 years, and forces Joseph to be roughly the same age as his brothers, making Genesis 37:3 (i.e., Joseph the son of Jacob’s old age) nonsensical.  

But now that we see Jacob was in Haran for 40 years, this allows Jacob to start having children when he was 64 years old (7 years after coming to Haran at 57 years old). In which case it is very much possible that all of Jacob’s children were born by the time he was 76 years old, with the exception of Joseph, who we know wasn’t born until 15 years later when Jacob was 91 years old.  Now in this scenario the statement of Genesis 37:3 makes much more sense, given that Joseph was born when Jacob was 91 years old and his other children much earlier, when Jacob was probably between the ages of 64 and 76 years old.’

Genesis 31:1-55

English Standard Version

Now Jacob heard that the sons of Laban were saying, “Jacob has taken all that was our father’s [Bethuel], and from what was our father’s he has gained all this wealth.” 2 And Jacob saw that Laban did not regard him with favor as before. 3 Then the Lord said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers and to your kindred, and I will be with you.”

4 So Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah into the field where his flock was 5 and said to them, “I see that your father does not regard me with favor as he did before. But the God of my father has been with me. 6 You know that I have served your father with all my strength, 7 yet your father has cheated me and changed my wages ten times… 14 Then Rachel and Leah answered and said to him, “Is there any portion or inheritance left to us in our father’s house? 15 Are we not regarded by him as foreigners? For he has sold us, and he has indeed devoured our money. 16 All the wealth that God has taken away from our father belongs to us and to our children. Now then, whatever God has said to you, do.”

17 So Jacob arose and set his sons and his wives on camels. 18 He drove away all his livestock, all his property that he had gained, the livestock in his possession that he had acquired in Paddan-aram, to go to the land of Canaan to his father Isaac. 19 Laban had gone to shear his sheep, and Rachel stole her father’s household gods. 20 And Jacob tricked Laban the Aramean, by not telling him that he intended to flee. 21 He fled with all that he had and arose and crossed the Euphrates, and set his face toward the hill country of Gilead [the future territory of the half tribe of East Manasseh].

22 When it was told Laban on the third day that Jacob had fled, 23 he took his kinsmen with him and pursued him for seven days and followed close after him into the hill country of Gilead. 24 But God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream by night and said to him, “Be careful not to say anything to Jacob, either good or bad.”

25 And Laban overtook Jacob… 26 And Laban said to Jacob, “What have you done, that you have tricked me and driven away my daughters like captives of the sword? 27 Why did you flee secretly and trick me, and did not tell me, so that I might have sent you away with mirth and songs, with tambourine and lyre? 28 And why did you not permit me to kiss my sons [grandsons] and my daughters farewell? Now you have done foolishly… 30 And now you have gone away because you longed greatly for your father’s house, but why did you steal my gods?” 31 Jacob answered and said to Laban, “Because I was afraid, for I thought that you would take your daughters from me by force. 

32 Anyone with whom you find your gods shall not live. In the presence of our kinsmen point out what I have that is yours, and take it.” Now Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them. 33 So Laban went into Jacob’s tent and into Leah’s tent and into the tent of the two female servants, but he did not find them. And he went out of Leah’s tent and entered Rachel’s. 34 Now Rachel had taken the household gods and put them in the camel’s saddle and sat on them. Laban felt all about the tent, but did not find them. 35 And she said to her father, “Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise before you, for the way of women is upon me.” [an outright lie] So he searched but did not find the household gods.

36 Then Jacob became angry and berated Laban. Jacob said to Laban, “What is my offense? What is my sin, that you have hotly pursued me? 38 These twenty years I have been with you. Your ewes and your female goats have not miscarried, and I have not eaten the rams of your flocks. 39 What was torn by wild beasts I did not bring to you. I bore the loss of it myself… 40 There I was: by day the heat consumed me, and the cold by night, and my sleep fled from my eyes. 41 These twenty years I have been in your house. I served you fourteen years for your two daughters, and six years for your flock, and you have changed my wages ten times. 42 If the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac, had not been on my side, surely now you would have sent me away empty-handed. God saw my affliction and the labor of my hands and rebuked you last night.”

43 Then Laban answered and said to Jacob, “The daughters are my daughters, the children are my children, the flocks are my flocks, and all that you see is mine. But what can I do this day for these my daughters or for their children whom they have borne? 44 Come now, let us make a covenant, you and I. And let it be a witness between you and me.” 45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a pillar. 46 And Jacob said to his kinsmen, “Gather stones.” And they took stones and made a heap, and they ate there by the heap… 48 Laban said, “This heap is a witness between you and me today… The Lord watch between you and me, when we are out of one another’s sight. 50 If you oppress my daughters, or if you take wives besides my daughters, although no one is with us, see, God is witness between you and me.”

51 Then Laban said to Jacob… 53 The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us.” So Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac… 55 Early in the morning Laban arose and kissed his grandchildren and his daughters and blessed them. Then Laban departed and returned home.

An amicable parting and agreement to not do each other any harm. Jacob, with the Creator’s help extricated himself from a difficult domestic noose. Jacob and Esau’s reconciliation in 1720 BCE was discussed in Chapter XXIX Esau. The Book of Jubilees has additional details. 

Book of Jubilees 29:5-20

29:5… Jacob turned his face toward Gilead in the first month [March/April], on the twenty-first thereof. And Laban pursued after him and overtook Jacob in the mountain of Gilead in the third month [May/June], on the thirteenth thereof… 7 And Laban spoke to Jacob. And on the fifteenth of those days Jacob made a feast [Pentecost?] for Laban, and for all who came with him, and Jacob swore to Laban that day, and Laban also to Jacob, that neither should cross the mountain of Gilead to the other with evil purpose. 

8 And he made there a heap for a witness; wherefore the name of that place is called: ‘The Heap of Witness’… 9 But before they used to call the land of Gilead the land of the Rephaim… and the Rephaim were born (there), giants whose height was ten [15 feet], nine, eight down to seven [10’ 6’’] cubits. 10 And their habitation was from the land of the children of Ammon to Mount Hermon, and the seats of their kingdom were Karnaim and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, and Misur, and Beon. 11 And Yahweh destroyed them because of the evil of their deeds; for they were very malignant, and the Amorites dwelt in their stead, wicked and sinful, and there is no people today which has wrought to the full all their sins, and they have no longer length of life on the earth. 13 And he passed over the Jabbok in the ninth month [November/December], on the eleventh thereof [1720 BCE]. And on that day Esau, his brother, came to him, and he was reconciled to him, and departed from him to the land of Seir, but Jacob dwelt in tents.

