Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali – the Antipodean Tribes

Chapter XXXII

We have learned the identities of half the sons of Jacob. So far, all have been located in the British and Irish Isles.  The other half have migrated to the New World and beyond. It is recommended that Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin, and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad are read prior to this chapter. We have also addressed the over defining of the sons of Jacob by researchers in concluding Joseph as all the English speaking peoples and then attributing the other tribes to nations in northwest Europe. Yet these nations are invariably the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, Lot or even Ishmael. Certain tribes were prophesied to not live in the north and west from Canaan as the British and Irish do today. Two were predicted to live in ‘the midst’ of the earth, one was to live in ‘the southwest’ and another was described as a ‘great southern land.’  

Historically, identity adherents have been consistent in identifying Zebulun, Issachar’s younger brother and twin of Dinah as the Dutch of the Netherlands. The description of ports, ships and trade has led to this conclusion. We have addressed the Netherlands previously [refer Chapter XII Canaan, Chapter XXIII Aram and Chapter XXVII Abraham], as the Dutch descend from Abraham’s son Midian. Issachar has been linked to Switzerland due its landlocked position and watch making expertise, though the predominant identification for Issachar has been with Finland. As we learned in Chapter XXIV Arphaxad, Finland is not descended from Abraham or his two brothers, let lone Jacob; but rather possibly from Joktan, the brother of Peleg or more likely judging by Haplogroups, from Arphaxad’s other sons Anar and Ashcol. The Swiss are descended from Haran, Abraham’s brother [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. A key point we will find in identifying Issachar is that they are geographically next to Zebulun and therefore to be found together. A further pairing to add to those we have highlighted already with Judah and Benjamin; Simeon and Levi; Reuben and Gad. Thus, wherever one is located the other will be next to them. The Netherlands and Finland – likewise the Netherlands and Switzerland being separated – are very far apart and could not fulfil this requirement, geographically, genetically or linguistically. Identity expert Yair Davidy comments: 

‘Finland was settled by peoples from the Israelite tribes of Gad [Ireland], Simeon [Wales], and especially Issachar. The earliest written histories of Finland repeat the tradition that they were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Descendants of several Israelite tribes are to be found in Switzerland [Haran]. Issachar judging from tribal names and national characteristics prevails.’ 

Asher has been historically attributed principally with Belgium – because of the blessing of good food or pastries – and more recently as Scotland and Ireland. Naphtali has been attributed to Sweden – because of a love of freedom – as well as with Norway. Yair Davidy adds: ‘Norway was colonized by Naphtalite Huns and other groups of Naphtali.’ We will discover that Yair Davidy is correct initially and that these Naphtalites continued their migration in to Britain and Ireland and then beyond. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Issachar is compared to a “large-boned ass,” Jacob continues: “For he saw a resting-place that it was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and he BOWED HIS SHOULDER TO BEAR, and became a SERVANT UNDER “ASSWORK.” (Genesis 49:14-15.) An ass is not the most intelligent of animals, but it is a willing worker. Such is Finland. Finland is the ONLY nation that has voluntarily taken the full responsibility of her debts. She is today paying off a huge indemnity to Russia. Her land is pleasant and good, not extraordinarily rich. According to Deuteronomy 33:19 she derives wealth from fishing and from hidden treasures of the sand gigantic peat bogs and the finest sand for glass-making. Issachar is not a colonizing people they dwell pastorally “in tents,” said Moses.’

Not the most gracious of comments, though the intent is correct. But, we are searching for a British and Irish descended, or Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples that have shouldered a burden of some kind. They will also be living with Zebulon.

‘Zebulun settled in Holland (The Netherlands). Zebulun dwell at the “shore of the sea, and he shall be a shore for ships, and his flank shall be upon Zidon” a Gentile country. Moses said: “rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out.” She takes also treasures from the sea and the sand, Zebulun, then, is a colonizing people. She is not a pillaging people as Benjamin.’ 

Hoeh is accurate on the colonising aspect of Zebulon as well as drawing attention to their dwelling by Zidon. Recall, we spent time looking at the connection between the Kenites, the Hivites, the Midianite Dutch and their ancient Phoenician association with the city of Sidon. We have now located Zebulun and Issachar. By a strange twist of irony, the very identity ascribed to Zebulun by identity researchers is Holland and it is the Dutch and tribes of Zebulon and Issachar who are in fact entwined. Thus Zebulun comprises the British element, with Issachar of South Africa – and Issachar is also within Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia. In the Bible, this territory that includes Canaanites, Midianites, Issachar and Zebulon is called Sidon [refer Chapter XII Canaan and Chapter XXIII Aram] and is fulfilled in modern day South Africa. 

‘Asher “his bread shall be fat and he shall yield royal dainties” (Genesis 49:20). 

This peculiar expression could have reference alone to Belgium and the kindred state Luxembourg. From Belgium have come the finest Flemish paintings, the royal tapestries which graced the halls of kings, fine cut diamonds, porcelain and Belgian lace. Belgium and Luxembourg are blessed above many [other sons] of Jacob “Blessed be Asher above sons; let him be the favoured of his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil” prosperity. 

Iron and brass shall [be] thy bars; and as thy days, so shall they riches increase. Because of uranium, Belgium’s prosperity will continue to grow.’

Hoeh is correct to highlight Asher’s blessing being disproportionate to his brothers; though after Jospeh and Judah the birthright and sceptre recipients. The blessings are far more, than the nation of Belgium possesses. The people of Belgium being descended from Abraham’s grandsons Sheba and Dedan [refer Chapter XVII Abraham].  

‘Nepthali represents Sweden “satisfied with favor, full with the blessings of the Lord.” She is compared to a prancing hind or deer and “giveth goodly words” (Genesis 49:21). From Sweden, with a well-balanced economy, come the Nobel prizes in token to great world accomplishments. Sweden, during two world wars and the recent trouble in Palestine, sent her emissaries to speak words of conciliation and peace. 

The promise by Moses to possess “the sea and the south” is applicable both to ancient Nepthali and modern Sweden: notice the position of the Sea of Galilee and Baltic relative to the position of this tribe. (It may be of interest to note that the word translated as ‘west’ regarding Napthali is also defined as roaring sea, which is how Herman Hoeh explained it. Sweden is basically on the west border of the Baltic Sea).’

Both Hoeh and Nickels who comments in the parentheses, have missed the reference to the south and west is from Canaan’s perspective. Therefore, the Baltic is a far cry from fulfilling this clue. Naphtali is the nation of New Zealand and Asher is Australia

Genesis 49:13-15

English Standard Version

13 “Zebulun shall dwell [H7931 – shakan: lodge] at the shore of the sea; he shall become a haven for ships, and his border[H3411 – yrekah: flank, quarters, recesses] shall be at [unto] Sidon

Regarding Jacob’s prophecy, the New English Translations says that the verb ‘shakhan means “to settle,” but not necessarily as a permanent dwelling place. The tribal settlements by the sea would have been temporary and not the tribe’s territory.’ This is significant as since 1994 and the handing over of White control of South Africa’s political process to all South African’s, the British descended peoples of Zebulun in particular, have begun to migrate en mass to North America, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and other countries.* We will shortly learn that this was predicted. 

StatsSA, July 2012:

‘…provided a breakdown of demographics, including the estimated shifts among different racial population groups. Black South African estimates increased… the country’s coloured population grew… [and] The Asian/Indian population group… South Africa’s white population, however, declined by 17,311 people between 2020 and 2021… Notably, while South Africa’s white population still maintains its proportionate make-up of the overall population, at 7.8%, this has steadily declined over the years, from 7.9% in 2019, 8.1% in 2016, and 9.0% in 2011. Stats SA pointed to emigration as a key factor in this declining trend.’

South Africa has a population of 60,799,352 people, thus the White population equates to 4,742,349 people. Of which an approximate sixty/forty split divides the Afrikaan speakers from the English as a first language. The British descended people account for approximately 1,896,939 people, less those who have left South Africa and Zimbabwe. In the past, the total White population was nearer eight million people and closer to fifteen to twenty percent of the population. 

British Red Ensign used in South Africa until 1928

The Cape of Good Hope was a welcome stop in any journey going past Africa, east or west. The cape originally was called the Cape of Storms by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in the 1480s.

14 “Issachar is a strong donkey, crouching between the sheepfolds [saddle bags or two burdens]. 

15 He saw [H7200 – ra’ah: perceive, vision] that a resting place was good, and that the land was pleasant, so he bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a [tributary] servant at forced  [slave] labor.

The New English Translation comments – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The verb forms in this verse {“sees,” “will bend,” and “(will) become”} are preterite; they is used in a rhetorical manner, describing the future as if it had already transpired. The oracle shows that the tribe of Issachar will be willing to trade liberty for the material things of life. Issachar would work (become a slave laborer) for the Canaanites, a reversal of the oracle on Canaan [refer Chapter XI Ham].’

The descendants of Issachar have in the main, chosen to stay in the Republic of South Africa; with many having fled from Zimbabwe. The two burdens are the Black Canaanite peoples and the Afrikaans Hivites, descended from Midian and the Kenites [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].  

South African flag 1928 to 1994. The flags in the centre are the Union Jack, The Orange Free State 

and the South African Republic flags. The main flag is based on the flag of the Netherlands, 

before the orange was changed to red.

The connotation is that as Zebulun chose to live by the Sea, such as in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban; Issachar has chosen to dwell inland and landlocked, like most of the Dutch Afrikaans in Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Johannesburg, Zimbabwe and so forth. 

Ezra 3:7

English Standard Version

So they gave money to the masons and the carpenters, and food, drink, and oil to the Sidonians [South Africa] and the Tyrians [Brazil] to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea, to Joppa, according to the grant that they had from Cyrus king of Persia.

Deuteronomy 33:18-19

English Standard Version

18 And of Zebulun he said, “Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out* [H3318 – yatsa’: depart, pull out, spread], and Issachar, in your tents [at home]. 

19 They shall call peoples to their mountain [H2022 – har: hill country]; there they offer right [H6664 – tsedeq] sacrifices; for they draw [H3243 – yanaq: to suck] from the abundance [H8228 – shepha: resources] of the seas and the hidden [H2934 – taman: conceal, bury, secretly] treasures [H8226 – saphan: valuable, covered] of the sand.” 

Flag of South Africa 

Notice Issachar and Zebulun are included together in both verses and are not receiving separate prophecy’s; just different futures within the same oracle from Moses. Much of South Africa is high above sea level. Johannesburg is some 5,600 feet above sea level on a plateau, where the air is thinner than the coast and it apparently takes an egg one minute longer to boil. The Hebrew word for right, tsedeq means ‘righteousness’ but also ‘just, justice’ and a ‘righteous cause.’ Particularly linked with ‘government’ and a ‘vindication’ against ‘controversy’ and ‘victory’ or ‘deliverance’ to bring about an ‘ethically right’ result. This remarkably parallels the monumental political changes in South Africa since 1994. The reference could also be pointing to a Messianic fulfilment.

Matthew 4:13-16; Isaiah 9:1-2, 4.

English Standard Version

13 And leaving Nazareth [Christ] went and lived in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, 14 so that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled:

But there will be no gloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he has made glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations.

15 “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, 16 the people dwelling in [deep] darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling [and walking] in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned [shone].”

For the yoke of his burden, and the staff for his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, you have broken as on the day of Midian.

The Messiah is speaking of Himself as a light in revealing the gospel of the Kingdom of God and He is also speaking of His return. Thus, we learn that at the time of the Son of Man’s second coming, either the earth has spun on its axis and the magnetic north and south poles have reversed or the Lamb approaches earth from the south. For this is where Zebulun [33.9249 S] and Naphtali [36 50’54.4596 S] reside today at a similar latitude in the southern hemisphere of the globe. It is another coincidence that Midian is mentioned in verse four of chapter nine of Isaiah. Not only does Zebulun dwell with a branch of the Midianites in South Africa; New Zealand was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and named after the Dutch province of Zeeland, from Sea-land in 1642.

Southern Rhodesia flag 1924 to 1964

The prediction of mineral wealth from the soil is incredible in its fulfilment and not something that could be attributed to the Netherlands or Finland. Of the world’s top mineral producing countries, South Africa is number one and a mining powerhouse. South Africa’s geographic location is in a continent that is considered the richest in biodiversity and natural resources and it abounds with mineral reserves that are estimated to be worth over $2.5 trillion dollars, according to World Mining Statistics

Flag of Rhodesia 1968 to 1979

This dominant African nation is the largest producer and exporter of important and high in demand minerals and gems in the world, such as platinum [nearly 50% of world production], diamonds of gem quality – as opposed to industrial quality of which Australia, Russia, Zaire and Botswana produce more – chrome, manganese, vanadium and vermiculite. It is the second largest producerof ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. It is also the world’s third largest coal exporter and fifth in the world for gold. South Africa is also a huge producer of iron ore. In 2012, it overtook India to become the world’s third-biggest iron ore supplier to China; the world’s largest consumer of iron ore.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in South African global shipments during 2021.

  1. Gems, precious metals: US$35 billion 
  2. Ores, slag, ash: $18.6 billion 
  3. Vehicles: $10.7 billion 
  4. Mineral fuels including oil: $10.3 billion 
  5. Machinery including computers: $6.6 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $6.3 billion 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $4.5 billion 
  8. Other chemical goods: $2.1 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $1.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $1.7 billion

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 75.3% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales was iron and steel which rose 58.9%. South Africa’s shipments of mineral fuels including oil posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 49.51% year over year.’ 

Flag of Zimbabwe

Judges 5:14-15

English Standard Version

14… from Machir marched down the commanders, and from Zebulun those who bear [H4900 – mashak] the lieutenant’s staff [H7626 – shebet]; 15 the princes [chiefs, rulers] of Issachar came with Deborah, and Issachar faithful to Barak [from the tribe of Naphtali, Judges 4:6]; into the valley they rushed at his heels…

When the majority of Israelite tribes – though not all as we have discovered earlier – aided the Judge Deborah in her war against Jabin the King of the Canaanites, both Zebulun and Issachar were enthusiastic in their support on the battlefield. The Hebrew word mashek means, ‘to draw’ as in a bow, ‘to march’, ‘to be tall.’ The Hebrew word shebet means, a ‘rod, staff, club, sceptre’ as in a ‘mark of authority’ and a ‘shaft of’ a ‘spear’ or ‘dart.’ Its wider application a ‘literally a stick for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling’ and ‘walking.’ The verse could be paraphrased as: ‘… from Zebulon, those with military authority and competency.’ 

Rhodesian Coat of Arms 1924 to 1981

Notice two symbols on the Rhodesian Coat of Arms. Firstly, the prominent Lion of England and Thistles of Scotland, showing the common familial tie with Judah and Benjamin. Even more significant is the pick axe, a tool used for digging and also representative of mining; while indicative of Issachar’s servitude.  

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘As a loyal British colony, Southern Rhodesia called up 5,500 young white men – a significant proportion of that age group in the country at the time – and sent them to fight for Britain on the Western front in France. During World war II, double that number served in the British forces, with eleven Rhodesian Air Force pilots given “ace” status… 

Rhodesia’s superb fighting force was never defeated militarily [raids against Mozambique and Zambia guerrilla forces], but this helped little when the demographic war had been lost.’

We have discussed the significant pairing of Jacob’s sons. Some between blood brothers like Simeon and Levi and now Issachar and Zebulon and other pairings between half-brothers such as Judah, Benjamin, Reuben, Gad and also Asher and Naphtali. The final pairing are the sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim. The odd one out is Dan.

2 Chronicles 30:18

English Standard Version

For a majority of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the Passover otherwise than as prescribed. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, “May the good Lord pardon everyone…”

2 Samuel 24:6-7

English Standard Version

Then they came to Gilead, and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites; and they came to Dan, and from Danthey went around to Sidon and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites… 

1 Chronicles 12:38-40

English Standard Version

38 All these, men of war, arrayed in battle order, came to Hebron with a whole heart to make David king over all Israel. Likewise, all the rest of Israel were of a single mind to make David king. 39 And they were there with David for three days, eating and drinking, for their brothers had made preparation for them. 40 And also their relatives, from as far as Issachar and Zebulun [2 Chronicles 30:10] and Naphtali, came bringing food on donkeys and on camels and on mules and on oxen, abundant provisions of flour, cakes of figs, clusters of raisins, and wine and oil, oxen and sheep, for there was joy in Israel. 

Coat of Arms of Zimbabwe 

These verses confirm the closeness of Zebulon and Issachar as one people; albeit spread in part over two countries. The third passage highlights that in the past as it is today, that Zebulon and Issachar, with Naphtali once lived furthest north in Canaan and today – South Africa and New Zealand are – furthest south below the equator. An interesting verse regarding Issachar.

1 Chronicles 12:32

English Standard Version

32 Of Issachar, men who had understanding [H998 – biynah: ‘wisdom, knowledge’] of the times [H6256 – eth: ‘season, occasion’], to know [H3045 – yada: ‘percieve, understand’] what Israel ought to do [H6213 – asah: ‘offer, prepare’]… 

Former South African Coat of Arms

Notice the more Dutch or Midianite looking Lion than an English one; though there is homage to seafaring and trade represented by the figure of Britannia and the anchor. The Hebrew word for understanding means, ‘discernment, perfectly.’ The word for know means, ‘to discriminate, distinguish’ ‘to make known, declare.’ The Hebrew word for ought means, ‘to attend to, put in order, to observe, celebrate, appoint, ordain’ and ‘institute.’ The Tribe of Issachar were given the responsibility and skills to perform the function of regulating the calendar, so that the dates for the Holy Days, Sabbaths and new Moons were observed correctly. This was a function that in time, the Levite priesthood took over responsibility. 

Remarkably, in Cape Town there is the southern suburb of Observatory where the world renowned South African Astronomical Observatory [SAAO] is located and where the McClean Dome is situated. Another dome onsite houses the Victoria telescope, built in 1897. The Southern African Large Telescope [SALT] has the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere based in Sunderland – some two hundred and fifty miles to the north – though they conduct research in astronomy and astrophysics at SAAO. In the library are two clocks. The first shows normal South African time and the second shows sidereal time – ‘based on the Earth’s rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars – something like the time kept by a sundial, so roughly four minutes slower than an average day.’

South Africa’s current Coat of Arms, including observations on its symbols

Genesis 30:17-20

English Standard Version

17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son [1742 BCE]. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant [Zilpah] to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar [there is reward, there is recompense]. 19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son [1740 BCE]. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun [honour, dwelling].

Genesis 46:13-15

English Standard Version

13 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puvah, Yob [Job], and Shimron

14 The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, together with his daughter Dinah [Zebulun’s twin]…

Recall in Chapter XXIX Esau, how Job’s second wife was possibly a descendant of Dinah. And here we see that Job is a family name in Dinah’s brother’s line. The name is also listed in Genesis 10:29 as a son of Joktan. The Book of Jasher also refers to this Jobab of Genesis 10:29 and to the Job [Iob] listed here. 

Book of Jasher 45:5-7: 

5… Issachar went to the land of the east, and… took [for himself a wife from]… the daughters of Jobab the son of [Joktan], the son of Eber; and Jobab the son of Yoktan had two daughters… and the name of the younger was Aridah. 6… Issachar took Aridah, and… came to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house… 7 And Aridah bare unto Issachar Tola, Puvah, Job [Iob or Jashub Numbers 26:24, 1 Chronicles 7:1] and Shomron, four sons; 

Job married an equivalent of an eastern European. The identity of Jobab is not clear, though an example of a Czech may not be far amiss* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Recall, Levi also married Aridah’s elder sister. The Book of Jubilees records Issachar’s wife’s name as Hezaqa.

Book of Jubilees 34:20-21

And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives… the name of Issachar’s wife, Hezaqa: and the name of Zabulon’s wife, Ni’iman… and the name of Naphtali’s wife, Rasu’u, of Mesopotamia… and the name of Asher’s wife, ‘Ijona

The Book of Jasher continues regarding the wives of Naphtali, Asher and Zebulun.

Book of Jasher 45:9-10, 12-20

9… Naphtali went to Haran and took from thence [a daughter] of Amuram the son of Uz, the son of Nahor… 10… the name of the elder was Merimah… and Naphtali took Merimah… and brought [her] to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house. 11 And Merimah bare unto Naphtali Yachzeel, Guni, Jazer and Shalem, four sons…

12 And Asher went forth and took Adon the daughter of Aphlal, the son of Hadad, the son of Ishmael,for a wife, and he brought her to the land of Canaan. 

13 And Adon the wife of Asher died in those days: she had no offspring; and it was after the death of Adon that Asher went to the other side of the river and took for a wife Hadurah the daughter of Abimael, the son of Eber, the son of Shem. 14 And the young woman was of a comely appearance, and a woman of sense, and she had been the wife of Malkiel the son of Elam, the son of Shem. 15 And Hadurah bare a daughter unto Malkiel, and he called her name Serach, and Malkiel died after this, and Hadurah went and remained in her father’s house. 16 And after the death of the wife [of] Asher he went and took Hadurah for a wife, and brought her to the land of Canaan, and Serach her daughter he also brought with them, and she was three years old, and the damsel was brought up in Jacob’s house. 17 And the damsel was of a comely appearance, and [Serach] went in the sanctified ways of the children of Jacob; she lacked nothing, and Yahweh gave her wisdom and understanding. 18 And Hadurah the wife of Asher conceived and bare unto him Yimnah, Yishvah, Yishvi and Beriah; four sons.

19 And Zebulun went to Midian, and took for a wife Merishah the daughter of Molad, the son of Abida, the son of Midian [the son of Abraham and Keturah], and brought her to the land of Canaan. 20 And Merushah bare unto Zebulun Sered, Elon and Yachleel; three sons.

Naphtali like his half brother Gad, married from the line of Nahor [Italian] as his father Jacob and his grandfather Isaac had done. Asher took a first wife from Ishmael [German] who died childless and Asher’s second wife Hadurah was descended from Eber, which could mean Peleg or Joktan* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Fascinatingly, the strong link between Zebulon and Midian – the British and Dutch South Africans – continues, with Zebulon taking his wife Merishah from the line of Abraham’s son Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].

Numbers 1:28-31, 41, 43

English Standard Version

28 Of the people of Issachar, their generations, by their clans, by their fathers’ houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, every man able to go to war: 29 those listed of the tribe of Issachar were 54,400.

31 those listed of the tribe of Zebulun were 57,400… 41 those listed of the tribe of Asher were 41,500… 43 those listed of the tribe of Naphtali were 53,400.

1 Chronicles 7:1-5

English Standard Version

The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron, four. 2 The sons of Tola: Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their fathers’ houses, namely of Tola, mighty warriors of their generations, their number in the days of David being 22,600. 

3 The son of Uzzi: Izrahiah. And the sons of Izrahiah: Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah, all five of them were chief men. 4 And along with them, by their generations, according to their fathers’ houses, were units of the army for war, 36,000, for they had many wives and sons. 5 Their kinsmen belonging to all the clans of Issachar were in all 87,000 mighty warriors, enrolled by genealogy.

Strangely, further sons or grandsons for Zebulon are missing from the 1 Chronicles genealogical lists. 

Genesis 30:7-13

English Standard Version

7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son [1742 BCE]. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali[wrestlings of God, my struggle, cunning].

9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife… 12 Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a second son [1744 BCE]. 13 And Leah said, “Happy am I! For women have called me happy.” So she called his name Asher[happy, happy one].

Genesis 46:17, 24

English Standard Version

17 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, with Serah their sister. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel… [1 Chronicles 1:31-32: who fathered Birzaith. Heber fathered Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua…]

24 The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. 

Australian Flag

In Asher’s family there is the family name of Heber [Eber, Hebrew, Iberia, Hiberi, Hibernia, Hebrides] and Naphtali has a son, Jahzeel similar to Zebulon’s son Jahleel.

Genesis 49:20-21

English Standard Version

20 “Asher’s food shall be rich [H8082 – shaman: plenteous, lusty, robust], and he shall yield  [be granted or permitted] royal [H4428 – melek: (fit for a) king] delicacies.

21 “Naphtali is a doe [deer] let loose [H7961 – shalach: let free], that bears [granted, given] beautiful [beauty, goodness] fawns [(offspring) or confusingly, ‘he gives beautiful words’].

Australian Coat of Arms

Notice the strong link with the tribe of Judah in the symbols of Crowns, Lions and the St Georges Cross. The Good News Translation for Asher says: ‘Asher’s land will produce rich food. He will provide food fit for a king.’ Australia is one of the bread basket nations of the world, with the market opening up to its neighbours in East Asia infinitely. A more helpful paraphrase of verse 21: ‘Naphtali is a female deer running free, that has been bestowed beauty and goodness.’ This verse explains itself for anyone who has been able to visit New Zealand.

Deuteronomy 33:23-29

English Standard Version

23 And of Naphtali he said, “O Naphtali, sated with favor [H7522 – ratsown: pleasure, delight], and full of the blessing [prosperity] of the Lord, possess [inherit] the lake and the south [H3220 – yam: west (47 times KJV), south (1)].”

24 And of Asher he said, “Most blessed of sons [or blessed with children] be Asher; let him be the favorite [acceptable, a pleasure, delight] of his brothers, and let him dip [plunge] his foot in oil.

25 Your bars shall be iron and bronze, and as your days, so shall your strength be.

It is clear from these verses that Asher considerably and Naphtali in large part, have been granted special favour above their brothers – aside from Joseph and Judah. Both Australia and New Zealand regularly make the top ten lists for best or safest countries to live in. The CEV says: ‘The Lord is pleased with you, people of Naphtali. He will bless you and give you the land to the west and the south.’ The nation furthest from the original land of Canaan – as well as from the British and Irish Isles – in a southwest direction is, New Zealand. It is also separated by vast oceans and sea. Even taking its name from the word Sea-land inherited from the Netherlands and Denmark before that. 

The original Hebrew says that Asher would be blessed with children, a favourite amongst his brothers and possess immeasurable wealth beneath his feet. After North America and England, Australia has the highest population of the sons of Jacob with 26,077,567 people. It is a very popular destination to visit or emigrate and has a high level of wealth relative to its population. Though Belgium is a blessed nation, it does not match the oracle as given by Moses, like Australia does. Australia has the highest average wealth in the world, passing Switzerland in 2018. 

Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world with a GDP of $1.40 trillion in 2019.Australia combines an open domestic economy, with an extensive network of free trade arrangements with trading partners principally around the Asia-Pacific Rim. Australia ranks at number ten in the nations with the most natural resources. Australia, which is similar in size to the continental United States, is known for its large reserves of coal, timber, copper, iron ore, nickel, oil shale and rare earth metals. Australia is also one of the world leaders in uranium and gold mining. The country has the largest gold reserves in the world, supplying over fourteen percent of the world’s gold demand and forty-six percent of the world’s uranium demand; while being the top producer of opal and aluminum. 

If that wasn’t enough, it is number three in the world for mineral producing nations. It is interesting that Australia is called the ‘lucky country’ especially as this if the meaning of his blood brother’s name, Gad. The link with Ireland doesn’t stop there. Some thirty percent of Australians claim Irish descent and they share a love of the unique yet similar sports of either Gaelic football and Australia or Aussie Rules football. 

The nation continent of Australia has approximately $737 billion worth of seaborne ore reserves alone. It also houses massive reserves of important minerals, such as bauxite – twenty-three percent of the world’s total reserves – and nickel, with some thirty-five percent of the world’s total reserves. It may not exceed the scale of South Africa and Russia in terms of mineral reserves, but Australia is more popular among international mining investors due to its government’s credibility and track record of performance in protecting the mining industry. As Russia [2] and the Ukraine [4] are top five mineral powers, the counter balance to the mighty Assyrians and Orphir of Joktan, is Sidon-Midian-Zebulon, South Africa and Asher, Australia. 

A coincidence is that Asher of Jacob and Asshur of Shem have similar names and both possess enormous countries of mineral wealth, with allies also possessing huge reserves.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Australian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Ores, slag, ash: US$132.1 billion 
  2. Mineral fuels including oil: $91 billion 
  3. Gems, precious metals: $20.7 billion 
  4. Meat: $11.6 billion 
  5. Cereals: $10.1 billion 
  6. Inorganic chemicals: $6.4 billion 
  7. Machinery including computers: $4.8 billion 
  8. Aluminum: $4.7 billion 
  9. Copper: $3.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $3.7 billion 


Cereals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 164.1% since 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aluminum which was up by 52.6%. Australia’s shipments of ores, slag and ash posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 45.6% year over year. The most modest advance among Australia’s top 10 export categories was for gems and precious metals thanks to its 5.6% gain.’

Judges 5:17-18

English Standard Version

17 … Asher sat still at the coast of the sea, staying by his landings. 18 Zebulun is a people who risked their lives to the death; Naphtali, too,on the heights of the field.

Judges 4:10 

English Standard Version

And Barak called out Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh. And 10,000 men went up at his heels, and Deborah went up with him.

We learn that Asher like Reuben, Dan, Gad, Simeon, Levi and Judah was reticent to get involved in a war that didn’t directly impinge on their territory. Meanwhile, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin, Zebulon, Issachar and Naphtali took part. With Zebulon, Naphtali was the most courageous. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘ANZAC [Australia and New Zealand Army Corps] Day is still celebrated on April 25th each year to honour New Zealand’s military dead. An astonishing 103,000 New Zealander’s served in the armed forces during the First World War – out of a total population of one million. Of this number, 16,697 were killed. This meant that 1.6 percent of all New Zealanders died in the conflict… the highest death [rate] per capita of any country in the war. An even greater number of New Zealanders served in World war II. Some 140,000 soldiers fought overseas in Europe, North Africa, and in the Pacific… 11,928 were killed, or just under 1 percent of the total population… in 1939.’

It can be no small coincidence that the two greatest Rugby Union teams in the world consistently for over one hundred years with three Rugby world cups each out of a possible nine are the New Zealand All Blacks and the South African Springboks. For what is rugby, but a battle without the weapons or result of death. Blood and injury though are par for the course in the most brutal sport in the world outside of cage fighting, boxing and American Football. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, Hitler’s commander in North Africa during World War II insightfully said about the Australians and New Zealanders after facing their infantry divisions [ANZACs]: “If I had to take hell, I would use the Australians to take it and the New Zealanders to hold it.”

Judges 7:23

English Standard Version

And the men of Israel were called out from Naphtali and from Asher and from all Manasseh, and they pursued after Midian.

When the Judge Gideon fought the Midianites, his main allies apart from his own tribe of Manasseh, were Naphtali, with their neighbour Asher, in the far north of Canaan.

Joshua 19:24-29

English Standard Version

24 The fifth lot came out for the tribe of the people of Asher according to their clans. 

25 Their territory included Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, 26 Allammelech, Amad, and Mishal. On the west it touches Carmel and Shihor-libnath, 27 then it turns eastward, it goes to Beth-dagon, and touches Zebulun and the Valley of Iphtahel northward to Beth-emek and Neiel. Then it continues in the north to Cabul, 28 Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, as far as Sidon the Great. 29 Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre…

The inheritance of Asher in Canaan is described in the Book of Joshua. It is interesting, as it a condensed description of their current neighbours today. Zebulun and Sidon equating to South Africa in the African continent to their west, separated by a vast expanse of sea and similarly to the west; Tyre equates to Brazil in the South American continent [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. A curious prophetic verse is in the Book of Isaiah, which describes where certain tribes of Israel were dispersed.

Isaiah 49:12

Christian Standard Bible

See, these will come from far away, from the north and from the west, and from the land [H776 – ‘erets: land without return (under) [the] world] of Sinim.

We know the north and west relates to the British and Irish Isles. The counterpoint to that is Sinim, which is inferred as the opposite direction of, southwards [and far away]. Some researchers propose that Sin-im relates to China [as the Arabs called the Chineses Sin(a)] or to Canaan’s son Sin; but both these options are an incorrect interpretation. The Jerome translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible for Isaiah 49:12 says: ‘ecce isti de longe venient et ecce illi ab aquilone et mari et isti de terra australi.’ The key phrase being: isti de terra australi. 

By a strange turn, the word Australia is derived from the Latin word australis, meaning ‘southern.’ Australia has been colloquially referred to as Oz, slang for Aus’ since the early twentieth century. It is the ‘land down under’ and literally the great ‘southern land.’ Australia has been called ‘the Oldest Continent’, ‘the Last of Lands’ and ‘the Last Frontier.’ Australia is the last of lands, in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica to be explored by Europeans. 

The term Terra Australis Incognita, or an ‘unknown land of the South’ dates back to Roman times. After European discovery, names included Terra Australis. An online quote: 

‘The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in “A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt”, published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name “Tierra Austral del Espíritu Santo” (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit) for an island in Vanuatu. The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. 

Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur. Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771.’  

The name Sinim [סינים siyniym] occurs nowhere else in the Bible and it is evident that it is a remote country; remarkable in that it is the only such land specified by name in the Bible. The Chaldee also interprets it as Jerome has done: of the south. Whereas the Syriac has not translated it but retained the name Sinim… In Origin, Yair Davidiy adds:

‘The Egyptians referred to the southernmost known area of land as “sin-wur”. This corresponds to the Land of “Sinim” meaning Australia. There are reports of Egyptian and Phoenician remains being found in Australia.’ 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Another large mass of people, the Yue­chi, was being pushed out of inner Asia toward Scythia and Parthia. Early Chinese chronicles record that the “Ephthalites” were one of the tribes of the Yue­chi. The Ephthalites were also called “White Huns” because they were “fair­skinned” (indicating a Semitic origin). 

Other names for the Ephthalites include the “Hephthalites” or “Nephthalites,” although the Encyclopaedia Britannica adds that “the initial N… is believed to be a clerical error.” It should be easy for anyone with a knowledge of biblical history to identify this tribe as the Israelite tribe of Naphtali! The consonants of Ephthali (or Nephthali) precisely match Naphtali, one of the ten tribes of Israel.’ 

New Zealand Coat of Arms

‘It is interesting that the Encyclopaedia Britannica observed that the ancient historians who recorded that this tribe’s name began with an “N” are “believed… (to have made) a clerical error.” No evidence is offered to support a claim that it was a clerical error, but it is “believed” to be one. Why? The reader must realize that “establishment” histories have a strong bias against “finding” any of the “lost” ten tribes of Israel (doing so would draw interest toward the Bible). While many Israelite tribal names can be found in Asia, this similarity between the “Nephthalites” and an Israelite tribe (the Naphtalites) is glaringly obvious.

The presence of a tribe in Asia bearing a Hebrew name unchanged from biblical times is an academic “hot potato”! A “belief” that the “N” is an ancient “clerical error” helps to obscure the Israelite nature of this tribe. Indeed, if establishment histories were to examine Scythian or Parthian history in much depth at all, their identity as the ten tribes of Israel would be impossible to miss. Perhaps that is why their history (prominently cited by Greek and Roman historians) is mostly ignored in the modern world. 

The fact that the Ephthalites were “fair­skinned” further verifies their identification as Israelites (since the Israelites were of the Semitic, or “white” race). The fact that the Ephthalites were called “White Huns” indicates that while they came out of Asia, they were differentiated from the rest of the Huns, who were not fair­skinned or white. Indeed, the Encyclopaedia Britannica itself refers to the Sakas (or Sacae Scythians), the Yue­Chi and the Ephthalites as being related “Indo-Scythian” tribes. 

In chapter eight, it was documented that the Nephthalites were undoubtedly the Israelite tribe of Naphtali which went into Asia in 741 B.C. as captives of the Assyrians. Since the tribe of Naphtali did not go into captivity in a piecemeal fashion, but rather in one complete mass (II Kings 15:29), they retained their original Israelite tribal name longer than the other tribes. 

The Ephthalites waged war on the Sassanian Persians (which was natural since the Ephthalites were kinsmen of the Parthians and Scythians). As late as 484 A.D., the Ephthalites defeated the Persians and extended their control into India, establishing a capital as Sakala (which bore the name of Isaac). 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica cites the Greek writer, Procopius, as stating the Ephthalite Huns were “far more civilized than the Huns of Attila.” Ephthalite power in Asia was not broken until 557 A.D. when they were beaten by the Persians and Turks… the Ephthalites, as a whole, simply disappeared from Asia. Where did they go? They were likely pushed toward Europe, arriving in a later migration. This would make the tribe of Naphtali one of the first to go into Asia and the last to leave it.’ 

Origin, Yair Davidiy – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the very far east of Scythia in what is now eastern Siberia and western China a good portion of the Naphtalite horde had remained. In the 450-500 CE period the Naphtalites began to move west eventually entering Scandinavia in the 500’s and 600’s CE. The Naphtalites themselves settled mainly in Norway.’ 

As we have discussed in the previous two chapters, the waves of invaders into Britain and Ireland match the sons of Jacob and their tribal groupings. Though ultimately the twelve sons became fourteen tribal splits, they were to form ten nations in the modern world. The tribal divisions being Reuben, Gad, Benjamin, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Ephraim, the half tribe of West Manasseh and the half tribe of East Manasseh. 

These fourteen tribes became the ten English speaking nations of England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States of America. Levi was scattered which leaves thirteen. Issachar and Zebulun are together as one, which leaves twelve. Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh are together as one and are called either Ephraim or Joseph in the Bible, which leaves eleven… and Dan the enigma, remains unidentified until later, which leaves ten. 

The waves of invaders also follows the pattern of ten, rather than fourteen arrivals. They are the Britons, the Cruithni, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha de Dannan, the Hiberi or Goidels, the Jutes, the Frisians, the Angles, the Norsemen and the Danes. Sandwiched in between those are the Royal Milesians who were a branch of Judah from Zarah and the Normans who were predominantly a branch of Judah from Pharez. 

The ancient Britons were the Cymru and are the Simeon Welsh; the Cruithni from Benjamin were Picts and became Scottish; the Fir Bolg became the Ulaid and Reuben Northern Ireland; the Dannan are simply the tribe of Dan; the Goidels or Gaedhals of Gad became Gaels and are now the Irish; the Jutes from true tribe of Judah are the English; the Frisians from Zebulun and Issachar became the British South Africans and Rhodesians; the Angles – to be yet revealed – became known as Americans and Canadians; the Norsemen or Norwegians from Naphtali, became New Zealanders [notice all the Ns]; and the Danish Vikings became Australians from Asher. 

Just as the Norwegians, Danes and Normans were known as Vikings and the earlier tribes to arrive were called Celts, so too were the tribes of Jutes, Angles and Frisians collectively known as Saxons. The term ‘Anglo-Saxon’ is made up and is somewhat misleading as it implies two separate peoples, when in fact the Angles were Saxons. It is interesting to note that the first letter of many of Jacob’s son’s names have survived either to the present day or at least until their arrival in Ireland or Briton. Especially noticeable, with the tribe of Naphtali. 

Both Collins and Davidy’s comments are informative regarding Naphtali who had remarkably, kept his identity for some fifteen hundred years. An important point to understand is that as peoples migrated they pushed against those in front of them and in turn were pressed from behind. The Naphtalite Huns made their way to Scandinavia as had many of the tribes before them. They with the Danes and the Normans were the last to vacate Scandinavia. The Normans had dwelt in Brittany and Normandy for two centuries before they invaded Kent and Sussex. Meanwhile, the Danish Vikings had the numbers to establish a capital at York and to inject their royal line into the British Saxon kings. The Norwegian Vikings raided and then settled the north of England, Scotland and Ireland. Though there is some overlap between the two Viking peoples.

A handful of interesting similarities are that the Vikings were expert sailors and navigators who had designed practical yet fast open going vessels, known as longboats. This interest and ability is mirrored today by the Australians and New Zealanders in the love of sailing and yachting. The biggest city in New Zealand, Auckland is known as the City of Sails, as there are more yachts per head of population than anywhere else in the world. Both Australia and New Zealand have shook up the most famous Yachting regatta in the world, the America’s Cup in recent decades, with New Zealand leading the innovation within the competition. 

The Vikings were known for living near water outlets and on the coast. Today Australians and New Zealanders live principally within striking distance of a beach and have built their largest cities all on the coasts. An interesting correlation is just as the Vikings either established or grew the five main coastal cities of Ireland: Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick and Cork; they then went onto Australia and built the famous and thriving five cities of Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. 

Though Norwegian and Danes today claim to be Vikings, they in reality as descendants of Abraham and Keturah have inherited the name. The true vikings have either been assimilated within Britain and Ireland as the the Norman aristocracy, or ventured on to Australia and New Zealand, the Danes and Norsemen now Aussies and Kiwis. 

The United Tribes of New Zealand flag from 1834 to 1840

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Phoenicians also mined tin and other ores in Britain, and exported them to other nations in the Mideast. George Rawlinson states: 

“The Phoenicians had one more colony towards the west… Phoenician ships from Gadeira… crossed the mouth of the English Channel… to the Scilly Isles and conveyed thither a body of colonists who established an emporium. The attraction which drew them was the mineral wealth of the islands and of the neighboring Cornish coast… It is reasonable to suppose that the Phoenicians both worked the mines and smelted the ores.”

Historical evidence points to the Israelite tribe of Asher as being directly involved with the mining of tin in early Briton. William Camden, a British historian who lived from 1551 to 1623, states in his historical work, Britannia, that: 

The merchants of Asher worked the tin mines of Cornwall, not as slaves, but as masters and exporters.” A British historian of the nineteenth century, Sir Edmund Creasy, also noted that: “The British mines mainly supplied the glorious adornment of Solomon’s Temple.”

Notice the tribe of Asher were involved in mining, just as Australians are heavily involved today. The tribe of Asher took on the Danish name which may or may not have derived from the name of Jacob’s son, Dan as discussed previously. By coincidence the peoples today now called Danes in Denmark are the descendants of Me-dan. The Denes or Danes are thought to have had a female leader called Danu or Dana, that they worshipped the Goddess Dana, or that Dan is the legendary founder of the ancient Danish kingdom, as he is mentioned in medieval Scandinavian texts. 

Unrest in Scania led to war and a new order, represented by the Scyldings and the Healfdena. They led the migration of Danes from Sweden into the Cimbric Peninsula, thus putting pressure on the Jutes in the north. This may have resulted in feuds and local power struggles, which would have in turn impacted the sizeable tribe of the Angles. In 420 CE a man named Hoc seemed to be allied to the Scyldings by blood or marriage. The Danish side of his parentage is covered by the epic poem, Beowulf, which describes him as the son of Beowulf the elder, while the other side is probably Jutish or Anglian. 

New Zealand Flag

In 448 CE Hnaef a prince of a group of Danes called the Hocingas, and as a Sæ-Dene [Sea Dane], is involved in the struggle for power in the North Sea. His family is likely to have settled in modern Jutland. Hnaef winters with his elder sister, Hildeburh, who is married to Finn, king of the Frisians. Fighting appears to be sparked by a feud between the Jutish allies of either side, as those with the Frisians are angry that some of their people have sworn loyalty to the Danes who are ‘stealing’ Jutish territory. 

Hnaef is killed during the Freswæl, the ‘Fight at Finnesburg’. Finn is then killed in revenge by Hengist, Hnaef’s Jutish comrade in arms. As his duty is done to his deceased lord Hnaef, Hengist with his brother Horsa leads his people to Britain to take up temporary service under another lord, the high king of Britain, but this soon turns into a conquest of the southeastern territory of England in 455 CE. Large numbers of Jutes and Angles follow Hengist and this has the effect of leaving Jutland almost deserted for the incoming Dene. 

The Danish migration was complete by about the sixth century, but a single, fully unified kingdom took approximately three more centuries to emerge. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Danes, along with the Norwegians, became the scourge of Britain and Ireland. The Danes staged a major invasion of the English kingdoms during 879 to 880 CE, conquering a swathe of eastern and northern territory Britain. The Danish army under Guthrum formalised its rule under the Peace of Wedmore in 879. Guthrum secured the Danish kingdom of East Anglia, which was founded to exist alongside the Scandinavian kingdom of York. 

By 918 CE the failure to apply a concentrated force meant that the Danes were defeated. They lost a large number of men, particularly at Bedford, where the besieged English garrison inflicted a severe defeat upon them, putting their army to flight. The Danish kingdom in England fell to Edward the Elder of Wessex, as he began to unify the country under one king. At the very end of the tenth century a Danish dynasty took the English throne, heralding a new Anglo-Scandinavian period which was ended with the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and the arrival of the other Scandnavians, the Normans. The Danes also settled in Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. 

The Frisians as Issachar and Zebulun and being a smaller tribal unit are invariably lost as part of the larger Saxon tribe of the Angles from an historical perspective. This is not surprising as in the Bible, Issachar and Zebulun are often quoted with Ephraim and Manasseh. Zebulun and Issachar are also the younger brothers of Judah and so their close association with the Jutes explains the Jutish, Angle and Frisian triangular nucleus of the Saxon peoples. 

The word viking became associated with someone who goes on a ‘pirate raid’, a predatory ‘sea robber’ but this is a later interpretation of the word based on their reputation for attacking the medieval kingdoms of England and France. The word was originally used to denote a trader. Indo-European languages contain cognates of the root word for trader, such as the Latin vic [vicus: village, habitation], along with the Saxon wic and the Germanic wich.

All of these relate to the Scandinavian vik, from theOld Norse, vikingr. A Vikingr or Viking was someone who went on expeditions, usually abroad and usually be sea and usually in a group with other Vikingar [plural] to wics or wichs to trade. Norway is called the North Way as it was the north way or sea path. Without roads the only reliable travel was by water, so trading centres would be sited in protected inlets. The use of vik became transferable from the trade location or village to its location on inlets. In England, this double usage did not apply, but many Saxon villages still retain their trading names, such as Harwich, Ipswich, and Norwich, while Hamptonwic was modified to Southampton. 

The Norse feminine vik, means an inlet, small bay or creek. As the Vikings dwelt beside creeks that fed to the sea, the name also incorporates the fact that viking means a ‘creek dweller.’ The origin of this interpretation though may go back to earlier etymology that derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, meaning ’sea mile’. This was originally ‘the distance between two shifts of rowers’, from the root weik or wik, as in the Proto-Germanic verb wikan, meaning ‘to recede’ and the Proto-Nordic verb, meaning ‘to turn’, The Old Icelandic equivalent is vikja, meaning ‘to move, to turn’, with a nautical usage. 

Linguistically, this explanation is probable as the term predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of Northwestern Europe, as the Old Frisian spelling Witsing or Wising shows that ‘the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before…’ If such is the case, that the tired rower moved aside for the rested rower on long sea journeys, a vikingr would originally have been a rower; so that the ‘word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas.’ 

When the Norsemen were invaded by the Roman Catholic soldiers, they asked the people who their king was, and they replied “Viking,” which means; “We’re King.”  A very antipodean response. Coincidently, the Vikings were known as Ascomanni, or ash-men’ by the Germans for the Ash wood of their boats. The Gaels called them Lochlannaich, ‘people from the land of lakes’, the Saxons called them Dene and the Frisains called them Northmonn

As mentioned previously, most Australians and particularly New Zealanders do not live very far from water. In Australia, Vickers and Vickermans are popular surnames. The Vikings imprint on history is less piratical raider and more, sea-faring traders, fishermen, farmers and craftsmen; with their own laws, art and architecture. 

Dutch explorer Captain Willem Janszoon landed in Australia in 1606, though it was in 1770 when Captain James Cook maps the eastern coast and claims the continent for Great Britain. The first British settlement was founded in 1788. In 1824 the Island is called Australia, changed from New Holland – coined by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 – at the request of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. 

In 1841, New Zealand became its own colony separate from Australia. The year 1868 saw the end of convicts being sent to Australia. Some one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were shipped to Australia between 1788 and 1868.

Six colonies were formed in Australia: New South Wales, 1788; Tasmania, 1825; Western Australia, 1829; South Australia, 1836; Victoria, 1851; and Queensland, 1859. These same colonies later became the states of the Australian Commonwealth. In 1911, the Northern Territory became part of the Commonwealth and the city of Canberra was founded. It was named as the Australian Capital Territory or ACT. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 and a national flag was adopted. Even though it was adopted one year before New Zealand, the New Zealand flag of 1902 had originally been designed earlier in 1869. 

In 1986, Australia became fully independent from the United Kingdom. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and the biggest island, though as it is officially a continent, Greenland is deemed the biggest island in the world. In 2021, Australia signed a significant security treaty with the United Kingdom and the United States [AUKUS] aimed at countering the growing threat of China in the region. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Australian and New Zealand participation in the disaster of the Gallipoli Campaign – which was an attempted invasion of the Turkish mainland during World war I – forged the antipodean nations into a heightened sense of national consciousness [and camaraderie]. The brutality of the battle… ended in an Allied defeat…’ 

New Zealand is called by the indigenous Maori: Aotearoa, translated as ‘land of the long white cloud.’ Maori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Maui, ‘the fish of Maui’ for the North Island and Te Waipounamu, ‘the waters of  greenstone’ or Te Waka o Aoraki, ‘the canoe of Aoraki’ for the South Island. New Zealand also has some seven hundred smaller islands, covering an area of 103,500 square miles and a population of 4,900,310 people. 

By comparison, Japan has an area of 145,937 square miles and a population of one hundred and twenty-five million people. The area of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland is 93,628 miles with a population of sixty-eight million people. Naphtali was prophesied to be free as a deer let loose and so it is for the small population of New Zealand compared to its area. Saying that, there are still two nations in the world who could increase their population sizes dramatically as they have enough land – unlike Australia say, that has a vast interior of desert and only coastal regions suitable for the bulk of their population – to be able to sustain them satisfactorily. Those nations are New Zealand and Canada; both of which are under-populated and have potential for massive growth. We will look more into this when we study Canada in the next chapter. 

Due to their remoteness, ‘the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable landmass to be settled by humans.’ Approximately 1000 CE, Maori had become the dominant Polynesian culture and society. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted and officially recorded New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, declaring British sovereignty. A year later, New Zealand became a colony of the British Empire and by 1907 it had become a self-governing dominion. New Zealand gained full independence in 1947, with the British Monarch remaining head of state. 

In 1951 the United Kingdom increasingly focusing on its European interests, led to New Zealand joining Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty. A variety of ethical conflicts, particularly New Zealand’s nuclear free policy led to the United States’s suspension of ANZUS obligations. The treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend of close political cooperation, free trade agreements and mutual citizen rights between the two nations, so that citizens can visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. 

New Zealander’s, consistent with their identity as Naphtali have been involved and contributed man power in many conflicts – including: Vietnam, the two World Wars, the second Boer War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has also contributed forces to numerous several regional and global peacekeeping missions since World war II. 

New Zealand has an advanced market economy, ranked 14th in the Human Development Index and 3rd in the Index of Economic Freedom. New Zealand is identified as one of the world’s most stable and well governed nations. As of 2017, the country was ranked fourth in the strength of its democratic institutions and first in government transparency and lack of corruption. 

It was the ascent of Mount Everest by New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay in 1953 that was one of the defining moments of the 20th century. Hillary stated: “In some ways, I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.”

The British diaspora in Sub-Saharan Africa includes British and Irish descended people not just in South Africa but also in lesser numbers in counties such as Zimbabwe, Namibia [formerly South West Africa, a German colony and then administered by South Africa from 1946 to 1966], Kenya, Botswana and Zambia. 

Though Great Britain had settlements and ports along the West African coast to facilitate the Atlantic slave trade, British settlement in Africa began in earnest at the end of the eighteenth century, at the Cape of Good Hope and following the second British occupation of the Dutch Cape Colony in 1806. 

British settlers were encouraged to Albany [Settler Country], in 1820 to bolster the Cape’s eastern frontier against the Xhosa. Natal was added as a colony in 1843. After defeating the Boers in 1902, Britain also annexed the Boer Republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.

Map showing population density of the Black Africans in South Africa

The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand in 1886 after diamonds in Kimberly in 1866, encouraged additional settlement not just by the British but also Australians, Americans and Canadians. Mining magnate and empire builder, Cecil Rhodes [1853-1902] envisioned a British Africa linked from Cape Town to Cairo in Egypt. Cecil Rhodes was the founding chairman of the board of directors of De Beers Mining Company, funded by Nathaniel, the first Lord Rothschild. 

Rhodes foundered the British South Africa Company in 1889 which controlled the territory named after him from 1895 to 1911 and then as Southern – first used in 1898 – Rhodesia from 1911 to 1964. The region had originally been known as Zambesia. Later called Rhodesia from 1964 to 1979 and then finally Zimbabwe. Northern Rhodesia is now known as Zambia. Meanwhile, British East Africa became Kenya. In 1923, the company’s charter was revoked and Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. 

With the exception of South Africa, the British populations of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Kenya are relatively small, with approximately 30,000, 40,000 and 32,000 people respectively. These peoples may or may not be descended in part from Issachar. 

Zimbabwe is next to South Africa and large numbers of Zimbabwean British White people have left, especially to live in South Africa. The Republic of Zimbabwe shares a one hundred and twenty-five mile border on the south with South Africa. 

Map showing population density of White Africans in South Africa

The rapid decolonisation of Africa in the 1950s and 1960s alarmed a proportion of Southern Rhodesia’s white population. In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, the white Southern Rhodesian government issued its own declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965. At first seeking recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth, it instead reconstituted itself into a republic in 1970. Hostility between Black political factions and the White government, led to war weariness, diplomatic pressure and an extensive trade embargo imposed by the United Nations. These pressures prompted Rhodesian prime minister Ian Smith to concede to majority rule in 1978. 

Rhodesia was once known as the Jewel of Africa for its great prosperity. The name Zimbabwe derives ‘from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city (Masvingo) in the country’s south-east whose remains are now a protected site.’ Zimbabwe may stem from ‘dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as “houses of stones”. Archaeologist Peter Garlake says that Zimbabwe represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means venerated houses in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs’ houses or graves.’ 

The modern equivalent of the Aramean Phoenicians discovered Southern Africa in 1488, when Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. It was many years later in 1652, when the modern equivalent of the Midianite Phoenicians via the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Dutch Cape Colony; with the intent to be a small port town for ships traveling to India, that eventually became a full settlement of German, French, Dutch and British settlers [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. 

The Dutch Colony in 1795 was occupied by British forces after the Battle of Muizenberg. In 1802, the Dutch regained control of Cape Colony with the Peace of Amiens agreement. Then in 1806, the British again gained control after the Battle of Blaauwberg. By 1814, the Dutch formally agreed that the colony was to be part of the British Empire. 

The British outlawed slavery in 1833 and so began the Great Trek inland by the Dutch Boers, who founded two republics. The republic of Transvaal formed in 1856 was annexed by the British in 1877, sparking the first Boer War in 1880. The Boers won and gained independence for Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1889, the Second Boer War began, with the British winning and taking over Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1910 the Union of South Africa was formed – within the British Empire – from the four colonies of Cape Colony; Natal Colony; Transvaal Colony; and the Orange Colony. In 1912, the African National Congress (ANC) party was formed. 

In 1931, the Union became fully sovereign from the United Kingdom. Three years later, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United party. They sought reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speaking White people. Then in 1939, the party split over the entry of the Union into WWII as an ally of the United Kingdom; as the National Party followers strongly opposed the decision. 

In 1948 the ethnic Afrikaners of the National Party were voted into power and they initiated the apartheid policy of separating White people and Black people based on their race and entrenching a system of segregation in the land. 

Many of the British diaspora had voted ‘No’ in a 1960 referendum on South African independence, but it was approved by a narrow margin. The Natal majority voted against the republic and some residents called for secession from the Union after the referendum. In 1961, South Africa was declared a republic and became a fully independent nation, ending the British Monarch as the head of State with Queen Elizabeth II losing the title Queen of South Africa. Pressured by other Commonwealth nations, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961, to later rejoin in 1994. 

It is at this time that ANC leader Nelson Mandela formed an armed branch of the ANC to fight against apartheid. He was arrested in 1962 and jailed. Mandela was incarcerated for twenty-seven years while fighting for equal rights; becoming a worldwide symbol against apartheid. 

Frederik Willem de Klerk was elected president in 1989. He immediately began to work to end apartheid, with Public facilities desegregated. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison. Subsequently, Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and by 1994 Apartheid had been fully repealed. Equal rights were attained and Black people voted; electing Nelson Mandela as South African president. 

Constant readers will appreciate this is the point where we study the Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups. As mentioned in the previous chapter [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad], the assumption by geneticists is that the White Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, are composite peoples of the English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish and Ulster Scots. In other words, their Haplogroups will be the same as these five antecedent lines from Britain and Ireland. Though they will be similar, the contention proposed here is that the percentages for R1b, I1, I2a1, I2a2 and R1a will be slightly different as these five nations are individual, separate and distinct tribes descending from different sons of Jacob. 

The Biblical identity community has also arrived at the same erroneous conclusion as scientists, in that these nations are all the descendants of Joseph and hence the exact same peoples. The difference in facial features, national characteristics, social mores, administrative processes, spoken accents, cultural and sporting interests seems to have completely bypassed everyones attention and perception to see and acknowledge the differences that clearly point to different family members, of the same family group. As there are no studies known to this writer to enlist as support, we will look at some of the individual demographics and statistics for each tribe. As it is possible that Issachar and even Zebulun have spilled over into Rhodesia we will include the British White people from Zimbabwe. 

Of significance amongst the White community of Rhodesia was its transience. Settlers were as likely to leave Rhodesia after a few years as permanently settle. For example, of the seven hundred British immigrants who were the first white settlers in 1890, only fifteen were still living in Rhodesia in 1924. As the white population of Rhodesia had a low birth rate [18 per 1,000 people] it was dependent upon immigration, which accounted for sixty percent of the growth of the white Rhodesian population between 1955 and 1972. 

American historian Josiah Brownell noted: ‘the turnover rate for white residents in Rhodesia was very high, as Rhodesia took in a total of 255,692 white immigrants between 1955 and 1979 while the same period a total of 246,583 whites emigrated.’ During the boom of the late 1950s Rhodesia took in an average of ’13,666 white immigrants per year, mostly from the United Kingdom and South Africa’ but conversely, an average of 7,666 whites emigrated annually.  Between 1961 and 1965, Rhodesia took in an average of 8,225 white immigrants per year, yet lost more people each year with an average white emigration of 12,912 people. 