14 And… he crossed the Jordan, and dwelt beyond the Jordan, and he pastured his sheep from the sea of the heap unto Bethshan, and unto Dothan and unto the forest of Akrabbim. 15 And he sent to his father Isaac of all his substance, clothing, and food, and meat, and drink, and milk, and butter, and cheese, and some dates of the valley. 16 And to his mother Rebecca also four times a year, between the times of the months, between ploughing and reaping, and between autumn and the rain (season) and between winter and spring.… 

17 For Isaac had returned from the ‘Well of the Oath’ and gone up to the tower of his father Abraham [‘on the mountains of Hebron’], and he dwelt there apart from his son Esau [estranged]. 18 For in the days when Jacob went to Mesopotamia, Esau took to himself a wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, and he gathered together all the flocks of his father [Isaac] and his wives, and went up and dwelt on Mount Seir, and left Isaac his father at the ‘Well of the Oath’ alone… [that is, he took his inheritance early and took what was Isaac’s wealth – recall Issac was old and blind] 20 And thither Jacob sent all that he did send to his father and his mother from time to time, all they needed, and they blessed Jacob with all their heart and with all their soul.

Next, we learn of Jacob’s name change, a specification on his blessing and the death of Rachel and then Isaac.

Genesis 35:1-21

English Standard Version

God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell there. Make an altar there to the God who appeared to you when you fled from your brother Esau.” 2 So Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you and purify yourselves and change your garments. 3 Then let us arise and go up to Bethel, so that I may make there an altar to the God who answers me in the day of my distress and has been with me wherever I have gone.” 4 So they gave to Jacob all the foreign gods that they had, and the rings that were in their ears. Jacob hid them under the terebinth tree that was near Shechem.

5 And as they journeyed, a terror from God fell upon the cities that were around them, so that they did not pursue the sons of Jacob. 6 And Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him, 7 and there he built an altar and called the place El-bethel, because there God had revealed himself to him when he fled from his brother. 8 And Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died, and she was buried under an oak below Bethel. So he called its name Allon-bacuth.

9 God appeared to Jacob again, when he came from Paddan-aram, and blessed him. 10 And God said to him, “Your name is Jacob; no longer shall your name be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name.” So he called his name Israel. 11 And God said to him, “I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations shall come from you, and kings shall come from your own body [this has not been fulfilled by the Edomite-Jew]. 12 The land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac I will give to you, and I will give the land to your offspring after you.” 13 Then God went up from him in the place where he had spoken with him. 14 And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he had spoken with him, a pillar of stone. He poured out a drink offering on it and poured oil on it. 15 So Jacob called the name of the place where God had spoken with him Bethel.

Verse eleven is applied to Jacob, yet we will find that it is specifically addressing Joseph and Judah in the future. In fact, Joseph’s part of the verse is split between his sons Manasseh and Ephraim. From Judah would issue kings, and from Manasseh a nation and from Ephraim, a company of nations. There is another way of interpreting the verse and that is the nation is Joseph and the company of nations are the other ten brothers and their specific nations. 

The word Hebrew word nation is goy [H1471] and is translated: nation [374], heathen [143], Gentiles [30] and people [11].  We will study this further when we investigate Manasseh and Ephraim. Other translations of this verse include: 

MSG: … A nation – a whole company of nations! – will come from you.

NLT: … You will become a great nation, even many nations.

VOICE: … You will give rise to a great nation; indeed nation after nation will come from you.

16 Then they journeyed from Bethel. When they were still some distance from Ephrath, Rachel went into labor, and she had hard labor. 17 And when her labor was at its hardest, the midwife said to her, “Do not fear, for you have another son.” 18 And as her soul was departing (for she was dying), she called his name Ben-oni [son of my sorrow or son of my strength]; but his father called him Benjamin [son of the right hand].19 So Rachel died, and she was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem), 20 and Jacob set up a pillar over her tomb. It is the pillar of Rachel’s tomb, which is there to this day. 21 Israel journeyed on and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Eder.

Benjamin was considerably younger than Joseph, who had been born in 1726 BCE – and was himself fourteen years younger than Zebulon and Dinah, arriving in Egypt at the age of seventeen in 1709 BCE – coupled with Jospeh not having known Benjamin, until he met him in Egypt in 1687 BCE and the fact that Benjamin is described as a ‘little one’ or a boy, who was given extra servings of food by Joseph – an age of twelve [plus or minus 2 to 3 years] is plausible, when Joseph was age 39/40. This means a birth of circa 1699 BCE for Benjamin as well as the untimely early death of his mother Rachel, at the age of seventy-five.

Book of Jubilees 36 

21 And Leah his wife died… and he buried her in the double cave near Rebecca his mother to the left of the grave of Sarah, his father’s mother. 23 And all her sons and his sons came to mourn over Leah his wife with him and to comfort him regarding her, for he was lamenting her for he loved her exceedingly after Rachel her sister died;24 For she was perfect and upright in all her ways and honored Jacob, and all the days that she lived with him he did not hear from her mouth a harsh word, for she was gentle and peaceable and upright and honorable. 

24 And he remembered all her deeds which she had done during her life and he lamented her exceedingly; for he loved her with all his heart and with all his soul.

A difficult start to their marriage, with Leah being relegated behind Rachel [and hated], must have eased over time and particularly after Rachel’s death. We saw earlier that though Leah wasn’t unattractive, with a more gentle disposition, she was in the shadow of her more outgoing and alluring sister. Rachel is a definite reminder of Rebekah and Leah has a certain hint of Sarah about her. Leah dies after Rachel her twin, yet apparently before Jacob travels to Egypt in 1687 BCE, as Leah is buried in Hebron. This means she died rather early herself, somewhere between seventy-five and eighty-seven. If we say eighty-five, then she would have had ten years with Jacob after her sister died. Her death may have been a prompt for Jacob to depart to Egypt during the famine. 

It is worth noting that Jacob just prior to his death, was inspired to split the family blessing, so that a son of Rachel received the physical birthright blessing of prosperity and a son of Leah received the spiritual blessing of the Messianic line and promise, in the ongoing war begun in Genesis 3:15. Leah’s elevation in Jacob’s and the Creator’s eyes may have played a part in this fateful decision. 