Most people arriving were uninterested in settling in Rhodesia permanently and did not apply for Rhodesian citizenship, despite a 1967 campaign urging them to do so.Brownell explains that ‘patriotism in the white community was “shallow” due to its essentially expatriate character.Brownell also claimed that the majority of white immigrants in the late 1960s and early 1970s were unskilled laborers who competed with the country’s black African workforce and did not contribute badly needed technical or professional skills to the country. He argued that this was due to a government policy aimed at making white immigration as “unselective as possible” and guaranteeing every white immigrant a job.’ 

White Zimbabweans make up about 0.22% the total population today and are mostly of British origin, though there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch enclaves. The white population peaked at around 278,000 people, or 4.3% of the population in 1975, though it was 7.3% of the population in 1960 with some 223,000 people. What is interesting is that in 1890 the Black population was only about 150,000 people, yet in fifty years it had exploded into the millions. This was due to what the White settlers brought: food, medicine and employment. In 1921, Rhodesia had a total population of 899,187 people, of which, 33,620 were European, 1,998 were mixed race, 1,250 were Asiatic and 761,790 were Bantu natives and 100,529 people were Bantu aliens [not native to the territory]. Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom, then South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique,Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 

White South Africans are split in two from a descent, linguistic, cultural and historical perspective, into the Afrikaans speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company’s original settlers the Afrikaners and the Anglophone descendants of the colonial Britons. White Afrikaners trace their ancestry to the mid-seventeenth century, developing a separate cultural identity and distinct language; whereas the English speaking South Africans trace their ancestry to the settlers of 1820. The remainder of the White South African population consists of immigrants who arrived later from Europe, including Germans, Italians, Greeks and Jews, of which many left when apartheid was abolished. Portuguese immigrants arrived after the collapse of the Portuguese colonial administrations in Mozambique and Angola. 

In 1911, White people comprised 22.7% of the population. By 2020, they numbered just 7.8% of the total population. Just under a million white South Africans also live as expatriate workers abroad, the majority of South Africa’s brain drain. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016:

‘Australia and New Zealand were unique among the European colonies because they were the only areas of the New World where nonwhite slaves were never imported as part of the colonization process. The result of this significant difference was that the new colonies in Australia and New Zealand were homogenous in their early years and for this reason, established a record for stability and progress virtually unmatched in history.  

[Their] racial history… is therefore focused on the interaction between the white immigrants and the native populations of the Aborigines… and the Maori… It was only in the last part of the twentieth century that significant numbers of nonwhites… entered… [and] that development, even more… [is altering] the racial dynamics of Australia and New Zealand – and not in favour of the Europeans.’

Australians of European – including Celtic-Saxon-Viking – descent are the majority, estimated at seventy-six percent of the population. The vast majority of early settlers came  from their own free will, with the convict – and prison guard – element very much the minority; some twenty percent, while the majority were of British and Irish descent. Many of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands, the North of England and Ireland; then from the southeast and the southwest of England and also Scotland. 

In 1888, sixty percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. From the remaining forty percent, thirty-four percent had been born in the British isles and six percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia. In the 1840s, Scottish born immigrants constituted twelve percent of the Australian population. The European population grew from 0.3% of the population of the continent in 1800 to 58.6% in 1850. Germans constituted the largest non-British community for most of the nineteenth century. ‘The census of 1901 showed that [98%] of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins, and [were] considered as “more British than Britain itself”.’ 

During the 1950s, Australia was the destination of thirty percent of Dutch emigrants and the Netherlands born became numerically Australia’s second largest non-British group. ‘Abolition of the White Australia Policy in 1957 led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, primarily from Asia and the Middle East. This is ironic as the White Australia policy was enacted after gold was discovered in the 1850’s bringing an influx of peoples, including Chinese. With them came Triad gangs, smuggling and other crimes that led to public agitation and eventually the State of Victoria in 1856 passed a law forbidding Chinese to enter. The exclusion law was then adopted by every other colony. 

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia. Chinese Australians constituted 5.6% of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8% at the 2016 census. In 2019, 30% of the Australian resident population, were born overseas. 

New Zealand is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Most European New Zealanders have British or Irish ancestry, with smaller percentages of other European ancestries such as Germans, Poles [historically noted as ‘Germans’ due to partitions of Poland], French, Dutch and Scandinavians. Lesser minorities include: Greek, Turkish, Italian, Lebanese, Arab and South Slavs. 

The ethnic makeup of the New Zealand population is undergoing a process of change because of waves of immigration, higher birth rates and increasing interracial marriages which are resulting in the New Zealand population of Māori, Asians and Pacific Islanders growing at a higher rate than those of solely European descent. Over one million New Zealanders recorded in the 2013 Census were born overseas. 

Most New Zealanders are resident in New Zealand, though there is also a significant diaspora, estimated at around 750,000 people. Of these, around 640,800 live in Australia and others are heavily concentrated in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. In 1961 the European element in New Zealand comprised 92% of the population and the Maori 7%. By 2018 the Whites comprised 72% of the total, the Maori 17% and others 11%. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand’s immigrant population, with around a quarter of all overseas born New Zealanders born in the United Kingdom. Other major sources of New Zealand’s overseas born population include: China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa. 

Despite their reputation for raping the Vikings left little trace of their DNA, Mail Online, November 1, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

Analysis of thousands of DNA samples from the UK, continental Europe and Scandinavia revealed a surprising lack of Viking genes in England, despite the Norsemen once occupying much of the country. The international team led by scientists from Oxford University and the Wellcome Trust… [and their] research, published in the journal Nature, did not find any obvious genetic footprint from the Romans or Danish Vikings. However, this is not down to a lack of virility – merely that they were not here in large enough numbers to have had enough children for their genes to live on today. Study co-leader Sir Walter Bodmer said: 

“You get a relatively small group of people who can dominate a country that they come into and there are not enough of them, however much they intermarry, to have enough of an influence that we can detect them in the genetics… At that time, the population of Britain could have been as much as one million, so an awful lot of people would need to arrive in order for there to be an impact.”

‘His colleague Professor Peter Donnelly added: 

“Genetics tells us the story of what happens to the masses. ‘There were already large numbers of people in those areas of Britain by the time the Danish Vikings came so to have a substantial impact on the genetics there would need to be very large numbers of them leaving DNA for subsequent generations. The fact we don’t get a signal is probably about numbers rather than the relative allure or lack thereof of Scandinavians to English women.”

‘Others said that the Danes may actually have been more attractive to local women because their habit of washing weekly meant they were seen as cleaner. Even in Orkney, which was a part of Norway from 875 to 1472, the Vikings contributed only about 25 per cent of the current gene pool. It suggests that the Vikings mixed very little with the indigenous population they initially terrorised and then conquered.’

On the surface, this is a valid point it would seem, but the reality is that the vast bulk of ‘Danish Vikings’, the tribe of Asher – and probably some of Naphtali too, as many ‘Australians’ from Britain later moved to New Zealand had left the United Kingdom. As they are 1. related to the English, Welsh and Scots and 2. though a different tribe have left en masse; one would not expect to find genetic ‘evidence’ of them in the United Kingdom. 

It is not about size of people and impact. The Angles were the biggest tribe of Saxons, far outnumbering the Picts, Cymru, Frisians, Jutes, Norsemen, Danes and Normans. Their genetic footprint is also negligible. This only makes sense if the vast bulk left British shores. The Romans, mainly soldiers would have intermarried some and so their DNA is likely still in Britain. The key piece of information is that as the Romans are the Germans [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], with similar Haplogroup sequencing, spotting their DNA is like looking for a needle in a haystack. It is there, but not going to be visibly distinct. 

‘The Vikings, from Norway, Sweden and Denmark, carried out extensive raids and occupations across wide areas of northern and central Europe between the eighth and late 11th centuries. Danish Vikings in particular took over large parts of England, eventually settling in an a region stretching from Essex to County Durham which was ruled by ‘Danelaw’. 

The findings support previous research from the University of Oslo suggesting that Viking men were family-orientated and not particularly bothered about the British women they conquered. Rather than Viking raiding parties consisting wholly of testosterone-charged men, researchers found that significant numbers of women, and possibly whole families, travelled on the longboats. DNA extracted from 45 Viking skeletons showed that women played an integral part in establishing settlements in the UK.’

The other salient point is that comparing DNA from the UK with ‘continental Europe and Scandinavia’ will not add anything useful as the original Vikings left Scandinavia and now live in Australia and New Zealand. Not only are the Antipodeans unlike the English, the Scots and Welsh they are also not the same as the Swedes, Norwegians and Danes who are children from Abraham and his second wife Keturah [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. Added to this, is that fact that the ‘Vikings’ that swarmed out of Sweden and colonised the vast tracts of Russia were not the same peoples as now in Britain or Scandinavia [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. 

Recall in Chapter II Japheth, we looked at the prophecy in Genesis chapter nine, verse twenty-seven regarding Japheth ‘dwelling in the tents of Shem.’  We also detailed the global agenda to ‘water-down’ the European nations in the drive towards eliminating particularly, the pure White stock of the nations of Israel [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

In Australia, between the years 1984 to 1995, forty percent of all migrants were of Asian origin. In 2003, a report revealed that fourteen percent of the residents of Perth were born in Southeast Asia, principally Vietnam. Demographic trends are that Australia will be twenty-seven percent Asian by 2025. Considering Third world reproduction rates and the natural shrinkage of the First World population, Australia will be close to a Third World majority population well before 2050. 

An example of an irony of the savage kind is that the largest mosque in Australia, located in Sydney, New South Wales is called the Auburn Gallipoli. This is in reference to the World War I battle where thousands of Australian troops were killed and defeated in an attempt to invade the Islamic Ottoman Empire [refer Chapter XVIII Elam]. 

The First World element of New Zealand’s population is projected to drop to less than sixty percent by 2026; with the Asian population set to increase by 145%, between 2001 and 2021. Predictions from the 2001 census include European children making up 63% of all children in New Zealand in 2021 compared with 74% in 2001. The 2006 census showed that the Asian ethnicity had overtaken the Pacific Polynesian peoples into third palace and that by 2026, they will overtake the second place Maori. These stats show that it is highly likely that New Zealand will lose its majority First World population status before the year 2050. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

The lesson of Rhodesia proves that no matter how technologically proficient, no matter how militarily-capable, no matter how determined, no minority can indefinitely resist the power of demographics… The White Rhodesians failed to understand the relationship between demographics and political power… Rhodesian whites were imbued with the nineteenth century white supremacist belief that they had a paternalistic right to rule over nonwhites “for their own good”… white rule caused an explosion in black numbers as Western medicine, education, and technology boosted black numbers way beyond their natural reproduction levels. As a result, white supremacism created a racial demographic time bomb which swept away all vestiges of Western rule. 

This reality underlines the truth that demographic replacement is the sole driver of cultural change and that the majority of the population determines the nature of the society. It is a lesson that the Western world, which has imported vast numbers of nonwhites through mass immigration policies which started in the last part of the twentieth century, must learn. Failure to do so will result in them sharing the same fate of the white Rhodesians.’

There is a time to look for something and a time to stop looking for it. There is a time to keep things and a time to throw things away… There is a time… to speak… The Teacher was very wise and taught the people what he knew. He very carefully thought about, studied, and… looked for just the right words to write what is dependable and true. Words from wise people are like… nails that have been driven in firmly… that come from one Shepherd. So be careful, my son, about other teachings. People are always writing books, and too much study will make you tired.

Ecclesiastes 3:6-7; 12:9-12 New Century Version

“The overwhelming majority of people never think and those who think never become the overwhelming majority. Choose your side.” 

Elif Shafak

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia

Chapter XXVII

Abraham, is a dominant figure on the genetic landscape with Noah and his sons, for his descendants loom large on the pages of history. Abraham is likened to Abel before the flood, in similarly being the first person after the flood to stand out as a towering presence in obedience to the true Creator. As Noah projects a large shadow on the antediluvian world, with Abel and Enoch, though giant pillars themselves, never-the-less caught in the shadow cast by Noah and his genetic role in the line of Seth; so, Abraham is the pivot of the genetic evolution of the line of Shem, the principal continuation of Seth. All those that followed him such as Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses,  Joshua, David, Elijah and Daniel, are enveloped not just by his genetic inheritance but also through Abraham’s faith. For Abraham is the Father of the faithful.

David A Snyder aptly states: “We will follow the life of this Abram whom God will later name Abraham. We will discover that he may have been as great a secular figure as he was a Biblical one.” He continues in his book.

Abraham of Ur – A Critical Analysis of the Life and Times of the Patriarch, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘At first I was not sure that Abraham even existed. After I investigated the secular history of the day and considered the Ugaritic literature… and the Tell el-Amarna tablets… I came to realize that the geopolitical climate at the time Abraham entered Canaan was perfectly conducive to support the stories of his travels into the Promised Land… Abraham’s family was well-educated, literate and wealthy. And if we are to believe Josephus, Abraham was possibly an astronomer and military leader. This is contradictory to the image most people have of Abraham as a nomadic shepherd leading a flock of sheep; however, I believe that only a well-educated and worldly man such as Abraham would be able to achieve the goal that God gave to him – to establish the Hebrew nation[s].’

Gerard Gertoux, The Pharaoh of the Exodus Fairy tale or real history – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Very few Bible scholars believe now (2016) in the historicity of the book of Genesis, especially the narrative of Abraham and Sarah’s life, but what is really incomprehensible is that their conclusion is based only on the following prejudice: the lack of archaeological evidence implies an absence of historicity of these biblical narratives!’ 

Yes, a small matter of a lack of archaeological evidence hinders the likelihood of a biblical figure being genuine; but doesn’t stand in the way at all, of scientists espousing a belief in an untenable theory to explain mankind’s existence. 

A greater evidence of Abraham’s existence… is the fact that he has become a father of many nations as we shall learn.

‘Today, according to mainstream Egyptologists as well as prominent archaeologists there would never have been: 1) any biblical writing in the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 31:24), 2) neither domesticated camels in the time of Abraham (Genesis 12:6), 3) nor Philistines (Genesis 21:34), 4) nor Hittites (Genesis 23:10), 5) nor Arameans (Deuteronomy 26:5), 6) nor Chaldeans (Genesis 11:28), etc. All these criticisms are paradoxical because despite the absence of reliable chronologies these academics and Bible experts say in a dogmatic manner having found numerous anachronisms in the narrative of Abraham and Sarah.’ 

Egyptologists and Archaeologists would be aware that the Bible has been edited and or, written after events have transpired. Thus, terms for various peoples that are more recent than Abraham are still valid in referring to a people of an earlier time during his life. The Philistines already existed as they descend from Mizra-im. Whether they were known as Philistines, Caphtorim, Minoans, Mycaeneans even or yet an entirely different name does not invalidate their existence or their kings’s interaction with Sarah and Abraham. Same with the Hittites descended from Heth of Canaan – not the later Hittites – and the Arameans or Syrians. Granted, the Chaldeans are descended principally from Abraham’s brother, Nahor though they existed as proto-Chaldeans via the descendants of Peleg and the early Babylonians [refer Chapter XXIII Aram & Chapter XXV Nahor].

‘Regarding biblical chronology, the Vatican’s biblical scholars made Abraham enter into Canaan in 2138 BCE (Vigouroux: 1899, 737), while nowadays they say 1850 BCE (De Vaux: 1986, 1805). How can one explain such discrepancies in dates [of 288 years]?’ 

It is a step in the right direction, as the latter dating is fifty-two years out from 1902 BCE, compared with two hundred and thirty-six years for the former.

James 2:22-24

Common English Bible

22 See, his faith was at work along with his actions. In fact, his faith was made complete by his faithful actions. 23 So the scripture was fulfilled that says, Abraham believed God, and God regarded him as righteous [like Lot, Daniel, Job, Noah and Abel]. What is more, Abraham was called God’s friend. 24 So you see that a person is shown to be righteous through faithful actions and not through faith alone.

The word friend in Greek is philos. It is a deep friendship, where each knows the other and can fully count on them. A close friend of long-standing and one that has been through everything of consequence with you. A quite profound reflection of the Creator’s relationship with Abraham. This was no ordinary friendship – it had transcended to a close, special bond between Abraham and the Eternal.

Isaiah 41:8

Darby Translation

But thou, Israel, my servant, Jacob, whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham, my friend

There are two other people in scripture that are referred to in a context, of being a friend of God; though not specifically as: ‘God’s friend’ or ‘my friend’ as described of Abraham. The resurrected Lazarus is described by Christ as ‘our friend’ [John 11:11] and Moses spoke face to face with God ‘as one speaks unto his friend’ [Exodus 33:11]. There is a further link between Abraham and Moses – not just the family connection – that we will explore when we study Moses.

2 Chronicles 20:5-7

New English Translation

5 Jehoshaphat [the fourth king of Judah] stood before the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem at the Lord’s temple, in front of the new courtyard. 6 He prayed: “O Lord God of our ancestors, you are the God who lives in heaven and rules over all the kingdoms of the nations. You possess strength and power; no one can stand against you. 7 Our God, you drove out the inhabitants of this land before your people Israel and gave it as a permanent possession to the descendants of your friend Abraham.

The Hebrew word for friend in both verses is ahab. This word implies a deep love and respect for another. There is encouragement in knowing that we too, can be counted as the Son of Man’s friend.

John 15:14-15

New English Translation

14 You are my friends if you do what I command you. 15 I no longer call you slaves, because the slave does not understand what his master is doing. But I have called you friends, because I have revealed to you everything I heard from my Father.

Friend of God’ is the meaning of the name Theophilus. In 2 Samuel chapter twelve, David comforts Bathsheba after the death of their first baby. The second child is named Solomon. Verses 24-25 ESV: ‘And the Lord loved him and sent a message by Nathan the prophet. So he called his name Jedidiah [H3041 – beloved of the Lord], because of the Lord.’ Solomon was blessed with a special name, which also means friend of God.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Abram [means:] Exalted Father, Their Shield, Their Protection From (1) (‘ab), father, and (2) (rum), to be elevated. From (1) the verb (abar), to be strong or to protect, and (2) the 3rd person plural pronominal suffix (am), their.

There’s only one man named Abram in the Bible, namely the famous son of Terah who left Ur of the Chaldeans and headed for a land which YHWH would show him (Genesis 11:31). Since Abram is the first complex character in the Bible, a lot of the Bible’s primeurs are his. However, Abram is typically not the first to call upon the name of YHWH, because that went on as far back as the generation of  Enosh, the grandson of Adam and Eve (4:26). He was also not the first to worship the one and only God, because when he arrived in Canaan he found Melchizedek well engaged as priest of El Elyon (14:18). He was also not the first to be called righteous (15:6), because that was Noah (6:9) and in retrospect Abel (Matthew 23:25).

Abram is nevertheless the first on record to be approached by… the Lord (15:1), the first to be called Hebrew (14:13) and the first to engage in international commerce. He’s the first to itinerate and circulate… the first to be rich (in cattle and precious metals; Genesis 13:2), the first to compete and to establish a peaceful economic pact (with Lot; 13:6-12), the first to view the entire world as his oyster (13:14-15) and to whom the sky was the limit (15:5).

Abram was the first to pay property tax, namely 10 percent (to Melchizedek; 14:20), and this was adopted into Israel’s national policy(Genesis 28:22, Numbers 18:26, Hebrews 7:5). The first time the Bible speaks of a commercial purchase is in Genesis 17, where circumcision is instituted as sign of the great covenant… and the Lord renames Abram as Abraham and orders the inclusion into the covenant of all the men Abram had acquired via purchase (miqna, which is related to the name Cain). The first monetary transaction occurs as restitution for Sarah’s disgrace by Abimelech (Genesis 20:16; because Abram was also the first to [loan] his wife… Genesis 20 and 12:11-20).

The first actual purchase with money described in the Bible is Abraham’s flamboyantly negotiated acquisition of the cave of Machpelah from Ephron, son of Zohar of Heth. Abraham wanted that cave and wanted to pay for it in order to properly bury Sarah (Genesis 23). He paid 400 shekels for it (23:16), according to the “passing of trade”…

A somewhat more hairy unit of wealth was the camel, but where the English word “camel” is solely reserved for that humped beast of burden, the Hebrew cognate (gamal), meaning camel, comes from the identical verb (gamal), which means to trade or invest. In other words: the Hebrew noun (gamal) does not denote a specific biological genus, it describes a particular economic function, namely that of investing and long-distance trading…

The camel too gets its Biblical introduction in the Abram cycle, namely when the Egyptian Pharaoh reimburses Abram for the Sarai incident with sheep, cattle, donkeys, servants and camels (12:16). The next time Abraham’s proverbial camels are mentioned is when Abraham sends his chief of staff (probably Eliezer) north to his family’s land with “ten” camels and the whole of Abraham’s wealth in his hand (24:10), in order to obtain a wife for Isaac…

There are two ways to go about the name Abram. Traditionally this name is interpreted to consist of two elements, the first of which would be (‘ab), meaning father: The noun (‘ab) means father, but describes primarily a social relationship rather than a biological one. That social fatherhood was the defining quality of the community’s alpha male, the one around whom all economy revolved and from whom emanated all instructions by which the ‘sons’ (ben) operated. It’s unclear where this word (‘ab) comes from but the verb abu means to decide.

The second part of our name is traditionally considered to be part of the great (rum)-cluster of names: The verb (rum) means to be high or high up in either a physical, social or even attitudinal sense, and may also refer to the apex in a natural process: the being ripe and ready-for-harvest of fruits. Derived nouns, such as (rum) and related forms, describe height or pride. Noun (ramut) describes some high thing. The noun (‘armon) refers to a society’s apex: a citadel or palace. The noun (re’em) describes the wild ox, which was named possibly for the same reason why we moderns call a rising market a “bull” market.The similar verb (ra’am) means to rise.

The name Abram relates to Abraham the way Sarai relates to Sarah; the latter two names are basically variations of the same word… The core of both names comes from the root (‘br), meaning to be strong or to protect: The name Abraham is often reported to mean Father Of Many Nations but that’s rather obviously incorrect. In Genesis 17:5, the Lord promises Abram that he would be the father of many nations – in  Hebrew: ‘ab hamon goyim – but that does not mean that Abram’s new name, namely Abraham, means Father Of Many Nations. 

God changes Abram’s name to Abraham. Likewise, the Lord promises that Abraham’s… wife Sarai would “become nations” or rather: “become international” (heyata le’goyim) and changed her name to  Sarah (17:16). As with our name Abraham, the phrase does not relate to the name. The name Abraham follows from the name Abram by inserting the letter (he) in front of the final (mem), and the name Sarah follows from Sarai by replacing the final (yod) with the same letter (he). This letter (he) is one of a few Hebrew letters that may represent both a consonant and a vowel… and it’s probably no coincidence that the name of the Lord, or YHWH consists of only those vowel-consonant symbols, and contains twice this potent letter (he). 

The names Sarai and Sarah both stem from the root (sarar), which possibly means to rule or to be strong. The final (yod) of the original name Sarai suggests a possessive form: my strength or strength(s) of, whereas the new name Sarah reflects the general idea of ruling or being strong. The names Sarai and Sarah reflect the same core idea, but the form Sarai reflects locality and the form Sarah reflects universality. The same transition between locality and universality is reflected in the names Abram and Abraham, which are both based on the root (‘abar), meaning to be strong (or to be able to protect)… Like Sarai, the name Abram seems to denote a nation’s private strength, whereas the name Abraham, like Sarah, reflects the strength that arises from synchronicity among states.

The core of the name Abraham comes from the exquisite root (‘br): The verb (‘br) means to be strong or firm, particularly in a defensive way (rather than offensive). The derived nouns (‘eber) and (‘ebra) refer to the pinion(s) that make up a bird’s wings, which in turn means that the ancients saw avian wings as means to protect rather than to fly with (the signature trait of angels, hence, is not an ability to fly but a tendency to protect). The verb (‘abar) describes activities done with pinions, which is to fly or to protect.

The name Abraham means Their Strength or Their Protection and reflects the security that arises from synchronicity among states (see below). Another detail worthy of note is that the first and last letters of the name (Abraham) are often used as formatives that do not change the meaning of the core word. These two letters obviously aren’t inconsequential formative letters in our name, but if we remove them anyway, what remains is (bara), the assumed root of the noun (berit), meaning covenant.

The Lord told Abraham that he would be the father of many nations (‘ab hamon goyim; Genesis 17:4-5) – not simply the father of many people but the father of the many nations that were established right after the flood (as listed in Genesis 10). 

The word (hamon), in turn, does not express simply a large number, but the rain-like noise that emerges from a unified but seething throng, and the throng, in this case, consists of autonomous nations. The Bible indicates that a multitude of goyim, or “nations” is the ultimate form of human society, which is remarkable because since time immemorial people have believed that they could somehow form a global empire that would unite all the nations, dissolve all borders and reign the entire world from one throne. But despite the efforts of many an emperor, it appears that humanity is designed to operate by means of nations…

It should be emphasized that despite the claims of Jews, Christians and Muslims alike, neither Jesus nor Abraham has anything to do with any formal religion. 

Abraham is not a border-maker; he is a border-breaker… His patriarchy is one of consilience; in him are summed up the peacemakers of which Jesus said they would be called Sons Of God (Matthew 5:9).

The table of nations of Genesis 10 denotes the world’s various states of the first stage, and the members of the family of Abraham denote the states of the second stage. Most of these very early states have long gone (or went by other names than modern ones; very early states probably changed names much more often than states do today and were doubtlessly known to their contemporaries by multiple names)…’

The constant reader will have noted that we can actually know the early states and nations and who they are today, even though their names have continuously altered and evolved, their core, original identities have remained and have only to be deciphered. 

Abraham’s family, including his two brothers were a second wave of nations that arrived on the world stage very late – some nine thousand years later than those originating from the Ark.

We have covered part of Abraham’s early life as well as his wife Sarah, whilst studying Nahor and Haran [refer Chapter XXV Nahor & Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. Further insight can be gleaned into Abram’s early life from the Book of Jubilees. Abram’s mother is named as Edna, though another source says Terah’s wife’s name was Amathlai. Refreshing our mind regarding Abraham in the Book of Jubilees; Jubilees 11:16-23 explains that Abram as a child “began to understand the errors of the earth that all went astray after graven images and after uncleanness… and he separated himself from his father, that he might not worship idols with him.”

‘And he began to pray to the Creator of all things that He might save him from the errors of the children of men, and that his portion should not fall into error after uncleanness and vileness. And the seed time came for the sowing of seed upon the land, and they all went forth together to protect their seed against the ravens, and Abram went forth with those that went, and the child was a lad of fourteen years. And a cloud of ravens came to devour the seed, and Abram ran to meet them before they settled on the ground, and cried to them before they settled on the ground to devour the seed… [saying], ‘Descend not: return to the place whence ye came,’ and they proceeded to turn back… his name became great in all the land of the Chaldees… they sowed their land, and that year they brought enough grain home and eat and were satisfied… Abram taught those who made implements for oxen, the artificers in wood, and they made a vessel above the ground, facing the frame of the plough, in order to put the seed thereon, and the seed fell down therefrom upon the share of the plough, and was hidden in the earth, and they no longer feared the ravens.’

Following this, Abram confronts his father in Jubilees 12:1-7, on the always heated topic of religion. Why are discussions on anything deeper than the weather subject to confrontation or aggression? As with any difference of opinion that turns into an argument, it only becomes hostile, because people uphold an idea that is only just an intangible thought in their own mind, as something of ‘great’ significance – or important value, as it is part of them, right? – and to be defended vigorously at all costs, spurred on by ones own ego. If a person sees all beliefs or thoughts as opinions, whether they be correct or false and that one can always build on them or if necessary tear them down and start again; then all arguments are pointless and merely based on an individuals own pride and not truly on a premise of seeking knowledge, understanding, wisdom or the truth.

‘… it came to pass… that Abram said to Terah his father, saying, ‘Father!’ And he said, ‘Behold, here am I, my son’… he said, ‘What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship, And before which thou dost bow thyself? For there is no spirit in them, For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart. 

Worship them not: Worship the God of heaven, Who causes the rain and the dew to descend on the earth And does everything upon the earth, And has created everything by His word,  And all life is from before His face. For they are the work of (men’s) hands… on your shoulders do ye bear them… ye have no help from them, But they are a great cause of shame to those who make them… a misleading of the heart to those who worship them: And his father said unto him, I also know it, my son, but what shall I do with a people who have made me to serve before them?if I tell them the truth, they will slay me; for their soul cleaves to them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest they slay thee’ … these words he spake to his two brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent.’

Book of Jubilees 12:12-21

Abram arose by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in the house and no man knew it… they arose in the night and sought to save their gods from the midst of the fire… Haran hasted to save them, but the fire flamed over him, and he was burnt in the fire, and he died in Ur of the Chaldees before Terah his father, and they buried him in Ur of the Chaldees. And Terah went forth from Ur of the Chaldees, he and his sons, to go into the land of Lebanon and into the land of Canaan, and he dwelt in the land of Haran, and Abram dwelt with Terah his father in Haran… 

Abram sat up throughout the night on the new moon of the seventh month [1st of Tishri, Feast of Trumpets] to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be the character of the year with regard to the rains, and he was alone as he sat and observed. And a word came into his heart and he said: All the signs of the stars, and the signs of the moon and of the sun are all in the hand of the Lord. Why do I search (them) out? If He desires, He causes it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desires, He withholds it, And all things are in his hand.’ 

And he prayed that night and said, ‘My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. And Thou hast created all things, And all things that are the work of thy hands. Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have dominion over the thoughts of men’s hearts… let them not lead me astray from Thee, my God.. establish Thou me and my seed for ever That we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore.’ And he said, ‘Shall I return unto Ur of the Chaldees who seek my face that I may return to them, am I to remain here in this place? The right path before Thee prosper it in the hands of Thy servant that he may fulfil (it) and that I may not walk in the deceitfulness of my heart, O my God.’

Jeremiah 17:9

Amplified Bible

The heart is deceitful above all things And it is extremely sick; Who can understand it fully and know its secret motives?

As discussed previously in the preceding two chapters, the likelihood of Terah fleeing Ur due to Nimrod’s wrath seems decidedly remote to this writer and even more so, accepting Nimrod was even still alive… alive, as in a corporeal human body. Haran dying in a furnace appears less likely than dying tragically in a house fire, set by Abraham or not. Josephus remarks that when Haran died, he was memorialized by the city where ‘… his monument is shown to this day.’ He also conjectured that Terah left Ur on account of the death of his son Haran and says: ‘Now hating Chaldea on account of his mourning for Haran, they all removed to Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah died.’

Apart from these explanations it may simply be, that Terah also recognised the decline of the Ur III civilisation and prudently departed. A relative time of peace during King Shulgi’s reign could have been the time that Terah’s family left one city that had the Moon god Sin, as its chief deity for the the only other city that coincidently worshipped similarly… Haran. Whichever scenario, it appears Nahor lingered in Ur, possibly to tie up property and family affairs as they were a family of substance. Ironically, it would be many centuries later that descendants of Nahor would return as the ruling Chaldean dynasty. Whereas, Haran and Abraham’s descendants would never return.

Joshua 24:2

New Century Version

Then Joshua said to all the people, “Here’s what the Lord, the God of Israel, says to you: ‘A long time ago your ancestors lived on the other side of the Euphrates River. Terah, the father of Abraham and Nahor, worshiped other gods.

Regarding the Moon god Sin, David A Snyder comments – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In 1994, archaeologists found an ancient civilization at Gobekli Tepe in southwest Turkey, just 40 km north of ancient Haran. It consisted of several temples with large stone-carved monoliths in a circular pattern much like those found at Stonehenge in England… Archeologists were stunned to discover that the site was twelve thousand years old [circa 10,000 BCE – shortly after the flood]. The intricacy of the carvings on the monuments indicated a far more advanced civilization than historians thought existed at this early time in history. James Q. Jacobs, an anthropologist and part time astronomer, was investigating the Gobekli Tepe site on Google Earth. He knew of the moon god Sin’s temple at Haran and the Ziggurat at Ur and wondered if there was a relation to the temples at Gobekli Tepe. Google Earth revealed that the latitude at Haran equals Three-fourths atan and the Ziggurat at Ur Three-fifths atan (atan = arc tangent) and that the latitude number at the Ur Ziggurat is an accurate value for pi. The only thing I know for sure about Jacob’s statements is that both pi and atan are significant in higher mathematics. It is incredible that these mathematical calculations are from a society four thousand years old. He opines that Ur and Haran were therefore: 

“Astronomical observatories and geodetically positioned where the math is easiest. Their local level planes and the rotation axis form triangles with low integer proportions.” Further, the temple at Haran is exactly 40 km from the monolith circles at Gobekli Tepe, which is exactly 1/1000th of the circumference of the earth. This meant that whoever located these three temples may have known the distance to the equator and poles of the earth from mathematical calculations alone, which he found amazing. Jacobs continues: “Gobekli Tepe features the oldest known room aligned north-south which is evidence of astronomy in practice”. The Ur and Haran moon temples evidence a relationship to astronomy and precise knowledge of geodesy – what we call exact sciences. This knowledge would require an extremely high level of math”.

Josephus comments on this subject… he explains that Abraham claimed that the movement of the sun, moon, and all the heavenly bodies are the result of the actions of the God who created them, not the other way around. He was chastised by the local authorities… If God had already spoken to Abraham while still in Ur, it is likely that Abraham would make such an argument against astrology using astronomy, and in doing so, he would have upset the local priesthood. This then became another reason for Terah to move from Ur. Josephus concludes this episode when he states: “… the Chaldeans and the other peoples of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan.”’

In the 1930s, more than Twenty thousand plus ancient tablets were found in the Palace at Mari, south of Haran during the 1930s. The tablets were dated approximately 1800 BCE [Abraham 1977-1802 BCE]. The tablets greatly aided Assyriologists understanding of the geography of the region. Names included were linked to Abraham’s family such as Serug and Nahor. As Terah’s family were of aristocratic lineage from Ur, they would have been welcomed and known within the palace at Mari. Tablets refer to the Hebrews or Hapiru, from Terah’s ancestor Eber, his Great, great, great grandfather. Hebrews did remain in Haran and Padan-Aram for some time, as Isaac and Jacob both took wives from family living there, as did some of Jacob’s sons. If these records refer to Terah’s clan, then he was an important figure in his day, and we are provided an extra-Biblical record of Abraham’s family. 

Book of Jubilees 12:28-31

‘… it came to pass… that [Abram] spoke to his father and informed him, that he would leave Haran to go into the land of Canaan to see it and return to him. And Terah his father said unto him; Go in peace: May the eternal God make thy path straight. And the Lord be with thee, and protect thee from all evil, And grant unto thee grace, mercy and favour before those who see thee, And may none of the children of men have power over thee to harm thee; Go in peace. And if thou seest a land pleasant to thy eyes to dwell in, then arise and take me to thee and take* Lot with thee, the son of Haran thy brother as thine own son: the Lord be with thee. And Nahor thy brother [will live] with me till thou returnest in peace, and we go with thee all together.’

Abraham departed Ur when he was fifty in 1927 BCE. When he was seventy-five in 1902 BCE, the Creator told him to leave Haran and depart for Canaan. From this time onwards, Abraham left city life and became a sojourning nomad, living in temporary dwellings in the countryside for the remaining one hundred years of his life.

Genesis 12:1-3

Amplified Bible

Now (in Haran) the Lord had said to Abram, “Go away from your country, And from your relatives And from your father’s house, To the land which I will show you; 2 … I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you (abundantly), And make your name great (exalted, distinguished); And you shall be a blessing (a source of great good to others); 3 And I will bless (do good for, benefit) those who bless you, And I will curse (that is, subject to My wrath and judgment) the one who curses (despises, dishonors, has contempt for) you. And in you all the families (nations) of the earth will be blessed.” 4 So Abram departed (in faithful obedience) as the Lord had directed him; and Lot (his nephew) left with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran [and Lot was sixty-eight]. 5 Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his nephew, and all their possessions which they had acquired, and the people (servants) which they had acquired in Haran, and they set out to go to the land of Canaan.

Book of Jubilees 12:22-27

… and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him… saying: ‘Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I will show thee, and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I will bless thee And I will make thy name great, And thou shalt be blessed in the earth, And in Thee shall all families of the earth be blessed, And I will bless them that bless thee, And curse them that curse thee. And I will be a God to thee and thy son [Isaac], and to thy son’s son [Jacob], and to all thy seed: fear not, from henceforth and unto all generations of the earth I am thy God.’

Much is said to Abram in a short passage. Notice the Creator said He would show Canaan to Abram. Abram was constantly on the move throughout Canaan, as if on a guided tour of the land that would one day fall to his descendants, but not to him directly. 

Genesis 13:17

English Standard Version

Arise, walk through the length and the breadth of the land [of Canaan], for I will give it to you.”

Abram is next told he will father a great nation – yet Sarai was barren and he had no son or heir. Even though all the nations on the earth had been in existence for many thousands of years since the flood, a new nation would come from his loins. This also happened for his brothers Nahor and the peoples of Northern and Central Italy and Haran, the peoples of Switzerland, France and Quebec in Canada. The great good to others, encompasses to the fulfilment of the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 and the promised Messiah, Immanuel [Isaiah 7:14].

Mary, pregnant with the Saviour, ‘in the fullness of time’ [Galatians 4:4] would undoubtedly recall the divine promise in Luke 1:54-55, CEB: “He has come to the aid of his servant Israel [Jacob], remembering his mercy, just as he promised to our ancestors, to Abraham and to Abraham’s descendants forever.” The profound association between Abraham’s promised physically blessed posterity and the inextricably entwined link with the spiritual blessing of the Messiah, that would share the same ancestral heritage is summarised by J H Allen.

Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Throughout the world it is most generally known, and throughout Christendom it is universally known, that “the seed to whom the promise was made,” did come; but it is not universally known, nor acknowledged throughout Christendom, that the many peoples are included in that same covenant with this one seed, without whom the entire structure of Christianity must fall, and that every argument for the Christ, from the covenant standpoint, must stand the crucial test of a numerous posterity from the loins of Abraham, or go down.

True, the covenant with the people failed… the people sinned, and violated their obligations… the law was added, because of their transgressions, to bridge over, “till the (one) seed should come to whom the promise was made… in favor of the Messianic covenant against all this is, that “the covenant which was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law… cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.” How could it? We… believe that it could not. 

All Christendom believes that it could not. And if it could not, neither can the promise concerning a multiplicity of children for Abraham be annulled.’

Abram did not obey in all though, as the command to leave his kindred behind was not adhered to when he allowed Lot to accompany him. How much did Terah* influence Abraham. We have discussed the close relationship of Abraham and Lot due to their similar age, the death of Lot’s father Haran and that fact Abraham was childless. But by taking Lot it led to repercussions and would cause Abraham much trouble.

David A Snyder:

‘[The Abrahamic Covenant]… was given to Abraham in three separate revelations in exchange for Abraham’s righteousness (faith) and his acceptance of the revealing God as the God of the Hebrews… The covenants in Chapter 12 and 15 seem to have been written by the “J” (Yahweh) and “E” (Elohist) sources respectively. The last covenant in Chapter 17 seems to be from the “P” (Priestly) source.’

This highlights the important matter with regard to first, the different sources of material and writer-editors of the Bible and second, as discussed, the significance of a shadowy god in the background, that does not always seem to have the best interest of the person or people in question, or at the least interacted in an abrupt and dismissive manner. 

We have learned that the Ancient of Days has not and does not interact with mankind directly and does so indirectly via His Son [Habakkuk 1:13; John 6:46, 14:6; 1 Timothy 2:5] . We have also learnt that there may be a third personage that is not his son, the Angel of the Lord – very possibly, Azriel, Michael or Gabriel – who dealt Jacob and his sons, the Israelites. R A Boulay elaborates.

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, page 85 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… there are two traditions which make up the books of the Old Testament, the older or Elohist tradition which refers to the deity in generic terms, and the Priestly tradition where the deity is called Yahweh, often called Jehovah, somewhat erroneously, due to [a]  mistranslation from the Greek Septuagint. The two main streams are intertwined throughout the Old Testament and sometimes exists side-by-side as, for example, in Genesis where there are two versions of the Creation. The god of the Old Testament has many human attributes – he is jealous, and vindictive; he does not seem omnipotent for at times he allows evil to exist and often gets into debate with the devil. There are many gaps in the narrative; it is disjointed: jumps abruptly from one subject to another without explanation or resolution. It leaves more questions unanswered than it resolves.In the scriptures, the deity is called El (plural Elohim) some of the time and Yahweh the rest of the time. Biblical scholars agree that the usage of Yahweh [the true name of the Creator] appears to be an anachronism and may have been inserted at later times… Elohim is… a plural form… translated as “God”… [and] “Gods” or “divine beings”… because the text is often ambiguous. generally, the name for the deity is El… when the serpent is tempting Eve he says: “You are not going to die. No, the gods (Elohim) will know… you will be the same as the gods (Elohim)…’

Another example is during the Tower of Babel, we read of the ‘gods’ saying: ‘Let Us go down.’

Flying Serpents and Dragons, Page 90 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘According to Exodus 6:3 the appellation Yahweh did not come into use until the time of Moses, for Moses is told by the deity that “I am Yahweh [‘the One who is’ Exodus 3:14], I appeared to Abraham , Isaac and Jacob as El-Shaddai [God Almighty], but I did not make myself known to them by my name Yahweh.” The Hebrew root shaded… means “to overpower,” “to treat with violence,” or “to lay waste.”… [giving] the deity a fearful character, that of devastator or destroyer… the god of the Hebrews is known as an uncompromising and vindictive god… Shaddai may be connected linguistically with the Hittite shadu, or mountain… the God of Lightening and Thunder of the Hittites [the storm god, Adad, his symbol a Bull]. He was the Anatolian god of the twin mountain often depicted with thunderbolts in his hand.’

The god Enlil, lord of the Air*, is also associated with a storm god. Researchers have erroneously, linked El with Enlil and Enki with Yahweh. The Beast of the Abyss, Abaddon or Apollyon is the Destroyer and Baal is typically seen as another name for Satan. Satan is also the prince of the power of the air* in Ephesians 2:2.

David A Snyder – emphasis & bold mine:

Ba’al Hadad was the storm god, a god of rain, thunder, fertility, agriculture, and the lord of heaven. We see him called the “Rider of the Clouds” in the Ba’al Cycle. The Hurrians… had a storm god named Teshub; and the Hittites, from what is now Turkey, had a storm god named Tarhunt… A Christian who knows his Bible will recognize a God who “Rides the Clouds”. After all, Jesus ascended into heaven on a cloud and will return the same way. There are also the following scriptural passages that refer to a Yahweh who rides the heavens or the clouds:

There is no god like the God of the darling, who rides the heavens in his power, and rides the skies in his majesty. (Deuteronomy 34:26)

See the Lord is riding on swift cloud on his way to Egypt. (Isaiah 19:1) 

Who rides the heights of the ancient heavens, whose voice is thunder, mighty thunder (Psalm 68:34) 

You raised your palace upon the waters. You make the clouds your chariot. (Psalm 104:3) 

Dr. Michael S. Heiser in his excellent article, What’s Ugaritic Got to do with anything analyzes the similarities of the Ugarit Ba’al Cycle with Daniel 7. Here is a paraphrase of his analysis: 

1. El, the aged high god, is the obvious leader of the assembly in council, while in Daniel 7, The court was convened, and the books were opened and The Ancient One (Yahweh) is seated on the fiery, wheeled throne. Both the Ugaritic text and Daniel depict God as white haired and aged and both show an assembly in heaven. 

2. El bestows “eternal kingship and dominion” on Ba’al, “Rider on the Clouds” after Ba’al defeats Yam, while in Daniel 7, the Ancient One bestows dominion, glory and kingship upon the son of Man, who is coming on the clouds of heaven after the beast was slain and its body was thrown into fire to be burnt up (which also occurred in the Ba’al Cycle). 

3. El is the father of the pantheon at the same time that Ba’al is “king of the gods”, implying two thrones. Daniel 7 says: Thrones were set up and later the Ancient one took His throne (singular). The Son of Man is given everlasting dominion over the nations. He and God have dominion much like El and Ba’al in the Ugaritic text. This part of Daniel clearly refers to God the Son as the second person of the Blessed Trinity to Christians [incorrect], but is an anathema to Jews and Muslims who have a difficult time explaining the use of the plural thrones.

This does not support the false doctrine of the Trinity, nor does it contradict the central edict of monotheism and a unitarian Godhead. The writer is correct regarding the plural thrones [Colossians 3:1], as the Son of Man is the image of the invisible God [Colossians 1:15] and has received His authority and rulership from the Ancient of Days, his Father. In fact, Christ will share his throne with those who overcome [Ephesians 2:6; Revelation 3:21].

A massive assumption has been made by the writer – because of his Trinitarian bias – to call the Son of God, God the Son, as this is notBiblical or supported by scripture. The plural thrones of the Ancient of Days and the separate person of the Son of Man is an anathema not just to the Jewish and Islamic faiths but also to orthodox Catholic and Protestant Christians. Some do not believe the Nicene Creed and they are applauded for not swallowing the universal church’s agenda inspired dogma. Those that do, would do well in more searching of the scriptures, as the commended Bereans did – Acts 17:10-11 – as well as taking to heart what Christ’s brother an apostle says, in Jude 1:3. It is incomprehensible that any faith believing, Christ affirming Christian, would claim to worship a Father and Son, that they do not even know. They run the risk of being ensnared in the words of the Messiah. 

Matthew 25:12

Amplified Bible

But He [Christ] replied, ‘I assure you and most solemnly say to you, I do not know you [we have no relationship].’

David A Snyder continues: ‘Some will have difficulty accepting that Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, had any relationship to the pagan gods El or Ba’al. There are dozens of books by highly qualified Biblical scholars arguing this point; and by no means, do any of their opinions agree. Some say Yahweh and El are the same God, and [others] say they are not. Some say that Yahweh, like El, had a consort (the Asherah); and others vehemently deny this claim. There is much discussion of the perspective of the authors of the four sources having a lot to do with these divergent theories. In some, El is the God of the Hebrews in early Genesis while Yahweh is the God of the Hebrews by other sources.’

From what we have studied thus far, El the singular of Elohim, is the same being as Yahweh as stated in Exodus 3:5-6, 14; 6:3. El [H410 – ‘el: God, mighty, strong, powerful, great] is an adjective or descriptive word for the Creator, describing Him as the God as opposed to one of the gods or Elohim. Asherah was the consort or wife of the Ancient of days – the one and only Creator and life giver – who is otherwise known by his true and once secret, proper name, YHWH [H3068 – Yahweh: lord, the existing one, eternal]. Therefore, the Lord God is Yahweh El or the ‘Eternally powerful’ one.

There is a verse in the Psalms, which is repeated by the the Messiah in Matthew 22:44 that clearly shows the impossibility of the Trinity and that the Son of Man is a distinct entity from the one and only Yahweh, or Eternal.

Psalm 110:1

English Standard Version

The Lord [H3068 – Yahweh] says to my Lord [H113 – Adonai]: “Sit at my right hand [on a throne], until I make your enemies your footstool.”

Notice the second Lord is different from the first Lord, who is Yahweh. The Hebrew word adonai means ‘to rule.’ It also infers a ‘master or king’ and runs parallel with Yahweh, revealing the special relationship the Son of Man has with the Ancient of Days. Though in no circumstance are they one entity, but rather two separate and distinct beings who are one in mind and purpose; yet also in no manner, is the Son of Man God as the Eternal One is, but rather he is the Son of God. King David – ‘a man after God’s own heart’ – understood this relationship and the unique sovereignty of the Ancient of Days as with certainty so did Abraham, the friend of the Eternal.

Abraham of Ur, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… by the 14th century BC the god El had become a primary god controlling the actions of the other gods in the pantheon. The pantheon of Canaan, found in the Ugaritic texts, is called Elohim, which means the children of El or the children of god. El is referred in Ugaritic literature as “Bull El” or the bull god, “creator of creatures and mankind”, and “creator eternal” which would indicate that by this time in history, the concept of a creating god, was beginning to enter Canaanite polytheism. There is a single tablet found at Ugarit titled “El’s Drinking Party” which displays he was quite promiscuous in his early days, which will become an issue when he is compared to Yahweh in many scholarly studies. 

It is interesting to note that in the Ba’al Cycle, El is sometimes mentioned with the assembly in council which would seem to indicate a bi-cameral ruling authority within the pantheon as we see here: “Do not fall at El’s feet, do not prostrate yourself before the assembly in council; still standing speak your speech, repeat your message; and address the bull, my father El, repeat to the assembly in council.”

An Assembly of gods would be nothing new to Abraham since the epic stories of Sumer and Akkad frequently referred to gods conspiring together. One superior god within the pantheon established a new dynamic in polytheism, creating a four-tier hierarchy within the assembly. The first place was held by the supreme god and his consort such as Ea in Akkad and El in Canaan. The second place is held by the royal children, the third place is held by gods who serve the royal family, and the fourth place is held by minor deities who assist all the gods such as messenger-gods. This pantheon was anthropomorphic since it was arranged along the same lines as their society. There are signs that the Israelis, who lived among the Canaanites, also placed their God within an assembly of gods. 

In Psalm 82:1 and 6-7 we see Elohim within the divine council when he tells the other gods they will all die: God (Elohim) rises in the divine council; gives judgment in the midst of the gods. I declare, ‘Gods [literally, mighty ones, similar to Nephilim] though you be, offspring of the most high [the Ancient of Days] all of you, yet like any mortal you shall die; like any prince you shall fall.’ 

Note that the gods are offspring of the most high, and are arranged… similar to the pantheon of El. The early reference to a hierarchy of gods in the Hebrew Scripture [makes] me believe that when Abraham entered Canaan (a thousand years prior to the authors of the Psalms and Deuteronomy), a hierarchy of gods was part of his understanding of deity. 

While the epic stories of Canaan identified El as a supreme god, this deity was still not a transcendent, boundless God above human understanding as he was still created in man’s image [rather Adam was created in His image]. 

El and the other supreme gods of Mesopotamia were usually depicted as old, retired and very wise as we observed in Sumer when Enki assumed this role and Ea became the father of the gods in Akkad. When Abraham entered Canaan, El had assumed this role. Ba’al seems to become the primary god in later Ugaritic literature, pushing El to the side as a grandfather figure. The gods El and Ba’al were important deities in Canaan not only when Abraham entered in 1900 BC, but also when his descendants returned from Egypt five hundred years later.’

Though the author is promoting El as less than than who He is; nevertheless, El remains the Creator and Baal His nemesis, Satan the Devil, Samael.

Abraham in Greek Mythology, Abraham and the Minyan Athamas, John R Salverda – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Athamas of Greek Mythology, as the King of Orchomenus a city founded by Minyas, was a well known Minyan. Abraham and his family were said to have been from Ur of the Chaldees. These two statements fit together because the Minyans were the Armenians (Ur-Manneans indicating those from the mountains [ur] of Minni), and the Armenians of Urartu were famously known as the Chaldians of Urartu… there are fairly convincing connections between the Greek, Minyas, and the Armenians. Historians know well these People and call them the Manneans, or the kingdom of Van. This group lived in the mountains, (alternately known as, the Gordyan or Cordyaean mountains by Berosus, and as, the Chaldean mountains by Xenophon,) [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. … the Manneans, are known to have been largely composed of Hurrians it seems reasonable to assume that the Hurrians were so called after Ur, the homeland of Abraham (The pre-Canaan home of Abraham, the city of Haran, named for Abrahams brother, and the surrounding quod-city area, including the cities of Nahor, named for either Abrahams brother or his grandfather, Pethor the home of Balaam, and Carchemish were also settled, according to modern archaeologists, by the Hurrians.).’

Genesis 13:2

Amplified Bible

Now Abram was extremely rich in livestock and in silver and in gold.

This is the first time we are told in the scriptures of the economic status of an individual. Abraham was not just well off or rich, he was very wealthy. The equivalent of a billionaire today. Abraham had influence and power. Abraham had at his command a large retinue of people who were either part of his armed forces, his animal husbandry for his flocks, or servants in his household. 

We have learnt that he was a magnetic personality and good speaker, so local people of Haran and its environs were drawn to him and possibly continued with his family when they travelled to Egypt and then returned later to both Haran and Canaan. A wanderer’s life appeals to some people and a life with Abraham would have been an interesting adventure. The fact that Abraham had the wherewithal to meet with other kings and go to battle against them, lends credibility to the understanding that Abraham was royal and probably a king himself. 

David A Snyder:

‘According to Josephus, Abraham stopped in Damascus on his way to Canaan and became a person of great importance there. Josephus quotes a contemporary historian, Nicolaus of Damascus: “Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land [of] Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans. Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damascus: and there is shown a village named for him, The Habitat of Abram.”’

We discussed the Battle of Siddim from Lot’s perspective previously and we shall look at it again when we study Amalek, a grandson of Esau. Now, the aspects surrounding this event from Abraham’s experience.

Nephilim Giants – Enemies of God in the Bible, Beginning and End, 2017: 

‘What is amazing about this very brief passage in Genesis 14 is that Cherdolaomers’s 4-king coalition is able to vanquish the Nephilim in combat. They slaughtered the giants on the way to conquering the vassal states and specifically the king of Sodom. In this latter battle, Lot, the nephew of Abraham, was kidnapped. With a late-night raid, Abraham divided his forces and was able to rout Cherdolaomers’s armies. Not only did his small band defeat the 4 kings, they chased them far north to the area of Dan, passing through a fortified gate that is now named after Abraham (this gate still exists and was uncovered by archaeologists in 1966 – yet another stunning discovery that confirms the Bible’s accounts).’ 

Genesis 6 Giants – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Following their victory in the field, Chedorlaomer’s warriors plundered Sodom and Gomorrah and the other cities and took some of their principal inhabitants away captive. Among these were Lot and his family. To the king of Elam’s great misfortune, however, one who had managed to escape from Sodom came and reported this news to Abraham. Lot’s uncle at this time still lived in tents pitched near the great trees of Mamre the Amorite. Mamre was a brother of Eshcol and Aner. All three were Abraham’s allies. When Abraham heard that his relative had been taken captive, he called out the three hundred and eighteen “trained men born in his household,” and, being joined by the forces of Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, he pursued the enemy as far as Dan.When the right opportunity presented itself, Abraham and his men came upon Chedorlaomer’s camp in the dead of night, took the confused, frightened foe by surprise, put them to a rout, rescued Lot and his fellow captives, and recovered all Chedorlaomer’s plundered goods.’

Battle of Siddim, Andy, 2016 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The fact that this is one of the greatest battle areas to be mentioned in scripture is also notable. Indeed, the path of the invading armies foreshadows the destiny of the promised land (and of Abraham) as they practically circumvent almost the entire borders of modern Israel.

Although the practical objective was to free the Cities of the Jordan plain from the Mesopotamian rule, God’s agenda was for Abraham to rescue Lot’s family. So the fact that the kings of the Jordan plain were victorious, this was so because Abraham was fighting on their side (even though he and his 318 men were not under their command). Abraham made a point that he was not under them when he refused to take plunder from the battle. This action is salient for two reasons, one worldly and one spiritual. 

He refused the plunder so that: (a) He could keep his reputation of independence and neutrality (as no one would say that one of the kings made him rich) and (b)  he was giving this tithe to God via the priest of God most high Melchizedek King of Salem. The episode was the first instance where Scripture mentions tithing and the elements of communion; long before Jesus and even before the Law of Moses.

God had an unspoken covenant with Adam and Eve and a symbolic one with Noah. The covenant with Abraham was the first one actively initiated by both parties, as in a contract. Abraham had to walk between the halves of animals to make the covenant with God. A Hittite text from Anatolia, dated after the mid-2nd millennium BC, also records this ritual. The main differences between the Abrahamic covenant and that of other eastern cultures were: (a) In the other nations, the focus was on what the vassal state (here a parallel to Abraham) was promising their master. In Abraham’s covenant, the focus was on what God promised Him. (b) For the other cultures, the animals cut in half represented what would happen when failing to keep a covenant. 

For the Hebrews, with the passing of the torch between the animals, it meant God would rather die before He broke the covenant.’

Genesis 14:17-24

English Standard Version

17 After his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley). 18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine [Matthew 26:26-28]. (He was priest of God Most High.) 19 And he blessed him and said, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth; 20 and blessed be God Most High, who has delivered your enemies into your hand!” And Abram gave him a tenth of everything. 21 And the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the persons, but take the goods for yourself.” 

22 But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have lifted my hand to the Lord, God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth, 23 that I would not take a thread or a sandal strap or anything that is yours, lest you should say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’ 24 I will take nothing but what the young men have eaten, and the share of the men who went with me. Let Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre take their share.”

There are differing views regarding the mysterious Melchizedek. Some teach the name is not a personal name, but rather a title. The word is comprised of two parts: melek, meaning ‘king of’ and sadeq, meaning ‘to be just’ or ‘righteous.’ Melchizedek is also known as the Prince of Peace or Salem, an early name for Jerusalem. Others teach that Melchizedek can be none other than the Messiah. There are scriptures referring to Immanuel – the true name of the Son of Man – with similar epithets.

Isaiah 9:6

English Standard Version

For to us a child is born [Immanuel], to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace

Jeremiah 23:5-6

English Standard Version

5 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. 6 In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The Lord is our righteousness.

Psalm 110:4

English Standard Version

The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind, “You [the Son of Man] are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.”

Hebrews 5:5-10

English Standard Version

5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him [the Eternal] who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; 6 as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” 7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 

Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9 And being made perfect, he became the source [the author and Alpha & Omega] of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated [called] by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

As the Son of Man is inadvertently, though incorrectly equated with the Archangel Michael, so He is equated with Melchizedek. The similar descriptions are because both are in the same Order, as Priests of the Most High. Theologians call it a Christophany if the pre-incarnate Christ appears in the Old Testament. The giving of bread and wine is a reason why some think it was the Word, yet this ceremony was a precursor to the Passover that was instituted for physical Israel and then reverted to bread and wine for spiritual Israel, as re-instituted by the Messiah at the last supper – which preceded the Passover the next day.

Hebrews 7:1-9

Common English Bible

1 This Melchizedek, who was king of Salem and priest of the Most High God, met Abraham as he returned from the defeat of the kings, and Melchizedek blessed him. 2 Abraham gave a tenth of everything to him. His name means first “king of righteousness,” and then “king of Salem,” that is, “king of peace.” 3 He is without father or mother or any family. He has no beginning or end of life, but he’s like God’s Son and remains a priest for all time.