We will complete learning about Jacob’s latter life when we study Joseph. The subject of the so-called ‘Ten Lost Tribes’ is a voluminous one and many works have been undertaken to expound on it. Some are better than others and some have considerable detail. My aim is not to rehash these when they are already available and have intrinsic value and merit; but some consideration to this aspect of the sons of Jacob, is required and it also ties in with their migratory routes from Palestine to the British Isles, either by way of the Mediterranean and southern Europe to Ireland, or via south-central Asia and across Europe to Britain. The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints [Mormons] have an interest in the subject and regrettably misinterpreted the American Indian as one of the lost tribes [refer Chapter III Tiras]. A series of articles addresses the topic – emphasis & bold mine. 

What Became of the Tribes of Israel? – emphasis & bold mine:

‘How long Israel remained in Assyria after they had been carried away captive by Sargon II is not known. In the Apocrypha, Esdras describes the following vision: “But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt, that they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river. For the most High then shewed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over. For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth. 

Then dwelt they there until the latter time.” (2 Esdras 13:41–46.) Elder George Reynolds commented on the direction of the travels of the tribes of Israel: 

“They determined to go to a country ‘where never man dwelt,’ that they might be free from all contaminating influences. That country could only be found in the north. Southern Asia was already the seat of a comparatively ancient civilization; Egypt flourished in northern Africa; and southern Europe was rapidly filling with the future rulers of the world. They had therefore no choice but to turn their faces northward. The first portion of their journey was not however north; according to the account of Esdras, they appear to have at first moved in the direction of their old home; and it is possible that they originally started with the intention of returning thereto; or probably, in order to deceive the Assyrians, they started as if to return to Canaan, and when they crossed the Euphrates and were out of danger from the hosts of Medes and Persians, then they turned their journeying feet toward the polar star.” 

Elder Reynolds’s explanation takes into account the numerous prophecies that indicate that when the ten lost tribes return, they will come out of the north… Where they went is not known, and this fact has led to much speculation about their present whereabouts. The Lord has not seen fit to reveal their location, however, and until He does so, it is useless to try to identify their present locality.’

This is quite some statement. One wonders how would the Lord reveal the tribes whereabouts, when He decides to? Would the Mormons be open to a source that did not derive from within their Church? 

The Return of the Ten Tribes – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The prophets of old saw that in the last dispensation, the dispensation of the fulness of times, would come a complete gathering and restoration of the house of Israel… though the main body of ten of the tribes is lost, there are representatives of all twelve tribes scattered throughout the earth. This statement can be explained as follows:

When Assyria attacked the Northern Kingdom, many fled to the safety of the Southern Kingdom. As the ten tribes traveled north, some stopped along the way – many possibly being scattered throughout Europe and Asia.’

Thus, the tribes of the northern Kingdom of Israel, either disappeared amongst the southern Kingdom of Judah, or as they travelled, numbers of them split off and disappeared amongst other peoples and nations. 

The Lost Tribes to Come to Zion – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In [the] April conference of 1916, Elder James E. Talmage… spoke of the lost tribes and their records: 

“There is a tendency among men to explain away what they don’t wish to understand in literal simplicity, and we, as Latter-day Saints are not entirely free from the taint of that tendency… Some people say that prediction is to be explained in this way: A gathering is in progress, and has been in progress from the early days of this Church; and thus the ‘Lost Tribes’ are now being gathered; but that we are not to look for the return of any body of people now unknown as to their whereabouts. True, the gathering is in progress, this is a gathering dispensation; but the prophecy stands that the tribes shall be brought forth from their hiding place… [and their] scriptures shall become one with the scriptures of the Jews, the holy Bible…”

Then in [the] October conference Elder Talmage spoke again of the lost tribes and made this remarkable prediction: 

“The ten tribes shall come; they are not lost unto the Lord; they shall be brought forth as hath been predicted; and I say unto you there are those now living – aye, some here present – who shall live to read the records of the Lost Tribes of Israel, which shall be made one with the record of the Jews, or the Holy Bible…”  

The ten tribes, however, are to eventually receive their land inheritance with Judah … In that day will be fulfilled the statement of Jeremiah: “In those days the house of Judah shall walk with the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers” (Jeremiah 3:18). Elder Orson Pratt stated further: 

“By and by, when all things are prepared – when the Jews have received their scourging, and Jesus has descended upon the Mount of Olives, the ten tribes will leave Zion, and will go to Palestine, to inherit the land that was given to their ancient fathers,and it will be divided amongst the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob by the inspiration of the Holy [Spirit]. They will go there to dwell in peace in their own land from that time, until the earth shall pass away. But Zion, after their departure, will still remain upon the western hemisphere [the United States], and she will be crowned with glory as well as old Jerusalem [true Jerusalem, not the city by that name in the state of Israel – refer Chapter XXIX Esau], and, as the Psalmist David says, she will become the joy of the whole earth.’

These series of articles raise a seemingly small issue, with enormous repercussions if understood incorrectly, that until now has been just that… misunderstood. The scriptures pertaining to Judah and Israel being reunited are part of the blessing that was given to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. 

The blessing wasn’t just to dwell in Canaan and that was the fulfilment [Genesis 28:14*]. Punishment was promised to the Israelites if they erred grievously from the commandments, laws and statutes of the Creator [Deuteronomy 28:37,64; Hosea 1:9; 3:4]. It was prophesied that they would be sifted as a people or peoples – not individually and thus completely lost – amongst the nations [Ezekiel 11:16]. 

Isaiah 8:16-18

Common English Bible

16 Bind up the testimony; seal up the teaching among my disciples. 17 I will wait for the Lord, who has hidden his face from the house of Jacob, and I will hope in God. 18 Look! I and the children the Lord gave me are signs and wonders in Israel from the Lord of heavenly forces, who lives on Mount Zion.

The remnants of the two kingdoms would eventually re-unite as Jeremiah predicted. Christianity has, due to a misidentification of Judah, erroneously believed that the Jews – who are not Judah – and Israel have not yet re-united and that it will take place after the second coming of the Son of Man. Of course, the reason why Christians believe this error, is because they have swallowed the falsehood that Judah – falsely the Jews – were never lost and that only Israel was lost. The truth of the matter is that all twelve, actually thirteen tribes, went into captivities, all were sifted, all migrated, all arrived in Ireland and Britain and then beyond that even, they have all either been in a process of leaving* the British Isles, or are in different evolving political statuses with regard to their allegiance to the very kingship of Judah – which will be explained. 