4 See how great Melchizedek was! Abraham, the father of the people, gave him a tenth of everything he captured. 5 The descendants of Levi who receive the office of priest have a commandment under the Law to collect a tenth of everything from the people who are their brothers and sisters, though they also are descended from Abraham. 6 But Melchizedek, who isn’t related to them, received a tenth of everything from Abraham and blessed the one who had received the promises. 

Without question, the less important person is blessed by the more important person. 8 In addition, in one case a tenth is received by people who die, and in the other case, the tenth is received by someone who continues to live, according to the record. 9 It could be said that Levi, who received a tenth, paid a tenth through Abraham.

13 The person we are talking about belongs to another tribe, and no one ever served at the altar from that tribe. 14 It’s clear that our Lord came from the tribe of Judah, but Moses never said anything about priests from that tribe. 15 And it’s even clearer if another priest [Christ] appears who is like Melchizedek. 16 He has become a priest by the power of a life that can’t be destroyed, rather than a legal requirement about physical descent [from Levi].

The Apostle Paul explains that Melchizedek has apparently just appeared post-flood, with no discernible genealogy and that he is like the Son of God, not that he is the Son of God. Paul then explains the irony of Abraham, who fathers by descent, Jacob’s son Levi who was the progenitor of Israel’s priesthood; is at the same time paying a tithe to a person who is not descended from Levi, or part of the Levitical priesthood, yet prefigures that priesthood. Rather, Melchizedek is a Priest of a different order. Similarly, the Word was from the Tribe of Judah, not Levi, yet is another priest like Melchizedek, forever in the same priestly Order. The true identity of Melchizedek may have to remain a mystery much like the life of Melchizedek himself. There is an account in the Book of Enoch; if accurate, it is an explanation to why his presence on the earth was apparently from nowhere. 

Noah had a younger brother, called Nir and Nir had a wife called Sopanim, who was sterile. Though Sopanim became pregnant in old age, claiming no one had impregnated her, much like Lamech’s wife who claimed no one but Noah’s father had been near her. Nir in his fury and jealousy due to the scandal, decided to banish Sopanim, and though he eventually relents, she suddenly dies at his feet. Nir and Noah prepared her burial garments – a black shroud, in a secret grave. Nir and Noah are more than shocked when they later see a fully formed child – a toddler of about three – sitting next to his dead mother. Noah was alarmed and Nir was afraid. The child spoke and blessed the Lord. They recognised his ‘glorious appearance’ as the ‘badge’ of the ‘priesthood on his chest.’ They thus named him Melchizidek and dressed him in priestly clothes. 

The brothers hid the child, so that others would not kill him. Like Noah when he was born, Melchizedek had an ethereal appearance. Prior to the flood, Nir was told that his son would not perish. A messenger angel – purportedly Michael – came and took Melchizedek from the earth after forty days, possibly to the same plane and existence, as Enoch. Nir losing both his child and wife in quick succession, died soon after from a ‘broken heart.’ Next, Melchizedek was prophesied to reappear in the twelfth generation after the flood – Abraham was the eleventh counting Noah – becoming King of Salem. 

Melchizedek and his Uncle Noah, may have had the same similarity, in sharing very fair, white skin, red or blond hair and blue eyes. It was Methusalah who had chosen to skip his son Lamech and his eldest grandson Noah, to pass the priestly line of Seth to his other grandson Nir. Noah was a prophet, but not a priest. Thus it transpired that the priestly line was kept alive and continued from antediluvian to postdiluvian epochs via Melchizedek. 

As an aside… not only is there a link with Abraham being an ancestor of Levi and thus the priesthood, as well as Judah – and the sceptre promise of kings – from whence the Son of Man descended, but Abraham himself, is descended from Noah and is also thus related to Melchizedek the nephew of Noah. Abraham is serving one greater than he, yet of the same family and Melchizedek is ministering to one of his own family.

Zechariah 4:1-14

English Standard Version

And the angel… said to me, “What do you see?” I said, “I see, and behold, a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, and seven lamps on it, with seven lips on each of the lamps that are on the top of it. 3 And there are two olive trees by it, one on the right of the bowl and the other on its left.”… 6 Then he said to me, “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the Lord of hosts. 7 Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone [the Son of Man] amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’”

“The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you. 10 For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel. “These seven are the eyes of the Lord [Messenger angels], which range through the whole earth.” 11 Then I said to him, “What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the lampstand?” 12 And… the two golden pipes from which the golden oil is poured out?” 13 He said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.” 14 Then he said, “These are the two anointed ones [the two witnesses] who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.”

It reasonable and plausible that the two Witnesses at the end of the age and during the final three and one half years of tribulation and Jacob’s Trouble, would be the two individuals who were translated and did not see the first death, righteous Enoch and the prophet, Elijah. Yet, in Mark 9:1-5, it is Elijah and Moses who are speaking with Christ in the transfiguration. Both Elijah and Moses were prophets, though not priests. 

The two witnesses prophesy and appear to fulfil the role of prophets. As they are specially anointed, could they be priests or both? [Exodus 29:6; Leviticus 8:12; Psalm 133:2]. Enoch is not mentioned in scripture as a priest, yet his interaction with the Nephilim hints at a priestly role, particularly as he is mentioned as the seventh from Adam, via the priestly line of Seth by Jude – the brother of Christ. 

The pairing of Enoch with Melchizedek is worth considering. The fact that both Enoch and Melchizedek were alive to witness and interact with the Watchers and Nephilim in their respective epochs is especially significant; as the two witnesses could well go up against a nephil in the guise of Nimrod, as the false Prophet and a dark Angel in the guise of Azazel, as the Beast.

Revelation 11:1-13

English Standard Version

Then I was given a measuring rod like a staff, and I was told, “Rise and measure the temple [the people] of God and the altar [Garden of Eden] and those who worship there [true believers], 2 but do not measure the court outside the temple[Eden]; leave that out, for it is given over to the nations [land of Nod], and they will trample the holy city for forty-two months [beginning with the abomination of desolation]. 3 And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days [3 1/2 years],clothed in sackcloth [symbol of mourning].” 4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth. And if anyone would harm them, fire pours from their mouth and consumes their foes. If anyone would harm them, this is how he is doomed to be killed. 6 They have the power to shut the sky, that no rain may fall during the days of their prophesying, and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague, as often as they desire. 

Recall Moses and Aaron worked together when confronting the Pharaoh and his magicians Jannes [‘he vexed’] and Jambres [‘ebullient healer’ or ‘contentious, rebellious’] – Exodus 7:11; 2 Timothy 3:8. Moses was a prophet and his brother Aaron was a priest, a High Priest no less. In fact it was Aaron that threw down the staff to turn it into a snake [Exodus 7:10] and again struck the Nile River to turn it into blood [Exodus 7:20]. There is support for one witness then being a prophet and the other a priest, or for them to fulfil both roles. It must also be considered, that as they will be opposing supernatural beings that they may be angelic themselves and not human, as  researchers unanimously assume – because they die and are then resurrected. The Bible reveals angels do not die, not that they cannot be killed.

7 And when they have finished their testimony [the word of the Lord], the beast [Apollyon] that rises from the bottomless pit will make war on them and conquer them and kill them, 8 and their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city that symbolically is called Sodom [link with Melchizedek] and Egypt, where their Lord was crucified [Jerusalem]. 

9 For three and a half days some from the peoples and tribes and languages and nations will gaze at their dead bodies and refuse to let them be placed in a tomb, 10 and those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and make merry and exchange presents [the month of December and Christmas? The tenth month of the sacred calendar], because these two prophets had been a torment to those who dwell on the earth. 

11 But after the three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them [resurrected], and they stood up on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them. 12 Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, “Come up here!” And they went up to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies watched them. 13 And at that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

Genesis 15:1-19

Common English Bible

After these events, the Lord’s word came to Abram in a vision, “Don’t be afraid, Abram. I am your protector. Your reward will be very great.” 2 But Abram said, “Lord God, what can you possibly give me, since I still have no children? The head of my household is Eliezer, a man from Damascus [an Aramean].” 3 He continued, “Since you haven’t given me any children, the head of my household will be my heir.” 4 The Lord’s word came immediately to him, “This man will not be your heir. Your heir will definitely be your very own biological child.” 5 Then he brought Abram outside and said, “Look up at the sky and count the stars if you think you can count them.” He continued, “This is how many children you will have.” 6 Abram trusted the Lord, and the Lord recognized Abram’s high moral character.

Abraham toys with the Lord in saying that He still hasn’t given him an heir and that he can give his inheritance to Eliezer. Is that a good idea Lord? Pushing the Lord God to promptly re-confirm His promise; which the Eternal emphatically does. The Lord seems content to play along with Abraham, as a friend would and does not rebuke him for his impertinence, as would be the likely outcome for most in testing the Lord’s response this way. Abraham continues the little dance, when the Lord states the land of Canaan is his inheritance.

7 He said to Abram, “I am the Lord, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land as your possession.” 8 But Abram said, “Lord God, how do I know that I will actually possess it?” 9 He said, “Bring me a three-year-old female calf, a three-year-old female goat, a three-year-old ram, a dove, and a young pigeon.” 10 He took all of these animals, split them in half, and laid the halves facing each other, but he didn’t split the birds. 11 When vultures swooped down on the carcasses, Abram waved them off. 12 After the sun set, Abram slept deeply. A terrifying and deep darkness settled over him. 

13 Then the Lord said to Abram, “Have no doubt that your descendants [seed] will live as immigrants [strangers] in a land that isn’t their own, where they will be oppressed slaves [in Egypt] for four hundred years. 14 But after I punish the nation they serve, they will leave it with great wealth. 15 As for you, you will join your ancestors in peace and be buried after a good long life. 

16 The fourth generation will return here since the Amorites’ [Nephilim and Elouid] wrong doing won’t have reached its peak until then.” 17 After the sun had set and darkness had deepened, a smoking vessel with a fiery flame passed between the split-open animals. 18 That day the Lord cut a covenant with Abram: “To your descendants I give this land, from Egypt’s river to the great Euphrates, 19 together with the Ken-ites [possibly descended, from the line of Cain], the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites… [Nephilim infiltrators, trying to thwart Abraham and his descendants from their inheritance]. 

The reference to four hundred years, includes living as immigrants and being oppressed as slaves [Acts 7:6-7] and can be computed a number of ways. For instance, from the Exodus in 1446 BCE, back to when Abraham plans to offer Isaac as a sacrifice in 1847 BCE is four hundred years. As the verses state the peak of the Amorites evil, we need to count with this in mind. We will look at the fourth generation part of the verses later. 

The 400 years is linked to the 430 stated elsewhere in Exodus 12:40-41. If we add 430 years to Abraham’s year 100 when Isaac is born, the total is 530 years from Abraham’s birth to the Exodus – 1977 – 1446 BCE. Adding 45 years to the time Joshua divided the land of the Amorites [Joshua 14:7-10, Joshua is 20 years younger than Caleb], the number is 575 years from Abraham’s birth. Abraham did live a good long life as the Lord said, of one hundred and seventy-five years. Subtracting 175 from 575, gives 400 years from Abraham’s death in 1802 BCE, to the year the sins of the Amorite’s reached maturity in 1402 BCE, while the sons of Jacob were possessing the land between 1407 to 1400 BCE. 

Genesis 16:1-16

English Standard Version

Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. She had a female Egyptian servant whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said to Abram, “Behold now, the Lord has prevented me from bearing children. Go in to my servant; it may be that I shall obtain children by her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. 3 So, after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan [1902 – 1892 BCE], Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her servant, and gave her to Abram… 4 And he went into Hagar, and she conceived. And when [Hagar] saw that she had conceived, she looked with contempt on her mistress [Sarai]. 5 And Sarai said to Abram, “May the wrong done to me be on you! I gave my servant to your embrace, and when she saw that she had conceived, she looked on me with contempt. May the Lord judge between you and me!” 6 But Abram said to Sarai, “Behold, your servant is in your power; do to her as you please.” Then Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her.

We shall continue with the story when we study Ishmael and his mother Hagar. Sarai recognised her age at seventy-five and thought, this isn’t happening, I need to take matters into my own hands. To be fair, it wasn’t the best idea and was showing impatience as well as possibly a lack of faith in the Lord’s promises. It didn’t go well and Sarai certainly regretted her decision, judging by her inclusion, as only one of two women mentioned in the chapter of faith in the Bible – the other, is Rahab the harlot. 

Hebrews 11:11

English Standard Version

By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive, even when she was past the age, since she considered him faithful who had promised.

Hagar did not do herself or Ishmael any favours, looking down on Abraham’s wife, as we will learn. Possibly, Hagar was a gift from Pharaoh in Egypt when Abram and Sarai visited. It is thought that she may have even been the Pharoah’s daughter. The Bible renders Hagar as Egyptian, though this is more likely to be where she was from, rather than her ethnicity as a descendant of Mizra from Ham. Jospeh married a woman from Egypt, provided by the Pharaoh, though she was from a priestly family, much the same way Moses’s second wife was, the daughter of Jethro the Priest of Midian – Midian being a son of Abraham. Also, Sarai may have suggested the idea with Abram, but she did not make a habit of riding roughshod over the man she called lord.

1 Peter 3:6

Common English Bible

For example, Sarah accepted Abraham’s authority when she called him master. You have become her children when you do good and don’t respond to threats with fear.

Genesis 17:1-26

English Standard Version

17 When Abram was ninety-nine years old the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless, 2 that I may make my covenant between me and you, and may multiply you greatly.” 3 Then Abram fell on his face. And God said to him, 4 “Behold, my covenant is with you, and you shall be the father of a multitude of nations. No longer shall your name be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham, for I have made you the father of a multitude of nations.I will make you exceedingly fruitful [including the tribe of Ephraim], and I will make you into nations [plural], and kings [including the tribe of Judah] shall come from you. 7 And I will establish my covenant between me and you and your offspring after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your offspring after you. 8 And I will give to you and to your offspring after you the land of your sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession, and I will be their God.”

David A Snyder, Abraham of Ur, 2014:

‘Now there was to be a God of the Hebrews, a God that Abraham would hear from again when he was being prepared to be the father of a great nation. It is interesting to note that none of the three covenants demand that Abraham accept God as the creator – only that he will be the God of the Hebrews. As we shall see, because of Abraham’s pagan culture, his concept of God would be something he was familiar with – the practice of worshiping one deity among many (monolatry) rather than the monotheistic faith that we know today.’ 

9 And God said to Abraham, “As for you, you shall keep my covenant, you and your offspring after you throughout their generations. 10 This is my covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and your offspring after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised. 11 You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and you. 12 He who is eight days old among you shall be circumcised. 

Just before the eighth day after a male babies birth, the amount of blood clotting material increases rapidly, until on the eighth day itself, it is 110% from the norm. This is due to the levels of vitamin K being at its highest. Vitamin K plays a key role in regulating the coagulation mechanism that controls bleeding

 Every male throughout your generations, whether born in your house or bought with your money from any foreigner who is not of your offspring, 13 both he who is born in your house and he who is bought with your money, shall surely be circumcised [every male]. So shall my covenant be in your flesh an everlasting covenant [until the new Covenant, Romans 2:29]. 14 Any uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin shall be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant.”

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, pages 127-128:

‘As part of the covenant between the deity and Abraham, and later reinforced by being repeated many more times to his descendants, he is told: You shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and that shall be the mark of the [old] covenant between me and you. Just as the serpent achieves long life through sacrificing and [shedding its skin] leaving off part of himself, so may man also be saved by ritually sacrificing part of himself… a perpetual reminder… [of] his true origins…’

15 And God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name. 16 I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall come from her.” 17 Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said to himself, “Shall a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?”… 19 God said, “No, but Sarah [presently 89 years old] your wife shall bear you a son [a miracle, an intervention] by the Creator, and you shall call his name Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring after him… 

David A Snyder, Abraham of Ur, 2014:

‘Abram is the Akkadian Abu-ramu which is of west Semitic origin and means exalted father. Sarai, Abraham’s wife… whom God will later call Sarah, is an epithet of the consort of the moon god Sin of Haran. Milcah, Abraham’s sister-in-law, is derived from Malkatu, the consort of the sun god Shamash. The relation of the moon-god of Ur and Haran to Abraham and his family might be troubling to some Bible fundamentalists; however, it might also explain why God changed Abram’s name to Abraham and Sarai’s name to Sarah.’ 

23 Then Abraham took Ishmael his son and all those born in his house or bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins that very day, as God had said to him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old [1878 BCE] when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 That very day Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised.

David A Snyder, Abraham of Ur, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… one will notice that before these covenants are made, man is required to sever one or more animals in two parts. In ancient times this symbolizes what will happen to the party that breaks the covenant. In Hebrew, the verb to seal a covenant literally means “to cut”. Some scholars believe that the removal of the foreskin in circumcision is a symbol of the sealing of the covenant with God.’ 

Genesis 18:1-33

English Standard Version

And the Lord appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat at the door of his tent in the heat of the day. 2 He lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men [angels] were standing in front of him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth 3 and said, “O Lord [H136 – Adonay: lord, as in the Son of Man, Psalm 110:1], if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by your servant. 4 Let a little water be brought, and wash your feet [indicative of the foot washing at the last supper, John 13:1-13], and rest yourselves under the tree, 5 while I bring a morsel of bread, that you may refresh yourselves, and after that you may pass on – since you have come to your servant.” So they said, “Do as you have said.” 

6 And Abraham went quickly into the tent to Sarah and said, “Quick! Three seahs [measures] of fine flour! Knead it, and make cakes.” 7 And Abraham ran to the herd and took a calf, tender and good, and gave it to a young man, who prepared it quickly. 8 Then he took curds and milk and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them. And he stood by them under the tree while they [the three angels] ate.

9 They said to him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” And he said, “She is in the tent.” 10 The Lord said, “I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah your wife shall have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door behind him. 11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years. The way of women had ceased to be with Sarah. 12 So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, “After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?” 13 The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’ 14 Is anything too hard for the Lord? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.” 15 But Sarah denied it, saying, “I did not laugh,” for she was afraid. He said, “No, but you did laugh.”

16 Then the men set out from there, and they looked down toward Sodom. And Abraham went with them to set them on their way. 17 The Lord said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, 18 seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him? 19 For I have chosen him, that he may command his children and his household after him to keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice, so that the Lord may bring to Abraham what he has promised him.” 20 Then the Lord said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave, 21 I will go down to see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry that has come to me. And if not, I will know.”

22 So the men [two angels] turned from there and went toward Sodom, but Abraham still stood before the Lord [the Son of Man]. 23 Then Abraham drew near and said, “Will you indeed sweep away the righteous [Lot] with the wicked? 24 Suppose there are fifty righteous within the city. Will you then sweep away the place and not spare it for the fifty righteous who are in it? 25 Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?” 26 And the Lord said, “If I find at Sodom fifty righteous in the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”

27 Abraham answered and said, “Behold, I have undertaken to speak to the Lord, I who am but dust and ashes. 28 Suppose five of the fifty righteous are lacking… 32 Then he said, “Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak again but this once. Suppose ten are found there.” He answered, “For the sake of ten I will not destroy it.” 33 And the Lord went his way, when he had finished speaking to Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

The Lord was certainly patient with Abraham, especially as Abraham really drew out the conversation. As the word Adonay is used for Lord, we know it is the Son of Man, the Word and not the Angel of the Lord or someone else entirely. As it is the pre-incarnate Christ, it is strange it doesn’t use the name Melchizidek in the text if they are one and the same as many propose. The two angel Messengers may have been Michael and Gabriel, who left before the Lord and were the same angels that Lot welcomed and looked after and who then in turn, protected him and his family.

Genesis 21:1-7, 34

English Standard Version

1 The Lord visited Sarah as he had said [a year later], and the Lord did to Sarah as he had promised. 2 And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age at the time of which God had spoken to him. 3 Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah bore him, Isaac. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him. 5 Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. 6 And Sarah said, “God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh over me.” 7 And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.” 34 And Abraham sojourned many days in the land of the Philistines.

The promised son and heir-proper to Abraham, Isaac, was finally born to Sarah and Abraham in 1877 BCE, one hundred years after Abraham’s birth. In Genesis chapter twenty, Abraham moves to the Negeb in the southwestern region of Canaan or the northeastern limits of Egypt depending on your interpretation. Abimelech ruled the area and it was located where the Philistines officially settled from Crete nearly one thousand years later. The view of Bible detractors is that this proves the Bible is fantasy, rather than understanding that the passages have been written and edited later, with the Philistine term added for clarity on the location. 

It is possible that the children of Caphtor [from Casluh and Pathros, refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor] originally dwelt here before their migration to the Aegean area and that these were a residue of their people. Alternatively, early migrations of Minoans may have already begun. It would explain why the main body of them migrated from Minoan Crete to this exact same location. 

As the location is near to the Delta region of Lower Egypt, could Abimelech be the same person as Pharaoh Narmer and also known as Menes, who united Egypt as the first Pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty and who had met with Abraham and Sarah in Genesis chapter twelve. A case for this is made by Damien F Mackey.

From Genesis to Hernán Cortés Volume Four: Era of Abraham – emphasis & bold mine:

‘But who was the ruler of Egypt at the time, anachronistically called “Pharaoh” (which was a much later, New Kingdom, designation for Egyptian rulers)? The era of Abram also closely approximated to – as determined by Dr. John Osgood – the time of a great and mysterious potentate named Narmer. Now, whilst some consider this Narmer to have been the father of Egypt’s first pharaoh, Menes, my preference is for Narmer as the invasive Akkadian king, Naram-Sin… What makes most intriguing a possible collision of Menes of Egypt with a Shinarian potentate is the emphatic view of (then) Dr. W. F. Albright that Naram-Sin had conquered Egypt, and that the “Manium” whom Naram-Sin boasts he had vanquished was in fact Menes himself (“Menes and Naram-Sin”, JEA, Volume 6, No. 2, April 1920, pp. 89-98).

Tradition does seem to favour Abram as a contemporary of the first dynastic ruler of Egypt, Menes. Certainly, Emmet Sweeney has provided a strong argument for a close convergence in time of Abram and Menes: I am also inclined to accept the view that the classical name “Menes” arose from the nomen, Min, of pharaoh Hor-Aha (“Horus the Fighter”). Most importantly, according to Manetho, Hor (“Menes”) ruled for more than 60 years: Sixty years was the approximate span of time from Abram’s famine to the marriage of Isaac and Rebekah.Why is this length of time significant? It is because… [Abimelech is the] “Pharaoh”, with the addition… of this Abimelech figuring again later in the marriage of Isaac and Rebekah.

Critics may not be correct in claiming that the lack of an Egyptian name for the ruler in the case of the Abram and Joseph narratives of Genesis (cf. 12:15 and 39:1) is a further testimony, as they think, to these texts being unhistorical. Since these texts refer to the ruler of Egypt only as “Pharaoh”, it is argued that we ought not to take them as being serious histories. From the now well-known theory of toledot (a Hebrew feminine plural), we might be surprised to learn that so great a Patriarch as Abram (later Abraham), did not sign off the record of his own history (as did e.g. Adam, Noah, and Jacob). No, Abram’s story was recorded instead by his two chief sons, Ishmael and Isaac. “These are the generations of Ishmael …” (Genesis 25:12). “These are the generations of Isaac …” (Genesis 25:19).

So, there were two hands at work in this particular narrative, and this fact explains the otherwise strange repetition of several famous incidents recorded in the narrative. And it is in the second telling of the incident of the abduction of Abram’s wife, Sarai (later Sarah), that we get the name of the ruler who, in the first telling of it is called simply “Pharaoh”. He is “Abimelech” (20:2). Admittedly, there are such seeming differences between the two accounts, as regards names, geography and chronology, as perhaps to discourage one from considering them to be referring to the very same incident; and that despite such obvious similarities as:

– the Patriarch claiming that his beautiful wife was his “sister”;

– the ruler of the land taking her for his own;

– he then discovering that she was already married (underlined by plagues);

– and asking the Patriarch why he had deceived him by saying that the woman was his sister;

– the return of the woman to her husband, whose possessions are now augmented.

The seeming contradictions between the two accounts are that, whereas the first narrated incident occurs in Egypt, and the covetous ruler is a “Pharaoh”, the second seems to be located in southern Palestine, with the ruler being “King Abimelech of Gerar”, and who (according to a somewhat similar incident again after Isaac had married) was “King Abimelech of the Philistines” (26:1). 

Again, in the first narrated account, the Patriarch and his wife have their old names, Abram and Sarai, whereas in the second account they are referred to as Abraham and Sarah, presumably indicating a later time. In the first narrated account, the “Pharaoh” is “afflicted with great plagues because of Sarai”, whereas, in the second, “God healed Abimelech, and also healed his wife and female slaves so that they bore children” (20:17). The differences can be explained fairly easily…

Ishmael understandably wrote his father’s history from an Egyptian perspective, because his mother, Hagar, was “an Egyptian slave-girl” in Abram’s household, and she later “got a wife for [Ishmael] from the land of Egypt” (cf. 16:1 and 21:21). Ishmael names his father “Abram” because that is how he was known to Ishmael. Moreover, the incident with “Pharaoh” had occurred while the Patriarch was still called Abram. Isaac was not even born until some 25 years after this incident. His parents were re-named as Abraham and Sarah just prior to his birth. So, naturally, Isaac refers to them as such in the abduction incident, even though they were then Abram and Sarai. 

Again, there is no contradiction geographically between Egypt and Gerar because we are distinctly told in Ishmael’s account that it was just before the family went to Egypt (12:11) that Abram had told his wife that she was to be known as his sister. Gerar is on the way to Egypt, and in a later Volume we shall encounter an Egyptian king who also had control over Gerar (or southern Geshur). 

Finally, whether the one whom Isaac calls “Abimelech” was still, in Isaac’s day, “Pharaoh” of Egypt – as he had been in former times – he most definitely was, at least, ruler over the Philistines at Gerar. Perhaps he ruled both lands, Egypt and Philistia. 

In Hebrew [Abimelech] means “Father is King”, or “Father of the King”. Since Abimelech is not an Egyptian name (though the Egyptian name, Raneb, is of similar meaning), and since the other designation that we have for him is simply “Pharaoh”, that data, in itself, will not take us to the next step of being able to identify this ruler in the Egyptian historical (or dynastic) records. But that our Abimelech may have – according to the progression of Ishmael’s and Isaac’s toledot histories – ruled Egypt and then gone on to rule Philistia, could well enable us to locate this ruler archaeologically. 

Dr. John Osgood has already done much of the ‘spade work’ for us here, firstly by nailing the archaeology of En-geddi at the time of Abram (in the context of Genesis 14) to the Late Chalcolithic period, corresponding to Ghassul IV in Palestine’s southern Jordan Valley; Stratum V at Arad; and the Gerzean period in Egypt (“The Times of Abraham”, Ex Nihilo TJ, Volume 2, 1986, pp. 77-87); and secondly by showing that, immediately following this period, there was a migration out of Egypt into Philistia, bringing an entirely new culture (= Early Bronze I, Stratum IV at Arad). 

P. 86: “In all likelihood Egypt used northern Sinai as a springboard for forcing her way into Canaan with the result that all of southern Canaan became an Egyptian domain”. Then there is the all-important structural (chiasmus) guide (thanks to reader, Ken Griffith), admittedly, not well-formatted, but note how B. 1 and B’. 1’ merge beautifully with “Pharaoh” in B. 1 reflecting “Abimelech in B’. 1’: My tentative estimation would be that Abram came to Egypt at the approximate time of Narmer, the Akkadian Naram-Sin {the name Narmer (N-R-M) equates rather well phonetically with Naram- (N-R-M)}, and right near the beginning of the long reign of Hor-Aha(Menes)… It can also be thought in favour of Middle Bronze I [MBI]’s being the suitable period for Abraham that king Hammurabi of Babylon, a possible candidate for Abraham’s contemporary, Amraphel king of Shinar [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer](Genesis 14:1), has been dated… within range of the Middle Bronze I Age (2000-1750 BC).’ 

John Osgood quoted, has confirmed an extension of Egypt in the southern Palestine region. The chances of these people being Caphtor, rather than any other son of Mizra is more than probable. There is a measure of confidence in Mackey’s conclusions, as he has highlighted Hammurabi’s link with Amraphel, which we have already ascertained when studying Chedorlaomer in Genesis Fourteen and the Battle of Siddim. According to an unconventional chronology, Hammurabi was born in 1912 BCE and ruled as King of Babylon from 1894 to 1852 BCE, well within the Middle Bronze Age period. 

If Pharaoh Narmer is Naram-Sin – notice the Sin suffix as pertaining to the Moon god – then Abraham may have already known Naram-Sin from living in Shinar, or if not, then probably his family. It would also explain how Egypt was united into one kingdom and why the First Dynasty formed.

Genesis 22

English Standard Version

After these things God [H430 – ‘elohiym: ‘one’ of the gods] tested [H5254 – nacah: did tempt or try] Abraham and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” 2 He said, “Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah [Mount of Olives, Jerusalem], and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I shall tell you.” 3 So Abraham rose early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, and his son Isaac. And he cut the wood for the burnt offering and arose and went to the place of which God had told him. 4 On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from afar. 5 Then Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey; I and the boy [H5288 – na’ar: young male]will go over there and worship and come again to you.” 