The nations comprising the sons of Jacob are predicted to go into captivity one more time before the advent of the Messiah, and this period in the Bible is referred to as the time of Jacob’s trouble, or the Great tribulation. The State of Israel [refer Chapter XXIX Esau] – which is not the tribe of Judah, nor does it comprise true Israelites – isnot going to dwell with them, before the end of this age or afterwards. The land that the Jews have usurped from the Palestinian Arabs, will be given to the Israelites during the millennial rule of the Son of Man. 

Events came to a head during the reign of King Solomon, whom we have discussed in Chapter XIII Cush & Phut. His evil led to the splitting of the Kingdom  after his death in 930 BCE at the age of sixty-nine. Solomon was born in 999 BCE and began his reign as king in 970 BCE, beginning the building of the Temple in 966 BCE and completing it in 960 BCE. It was exactly 480 years between the Exodus and the beginning of the Temple [1 Kings 6:1]. King Solomon’s son, Rehoboam became king and he was born in 971 BCE to Solomon’s Ammonite wife, Naamah. Rehoboam ruled seventeen years until  his death at fifty-eight in 913 BCE. 

The Kingdom was rent in two, when Jeroboam became king of the tear away Israelite tribes of the north. Jeroboam ruled until 910 BCE. Jeroboam was the son of Nebat, an Ephrathite [tribe of Ephraim] and Solomon’s servant [1 Kings 11:26, 28]. Jeroboam was a ‘mighty man of valour’ and Solomon recognising his worth, had made him ruler over all the charge of the house of Jospeh. 

It was some two hundred years later that the Kingdom of Israel went into captivity to the mighty Assyrian Empire during 721-718 BCE [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. Josephus confirms their existence at the time of Christ when he wrote: ‘The entire body of the ten tribes are still beyond the Euphrates, an immense multitude not to be estimated by number.’ The early Church recognised that the tribes of Israel were ‘scattered abroad’ [James 1.1]. The Israelites were planted by the Assyrians, in Media [refer Chapter IV Madai], modern Iran [2 Kings 17:6]. 

It should come as no surprise that there is much debate regarding certain words and terms for historical peoples and equating them with the Lost Tribes. Identity believers place great credence in them, worldly scholars are very derisory and certain historians are somewhere in between. It appears to this writer that there is some correlation and substance to the argument and that a meeting in the middle would be mature, rational and scholastically honourable. We will look at examples and the reader can deduce for themselves. The key words used in this line of reasoning are the base words Isaac and the disobedient Israelite King Omri

The full evolution of the etymological argument are the words Saxon and Celt, respectively. The words in between are numerous and varied. It is argued that the initial I of Isaac as a vowel was dropped and became known as Saaca, Sacae, Sacasone, Saka, Sakka, Sakki, and Saxe

This word apparently, is also linked to Scyth and therefore Scythian. Though, the term Scythian includes other peoples that were not Israelites, such as the Turanian Scythians unrelated to the Sacae Scythians. This no doubt has led some scholars to be sceptical of equating the sons of Jacob with Scythians and thus they have rejected the argument in its entirety instead of recognising the subset within. The first appearance of the Scythians in Central Asia occurred during the reign of the Assyrian King Sargon [722-705 BCE]. Exactly the time period of the fall of the Kingdom of Israel and the subsequent flight of Israelites out of Palestine. 

The Lost Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

Herodotus, a Greek historian of the fifth century B.C., notes that the Scythians were interspersed with less civilized people. He describes the non­-civilized nations of the steppes thusly: 

“the Man­Eaters, a tribe that is entirely peculiar and not Scythian at all…[and] the Black Cloaks, another tribe which is not Scythian at all.”

Herodotus confirms the civilized qualities of the Scythians and the backwardness of the non­-Scythian tribes in the following words. 

“The Euxine Pontus [the Black Sea]…contains – except for the Scythians ­ the stupidest nations in the world.” 

Colonel Gawler cites Epiphanius as stating “the laws, customs, and manner of the Scythians were received by other nations as the standards of policy, civility, and polite learning.” He also cites the following from book viii, iii, 7 of Strabo’s Geography: 

“…’but the Scythians governed by good laws…’ And this is still the opinion entertained of them by the Greeks; for we esteem them the most sincere, the least deceitful of any people, and much more frugal and self­-relying than ourselves.” 

Zenaide Ragozin’s, Media, states: 

“…Scythians was not a race name at all, but one promiscuously used, for all remote, little known, especially nomadic peoples of the north and northeast, denoting tribes…of Turanian as of Indo­European stock: to the latter the Scythians of Russia are now universally admitted to have belonged.” 

The Scythian tag included a broad range of peoples, wherein the newly arrived Israelites were enveloped. Unlike the rest, these Scythians – future Saxons and Celts – exhibited traits of a civilised, not an uncouth society, that were respected by their fellow ‘cultured’ relatives descended from Moab and Ammon [the French today], the later Greeks [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. 

Words derived from Omri, include, Ghomri, Khumri, Kimmerioi and Cymry that possibly have a link with the terms Cimmerii, Cimmerian and later, Celt. A similar tribe were known as the Massagetae, possibly linked to Manasseh. The ‘c’ in Cimmerian is pronounced with an ’s’ which is remarkably similar to the the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel, Samaria. The Samarians had been taken captive by Assyria and transplanted to the cities of the Medes. These ‘Simmerians’ had appeared out of nowhere, yet an historical account states that the Assyrian King Esarhaddon in 674 BCE confronted an alliance of Median and ‘newly-arrived Cimmerian’ forces.* 

Samuel Lysons in his book, Our British Ancestors: Who and What Were They? 1865, linked the Cimmerians ‘to be the same people with the Gauls or Celts under a different name.’ Historian George Rawlinson wrote: ‘We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, or Cimmerians, who first appeared on the confines of Assyria and Media in the seventh century B.C., and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock, nearly two centuries later, as identical with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel.’ 

Danish linguistic scholar Anne Kristensen confirms: ‘There is scarcely reason, any longer, to doubt the exciting and verily astonishing assertion propounded by the students of the Ten Tribes that the Israelites deported from Bit Humria, of the House of ‘Omri, are identical with the Gimirraja of the Assyrian sources. Everything indicates that Israelite deportees did not vanish from the picture but that, abroad, under new conditions, they continued to leave their mark on history.’ There are two main branches of Celts. The Goidelic Celts from whom the Gaels of Ireland descend and the Brythonic or Brittonic Celts from whom the Welsh and people of Brittany in  France descend. 

The famous King Darius of Persia, inscribed on a rock in northern Iran: ‘This kingdom that I hold is from Sakka [the region where the Israelites were living] which is beyond Sogdiana to Kush and from India to Sardis. Those scholars who disagree with equating any of the Scythians or Cimmerians with the lost tribes, do not then provide an alternative, viable identity; so it is a little difficult to entertain their arguments in a serious vein. 

Amos 7:16

English Standard Version

Now therefore hear the word of the Lord. “You say, ‘Do not prophesy against Israel, and do not preach against the house of Isaac.’^

Jeremiah 3:11-12

English Standard Version

11 And the Lord said to me, “Faithless Israel has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Judah. 12 Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, “‘Return, faithless Israel, declares the Lord. I will not look on you in anger, for I am merciful, declares the Lord; I will not be angry forever.

We learn from the prophet Amos that the Israelites, specifically the Kingdom of Israel were known by the names Israel and Isaac. From the prophet Jeremiah, we find out that tribes of Israel were living due north of Jerusalem, not to the north east as those who were transplanted to the cities of the Medes. This is a different body of people, located in the Black Sea region. 

Certain Scythians migrated westward from Central Asia to southern Russia, Ukraine and eastern Europe. Approximately 300 to 100 BCE these Scythians migrated north west to Scandinavia. The Cimmerians steered a more southerly route through the Caucasus region and Asia Minor. At the time of the Apostle Paul, the early church congregation of the Galatians [Gael, Gaul], were believed to be comprised of Israelites [Cimmerians], from the ‘lost sheep of the House of Israel.’ About 650 BCE the first waves of Cimmerians migrating westwards through southern Europe, arriving in Gaul in northern France, then venturing onto Britain. The Scythians and Cimmerians were definitely kinsmen, with the Encyclopaedia Britannica calling the Cimmerians** a ‘Scythian tribe.’ 

Historian Tamara Rice confirms: ‘The Scythians did not become a recognizable national entity much before the eighth century B.C… By the seventh century B.C. they had established themselves firmly in southern Russia… Assyrian documents place their appearance there in the time of King Sargon (722-705 B.C.), a date which closely corresponds with that of the establishment of the first group of Scythians in southern Russia.’ Boris Piotrovsky adds: ‘Two groups, Cimmerians** and Scythians, seem to be referred to in Urartean and Assyrian texts, but it is not always clear whether the terms indicate two distinct peoples or simply mounted nomads… The Assyrians used Cimmerians* in their army as mercenaries; with a legal document dated 679 B.C. referring to an Assyrian ‘commander of the Cimmerian regiment’, but in other Assyrian documents they are called “the seed of runaways who know neither vows to the gods nor oaths.”’ When the Kingdom of Urartu [refer Chapter XVII Lud] crumbled, the Scythians established themselves in northern Persia [modern Iran], occupying Urartu and set up a capital at Sak-iz [Isaac?]. 

Origin, Yair Davidiy – capitals his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘In addition to exile by land there was also an enforced maritime transportation: Amos (4:3) refers to the “cows of Bashan” “in the mountain of Samaria” (Amos 4:1) many of whom will be taken away in sailing vessels and the rest shall be cast “into the palace”. “Into the palace” has been translated from the Hebrew word “Harmona” which is also translatable as meaning “To the Mountain of Mannae”… Mannae was in the general area of Armenia to which Jewish and local sources say the  Israelites were taken . 


The verse in the Hebrew Bible may therefore be understood as saying that one part of the exiles would be taken away in large and small sailing vessels and another part would be exiled to Mannae where the exiled Israelite “Cimmerians” and Scythians indeed appeared. “Isles of the Sea” [refers]… primarily to the Isles of Britain. Getting to the “Isles of the Sea” entails travel by boat. 

The expressions “Isles of the Sea” (Isaiah 11:11), “Way of the Sea” (Isaiah 9:10), “large boats”, and “fishing-boats” (Amos 4:1-3) in connection with the exile of Northern Israel is consistent with transportation by sea which was logistically possible at that time and had been effected in other cases by Phoenician seafarers. Israelites had participated in Phoenician seafaring ventures. 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel were conquered and exiled… by the Assyrian [monarch], Tiglathpileser. The later Assyrian rulers Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib were responsible for exiling the remainder. Tiglathpileser (745-727 BCE) had been responsible for transforming the Assyrian Empire from a powerful but decaying entity to [a] major world power. Prior to his reign Assyria had been seriously threatened by the kingdom of Urartu to the north of Assyria. Urartu was centered around Lake Van (in Armenia), and had exercised suzerainty over Mannae, over the region of Gozan at the headwaters of the Khabur river, and also over parts of Cilicia with its port of Anatolian Tarsis. 

The Assyrians took their cavalry horses to Mannae for training. Mannae was between Assyria and Urartu and linked to both of them. It was one of the major places to which Israelites had been exiled. Mannae was also one of the first regions from which the Cimmerians were first reported, The Cimmerians went forth from the midst of Mannae,” says an Assyrian inscription. Mannae was also destined to become a Scythian centre. The Scythians were one and the same people as the Cimmerians or at any rate Scythians and Cimmerians were: “… two groups of people who seem inclined to operate in the same geographical zones, and whose names seem to be interchangeable already in the Assyrian sources”. There were three main groups of people in the Cimmerian and Scythian forces: Cimmerians, Scyths, and Guti or Goths [the Guti or Goths were not Israelites – refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. 

Cimmerians and Scyths were frequently confused with each other by foreigners and by historians. “SAKAI” is the name later given in Persian inscriptions to the Scyths. In Afghanistan the appellation, “SAK” (from Saka) was much later understood to be a form of the Hebrew “Isaac”. Other names applied to the Scythians such as Zohak (by the Persians), and Ishkuzai (by the Assyrians) support the “Isaac” equation. 