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, page 88:

‘[An] example of the conflict between [El and Yahweh] was the sacrifice of Isaac… a close reading of this verse shows that it was El who requested the sacrifice from Abraham and that he was stopped at the last moment by the intervention of the angel of Yahweh.’

Boulay raises the seeming complex point regarding Yahweh and El, which we have discussed earlier. The real issue is the difference between Yahweh and the Elohim as investigated in Genesis chapters one and two [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The evidence for different Elohim or sons of God, compared with the one God, El is repeated in verse one of Genesis chapter twenty-two. The Creator chooses to not look upon sin, rather the Word was appointed to put away sin and intercede on our behalf, making a relationship with the Father possible. 

Habakkuk 1:12-13

New King James Version

Are You not from everlasting, O Lord my God, my Holy One… You are of purer eyes than to behold evil, And cannot look on wickedness…

Hebrews 9:24-28

English Standard Version

24 For Christ has entered… into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf… he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. 27 And just as it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment, 28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many…

We also know that the Creator tests or tries mankind, though indirectly, as it is actually the Serpent, Samael that tempts mankind with the aim of making us sin. 

Psalm 11:5

New King James Version

The Lord tests the righteous…

Job 2:6

English Standard Version

And the Lord said to Satan, “Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life.”

The Creator allows this to test our hearts to see if we will choose righteousness. The Creator does not desire for us to slip and fall or sin and hence He is not the tempter, the Devil has that role.

Matthew 4:1, 7

English Standard Version

Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil… Jesus said to him [the Devil], “Again it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test [tempt God].’”

Thus, verse one could easily read: ‘After these things the god of this world, [2 Corinthians 4:4] did tempt Abraham…’ Further evidence that this was not the Creator speaking is that the Eternal would not ask any of his servants to sacrifice a human being. The sacrificial system of God until His Son put an end to it, only required animals. The Israelites prior to their captivity had fallen to sacrificing their children like the nations surrounding them.

Psalm 106:34-39

English Standard Version

34 They did not destroy the peoples, as the Lord commanded them, 35 but they mixed with the nations and learned to do as they did. 36 They served their idols, which became a snare to them. 37 They sacrificed their sons and their daughters to the demons; 38 they poured out innocent blood, the blood of their sons and daughters, whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan, and the land was polluted with blood. 39 Thus they became unclean by their acts, and played the whore in their deeds.

Isaac is described as a boy or a lad and this has been misleading, as it has inferred that he was sprung upon by Abraham and may not have been a willing participant once he understood that he was in fact the sacrificial lamb – a type of the promised Messiah [Genesis 22:4]. The Hebrew word na’ar can be translated as ‘child, youth, young’ or even ‘babe.’ In this context with Isaac being male it could be boy or lad. The translators have assumed Issac must have been a child or teenager at most. 

The King James version translates this word different ways, though its most common translation is actually young man – seventy six times – and then servant fifty-four times, with child forty-four times and so forth. Young man is correct, as Isaac was thirty years old at the time in 1847 BCE, the same age the Messiah began his ministry. As Isaac lived to one hundred and eighty years of age, he was still a young man at thirty and could not be identified as either a child or a middle aged man.

6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son. And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So they went both of them together. 7 And Isaac said to his father Abraham, “My father!” And he said, “Here I am, my son.” He said, “Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?” 8 Abraham said, “God will provide for himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son.” So they went both of them together. 9 When they came to the place of which God had told him, Abraham built the altar there and laid the wood in order and bound Isaac his son and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood. 

10 Then Abraham reached out his hand and took the knife to slaughter his son. 11Butthe angel [Messenger – Mal’ak] of the Lord [Yahweh] called to him from heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” 12 He said, “Do not lay your hand on the boy or do anything to him, for now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.” 13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him was a ram, caught in a thicket by his horns. And Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son. 14 So Abraham called the name of that place, “The Lord will provide”; as it is said to this day, “On the mount of the Lord it shall be provided.” 

Notice, it is not El-Shaddai or Yahweh that calls to Abraham. Not even the shadowy figure of the original tempting Elohim, but rather the Angel of the Lord, or the Messenger of Yahweh that intercedes.

15 And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven 16 and said, “By myself I [the Lord] have sworn, declares the Lord, because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, 17 I will surely bless you, and I will surely multiply your offspring as the stars of heaven and as the sand that is on the seashore. And your offspring shall possess the gate of his enemies, [NCV: ‘and they will capture the cities of their enemies’] 18and in your offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.”19 So Abraham returned to his young men, and they arose and went together to Beersheba. And Abraham lived at Beersheba.

The Angel of the Lord is not speaking of himself or swearing by himself but declaring the testimony of the Lord – of Yahweh Himself. Notice in the promised blessing, that the addition of possessing the gates of their enemies is now included. This promise is stated more specifically later and is a key piece of information in identifying certain peoples descending from Abraham. A crucial element that has been missed, even by those who have thought they understood it correctly within the identity movement. 

Secrets of Golgotha, Ernest L Martin, 1996, pages 158-159:

‘… when one compares the history of Isaac with that of Jesus, the similarities are very profound.  

  1. The birth of Isaac was miraculous (Genesis 18), so was the birth of Jesus (Matthew 1:18)
  2. In Abraham’s attempt to sacrifice Isaac, Isaac even assisted Abraham in carrying the wood to the altar (Genesis 22:6). In like manner Jesus also helped to carry his own crosspiece to his crucifixion.
  3. Isaac did not dispute Abraham’s will in the matter of his own sacrifice, nor did Jesus with God the Father.
  4. Jesus and Isaac were both “offered” on the Mount of Olives 
  5. Isaac was willing to lay down his life of his own free will, just as Jesus did.
  6. Abraham also was willing to sacrifice his only son who was his legal son (or legitimate son for inheritance) while God the Father did in fact give up his only begotten Son. As God provided a ram caught in a thicket as a substitute sacrifice for Isaac so that Isaac could live… the Father provided Jesus as a substitute sacrifice for Israel and the world so that they may live forever. 
  7. Abraham came down from the mountain sacrifice… with Isaac still alive… tantamount to Isaac having been resurrected from the dead (Hebrews 11:17-19)… Jesus was also resurrected… at the same site and on the same mountain… Isaac had a three day journey to the spot to be “offered”…  and resurrected… while… the resurrection of Jesus also took place after a period of three days.’

Abraham is the father of the faithful and he is a type of God the Father, as Isaac prefigures the coming of Christ. In turn, physically and spiritually they are the head of the family, of those who are loved by the Creator, who love the Creator and are obedient to Him.

Hebrews 11:8-18

Common English Bible

8 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was going to receive as an inheritance. He went out without knowing where he was going. 9 By faith he lived in the land he had been promised as a stranger. He lived in tents along with Isaac and Jacob, who were coheirs of the same promise. 10 He was looking forward to a city that has foundations, whose architect and builder is God… these people died in faith without receiving the promises, but they saw the promises from a distance and welcomed them. They confessed that they were strangers and immigrants on earth. 14 People who say this kind of thing make it clear that they are looking for a homeland. 15 If they had been thinking about the country that they had left, they would have had the opportunity to return to it. 

16 But at this point in time, they are longing for a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore, God isn’t ashamed to be called their God – he has prepared a city for them [Revelation 21:1-3].17 By faith Abraham offered Isaac when he was tested. The one who received the promises was offering his only son. 18He had been told concerning him, Your legitimate descendants will come from Isaac.

It was a monumental request to sacrifice your only son from his wife Sarah, who had been specified as the one that all the promises and blessings would derive, with Sarah well past child bearing – it would require another miracle conception – though Abraham’s faith, meant he knew the Creator could replace Isaac if that was His intention. For instance, Seth replaced Abel who was also a type of the future Saviour. Even further, Abraham would have also believed that the Eternal could have resurrected Isaac, if that had been His intention.

In Abraham, we have one of the prime examples of what is desired and acceptable to the Creator, in all of the history of humankind. In Genesis 26:5 ESV, the promise is repeated to Isaac, with the Creator saying: “because Abraham obeyed my voice and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.” It doesn’t leave much out. Abraham was the consummate believer of the Eternal. He set the bar immeasurably high. A difficult act to follow; an understatement of great proportion. Abraham the  true friend of God, just might be, the most honourable human follower of the Creator who has ever lived, after His very own Son.

Genesis 25:7-11

English Standard Version

7 These are the days of the years of Abraham’s life, 175 years [died 1802 BCE]. 8 Abraham breathed his last and died in a good old age, an old man and full of years, and was gathered to his people. 9 Isaac [75 years of age] and Ishmael [89 years old] his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, east of Mamre, 10 the field that Abraham purchased from the Hittites. There Abraham was buried, with Sarah his wife. 11 After the death of Abraham, God blessed Isaac his son. And Isaac settled at Beer-lahai-roi.

The death of Abraham is poignantly described in the Book of Jubilees. 

Chapter 23:1-7

1 And he placed two fingers of Jacob on his eyes, and he blessed the Almighty of gods, and he covered his face and stretched out his feet and slept the sleep of eternity [a long sleep until the resurrection, Job 14;14], and was gathered to his fathers. 2 And notwithstanding all this Jacob [15 years of age] was lying in his bosom, and knew not that Abraham, his father’s father, was dead. 3 And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and behold Abraham was cold as ice, and he said ‘Father, father’; but there was none that spoke, and he knew that he was dead. 

4 And he arose from his bosom and ran and told Rebecca, his mother; and Rebecca went to Isaac in the night, and told him; and they went together, and Jacob with them, and a lamp was in his hand, and when they had gone in they found Abraham lying dead. 5 And Isaac fell on the face of his fatherand wept and kissed him. 6 And the voices were heard in the house of Abraham, and Ishmael his son arose, and went to Abraham his father, and wept over Abraham his father, he and all the house of Abraham, and they wept with a great weeping. 7 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double cave, near Sarah his wife, and they wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of Keturah [six sons about 21 to 31 years of age] in their places; and the days of weeping for Abraham were ended.

Due to the time frame, Zohar the Hittite was from the son of Canaan, Heth and not those people living later called the Hittite empire. This would have been the last of the Black people living in Canaan as nearly all would have already migrated to northwestern Africa, southwest of Phut, who in turn were west of Egypt. Canaan had been steadily swamped with Nephilim as evidenced by the cities of the plain – Sodom and the others – and the Battle of Siddim. Some of Abraham’s other children also moved into the region. We have closed on Abraham’s life in Genesis twenty-five with his sons Isaac and Ishmael, though we are now turning our attention to his subsequent six sons that he sired with his second wife, Keturah.

Genesis 25:1-6

English Standard Version

Abraham took another wife, whose name was Keturah. 2 She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.Jokshan fathered Sheba and Dedan. The sons of Dedan were Asshurim, Letushim, and Leummim. The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah. 5 Abraham gave all he had to Isaac. 6 But to the sons of his concubines [Hagar and Keturah] Abraham gave gifts and while he was still living he sent them away from his son Isaac, eastward to the east country.

We learn a couple of points from this passage. The sons who are mentioned directly or indirectly, more than once in the Bible are italicised. Abraham took Keturah as his wife unlike Hagar – and after Sarah died – though she may have been a concubine prior to this, as she is listed as a concubine in 1 Chronicles 1:32 ESV: “The sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine: she bore… All these were the descendants of Keturah.” 

The other notable matter is the sending away of the six sons of Keturah, though not quite as harshly as the banishment of Ishmael and his mother. Ishmael had been given a separate blessing; different from Isaac as we shall learn. There is no recording of individual blessings in the Bible for Keturah’s sons, though we read that they did not leave without a portion each of Abraham’s wealth. They also, like Ishmael travelled eastward from Isaac. It infers a more easterly locale, or that they had already left. Josephus states: “Accordingly Isaac married Rebekah, the inheritance being now come to him; for the children by Keturah were gone to their own remote habitations.” (Antiquities of the Jews, B00k. I, 16, iii).

Book of Jubilees 20:1-2, 11-13:

1 … Abraham called Ishmael, 2 and his twelve sons, and Isaac and his two sons [Esau & Jacob], and the six sons of Keturah, and their sons. 2 And he commanded them that they should observe the way of Yahweh; that they should work righteousness, and love each his neighbour, and act on this manner amongst all men; that they should each so walk with regard to them as to do just judgment and righteousness on the earth. 11 And he gave to Ishmael and to his sons, and to the sons of Keturah, gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, and he gave everything to Isaac his son.12. And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East facing the desert. 13. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs [Arabians],and Ishmaelites.

As addressed in part already, concerning Mizra and the Arab peoples; the Arabs have taken their name from the Arabian Peninsula. When the sons of Keturah and Ishmael migrated east to the wilderness, the ‘desert’ which is Arabia, they became collectively known as Arabians, but this does not make them modern day Arabs. 

One could say, they were the original Arabs and that the sons of Mizra have appropriated that name. Similar to the sons of Shem and Nephilim being known as Canaanites, when the original sons of Canaan had dwelt in Palestine and their name was appropriated. I trust the constant reader having seen the pattern repeated, does not require elaboration ad infinitum. 

It is not provided when Keturah or her sons were born, thus some conjecture is required. Ishmael was born in 1891 BCE, when Abraham was eighty-six and Ishmael was fourteen when Isaac was born in 1877 BCE. Sarah died in 1840 BCE at the age of 126 years. Isaac married Rebekah in 1839 BCE and with a little time to pass before marrying Keturah would be approximately 1835 BCE. Abraham would have been 142 years old. If the boys were born a couple of years apart and there were six of them, then circa 1833 BCE for the firstborn Zimran, through to 1823 BCE for the sixth and youngest son, Shuah. 

As Abraham had these additional sons late in life, they were born the same generation as and just prior to, Esau and Jacob in 1817 BCE; though they actually were half-brothers to Ishmael and Isaac. Thus, Jokshan’s sons and Midian’s sons, were cousins to Esau and Jacob; as Dedan’s sons were cousins to Esau and Jacob’s children. 

We are not told who Keturah is or where she was from. One source claims she was from Japheth, though this does not fit the paradigm of Abraham’s descendants [refer Chapter II Japheth]. The Book of Jubilees hints that they she may have descended from Abraham’s family from either his brother Nahor or likely Haran; but judging by the close, yet distinct Haplogroups of Keturah’s descendants it would appear that she may have been from another line of Arphaxad [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. 

Book of Jubilees 19:11

And Abraham took to himself a third wife, and her name was Keturah, from among the daughters of his household servants, for Hagar had died before Sarah. And she bare him six sons, Zimram, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah…

We are therefore looking for a cluster of smaller nations that have shared the blessings promised to Abraham and his kindred. We would expect them to be dwelling near or next to Nahor in Italy, Haran in Switzerland, as well as Moab and Ammon in France.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Keturah, meaning: Incense [or perfumed from SHD 6989].

We know surprisingly little about Keturah. We don’t know from what nation she came, who her parents were or whether she outlived Abraham or not. Some Jewish sages have proposed that Keturah and Hagar, the mother of Ishmael, are the same person, but there’s no evidence in the text to support this, and this proposition is ultimately fantastic. 

What we do know is that Keturah became to mother of six Abrahamic sons, one of whom, Midian, became a nation that both rivaled Israel and became one of the most dominant tributaries to its theology and social structure. After all, Moses met YHWH in Midian… and Moses’ priestly father-in-law Jethro [taught] Moses all about the great benefits of delegated governance… It’s rarely noticed that Abraham complained that he was too old to have Isaac (Genesis 17:17), but when Isaac was 36 years old (compare 17:17 to 23:1) Sarah died, and some undisclosed time after, Abraham married Keturah and sired another six sons.

The name Keturah comes from the verb (qatar) meaning to produce pleasant smoke: The verb (qatar) probably originally meant to rise up but came to denote the rising up of sacrificial smoke, which in turn commonly marked celebrations and surplus, and smelled pleasant after roasts or incense. What may not be immediately obvious to the modern reader is that the name Keturah demonstrates a very high level of governance and social sophistication… the government endows all elements with enough safety that none needs to be scared, enough food that none needs to be hungry, and enough wealth that none needs to feel stifled, stunted or duped.’

This is an accurate depiction of the forward thinking, progressive and liberal societies that typify the modern nations of Keturah.

Herman Hoeh – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Abraham had a concubine, Keturah, who was his wife after Sarah died. She bore him a number of children whose wanderings are often lost sight of… Abraham sent them northeast [southeast] toward Mesopotamia [Arabia]. There they formed the powerful Kingdom of Mitanni, named after Midian or Medan. They lived mainly along the Euphrates River. The [Assyrians] destroyed their kingdom, sending some east and others north. In the east, evidence is that they became known as the Persians or Parthians (two names for the same people)and, in India, as the Brahmins – the sons of Abram! In India one branch of Keturah’s children form the highest caste and call themselves Brahmins after their father’s original name, Abram. Among the sons [of] Keturah who later went north were the “Letushim” (Genesis 25:3). And where are the Letushim today? Along the shores of the Baltic Sea in Russia. We call them the “Lettish” people today. Many Letts have fled to this country from Russian oppression. The Letts are closely related to the other peoples living along the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea [from Joktan]… [and] the Asshurim of North Germany…’


Keturah’s children travelled in a south easterly direction into Arabia and we have studied the Mitanni, in Mesopotamia and their descent from Shem’s son Aram, not Abraham [refer Chapter XXIII Aram & Chapter XXV Nahor]. The Parthians we will find are linked to Abraham, but a different line of his family and not from Keturah. We have also studied the connection between Moses and King Solomon with the castes of India and thus any association with Abraham’s name is both possible and plausible [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. 

Rather than along the shores of the Baltic Sea with the children of Joktan, who are also from Arphaxad, the descendants of Keturah are in fact on the other side of the Baltic Sea; along the shores of the North and Norwegian Seas – the Democratic northwestern European nations of Scandinavia and the Benelux. Historically by many within the identity movement, these nations have been taught as being descendants of Jacob and therefore identified as part of the ‘so called’ lost tribes of Israel.

The first born son of Keturah is Zimran. He is not mentioned outside of Genesis and 1 Chronicles. Four out of the six sons may have some interplay regarding their exact identity and a more specific understanding is welcomed with more definitive information. Putting what pieces there are together, Zimran is the nation of Norway. Norway has a population of 5,497,762 people. Abarim Publications defines Zimran as meaning: ‘One Who Makes Music’ [H2175] or ‘One Who Prunes’ based on the the verb zamar, to ‘prune or praise.’ Specifically, to ‘prune trees in an orchard or vineyard’ or ‘to hone a crowd into a choir.’

Norway’s kingdoms were united by Haraldr Harfagri during wars of the 860s and early 870s, though Norway at this time only comprised the southern third of the modern country. From 1450 the kings of Denmark ruled Norway. Norway insisted on an election process to confirm the king, usually after they were proclaimed in Denmark. From 1536, governors were appointed to manage the country’s interests. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden became the senior partner. Norway gained full independence from Sweden on June 7, 1905, when Sweden withdrew from the Union to avert war. The Norwegian government asked Prince Carl of Denmark to become the country’s new king. He arrived during a blizzard on 25 November, with his wife Maud the daughter of King Edward VII of England, and his son Alexander. Carl changed his name to the more agreeable Haakon VII and was welcomed as the first Norwegian king for six hundred years. The royal anthem is sung to the same melody as that of England’s God Save the Queen, which is also Liechtenstein’s anthem, though with different lyrics.  

Norwegian flag and Iceland’s Coat of Arms, with flag

Recall, the Eternal promised Abraham and Sarah, that kings would descend from them. It is therefore interesting to note that barring one son today, all of Abraham’s children with Keturah retain constitutional monarchies. There are only twenty-nine states out of  about two hundred in the world with monarchies. Norway’s monarch is King Harald V, crowned in 1991. He married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968.

The fifth son of Abraham and Keturah is Ishbak. He is not mentioned outside of the genealogical record either, though it appears that Ishbak is the nation of Iceland. Iceland has a population of 345,229 people. Abarim Publications give the following meaning: ‘Leaving, He will forsake’ from the verb shabaq. Also offered are: ‘He will abandon’ or ‘He will set free.’ An additional meaning includes: ‘He releases’ [H3435].

The Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingolfr Arnarson built a homestead in the present day capital Reykjavik, in 874 CE. Other emigrant settlers followed from Scandinavia* – primarily Norwegian seafarers and adventurers – and their Celtic thralls [serfs and slaves] of Irish or Scottish stock. It is recorded that monks – the Papar – lived in Iceland before the Scandinavian settlers arrived, again of a Hiberian-Scottish origin. 

As part of the Kalmar Union, Iceland had been under the control of the Crown of Denmark from 1380, though formally a Norwegian possession – until 1814. In 1874 – a thousand years after the first settlement – Denmark granted Iceland home rule and in 1918, agreed its status as an independent, constitutional and hereditary monarchy, through a Union with Denmark. In 1944, a national referendum led to Iceland leaving the Union and becoming a republic.

The term Nordic refers to Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland principally, though it can also include Scotland, Northern Germany, the Netherlands and with a stretch, Russia. Whereas Scandinavia* – originating from Scania a small region on the peninsula, the southern tip of modern Sweden from which the three peoples sprung – strictly refers to the three kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark as these three are bound intrinsically in their shared ethno-cultural Germanic heritage and related languages. More broadly, it can include Iceland and the Faeroe Islands on related languages and ancestry – as borne out by Haplogroup identity – and Finland on geologic, economic and political grounds. The Finns, unlike Icelanders are descended from Joktan and are separated from Scandinavia as evidenced by their Finno-Ugric language and their proximity to Russia, geographically and historically [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad].

The third born son, also only listed in the Biblical family tree in Genesis chapter twenty-five and in 1 Chronicles One, is Medan, the modern nation of Denmark. The identificationincludes the Faeroe Islands, with 49,202 people and Greenland, with 56,947 people. Denmark has a population comparable with Norway of 5,829,023 people. The meaning of Medan according to Abarim Publications is: ‘Strife’ or ‘Judgment’ from the noun madon, meaning ‘strife’ and from the verb din, ‘to judge or govern.’ It can also mean: ‘contention’ [H4091] or ‘discord’ [H4091]. 

A very important point to comprehend, is that the early Danes who were located in what is now southern Sweden were different people to the Danes of today living in Denmark. Population pressures in the fourth and fifth centuries CE forced them to begin a migration into Denmark, once the Saxon tribes of Angles, Jutes and Frisians departed for Britain en masse. It wasn’t until after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, that Denmark as we know it was free of the original Danes and their migration into Britain as the Danish Vikings. The latter Danes also settled in Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland, which they retained after the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian Union under the terms of the 1814 Treaty of Kiel. 

In 1380 Queen Margaret’s husband, Haakon VI of Norway died. Margaret of Denmark, then ensured that their son Olaf, was proclaimed king there, thus adding Norway to his territories and thereby, creating the Union of Denmark and Norway, with Denmark gaining Greenland and Iceland. Margaret was the de facto ruler while  Olaf was a minor. In 1387, Olaf’s sudden and unexpected death at the age of seventeen, gave Margaret firm control as queen regent of Denmark and Norway; with Norway ruled as an appendage of Denmark. The nobility of Sweden unhappy with their own King Albert, invited Margaret to invade and take the throne. In 1388 she is accepted, at her own insistence, as Sovereign Lady and Ruler of Sweden; forming the Kalmar Union. 

A later monarch, Christian I – 1448 to 1481 CE – had a daughter named Margaret, who married King James III of Scotland. Her dowry included the islands of Orkney and Shetland, which were passed by the Danish crown to Scotland. The Danish monarch is Queen Margrethe II and she was crowned in 1972. Margrethe married Prince Henri de Laborde de Monpezat in 1967, who died in 2018.

The sixth and youngest son of Keturah is Shuah. Shuah is the nation of Sweden. Sweden has a population of 10,099,265 people. Abarim Publications give the meaning of Shuah as: ‘brought low, to sink, be bowed down’ or ‘humbled, prostration; a cry’ and ‘prosperity’ from the verbs shuah, which ‘denotes a motion towards a low position’ and from shawa, ‘to cry out for salvation.’ 

Abarim – emphasis & bold mine:

‘There are four different Hebrew names that transliterated into English form the name Shuah, or variations thereof depending on the translation. The name Shoa (or variations thereof) is spelled the same as one of the Shuahs but pronounced slightly different. The first Shuah (pronounced shuach) is a son of Abraham with Keturah (Genesis 25:2). A feminine variation of this name occurs in 1 Chronicles 4:11 (Shuhah; pronounced shuachah), which is assigned to a (female?) descendant of Judah. A completely different name occurs in Genesis 38:2 and 38:12 (pronounced shua’), where it is the name of the father of a wife of Judah (perhaps also known as Bath-shua – Genesis 38:12). A variant of this name occurs in 1 Chronicles 7:32 (pronounced shua’a), where it is assigned to a daughter of Heber, a granddaughter of Asher, son of Jacob. The name Shoa occurs in Ezekiel 23:23, where it is the name of a Chaldean[?] tribe. 

The name of this son of Abraham and the name of this… female descendant of Judah mean Brought Low or Put In A Pit. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Prostration. BDB Theological Dictionary refers both versions of this form of Shuah to the verb (yasha’), meaning to be saved. The names of the father of Judah’s wife and the Asherite woman may therefore mean Noble… NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Rich for Shoa and Prosperity for all variations of Shuah. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Wealth [H7744] for Shua.’

Shuah is not directly mentioned, though one of his famous descendants is included in the book of Job, as one of his three friends that attends to him while he is undergoing sore trials. Shuah’s descendants may have been known to the Assyrians who referred to a people as the Suhu; though describing their land as being on the right bank of the Euphrates River, south of Carchemish is probably not the same Shuah.

Job 2:11

English Standard Version

11 Now when Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that had come upon him, they came each from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, andZophar the Naamathite. They made an appointment together to come to show him sympathy and comfort him.

Bildad is also mentioned in Job 8:1-22; 18:1-21 & 25:1-6. We will meet Bildad again in a later chapter.

Job 42:7-9

English Standard Version

7 After the Lord had spoken these words to Job, the Lord said to Eliphaz the Temanite: “My anger burns against you and against your two friends, for you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has. 8 Now therefore take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves. And my servant Job shall pray for you, for I will accept his prayer not to deal with you according to your folly. For you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has.” 9 So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went and did what the Lord had told them, and the Lord accepted Job’s prayer.

It was from the eighth century that the Scandinavian Vikings expanded outwards, building an extensive trading network across Europe and beyond. The Norwegians and Danes travelled west, while the Swedes went eastwards. The eastern bound Vikings were different to the western in that they were descendants of Keturah. They penetrated deeply into the vast lands of modern Russia, following the navigable rivers, creating trading connections as far south as the Byzantine empire. By the ninth century they had trading settlements in the eastern Baltic and in the lands of the Rus. The Swedish Vikings founded their own states, where a Viking nobility ruled Slavic populations, such as that of Polotsk. In 970 CE, Eric the Victorious became the first King of Sweden; later in 1249, Finland became part of Sweden after the Second Swedish Crusade led by Birger Jarl. The year 1252 saw the city of Stockholm established and in 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under the rule of Magnus IV. Danish forces invaded Sweden and executed rebellious nobility in the Stockholm Bloodbath of 1520. Three years later, Sweden declared independence from the Kalmar Union when Gustav Vasa was hailed as the new King of Sweden. 

A later monarch, Christian I – 1448 to 1481 CE – had a daughter named Margaret, who married King James III of Scotland. Her dowry included the islands of Orkney and Shetland, which were passed by the Danish crown to Scotland. The Danish monarch is Queen Margrethe II and she was crowned in 1972. Margrethe married Prince Henri de Laborde de Monpezat in 1967, who died in 2018.

The sixth and youngest son of Keturah is Shuah. Shuah is the nation of Sweden. Sweden has a population of 10,099,265 people. Abarim Publications give the meaning of Shuah as: ‘brought low, to sink, be bowed down’ or ‘humbled, prostration; a cry’ and ‘prosperity’ from the verbs shuah, which ‘denotes a motion towards a low position’ and from shawa, ‘to cry out for salvation.’ 

Abarim – emphasis & bold mine:

‘There are four different Hebrew names that transliterated into English form the name Shuah, or variations thereof depending on the translation. The name Shoa (or variations thereof) is spelled the same as one of the Shuahs but pronounced slightly different. The first Shuah (pronounced shuach) is a son of Abraham with Keturah (Genesis 25:2). A feminine variation of this name occurs in 1 Chronicles 4:11 (Shuhah; pronounced shuachah), which is assigned to a (female?) descendant of Judah. A completely different name occurs in Genesis 38:2 and 38:12 (pronounced shua’), where it is the name of the father of a wife of Judah (perhaps also known as Bath-shua – Genesis 38:12). A variant of this name occurs in 1 Chronicles 7:32 (pronounced shua’a), where it is assigned to a daughter of Heber, a granddaughter of Asher, son of Jacob. The name Shoa occurs in Ezekiel 23:23, where it is the name of a Chaldean[?] tribe. 

The name of this son of Abraham and the name of this… female descendant of Judah mean Brought Low or Put In A Pit. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Prostration. BDB Theological Dictionary refers both versions of this form of Shuah to the verb (yasha’), meaning to be saved. The names of the father of Judah’s wife and the Asherite woman may therefore mean Noble… NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Rich for Shoa and Prosperity for all variations of Shuah. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Wealth [H7744] for Shua.’

Shuah is not directly mentioned, though one of his famous descendants is included in the book of Job, as one of his three friends that attends to him while he is undergoing sore trials. Shuah’s descendants may have been known to the Assyrians who referred to a people as the Suhu; though describing their land as being on the right bank of the Euphrates River, south of Carchemish is probably not the same Shuah.

Job 2:11

English Standard Version

11 Now when Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that had come upon him, they came each from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, andZophar the Naamathite. They made an appointment together to come to show him sympathy and comfort him.

Bildad is also mentioned in Job 8:1-22; 18:1-21 & 25:1-6. We will meet Bildad again in a later chapter.

Job 42:7-9

English Standard Version

7 After the Lord had spoken these words to Job, the Lord said to Eliphaz the Temanite: “My anger burns against you and against your two friends, for you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has. 8 Now therefore take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves. And my servant Job shall pray for you, for I will accept his prayer not to deal with you according to your folly. For you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has.” 9 So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went and did what the Lord had told them, and the Lord accepted Job’s prayer.

It was from the eighth century that the Scandinavian Vikings expanded outwards, building an extensive trading network across Europe and beyond. The Norwegians and Danes travelled west, while the Swedes went eastwards. The eastern bound Vikings were different to the western in that they were descendants of Keturah. They penetrated deeply into the vast lands of modern Russia, following the navigable rivers, creating trading connections as far south as the Byzantine empire. By the ninth century they had trading settlements in the eastern Baltic and in the lands of the Rus. The Swedish Vikings founded their own states, where a Viking nobility ruled Slavic populations, such as that of Polotsk. In 970 CE, Eric the Victorious became the first King of Sweden; later in 1249, Finland became part of Sweden after the Second Swedish Crusade led by Birger Jarl. The year 1252 saw the city of Stockholm established and in 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under the rule of Magnus IV. Danish forces invaded Sweden and executed rebellious nobility in the Stockholm Bloodbath of 1520. Three years later, Sweden declared independence from the Kalmar Union when Gustav Vasa was hailed as the new King of Sweden. 

During the 1550s many Finns migrated westwards across Scandinavia to settle. Thousands of farmers made the journey as far as eastern Norway and central Sweden; known as the Forest Finns. They turned forests to farmlands using slash-and-burn agriculture and in return they were given land. In 1563 the Northern Seven Years’ War with Denmark began, ending in 1570 with the Treaty of Stettin and Sweden giving up claims on Norway. Sweden entered the Thirty Years’ War on the side of France and England. In 1648, when it came to an end, Sweden gained territory and thus began the rise of the Swedish Empire. 

By 1700 Sweden had reached the peak of its power – controlling areas of Denmark, Russia, Finland and northern Germany – and the Great Northern War began. It was fought against Russia, led by Tsar Peter the Great, Denmark and Poland. The Swedes defeated the Russians at the Battle of Narva. In 1707, Sweden emboldened, invaded Russia, though bad weather weakened the army as they marched further east and the young Swedish King Karl XII fell in battle. By 1709, the Russians defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Poltava and in 1721, the Great Northern War ended with Sweden’s defeat and its Empire significantly reduced. 

In 1809, Finland was lost to Russia. In 1813, Sweden fought against the French, who were led by Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. From the victory, Sweden gained control of Norway from Denmark. In the late 1800s about one million Swedes immigrated to the United States due to poor economic conditions. In 1867, scientist Alfred Nobel obtained a patent for the explosive invention of dynamite. In 1875, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, ahead of their time, established a single currency called the Kroner. In 1927, the famous car marque Volvo, produced their first vehicle, nicknamed interestingly enough, Jakob. Sweden diplomatically remained neutral in both World Wars. 

It was tragically in 1947 that Prince Gustaf Adolf, heir to the throne, was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January at Kastrup Airport in Copenhagen, Denmark.  He and two companions were returning from a hunting trip and a visit to Princess Juliana of the Netherlands – shortly before she acceded to the Dutch throne. Gustaf’s son, Karl – Charles XVI Gustav – then became heir to the Swedish throne and he was crowned in 1973. He married Silvia Sommerlath in 1976.

Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, but did not join the Monetary Union and therefore, still uses the Swedish Krona as currency rather than the Euro; as does Iceland, Norway and Denmark, whereas Finland adopted the Euro in 2002. Just this fact alone, is interesting in interpreting Scandinavian versus Nordic definitions – or sons of Keturah and Abraham versus those of Arphaxad. 

Sweden punches above its weight with a GDP of $530.88 billion in 2019, making it the 24th largest economy in the world.Sweden has a competitive economy and a high standard of living, with a mix of free-enterprise in tandem with a generous social welfare state. ‘Sweden’s manufacturing economy relies heavily on foreign exports, including machinery, motor vehicles, and telecommunications.

Additionally, the Scandinavian three of Sweden, Denmark and Norway are all constitutional monarchies but Finland has never been a kingdom or had a monarchy. The histories of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland are closely intwined as we have seen and highlight their close family relationship as four of the six bothers. The two remaining brothers, also share a close relationship and are spread across three kingdoms, with five separate territories and four distinct ethnic groups.

The second son of Keturah is Jokshan. Jokshan is the ancestor of the nations of Belgium and Luxembourg. The population of Belgium is 11,681,499 people and Luxembourg is 644,525 people.

The Belgium Flag and Coat of Arms – Unity Makes Strength

Abarim Publications gives the meaning of Jokshan as: ‘one who sets a snare’ or ‘fowler’ from the verb yaqosh or qush, ‘to lay a snare’ and figuratively “snaring” a person using ‘alluring enticements.’ Jokshan is not mentioned outside of the genealogies, though his two sons, Sheba and Dedan are. The reader will recall, we have already met a Sheba and Dedan, the sons of Raamah of India, the son of Cush [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. We have also encountered a Sheba, son of Joktan of Romania [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Genesis Twenty-five provides the added detail of Dedan’s sons. Yet they are not mentioned directly, though Letush* is possibly once, indirectly. 

It would appear to be a clue in identifying Dedan and highlighting a unique relationship, that is only replicated one other time with Haran, Canneh and Eden in Switzerland [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. Though also in part, in one other instance in the Bible and the world today, with England and Scotland.

Isaiah 15:5 

English Standard Version

My heart cries out for Moab; her fugitives flee to Zoar… For at the ascent [H4608 – ma’aleh: incline, elevation, going up (hill)] of Luhith* [H3872 – luwchiyth: tablets, anciently a town of Moab south of the Arnon River (possible link with a grandson of Abraham and Keturah and the Ardennes)] they go up weeping; on the road to Horonaim they raise a cry of destruction… [Jeremiah 48:5]

We have looked at Sheba and Dedan’s names previously, though a brief recap. Sheba can mean, ‘man, drunk, captive, splinter, seven’ and ‘oath.’ Dedan means: ‘leading gently’ or ‘to move slowly.’ Abarim states the ‘NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Low.’ The Benelux nations comprising the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg can also be called the Low countries as they are either close to the sea, or below sea level. Dedan’s three sons names according to Abarim mean the following. 

Asshur-im: ‘happy people, upright people, to be level, straight up’ or ‘just.’ The word can means steps, as in taking steps to go somewhere. Letush-im: ‘metal workers’ from the verb latash, to hammer or sharpen. ‘[The] NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Sharpened. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Artificers, or Hammerers’ [of weaponry].’ Letush can also mean ‘oppressed’ or ‘strong.’ Leumm-im: ‘peoples’ from the noun le’com, nation, people.’ It refers to ‘communities’ from the root word ‘to gather.’

Job 1:15

English Standard Version

… and the Sabeans fell upon them and took them and struck down the servants with the edge of the sword, and I alone have escaped to tell you.”

Job’s children while celebrating and feasting were attacked by Sabeans. It is not clear which Sabeans; though from a geographic view, they are very likely Sheba from Jokshan. It could also be referring to Sheba from Joktan, or more unlikely, Sheba from Cush.

Ezekiel 27:23

English Standard Version

Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad traded with you.

This verse could possibly apply to Sheba of Joktan and be referring to Romania, as they are linked with Asshur and Russia. The first part of the verse mentions Haran, Canneh and Eden of Switzerland and so if this Sheba is meant, it would be Belgium – or more specifically the Flemish people of Flanders in northern Belgium.

Job 6:19

English Standard Version

The caravans of Tema look, the travelers of Sheba hope. 

Isaiah 60:6

English Standard Version

A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian and Ephah; all those from Sheba shall come. They shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall bring good news, the praises of the Lord.

Tema is a son of Ishmael and Midian a son of Keturah; as both of these peoples are stated with Sheba, this is speaking of Sheba, descended from Abraham and Keturah. These verses show the economic prosperity of Sheba.

Isaiah 21:13

English Standard Version

The oracle concerning Arabia. In the thickets in Arabia you will lodge, O caravans of Dedanites.

Jeremiah 25:23-24

Young’s Literal Translation

23 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, [all that are (in the) utmost] And all cutting the corners (of the beard), 24 And all the kings of Arabia [north western Europe], And all the kings of the mixed [mingled] people, Who are dwelling in the wilderness…[the Italian peninsula]

Arabia was the eastern region where Ishmael and the six sons of Keturah migrated to be apart from Isaac’s descendants. Arabia today, equates with northern and western Europe, where the peoples descended from Keturah and Ishmael live. Dedan – southern Belgium – is associated with Tema, a leading clan of Ishmael and Buz, a leading family of Nahor in northern Italy.

Jeremiah 49:8

Complete Jewish Bible

Flee! Turn back! Hide yourselves well, you who live in D’dan [Dedan]; for I am bringing calamity on ‘Esav [Esau], when the time for me to punish him comes.

Ezekiel 25:13

Amplified Bible

… therefore thus says the Lord God, “I will also stretch out My hand against Edom and I will cut off and destroy man and beast. I will make it desolate; from Teman [leading tribe of Edom]even to Dedan they will fall by the sword.

The calamity of Esau will be so severe, that they will flee even as far as Dedan to try and escape. Dedan or southern Belgium, is warned to either hide or head in the opposite direction themselves. Definitely not to travel towards Edom.

Ezekiel 27:19-21

Common English Bible

19 Vedan [Dan] and Javan [Archipelago SE Asia] from the region of Uzal [Greece] traded with you. They exchanged wrought iron, cinnamon, and spices for your wares. 20 Dedan was your agent for saddle blankets [military products]. 21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar [leading tribe of Ishmael] traded for you. They procured lambs, rams, and goats for you.

Dedan is associated with a leading son or clan of Ishmael, Kedar and both are spoken of as trading with the mighty Tyre, that is, a Brazil led South America. Dedan’s three sons reveal three components in southern Belgium’s composition. Dedan’s sons include the Walloons of Wallonia, the separate Brussels-Capital region and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Leumm represents the people of Brussels, Letush is Wallonia and the Asshurim Luxembourg and possibly incorporating the Province of Luxembourg in southeast Wallonia. Their names are remarkably clear clues, as Leumm signifies the unique gathering of people in Brussels, Letush the artificer of weapons and Luxembourg is one of the happiest countries in the world, being the second wealthiest country in the world after Qatar, with regard to individual prosperity per person.

Wallonia produce a number of weapons in quantity, including the M4 assault rifle made by FN Herstal and owned by the Wallonia government. Wallonia is also home to  the pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline. A 2021 survey listed the top Ten Happiest countries to live in and Luxembourg was placed at number ten. It is interesting to note, that apart from Belgium, all the sons of Keturah make the top ten. Number 9 is Austria, 8 New Zealand, 7 Sweden, 6 Netherlands, 5 Norway, 4 Iceland, 3 Switzerland, 2 Denmark and number 1 is Finland. Maybe they have a case to be included as Scandinavian after all.

The Lion state symbol of Flanders – indicating its Dutch heritage, language and cultural ties – and the Cockerel or Rooster state symbol of Wallonia – reflecting its French heritage, language and cultural ties.

Over two thousand years ago, the Celtic tribe of the Belgae occupied the region – before they migrated to Britain, leaving their name. In time, the area was ruled by the Romans, then the Merovingian Franks and incorporated into West Francia, remaining under French influence until the Belgian lands were first dominated by the Spanish Hapsburgs from 1555 – who split the Netherland region in two – known as the Spanish Netherlands and then by the Austrian Hapsburgs from 1713. From 1815 to 1830, it was again the southern part of the newly formed United Kingdom of the Netherlands, created as a buffer state against France. Though being predominantly French speaking, Catholic and industrialised, meant a rift ensued with the Dutch speaking, Protestant and commercialised north – present day Netherlands. Wallonia pressed for independence with a reluctant Flanders following suit due to military pressure.

The fact that the Bible makes a distinction between Sheba and Dedan and speaks of them separately would indicate that the union of Flanders and Wallonia into one Kingdom in 1830 will ultimately dissolve. An historian of the Belgian revolution said that: “In Belgium, there are parties and provinces, but no nation.” Of the eleven and a half million people, 58% live in Flanders, 32% in Wallonia – though Wallonia accounts for 55% of Belgium’s territory – and 10% in Brussels.

Unlike the Flemish – who are economically more prosperous – the Walloons do not consider themselves a nation or necessarily desire an independent state. Polls find that only a minority of Walloons want Belgium to break up and if secession was forced on them by Flanders, about half would want to be attached to France. A 2020 poll found that 28% of the Flemish were in favour of a partition, compared to 18% of Walloons and 17% of Brussels residents. With that said, 56% of the same respondents ‘said it would be impossible to keep the country together in [the] future [58% in Wallonia, 46% in Flanders and 47% in Brussels].’ 

A Liege resident foresees a split, saying: “In Flanders they live differently, see things differently and envisage the future differently.” Remembering that the Flemish are Sheba and the Walloons coupled with the predominately French speaking Brussels are Dedan, makes the differences understandable and an eventual split likely. 

‘The Brussels-Capital Region has the same status as Flanders and Wallonia within the federal structure… though it measures only 161 [square km] (barely 0.5% of the national territory) its population of one million [plus] represents 10% of the national total. An enclave within Flanders, it is primarily French-speaking – around 85% of inhabitants speak French… [though] officially the region is bilingual… Brussels is not only the capital of Belgium and the European Union but also of the “French” [speaking communities]… of [both] Brussels and Wallonia, [as well as] the Flemish community and region.’ Many people incorrectly assume that the term Walloons applies to all Belgian French speakers; including those born and living in the Brussels-Capital Region. The mixing of the population over preceding centuries means that most families can trace their ancestors from ‘both sides of the linguistic divide’ in Brussels. 

The local dialect – Brussels Vloms – is a Brabantic dialect that reflects ‘the Dutch heritage of the city.’ The status of Brussels in a partitioned Belgium is uncertain and a source of considerable debate, with a variety of options that are all complex. Forming a city-state – European capital district – similar to Washington DC or the Australian Capital Territory are offered as is an extended Brussels region, so that its borders reach Wallonia. 

Belgium’s 2019 GDP was $533.10 billion making it the 23rd largest world economy, one ahed of Sweden. Belgium, a trade and transport hub, has a diversified economy with a mix of services, manufacturing and high tech industry. Its heavy integration with the rest of the European economy, means Belgium is highly sensitive to swings in the overall economic performance of its neighbours.

The Belgium monarch is King Philippe Leopold Louis Marie, who was crowned in 2013. He married Queen Matilda, born Jonkvrouw Mathilde d’Udekem c’Acoz. The monarch of Luxembourg is Henri Albert Gabriel Felix Marie Guillaume, who was crowned in 2000. He married Maria Teresa Mestre y Batista in 1981. Finally, the monarch of the Netherlands is King Willem Alexander, crowned in 2013. He married Princess Maxima in 2002.

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg began as a stronghold known as Lucilinburhuc, after the break-up of the Frankish empire. A town grew up around the stronghold, which today is Luxembourg Castle. The territory quickly grew in stature becoming a full county in the eleventh century and a duchy in the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth century it was acquired by the Duchy of Burgundy and then by the Austrian Hapsburgs in 1482. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1815, it was passed to the new king of the Netherlands, William I, but in 1890 it gained full independence.

The fourth son of Keturah is Midian. Midian is the Dutch people of the Netherlands. The country has a population of 17,203,340 people – the 10th highest in Europe. Abarim give the meaning of Midian, similar to Medan as: ‘strife’ and ‘place Of Judgment’ from the noun madon, strife, which derives from the verb din, ‘to judge’ or ‘govern.’ Midian is mentioned in the Bible numerous times and also had five sons, though only one is once mentioned in scripture. The Midianites are the dominant and most prominent of the descendants of Keturah. They have had a close association with Ishmael, with the name ‘Midianite’ being interchangeable and they have also had a close link with Moab and Ammon when seeking to fight their adversaries, the sons of Jacob. The Midianites were a successful trading people, building economic wealth like their cousins Sheba and Dedan.

Midian’s eldest son is Ephah and his name means: ‘Gloom[y], Covering’ from the noun ‘epa, gloom, from the verb ‘up, to use wings or cover. It can also mean ‘volant’ [moving lightly, nimble] and ‘darkling.’ The ‘NOBSE Study Bible Name List translates this name with Dark One; Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Darkness.’ Ephah is also a word used for a dry measurement of grain and is approximately twenty litres. Another Ephah is mentioned as a second wife of Caleb and also as part of Jahdai’s family in Judah [1 Chronicles 2:46-47]. 

The second son of Midian is Epher: meaning, ’Dust, Ore, Malleable, Young [Deer or Hart].’ It can also mean ‘a calf’ [H6081]. There is an Epher, the son of Ezra in the genealogies of Judah and also the half-tribe of East Manasseh – eldest son of Joseph [1 Chronicles 4:17; 5:24]. 

Hanoch or ‘Enoch’ is the third son of Midian. His name means: ‘inaugurated, trained.’ ‘Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names… proposes initiated… NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads dedicated [or (God’s) follower H2585] for…’ The name Hanoch is also a name of one of Reuben’s sons [Reuben, the eldest son of Jacob]. Midian’s fourth son is Abida[h]: ‘father of knowledge, the [or my] father knows [H28], my father took knowledge’ from the noun ‘ab, father, and the verb yada’, to know. Midian’s fifth and youngest son is Eldaah: ‘God has called, knowledge of God’ or ‘God is knowledge.’ The name can also mean: ‘God has known’ [H420] or ‘called of God.’

Genesis 37:25-28, 36

English Standard Version

25 Then they sat down to eat. And looking up they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites [H3459 – Yishma’e’liy: God will hear] coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing gum, balm, and myrrh, on their way to carry it down to Egypt. 26 Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it if we kill our brother [Joseph] and conceal his blood? 27 Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites [H3459], and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.” And his brothers listened to him. 

28 Then Midianite [H4084 – Midyaniy: strife (Midian)] traders passed by. And they drew Joseph up and lifted him out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites [H3459] for twenty shekels of silver. They took Joseph to Egypt. 36 Meanwhile the Midianites [H4092 Mdaniy: (Midianite) a variation of H4084] had sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard.

Some claim that there is a contradiction in this passage or alternatively, that the Ishmaelites and Midianites are one and the same, as some researchers incorrectly try to make their mothers, Hagar and Keturah the same person. There are two different Hebrew words used for Midianite in the text. The first term used for these merchants is Midyaniy, an adjective signifying a member of the tribe of Midian or an inhabitant of Midian. This word H4084, is used for the Midianites throughout the Bible, for instance when describing Moses’s father-in-law Jethro in Numbers 10:29. For Midian himself, Strongs H4080 Midyan, is used. The second term Mdaniy is a variation of 4084 and has the exact same meaning. What is interesting, is that it is only used once, in this account of Joseph. 

This is clue number one, that we are not dealing with literal Midianites, but ‘Midianites’ from the the region of Midian. Clue two, is the fact that Ishmaelites are mentioned three times to the two for Midian and clue three is in Genesis 39:1 ESV: “Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there.” It was Ishmaelites from Midian that purchased Joesph and then sold him. Once we uncover the identities of Ishmael and Joseph, there is huge symbolic significance in this act by Ishmael; as there is also with the true identity of Judah, in the monumental ramifications of selling Joseph in the first place. 

Anciently and again in modern times, Ishmael and Midian have been very close neighbours. The use of the term Midianite for Ishmael will become readily apparent when we study Ishmael in the next chapter.

Exodus 2:11-25

English Standard Version

11 One day, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his people and looked on their burdens, and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his people. 12 He looked this way and that, and seeing no one, he struck down the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 13 When he went out the next day, behold, two Hebrews were struggling together. And he said to the man in the wrong, “Why do you strike your companion?” 14 He answered, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought, “Surely the thing is known.” 15 When Pharaoh heard of it, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from Pharaoh and stayed in the land of Midian. 

Moses fled Egypt in 1486 BCE at the age of forty. The Pharaoh in question and the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus forty years later, has seen an enormous amount of scholarly debate. We will study the chronology of the Exodus and respective identities of Moses’s adoptive Egyptian mother and father in depth when we study the tribe of Levi and Moses’s life [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. For now, the Pharaoh at the time of Moses’s personal exodus from Egypt was the sixth king of the Twelfth Dynasty, Amenemhet III.

And he sat down by a well. 16 Now the priest of Midian [H4080 – Midyan] had seven [H7651 from H7650 – Sheba] daughters, and they came and drew water and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock. 17 The shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and saved them, and watered their flock. 18 When they came home to their father Reuel*1, he said, “How is it that you have come home so soon today?” 19 They said, “An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds and even drew water for us and watered the flock.” 20 He said to his daughters, “Then where is he? Why have you left the man? Call him, that he may eat bread.” 21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man, and he gave Moses his daughter Zipporah [H6855 – Tsipporah: bird Acts 7:29]. 22 She gave birth to a son, and he called his name Gershom [H1647 ‘foreigner’], for he said, “I have been a sojourner in a foreign land.” 23 During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God. 24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 God saw the people of Israel – and God knew.

Exodus 3:1

English Standard Version

Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro*2, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. [Exodus 4.18-19; 18.1]

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, Pages 196, 198 – emphasis & bold mine:

Jewish legends suggest Jethro had seven names, all conveying his transformation from an idolatrous priest to a priest of God… along with, Heber*3, Putiel*4, and Keni*5 [Kenite?]… legends recorded that a Pharaoh immediately before the Exodus maintained three famous high Priests during the latter part of the Israelite enslavement in Egypt: Job, Balaam, and Jethro. Jethro was regarded as the High Priest of a Library of Stone Tablets [Ten Commandments, Exodus 32:15-16] in some versions. Pharaoh did not welcome the pre-Exodus advice provided by Jethro about the growing Israelite problem, banning the priest Jethro-Reuel in disgrace… which was ample motive for Jethro to have helped Moses prepare for his return to Egypt.’

Moses’ father-in-law was also called Hobab*6, who was the son of Reuel or Raguel*7 [LXX Septuagint, Numbers 10:29]. There is much confusion caused by all these names,   especially as Reuel was also known as Jethro, meaning ‘his excellence’ from H3502 Yithrah. The name Hobab [H2246] means ‘cherished’or ‘loved fervently.’ According to Josephus, Hobab had ‘Iothor [or Jethro] for a surname.’ Jethro’s descent is given as: son of Nawil, son of Rawail, son of Mour, son of Anka, son of Midian, son of Abraham. Josephus claims that Raguel or Reuel, was Moses’ father-in-law and Judges 4:11 clearly states that he was known as Hobab. ESV: ‘Now Heber the Kenite had separated from the Kenites, the descendants of Hobab the father-in-law of Moses, and had pitched his tent as far away as the oak in Zaanannim, which is near Kedesh.’ Some commentators claim that Jethro was an honorary title, while Reuel was his personal name. Reuel [H7467, Re’uw’el] means, ‘one who is intimate with God’ or Friend of God – thetitle given to Abraham. Raguel is another version of this name [refer Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary]. 

Putting it all together, it seems to this writer that Hobab was his personal or first name. As Hobab was the son of Reuel, he is also known by his father’s or family name and so Reuel fits as his last name or surname. Jethro then, does appear to be a title, linked to his official position as a Priest of Midian. Therefore, all three names would be correct and thus all are used to identify the same man. There is also a Reuel mentioned in the Bible who is a son of Esau by his wife Basemath, a daughter of Ishmael [Genesis 36:4, 13, 17]. 

The Gold-Mines of Midian, Richard Burton, 1878 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Jethro’s Moslem title is “Khatib el-Anbiya,” or Preacher to the Prophets, on account of the words of wisdom which he bestowed upon his son-in-law [Moses]… El-Kesai states that his original name was Boyun; that he was comely of person, but spare and lean; very thoughtful, and of few words… Other commentators add that he was old and blind… [Jethro] and Rahab are Gentiles, or strangers, affiliated to Israel [Ephesians 2:12-13; Romans 11:13, 17, 22] on account of their good deeds.’ 

The Desert of the Exodus, E H Palmer, 1871 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Sho‘eib, as the Arabs call Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, is said to have been blind, notwithstanding which infirmity he was divinely commissioned to preach the true religion lately revealed unto Abraham,and to convert the people of his native city Midian. They rejected his doctrine and mocked the blind prophet, for which sin they were destroyed by fire from heaven, while Midian was laid waste by an earthquake, Jethro alone escaping alive. He fled to Palestine, and is said to be buried near Safed.’

The Quran says: The chiefs of his people, who were elated with pride, answered, We will surely cast thee, O Shuaib, and those who believe with thee, out of our city: or else thou shalt certainly return unto our religion. He said, What! though we be averse thereto?” Jewish tradition states similarly: “We will surely cast thee . . out of our city.” Shuaib was a true believer and a priest of the Most High. Shuaib responds: “My support is from God alone: on him do I trust… O my people, let not your opposing of me draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the people of Noah… neither was the people of Lot far distant from you. Ask pardon, therefore, of your Lord; and be turned unto him: for my Lord is merciful and loving.” 

“They answered, O Shuaib, we understand not much of what thou sayest, and we see thee to be a man of no power among us: if it had not been for the sake of thy family, we had surely stoned thee, neither couldst thou have prevailed against us. Shuaib said, O my people, is my family more worthy in your opinion than God? and do ye cast him behind you with neglect?” Regarding a man of no power, one commentator quotes: “The Arabic word dhaif, weak, signifying also, in the Himyaritic dialect, blind, some suppose that Shuaib was so, and that the Midianites objected that to him, as a defect which disqualified him for the prophetic office.”

Muslim writers identify Shuaib with Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses. Baidhawi states  Shuaib was the son of Mikail, the son of Yashjar, the son of Midian; whereas, the Tafsir-i-Raufi addsthat Jethro was descended from Lot through Midian having married a daughter of Lot. Shuaib is not recorded as performing any miracles in the Quran or Islamic traditions, though they do repeat as the Jews do, that Jethro gave his son-in-law the ‘wonder-working rod’ with which he performed – with Aaron – all his mighty miracles in Egypt and the wilderness.

Exodus 18:1-27

English Standard Version

Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for Israel his people, how the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt. 2 Now Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, had taken Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her home, 3 along with her two sons. The name of the one was Gershom (for he said, “I have been a sojourner in a foreign land”),and the name of the other, Eliezer [H461 ‘God is help’](for he said, “The God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh”).5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to Moses in the wilderness where he was encamped at the mountain of God. 

6 And when he sent word to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons with her,” 7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him. And they asked each other of their welfare and went into the tent. 8 Then Moses told his father-in-law all that the Lord had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardship that had come upon them in the way, and how the Lord had delivered them. 9 And Jethro rejoiced for all the good that the Lord had done to Israel, in that he had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians.

10 Jethro said, “Blessed be the Lord, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians and out of the hand of Pharaoh and has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the Lord is greater than all gods, because in this affair they dealt arrogantly with the people.” 12 And Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, brought a burnt offering and sacrifices to God; and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.

13 The next day Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from morning till evening. 14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he was doing for the people, he said, “What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone, and all the people stand around you from morning till evening?” 15 And Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire of God; 16 when they have a dispute, they come to me and I decide between one person and another, and I make them know the statutes of God and his laws.” 17 Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “What you are doing is not good. 18 You and the people with you will certainly wear yourselves out, for the thing is too heavy for you. You are not able to do it alone. 19 Now obey my voice; I will give you advice, and God be with you! You shall represent the people before God and bring their cases to God, 20 and you shall warn them about the statutes and the laws, and make them know the way in which they must walk and what they must do. 

21 Moreover, look for able men from all the people, men who fear God, who are trustworthy and hate a bribe, and place such men over the people as chiefs of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens. 22And let them judge the people at all times. Every great matter they shall bring to you, but any small matter they shall decide themselves. So it will be easier for you, and they will bear the burden with you. 

23 If you do this, God will direct you, you will be able to endure, and all this people also will go to their place in peace.” 24 So Moses listened to the voice of his father-in-law and did all that he had said. 25 Moses chose able men out of all Israel and made them heads over the people, chiefs of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens. 26 And they judged the people at all times. Any hard case they brought to Moses, but any small matter they decided themselves. 27 Then Moses let his father-in-law depart, and he went away to his own country [Midian?].