Van Loon identifies a people in north Armenia (near Lake Leninkan close to the border with Iberia in Georgia) named “ISQI-GULU” as Scythians. “ISQI-GULU” is the equivalent of “ISAACI-Golu”! i.e. “The Exiles of Isaac” since “Golu” in Hebrew connotes “exiled”. Variations of the name Isaac were applied to the Scythians who in many respects were identical with (or identified as) the Cimmerians. A city named after the Cimmerians and called Gymrias or Gamir was to be found in the ISQI-GULU area. This city in Armenian was later referred to as “Kumayri” and this name is considered a sign of Cimmerian presence as well as being an alternate Assyrian pronunciation of “Omri” which was the name they gave to northern Israel. In a few inscriptions the Scythians are referred to as Iskuzai (Ishkuzai) or Askuzai (Ashkuzai) though usually they are called either Sakai or Uman Manda or Gimiri like the Cimmerians. M.N. van Loon wished to emphasize this point: “It should be made clear from the start that the terms ‘Cimmerian’ and ‘Scythian’ were interchangeable: in Akkadian the name Iskuzai (Asguzai) occurs only exceptionally. Gimirrai (Gamir) was the normal designation for ‘Cimmerians’ as well as ‘Scythians’ in Akkadian.”

Both Cimmerians and Scyths were combinations in differing proportions of the same groups. The Cimmerians (i.e. West Scythians) were defeated by the Assyrians and disappeared. The East Scythians (Sakai) remained however for a time in the Middle East area, gained control of the Assyrian Empire, and eventually took the leading role in devastating the Assyrian cities. They too were destined to suffer defeat (at the hands of their Median and Babylonian allies who betrayed and ambushed them) and to be driven northwards, beyond the Caucasus Mountains into the steppe areas of southern Russia (“Scythia”) whence they ultimately continued westward into Europe. 

The Cimmerians were driven westward. They invaded Phrygia, Lydia, and Ionia. These States were all in modern day Turkey. Ultimately the Cimmerians to the west of Assyria were to be defeated and to leave the area of Turkey, crossing the Bosporus and advancing into Europe. They became the dominant factor of Celtic civilization, the Galatae of Gaul, the Cimbri of Scandinavia, and the Cymry of Britain. Homer and other Greeks reported Cimmerians in Britain at an early date. 

The Scythians in the north split into two sections, one was to the north of the Caucasus west of the Caspian Sea and the other was east of the Caspian. The Scythians in the west at an early stage sent offshoots into Europe who joined the Cimmerians already there. Later the Western Scythians migrated to Scandinavia, which at first was named “Scath-anavia” in their honor, and to Germany. The Mesopotamians and Persians called all of the Scythians “Sakae”, while the Greeks called them “Scythians”. 

Modern historians in order to distinguish between the two sections of Scythians often use the term “Scythian” to refer to those Scythians from west of the Caspian Sea and north of the Caucasus, while “Sakae” is used for those situated east of the Caspian. The Scythian-Sakae were also known as “Sexe” and as “Saxon” and the Anglo-Saxons emerged from them. 

Diodorus Siculus (32:4 7) linked the Cimmerians of old, the Galatians, and the Cimbri altogether. Plutarch (in “Marius”) reported the opinion that the Cimmerians, Cimbri, and Scythians, were in effect all members of the one nation whom he calls “Celto- Scythians”. Homer placed the Cimmerians in the British Isles as did a poem allegedly written ca.500 BCE by the Greek Orpheus. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (891 CE) begins by saying that the Britons came from Armenia and the Picts (of Scotland) from the south of Scythia. “Armenia” is the land of Urartu wherein the Cimmerians had sojourned and from which as an historically identifiable entity they emerged. The idea that the Scots came from Scythia is found in most legendary accounts of Ireland and Scotland. 


In east Scythia there had existed settlements of numerous civilized peoples of so-called “Nordic” appearance who disappeared shortly before the Barbarians were first recorded in Western Europe. The “Barbarians” had traditions that they came from Scythia and their artistic styles are actually identical to those known from the Scythian areas. 

They had similar “Shamanistic” Scythian religious beliefs and customs; they wore the same armor, and fought with the same tactics, and they had the same tribal names in the same formations relative to each other as they would later have in the west. The Scythian peoples were destined to disappear from Scythia in the period between 300 BCE to ca. 600 CE. Just as the Scythians were leaving Scythia, they began to appear in the west as “Barbarians” largely after passing through Scandinavia, Pannonia (Hungary), and Germany. 

The Scythian-Gothic nations had emerged from Scythia. In east Scythia,-at least in the area east of the Caspian Sea whence the Sacae (Anglo-Saxons) were once centered, Aramaic was spoken. Aramaic is closely related to Hebrew. Some of the Israelite Tribes had spoken Aramaic while others used a type of Hebrew influenced by Aramaic, or Aramaic influenced by Hebrew. Aramaic was one of the official languages of the Assyrian Empire. The Old Anglo-Saxon English language is a composite dialect and contains many Hebrew words. Linguistically, the west Barbarians may originally have spoken Hebrew or a related Semitic dialect. There is nothing to obviate such a possibility since new languages were sometimes learnt and old ones forgotten in historical experience. The Normans, for instance, came from Scandinavia and settled en-masse in Normandy, France, but within two generations they had forgotten their parent language and knew only French! 

The Germanic languages probably did not exist before 500 BCE. They first appeared in Northern Germany and then spread outwards through conquest and cultural assimilation. It is generally agreed that approximately one-third of all early Germanic vocabulary is of an unknown (non-Indo-European) origin. These languages experienced changes in sounds and grammatical points that are symptomatic of Semitic tongues. Terry Blodgett proved that this additional element was Hebrew. Hebrew speakers must have been part of, or absorbed into, whatever originated the Germanic languages. The people in question had little or no relationship with the present day inhabitants of Germany other than a linguistic connection dating from the time when one group ruled over the other. 

FOR I WILL NO MORE HAVE MERCY UPON THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL; BUT I WILL UTTERLY TAKE THEM AWAY (Hosea 1:6). Judah was not to be exiled with the Ten Tribes, BUT I WILL HAVE MERCY UPON THE HOUSE OF JUDA [Hosea 1:7]. The third child is called “Lo-Ammi” meaning “Not-My-People”. At first the Ten Tribes will be rejected and exiled but later God will return and accept them. [Hosea 11:12] EPHRAIM COMPASSETH ME ABOUT WITH LIES, AND THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL WITH DECEIT: BUT JUDAH YET RULETH WITH GOD, AND IS FAITHFUL WITH THE SAINTS.’ 

The last sentence is key, in that it is not referring to Palestine but rather Judah’s new home northwest of their former lands. The link between the term Saka and Isaac is in fact far older, as Steven Collins explains – emphasis & bold mine:

‘There are very ancient records of correspondence from Canaanite rulers to the Egyptian Pharaohs desperately calling for help against the powerful invasions of a people called the “Haberi,” “Khaberi,” “Aberi” or “Saga.” These ancient letters were preserved on the famous “Amarna Tablets,” and they apparently record the invasion of Canaan by the Israelites under Joshua! The “Haberi,” “Khaberi,” or “Aberi” are the Hebrews, and the “Saga” are the Saka (the people of Isaac), albeit expressed in Canaanite terms. 

Mrs. Sydney Bristowe, in Oldest Letters in the World, wrote in 1923 concerning the Amarna Tablets: 

“The great importance of the Amarna Tablets has not been recognized because apparently, the [translators] have been unwilling to admit that the Israelites are mentioned upon them and that they tell of the conquest of Palestine by Joshua! The translations shown with the tablets now in the British Museum, give little idea of the interest of the letters, the name Haberi, Khaberi or Aberi is hardly seen in these translations, yet that name, appears frequently in the tablets and leading philologists certify that it stands for the Hebrews (Israelites). See Encyclopaedia Brittanica Edition 11, Volume 10., page 78. Another name mentioned upon the tablets is Saga which is said to be identical with Haberi (Knudtzon, Die El­ Amarna Tafeln, p. 51), and is proved to be so by the fact that it occurs upon the Behistan Rock in Persia where, according to Sir Henry Rawlinson, it represents the Israelites (the Sakai or ‘House of Isaac’). 

Dr. Hall (of the British Museum) admits the fact that the tablets tell of the Israelite’s conquest of Palestine, for he writes: ‘We may definitely, if we accept the identification of the Khabiru as the Hebrews, say that in the Tel-­el­-Amarna letters, we have Joshua’s conquest seen from the Egyptian and Canaanite point of view’ (Ancient History of the Near East, p. 409).” 

“It seems very probable that the ‘SA­GAZ’… and…the Khabiru who devastated Canaan… are no other than the invading Hebrews and other desert tribes allied with them…(and after presenting a philological analysis supporting this conclusion, he adds)…In my own, view, the probabilities are all in favour of the identification.” 

Herodotus is cited above as stating that the Persians called all Scythians “Sacae (or Saka),” which is the equivalent of the Hebrew/Israelite “Saga” in the much older Amarna Tablets. It appears that the Canaanites knew the Israelite invaders were the “seed of Isaac,” but rendered this name as “Saga” instead of “Saka,” as did the Persians. (The letters “g” and “k” are closely ­related guttural phonetic sounds.) The above evidence that Canaanite and Assyrian sources indicate that the Israelites were known by the name of Isaac prior to their departure from Palestine confirms that it is their descendants who bore the name of Isaac in Scythia after their arrival in Asia.’ 

Steven Collins continues with a few identifying points on the Scythians and their Israelite connection. He also recounts the Scythian’s invasion of Assyria, Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine, beginning 624 BCE, ultimately contributing to Assyria’s fall as an empire in 612 BCE, with the defeat of their capital, Nineveh at the hands of the Medes, Babylonians… and, Scythians. Noteworthy is the fact that the Scythians attacked Calah, burning it, which was the headquarters of the Assyrian army. Revenge against Assyria was one motive for their advance, the second was the liberation of Palestine and their kin, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. 

What is attention grabbing is that the Scythian march through Syria and Palestine was relatively bloodless and the sparing of Jerusalem stands out. It only makes sense if the Scythian hordes were there to liberate their previous homeland and in particular their brother tribes. Wild Asiatic nomads who were in Palestine for the first time, would not have blazed their way through Assyria to then spare city after city of Judah. 

Herodotus records that ‘for twenty-eight years [624-596 BCE]… the Scythians were masters of Asia…’ This time frame includes the reign of righteous King Josiah [640-609 BCE] of Judah – as well as of Jeremiah the prophet – and his reforms to return to the Mosaic Law and restore the Temple in his eighteenth year [622 BCE]. Scythian is a Greek term, thus in the Bible, the Scythians or Sacae are referred to as [the children of] Israel in 2 Chronicles 35:17-18. Steven Collins states regarding the withdrawal of the Scythians from Palestine and Mesopotamia, that they would have realised that Palestine was not the Land of Milk and Honey it once was and principally occupied by hostile foreign people, which they had no desire to subjugate or rule over, with their ‘unwanted customs and lifestyles.’ 

Added to this, was their large population numbers and the compactness of Palestine as an unrealistic region for a people who like ‘wide open spaces’ to farm their flocks and herds, or to maintain their isolationism policies. Collins quotes Herodotus – emphasis & bold mine – who describes the Scythians as:

“…dreadfully avoid the use of foreign customs, and especially those of the Greeks… So careful are the Scythians to guard their own customs, and such are the penalties (Herodotus refers to the death penalty* for pagan religious activity) that they impose on those who take to foreign customs over and above their own.” 

‘… evidence of the Israelite origins of the Scythians is found in this comment of Herodotus about the Scythians: “They make no offerings of pigs, nor will they keep them at all in their country.” Such a prohibition is very consistent with the long­standing Hebrew custom of forbidding the use of swine for either consumption or sacrifice because it was an “unclean” animal (Deuteronomy 14:7­8). Another interesting point is that Herodotus records that one of the Scythian kings was named “Saulius.” Given the Hebrew/Israelite background of the Scythians, it would appear that the namesake of this Scythian king was Saul, the first Hebrew king (I Samuel 9). 

Herodotus also records that the Scythians were very zealous in forbidding idolatry and the worship of “foreign gods.” In one instance, King Saulius of Scythia executed* his own brother for participating in the rites of a Greek “mother-goddess” festival and wearing “images” associated with the mother­-goddess [Asherah: refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The fact that the Scythians executed, without mercy, even their own rulers and royalty who worshipped the mother­-goddess or other pagan gods (or who kept “images” of such gods and goddesses) shows there was a very strict law among the Scythians against idolatry. Combining the fact that idolatry was a capital offense with the Scythian custom of avoiding swine flesh, it is clear that the Scythians were faithfully practicing two key features of the laws of God given to the Israelites under Moses. This further confirms that many of the Israelites of the ten tribes had experienced a “revival” in their new homeland near the Black Sea. 

Herodotus also records that “The Scythians themselves say that their nation is the youngest of all the nations… [and]…from their first king…to the crossing of Darius into Scythia was, in all, one thousand years-­no more, but just so many.” Colonel Gawler analyzes Herodotus-­record as follows: “Now Darius’ expedition against the Scythians was about 500 B.C., and 1000 years before that brings us to the time of Moses.” Significantly, the Scythians traced their origin as a nation to the approximate time of Moses. It was after the Exodus [1446 BCE], under Moses that the Hebrews truly became a nation with their own distinct culture and laws.’ 

The Persian Empire had two major conflicts with the Scythians, one was instigated by Cyrus the Great – who reigned from 559 to 530 BCE, against the eastern Scyths, who were situated east of the Caspian Sea and lead by their dominant tribe the Massagetae, which culminated in Cyrus’s death. 

These tribes were those two and a half tribes who had been taken into captivity by the Assyrians prior to the eventual fall of Samaria and are listed in 1 Chronicles 5:26, ESV: ‘So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of [East] Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan…’ 

Steven Collins elucidates:

‘Herodotus records that this Persian­-Scythian war resulted from Persian aggression, writing that Cyrus “set his heart on subduing the Massagetae.” The Massagetae were living in peace at the time, and Cyrus launched a war of aggression on them to force them to be his subjects. When Persia’s invasion was imminent, Queen Tomyris sent the following message to Cyrus: “King of the Medes, cease to be so eager to do what you are doing… rule over your own people, and endure to look upon us governing ours.” It is noteworthy that the Scythians were willing to “live and let live,” but Persia persisted in its aggression. After some initial fighting, Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae offered Cyrus a second chance to cease hostilities and go back to his own land, but warned that “If you do not so, I swear by the sun, the lord of the Massagetae, that, for all your insatiability of blood, I will give you your fill of it.”

… Herodotus described the ensuing battle. 

“Tomyris, since Cyrus would not listen to her, gathered all her host together and fought him. Of all the battles that were fought among the barbarians, I judge this to have been the severest, and indeed my information is that it is so. Long they remained fighting in close combat, and neither side would flee. But finally the Massagetae got the upper hand. The most of the Persian army died on the spot and, among them, Cyrus himself… Tomyris sought out his corpse among the Persian dead, and…she filled a skin with human blood and fixed his head in the skin, and, insulting over the dead, she said:

 ‘I am alive and [a] conqueror, but you have…rob [bed] me of my son (Tomyris’ son died in the war)… Now… I will give you your fill of blood, even as I threatened.’”

We do not know the total casualties in this war, but they must have been immense. Persia ruled a vast area and could assemble armies of over a million men. The army which Xerxes assembled against the Greeks was 1,700,000 men, and the army of Darius [522-486 BCE] against the Black Sea Scythians was 700,000 men. Since the expedition against the Massagetae was led by King Cyrus himself, one would expect his army to have numbered in the hundreds of thousands. Yet the Massagetae utterly crushed the Persian army. It is strange that modern history stresses the histories of the Assyrian and Persian Empires, but in the three great wars fought between their empires and the Scythians, the Scythians decisively won all three. History teaches much about the losers of these wars, but rarely mentions the victorious Scythians.’

The Parthians were mentioned briefly in Chapter XXIX Esau. For those who would like to pursue the subject of the Parthians, Steven Collins book, Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! is an excellent starting point; where he devotes two full chapters. Though agreement on his final conclusions regarding specific identities is not reached, his in-depth and pains taking research and presentation is invaluable; being the best work regarding the sons of Jacob, this writer has had the pleasure to read. I learned a great deal; increasing my understanding considerably. 

In summary, the Parthian Empire sat opposite to the Roman Empire and in balance held it in check. Parthia was no small region, for it stretched some nineteen hundred miles east to west and one thousand miles from north to south. As we have discovered in chapter XXVIII Ishmael, the Romans are one and the same as the nation of Germany today and their descent is from Abraham’s first son, Ishmael. It is no small coincidence, that the Saxon and Celtic peoples have challenged and checked the German nation’s warlike aspirations twice in the preceding century, so was their relationship similar during the days of Rome. 

Though Rome invaded ancient Britain, it was never an easy occupation on its western extremity and similarly, on its far eastern border lay a strong empire that remained outside Rome’s control. The genetic, cultural and linguistic links between the Parthians and Scythians is beyond question and though allies, it was not always a friendly relationship.

What is worth highlighting from Collins, is the fascinating connection of Judah with the Parthians. One of the early capitals of Parthia was Dara. Dara [1 Chrionicles 2:3-6] was a son of Zerah [Zarah], who was in turn one of Judah’s sons. Zarah was supplanted at the time of his birth by his twin brother Phares [Pharez, Perez]; as Esau was by Jacob. Zarah’s brother Phares’s name is found repeatedly through Parthia. Phares was the ancestor of King David. 

Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… emphasis & bold mine:

‘A Parthian king who ruled in the area of West India was named Gondophares, and several kings ruling over the Caucasus mountain kingdom of Iberia [Caucasus Mountains] were named Pharasmanes… Strabo records that the Iberians were the kinsmen of the Scythians… many kings of Parthia itself had names indicating that they were also royal members of the Davidic line of Judah. Such names include the key consonants of PH­R­S in Hellenized forms of their Parthian names (such Parthian royal names as Phraates, Phraortes, and Phraataces are examples).’ 

Collins shows how the Greeks interchanged the consonants B and P and thus the similarity between certain words is significant; particually as the vowels may change, though the consonants do not. Parthia is PRTH which could easily be BRTH, as in the Hebrew word for covenant, berith or BRTH. Thus words associated with the peoples of Britain are linked and derive from a common source for BRTH. Therefore Britannic Islands is synomous with the greek name Pretannic, PRT [BRT] and Parthia with Brithia and B’rithia. 

It was from Parthia that the wise men had travelled to visit the young Jesus. It may be more than coincidence that a people of Judah, were visiting their rightful king, also from the tribe of Judah. Specifically, the wise men were actually Priests from the tribe of Levi. Though Levi, was to be scattered amongst Israel, we will find that they have remained with the associated tribes of the former Kingdom of Judah in larger numbers.  Those tribes being the houses of Judah, Benjamin and Simeon. Recall that within the tribe of Judah, there had been splits early on. There were those who had been taken captive by the Chaldean Babylonians and there were those who had returned to Jerusalem as we have studied in the preceding chapter.  It was these people of Judah, that the Parthian peoples, also of Judah, came to assist during their decades long struggle against the Seleucids. 

Their King Phraates I had captured the Caspian gates for Parthia and his successor, Mithridates I, expanded the Parthian region through clever organisation and diplomacy, not just warfare. He died in 136 BCE and his son Phraates II inherited a new, formidable em