In Exodus chapter Eighteen there are some interesting similarities in the meeting between Moses and Jethro and the one between Abraham and Melchisedek. Abraham had recently rescued Lot, defeating Chedorlaomer, King of Elam in the process. Moses had witnessed the defeat of Pharaoh king of Egypt, while delivering the sons of Jacob. Both events had a miraculous outcome given by the Creator. 

Melchizedek was the priest of the Most High God and Jethro was the Priest of Midian. Melchizedek and Jethro blessed and praised the Creator for their deliverance using very similar language. Melchizedek brought out ceremonial bread and wine with Abraham. Jethro also prepared bread with a sacrificial meal to be eaten with Moses, Aaron and all the elders of Israel. There is a theme of peace and friendship in the two respective encounters. The king of Salem [Peace H8004, H7999] blessed Abraham, and Jethro and Moses would have exchanged Shaloms[H7965, H7999] as evidenced in Exodus 18:7 and Exodus 4:18.

Numbers 10:1-2, 29

English Standard Version

The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Make two silver trumpets. Of hammered work you shall make them, and you shall use them for summoning the congregation and for breaking camp. 29 And Moses said to Hobab the son of Reuel the Midianite [H4084], Moses’ father-in-law, “We are setting out for the place of which the Lord said, ‘I will give it to you.’ Come with us, and we will do good to you, for the Lord has promised good to Israel.” 30 But he said to him, “I will not go. I will depart to my own land and to my kindred.” 31 And he said, “Please do not leave us, for you know where we should camp in the wilderness, and you will serve as eyes for us. 32 And if you do go with us, whatever good the Lord will do to us, the same will we do to you.”

It is through Jethro that we are introduced to the mysterious Kenites [H7017 – Qeyniy: ‘smiths’]. Some commentators link the Kenites with the contrived word Kainite from the name of Cain, as the Hebrew word Qeyniy derives from H7014 – Qayin [Qain or Kain], meaning, ’possession’ or ‘purchase’. Though linked etymologically, it is ideologically a stretch to arrive at this conclusion and would mean if true, that a. the line of Cain survived the Flood and b. that Jethro was descended in part from a corrupted line. One that would be hard to imagine was his real ancestry and or acceptable to the Eternal, in his being a priest and true believer.

Judges 1:16

Common English Bible

The descendants of Moses’ father-in-law the Kenite [H7017] went up with the people of Judah from Palm City into the Judean desert, which was in the southern plain near Arad. They went and lived with the Amalekites.

We have learned that Jethro may have been descended from Lot in part, that he was a priest of ‘Midian’ and that his father Reuel was a ‘Midianite’ though the Hebrew word used is not the one used for the name of the original Midian. Does this mean he was a Midianite as in ethnology or just in a geographic context. Similarly, if Jethro is a Kenite, are they separate from Midian – living with them – or a distinct tribe originating from Midian? Plus, a branch of the Kenites – those descended from Jethro – may have attached themselves to the tribe of Judah and or then, the Amalekites who are affiliated with Edom [refer Chapter XXIX Esau].

Judges 4:11

Common English Bible

Now Heber the Kenite [H7017] had moved away from the other Kenites [H7017], the descendants of Hobab, Moses’ father-in-law, and had settled as far away [far removed] as Elon-bezaanannim [‘removing, wandering’], which is near Kedesh [northern part of the Tribes land in Israel equating to those of Zebulun and Naphtali].

Remember the association with Zebulun. It appears that part of the Kenite people were, either associated with the Tribe of Judah or actually were from the tribe of Judah. The most plausible answer is that they had intermarried. The Rechabites were a clan of the Kenites and their progenitor was Hammath. The following verse is from the end of one genealogical record of the House of Judah. 1 Chronicles 2:55, RSV: “The families also of the scribes [H5608 – caphar: learned men] that dwelt at Jabez: the Ti’rathites, the Shim’e-athites, and the Su’cathites. These are the Ken’ites [H7017] who came from Hammath, the father of the house of Rechab.” The Rechabites being scribes would have been given respect for their standing, as we read in in 2 Kings chapter Ten, when Jehu – an adversary to wicked King Ahab of Israel, who ruled from 874  to 853 BCE – invites Jehonadab the son of Rechab to assist in slaughtering every last sole in a Temple of Baal worshippers. 

Jael was the wife of Heber the Kenite [Judges 4:17 – H7017]. Deborah the prophetess and a Judge of Israel blessed Jael in her victory song because of her resolute courage in killing Sisera, the enemy of Israel beginning a period of forty years of peace from 1192 to 1152 BCE. When King Saul was commanded to destroy the Amalekites, he honourably advised the Kenites to move away from their neighbours and allies, the Amalekites in order not to be slaughtered along with them.

1 Samuel 15:6

English Standard Version

Then Saul said to the Kenites [H7017], “Go, depart; go down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them. For you showed kindness to all the people of Israel when they came up out of Egypt.So the Kenites [H7017] departed from among the Amalekites.

The Kenites acted as guides in the wilderness; even so, the prophesied fate of the Amalekites and the Kenites was apparently tied together. We will study Amalek separately in a later chapter. 

Numbers 24:21-22

Common English Bible

21 He looked at the Kenites [H7017] and raised his voice and gave his address: “Your dwelling is secure [H386 – ‘ethan: strong, hard, rough, permanent]; your nest [H7064 – qen: ‘nest of a bird’ high] is set in the rock [H5553 – bassela: ‘crag, cliff, stronghold’ protected]. 22 Yet Kain [H7014 Kenite] will burn when Asshur [Assyria] takes you away captive.

The Kenites were to be taken captive by the Assyrians, at the same time that the Kingdom of Israel was conquered, that is, between 721 and 718 BCE. Though there may be a future application of Balam’s prophesy as there is in verses twenty-three and twenty-four. The mention of nest in the rockis a play on the wordfor nest: Qen or ken, which is pronounced “kane” and thus the tribal name Ken-ite. The use of the Hebrew word Qayin in verse twenty-two does on the surface, appear to support a lineage from Cain, but in the context of the preceding verse where the Kenites dwell securely and on elevated ground, the use of this word meaning ‘possession’ is more applicable than Qeyniy, meaning ‘smiths’. Remember the dwelling on elevated ground as we will discover the specific significance of this description.

Jeremiah 35:2, 6-10, 16-18

English Standard Version

“Go to the house of the Rechabites and speak with them and bring them to the house of the Lord, into one of the chambers; then offer them wine to drink.” 6… “We will drink no wine, for Jonadab the son of Rechab, our father, commanded us, ‘You shall not drink wine, neither you nor your sons forever. 7You shall not build a house; you shall not sow seed; you shall not plant or have a vineyard; but you shall live in tents all your days, that you may live many days in the land where you sojourn.’ 8 We have obeyed the voice of Jonadab the son of Rechab, our father, in all that he commanded us, to drink no wine all our days, ourselves, our wives, our sons, or our daughters, 9 and not to build houses to dwell in. We have no vineyard or field or seed, 10 but we have lived in tents and have obeyed and done all that Jonadab our father commanded us. 16 The sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab have kept the command that their father gave them, but this people [Judah] has not obeyed me. 

17 Therefore, thus says the Lord, the God of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I am bringing upon Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all the disaster that I have pronounced against them, because I have spoken to them and they have not listened, I have called to them and they have not answered.” 18 But to the house of the Rechabites Jeremiah said, “Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Because you have obeyed the command of Jonadab your father and kept all his precepts and done all that he commanded you, 19 therefore thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Jonadab the son of Rechab shall never lack a man to stand before me.”

The Rechabites had fled to Jerusalem when Nebuchadnezzar of Chaldea began subjugating the Kingdom of Judah. The Rechabites were spared because of their faithful adherence to the commands of their forefather Jonadab. Whereas Judah who had not heeded the Creator’s warnings suffered punishment at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar II. In verse two, the Lord calls for the Rechabites to be brought into His House, where there are many chambers or rooms. John 14:2, ESV: “In my Father’s house are many rooms…” The obedience of the Rechabites was in contrast to the disobedience of the Kingdom of Judah – comprising the tribes of Judah and Benjamin – who, for all their outward piety and devotion in performing the required animal sacrifices, were not wholly obedient to the Creator in their worship. Rather than the Rechabite Kenites being a line of Cain, they are in fact the exact opposite and were an extraordinarily obedient peoples, who did not own property or farm land. A line of Cain, would not be summoned by the Eternal to His temple.

Isaiah 1:13-14, ESV: “Bring no more vain offerings; incense is an abomination to me. New moon and Sabbath and the calling of convocations – I cannot endure iniquity and solemn assembly. Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hates; they have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them.” The Creator prefers obedience rather than sacrifice. 1 Samuel 15:22, ESV: And Samuel said, “Has the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to listen than the fat of rams.” 

It was an honour for Jonadab and his descendants to stand before the Lord. The Tribe of Levi were selected to stand before the Lord in Deuteronomy 10:8, in special service. Moses and Samuel in Jeremiah 15:1 and Elijah stood before the Lord in 1 Kings 18:15. As did King David who even danced before the lord, in  2 Samuel 6.14.

We have spent time on Jethro’s Kenite lineage and the offshoot branch of Rechabites as will now discover another famous, yet also righteous person with a similar yet apparently distinct descent. Though the question remains: are the Kenites descended from Midian, Judah, someone else entirely or a mixture?

Joshua 14:6-14

Common English Bible

6 In Gilgal, the people of Judah approached Joshua. Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite  [H7074 – Qnizziy: descendant of Kenaz] said to him, “You know what the Lord said to Moses, man of God, about you and me when we were in Kadesh-barnea. 7 I was 40 years old when Moses the Lord’s servant sent me from Kadesh-barnea to scout out the land [1438 BCE]. I brought back a report to him of what I really thought. 8 My companions who had gone up with me made the people’s heart melt. ButI remained loyal to the Lord my God.So Moses pledged on that day, ‘The land on which you have walked will forever be a legacy for you and your children. This is because you remained loyal to the Lord my God.’ 

10 Now look. The Lord has kept me alive, exactly as he promised. It is forty-five years since the Lord spoke about this to Moses. It was while Israel was journeying in the desert. Now look. Today I’m 85 years old [1393 BCE]. 11 I’m just as strong today as I was the day Moses sent me out. My strength then was as my strength is now, whether for war or for everyday activities. 12 So now, give me this highland that the Lord promised me that day. True, the Anakim [Elioud giants] are there with large fortified cities, as you yourself heard that day. But if the Lord is with me, I should be able to remove them, exactly as the Lord promised.” 13 So Joshua blessed him. He gave Hebron to Caleb, Jephunneh’s son, as a legacy. 14 So Hebron still belongs to Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite as a legacy today. This was because he remained loyal to the Lord God of Israel.

The passage says the people of Judah approached Joshua. This does not prove that the Kenizzites or Kenezites are from Judah, as the Kenites from Jethro travelled with Judah on one hand, yet confusingly appear to be listed in a genealogy of Judah. Similarly, Caleb the Kenizzite was given the city of Hebron that was within Judah’s territory. If the Kenizzites are descendants of Kenaz, then which Kenaz are they descended from? Kenaz  derives from the verb qanaz, ‘to hunt or snare’ and thus means ‘hunter’ or ‘hunting.’

In Genesis chapter thirty-six we read of the sons of Esau. Esau had five sons with ostensibly, three women [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. One son as already mentioned was Reuel – the family name of Jethro. Another son was Eliphaz and Esau had a grandson from Eliphaz called, Kenaz; who was also a chief of Edom [Genesis 36: 11, 15, 42]. It is interesting to note that Caleb had a grandson called Kenaz [1 Chronicles 4:15]. And to underscore the family name further, Caleb also had a younger brother called Kenaz [Joshua 15:17, Judges 1:13; 3:9-11] and it was his son Othniel who was the first Judge of Israel from 1350 to 1310 BCE and had ‘the Spirit of the Lord… upon him…’ As with the Kenites, it is difficult to equate the Kenizzites with an evil pedigree, when all the examples are of exemplary men of obedience and righteousness.

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 198-199 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Kenizzites were skilled in the arts of metal-working, like Cain and Tubal-Cain, and were related somehow to Kenites [also skilled in metallurgy]. Caleb, then though eighty-five years old, fought like he was forty-five, driving the Anakim [giants] from Hebron, and was thus rewarded as the head of the tribe of Judah, receiving the land of Kiriath Arba, Hebron, the homeland of the Anakim. It is astounding to me that a Kenizzite, a person from a tribe with no genealogy linking back to Noah, and a tribe that mysteriously descended back to Cain and Nephilim, inherited Hebron, the home and capital city of the Anak! Both the Kenizzite and Kenite tribes are generally believed descended from Kenaz the descendant of Esau, but this cannot be. They like the Amalekites, existed before the birth of Esau and before the time of Abraham.’

Genesis 15:18-21

English Standard Version

18 On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim [Nephilim], 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.”

Gary Wayne raises a number of points. First, he makes the assumption that a similar skill in metallurgy links Tubal-Cain and the Kenizzites biologically? Second that the Kenizzites descend from Cain and Nephilim without argument? Third, his only valid point, which Genesis chapter fifteen corroborates is that the Kenizzites and Kenites, like the Amalekites, existed before Esau and even prior to Abraham. I would agree that Kenaz, the son of Eliphaz, Esau’s son inherited his name from the Kenizzites, as did Eliphaz’s other son Amalek, from the Amalekites. This anomaly is discussed in depth in Chapter XXIX Esau. Though whereas the Amalekites are linked to the Nephilim, the same evidence is lacking for the Kenites and Kenizzites. 

Putting the pieces together, the Kenites and Kenizzites appear to have an ancient origin that prefigures Abraham and his family. The link between Jethro being a Kenite and living in Midian favours the Kenite people having become associated with the Midianites. We will explore this further in this chapter. The Kenizzites are different in that they do not have the Midianite association though like the Kenites, they do have a relationship with the tribe of Judah. Just to make it interesting there is the overall connection that the Kenites and Kenizzites share and that is with the Amalekites, who themselves include a peoples prior [Genesis 14:7] to Esau’s grandson Amalek and then later include an amalgamation with the peoples descended from Esau’s grandson Amalek [Genesis 36:12] – refer Chapter XXIX Esau.

This does raise the important question, regarding whether anyone apart from Noah and his seven other family members survived the flood [2 Peter 2:5]. A careful reading of Genesis 7;21-23 reveals that all physical birdlife, animal life on the land – not the sea – and humankind, that is, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens which were composed of flesh and breathed, died. It does not state or include hybrid creatures such as Nephilim and Elioud giants.

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 200-201:

‘Even Gnostic gospels record Noah denying that he or his kin created the postdiluvian giants, even though his apostate descendants evidently intermarried with postdiluvian Nephilim… Nephilim are not listed in the Table of Nations that is limited to only Noah’s posterity… the Genesis flood account [is] a general accounting of events kept by saints descended from Noah for only the faithful, not a global, forensic accounting for cynical seculars and revisionist mystics.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 169 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Incorruptible* Race of giants is the mysterious race that… Cain [and his posterity] have all allegedly and eagerly connected themselves to in legend. Cain… claimed a more royal and divine legacy, void of Adamite impurity, which the posterity of Cain, in turn, pollinated into the people of day six [the Neanderthal]. 

The Gnostic gospels record that not only Noah survived the deluge but also many people from the Immoveable* Race did and that they were guided to a certain place within a luminous cloud to ensure they survived the flood. The Nephilim and the Immoveable Race survived because of the intercession of fallen angels saving them and their illicit legacy from utter destruction, all to poison the postdiluvian world…’ 

The ancient land of Canaan and its peoples is a complex issue. It has perplexed Biblical scholars and secular historians alike. We have studied the first inhabitants of the land, the literal sons of Canaan that left their imprint in the region before fully migrating to northern and central Africa. There was a residue of these true Canaanites in the land, as humans and Nephilim were mixing and living in ancient cities such as Sodom, Hebron and Jericho. Ephron the descendant of Heth, son of Canaan, lived in the region and sold his field at Machpelah to Abraham. The Nephilim and Elioud had been roaming the earth for thousands of years after the flood. They were instrumental in all the titanic building structures and otherworldly architectural feats around the globe; from Stonehenge in England to the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, Machu Pichu in Peru and the Statues of Easter Island.

At a certain point – at least by the time of Abraham for they were there then and possibly much earlier – most converged on the land of Canaan; for these were the second wave of inhabitants in Canaan. Why Canaan? Because they were aware of the promises of the Creator, that His chosen people would descend from Abraham and ultimately dwell in Canaan. The Nephilim giants were ready and waiting. This is why the Creator’s instructions were brief yet comprehensive – kill them all. The Creator did not instruct the sons of Jacob – the fledgling Israelite nation – to murder black people, or even white people, it was a plain and clear instruction to exterminate the Nephilim and Elouid giants who were there to do the exact same thing to Israel, if the sons of Jacob didn’t pre-emptively strike first. The young Israelite nation failed these simple instructions and allowed many to live amongst them. It was only some four hundred years later that King David finally eradicated the problem of the Nephilim giants from the land of Canaan. 

Canaan had numerous clans of Nephilm as we have seen already. The principal seven nations they were told to exterminate were the Canaanites – a specific tribe by that name, not the broad definition of the term – Perizzites, Jebusites, Girgashites, Amorites, Hivites and Hittites. Notice the last five are inherited names of sons of the original Canaan. To add to the complex mix of people, there was a third wave of people.

These were descendants of Shem and they were a spill over from Mesopotamia of Arameans and Arphaxad to the north, the Arabian Peninsula, including Keturah and Ishmael to the east and from Egypt, Caphtor to the south. We have looked at the Aramean and Amorite connection [refer Chapter XXIV Aram]. Plus the Phoenician, including Aramean migration to the northwestern coast and the Philistine and Minoan immigrations to the southwestern coast [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor]. Some of the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, as well as Ishmael had ventured into the land of Canaan, though they also continued northwards. Finally Moab, Ammon and Esau with Amalek his grandson also moved into the southern portion of the land. In time, at least one son of Keturah was known by sons of Canaan’s names, possibly more and also Ishmael, just like some of the Nephilim tribes. Two prominent examples of this name transference, are the Hivites from the name Hiv and the Hittites called after Heth. 

To summarise a complicated scenario, using Hiv as an example. Hiv was a son of Canaan. The original Hivites in the land would have been black people descended from Hiv. In time, most of these Hivites migrated southward, though not all, because the Nephilim arrived en masse. They integrated with the remaining Hivite people. Those Nephilim living in the Hivite region, became known as… Hivites. Later still, a son of Abraham and Keturah also dwelt, in the northern Palestine region, now known as Lebanon. In this case, some of the children of Midian… and these Midianites became known as Hivites. 

The Canaanites and Perizzites are almost always mentioned together though the Perizzites are the odd one out, in that they are not an original son of Canaan. Perizzite according to one source means: ‘to drag away violently, hate.’

Joshua 24:11 and Judges 1:4

English Standard Version

And you went over the Jordan and came to Jericho, and the leaders of Jericho fought against you, and also the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. And I gave them into your hand… Then Judah went up and the Lord gave the Canaanites and the Perizzites into their hand, and they defeated 10,000 of them at Bezek.

The warlike Jebusites were associated with the environs of the ancient city of Salem which became Jerusalem the capital of the southern Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem frequently changed hands. It was captured by Joshua [Joshua 18:28]. In Judges 19:9-12, it was occupied by foreigners [Judges 1:8]. The Tribe of Benjamin inherited the land surrounding and including Jerusalem, Judges 1:21, ESV: “But the people of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites who lived in Jerusalem, so the Jebusites have lived with the people of Benjamin in Jerusalem to this day.”

Four hundred years after Joshua, King David retook the city, 1 Chronicles 11:4-8, ESV: “And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is, Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land. The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You will not come in here.” Nevertheless, David took the stronghold of Zion, that is, the city of David. David said, “Whoever strikes the Jebusites first shall be chief and commander.” And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first [reportedly building an underground water shaft or tunnel to enter], so he became chief. And David lived in the stronghold; therefore it was called the city of David. And he built the city all around from the Millo in complete circuit, and Joab repaired the rest of the city.” David bought the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite [2 Samuel 24:16-25] and later built the Temple on that location. Archaeologists have confirmed that the original inhabitants of Jerusalem were Jebusites.

The later Amorite name was applicable to Gether of Aram as discussed. 

Ezekiel 16:45-46

English Standard Version

45 You are the daughter of your mother, who loathed her husband and her children; and you are the sister of your sisters, who loathed their husbands and their children. Your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite. 46 And your elder sister is Samaria, who lived with her daughters to the north of you; and your younger sister, who lived to the south of you, is Sodom with her daughters.

These verses are interpreted by some to prove that the Israelites were a bastard or mixed nation. This chapter is actually addressed to Judah and her sinful ways. The identities here are types or euphemisms and not literal lines of descent. Samaria is a sister as it refers to the Kingdom of Israel. The Hittites here are a Shem descended people that had influence on Judah as did the Aramean-Amorites. Amor originally was a son of Canaan. They also included Nephilim and had two famous Giants as their kings – one being King Og, the other King Sihon.

Deuteronomy 4:47

English Standard Version

And they took possession of his land and the land of Og, the king of Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites, who lived to the east beyond the Jordan

1 Kings 21:25-26

English Standard Version

25 (There was none who sold himself to do what was evil in the sight of the Lord like Ahab, whom Jezebel his wife incited. 26 He acted very abominably in going after idols, as the Amorites had done, whom the Lord cast out before the people of Israel.)

2 Kings 21:11-13

English Standard Version

11 “Because Manasseh king of Judah has committed these abominations and has done things more evil than all that the Amorites did, who were before him, and has made Judah also to sin with his idols, 12 therefore thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Behold, I am bringing upon Jerusalem and Judah such disaster that the ears of everyone who hears of it will tingle. 13 And I will stretch over Jerusalem the measuring line of Samaria, and the plumb line of the house of Ahab, and I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipes a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down.

The most evil king of Israel was King Ahab and of Judah, it was King Manasseh. Both are compared to the Amorites in setting a standard of corruption like no other before them or afterward. Baal was the Amorites chief god and Baal’s wife was Ashtoreth and was their chief goddess. 

The same goddess as Ishtar in Chaldean and Astarte in Greek and Roman. Their worship involved human sacrifice, temple prostitution and orgies. There have been many temples, high places, stone pillars and altars excavated in the land of Israel. Some of the sites contained large numbers of containers with the remains of young children who had been sacrificed to Baal. [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut, Chapter XXI Nimrod & Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]

The Girgashites, after Girgash son of Canaan were the fifth nation. Their name means: ‘to draw away; to entice.’ As with the Amorites, they made many of their sons and daughters pass through the fire to Moloch – the Bull cult that permeates and dominates false god worship and is purportedly at the centre of the infamous Bohemian Grove. 

The two nations known as Hivites and Hittites are not only linked but also, while these, in the letter of the word, are classed as Canaanites, as in the oft-repeated lists of the seven nations, the Hivites and Hittites – and also the Amorites – should also be considered separately from the rest because each had dual origins, histories, ethnic characters and national identities. 

Exodus 23:28

English Standard Version

And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites from before you.

The Hivites were unique in that by subterfuge of claiming they lived afar, fooled Joshua into a treaty of peace and non-interference; so that the Hivites dwelt forever in the land of Israel, though they did have to serve as woodcutters and water carriers [Joshua 9:1-27].

Joshua 11:19

English Standard Version

There was not a city that made peace with the people of Israel except the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon. They took them all in battle.

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 238:

‘Gibeonites were Hivites/giants conscripted as woodcutters and water carriers for Israel by Joshua, after Israel had been deceived into a treaty with Gibeonites not to destroy them, as the Gibeonites said they did not live in the Covenant Land. Gibeonites survived in the Covenant Land well past the time of David because of this treaty, as a portion separate to Israel, within Israel. Gibeonites were clearly identified as surviving Amorites [2 Samuel 21:1-14], spared in this treaty from the Exodus, which Saul later violated in his zeal, endeavoring to annihilate the Gibeonites, which cost Saul seven of his [grand]sons as punishment.’

The Hivites – as well as the Hittites – at the time they appear in the Scriptures, were each divided into a smaller southern and a main northern branch, inhabiting widely distant territories. This makes them different from the other five Canaanite nations. The Hivite’s – Hebrew ‘chivim’ meaning wicked – main cities at the time of Joshua were in the south and included Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim. The Hivites also had territory in the north adjacent to the Sidonians in Mount Lebanon. The very same area that Heber the Kenite had moved to live – away from the other Kenites who descended from Moses’s father-in-law, Jethro [Judges 4:11].

Judges 3:3, ESV: “These are the nations: the five lords of the Philistines and all the Canaanites and the Sidonians and the Hivites who lived on Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal-hermon as far as Lebo-hamath.” The southern Hivites were the residue of Canaan’s children and Nephilim.

The northern Hivites interest us more, as there is a link between these Hivites, Midian,  the Kenites, Sidon and the Phoenicians, with the Dutch Afrikaans settlers of South Africa. There could well be a link between Midian and the Nephilim Hivites, or an uncanny coincidence, as the Dutch have the tallest male average height in the world and the second tallest women average height in the world according to a 2016 survey. 

Previously, we have discussed the early Phoenician link between Tyre and the Portuguese descended peoples of Brazil [refer Chapter XXIV Aram]. Strabo wrote that the Phoenicians originated ‘from the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula.’ The later Phoenicians of Sidon were different from Tyre and equate to the Dutch of the Netherlands. As part of the children of Keturah they did migrate from Arabia and settled in the Sidon area. 

They were master traders, explorers, ship builders and sailors; similar to Tyre in the past and so it is the Portuguese and Dutch who have exhibited the exact same traits in modern history. The African beginnings of Sidon are also represented in the nation of South Africa today [refer Chapter XXII Canaan].

The southern Hittites in the time of Abraham made their headquarters at Kiriath-Arba; driving out the Anakim and re-naming the city, Hebron. In this region they controlled another city, Kiriath-Sepher – the city of Books – which was another name for Kiriath-Sannah, a city of Instruction. Names suggesting the existence of a repository of ancient knowledge. By Joshua’s time, these southern Hittites had been crowded out of Hebron by the Anakim and had withdrawn to more mountainous country further north. In Numbers 13:29, ESV: “The Amalekites dwell in the land of the Negeb. The Hittites, the Jebusites, and the Amorites dwell in the hill country. And the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and along the Jordan.” 

The northern Hittites on the other hand, constituted a great empire of confederated states, occupying the whole of northern Syria between the Mediterranean Sea and the Euphrates; extending also as we shall learn, over the whole of Asia Minor from Armenia to the Aegean Sea. This is why in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Reverend T K Cheyne says: “The Hittites seem to have been included among the Canaanites by a mistake.” One could include the Hivites and the blond Amorites in this context. The southern Hittites – with the Hivites and Amorites – were part of the seven Canaanite nations – a blend of the Black descended Canaanites and Nephilim. The northern Hivites and Amorites – Arameans descended from Gether – like the Hittites, were descended from Shem and it is these Hittites that Cheyne is referring to. Once this is understood, any apparent secular-biblical crossover contradictions, regarding who, when and where for these peoples, dissolve. 

Numbers 22:4,7

English Standard Version

4 And Moab said to the elders of Midian, “This horde [the sons of Jacob] will now lick up all that is around us, as the ox licks up the grass of the field”… Balak the son of Zippor, who was king of Moab at that time… 

7 So the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian departed with the fees for divination in their hand. And they came to Balaam and gave him Balak’s message.

When King Balak of Moab felt threatened by the Israelites sweeping into Canaan and planned to employ Balaam to pronounce a curse, he enlisted the Midianites – an unwise agreement – as co-conspirators. This is why Midian brought condemnation upon themselves with Moab and so began a perpetual strife between Midian and Israel. In modern times, we have witnessed the same relationship as the nations of France and the Netherlands built impressive navies, mercantile enterprises and colonial empires. 

Those who even have a passing knowledge of European history during the centuries encompassing 1600 to 1820 will recognise which country France and Holland continually fought either militarily, politically or via trade routes and colonial territorial disputes.

Numbers 25:1-18

English Standard Version

… Israel… began to whore with the daughters of Moab. 2 These invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods. 3 So Israel yoked himself to Baal of Peor. And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel. 4 And the Lord said to Moses, “Take all the chiefs of the people and hang them in the sun before the Lord, that the fierce anger of the Lord may turn away from Israel.” 5 And Moses said to the judges of Israel, “Each of you kill those of his men who have yoked themselves to Baal of Peor.”

6 And behold, one of the people of Israel came and brought a Midianite woman to his family, in the sight of Moses and in the sight of the whole congregation of the people of Israel, while they were weeping in the entrance of the tent of meeting. 7 When Phinehas the son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose and left the congregation and took a spear in his hand 8 and went after the man of Israel into the chamber and pierced both of them, the man of Israel and the woman through her belly. Thus the plague on the people of Israel was stopped. 

9 Nevertheless, those who died by the plague were twenty-four thousand. 10 And the Lord said to Moses, 11 “Phinehas the son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, has turned back my wrath from the people of Israel, in that he was jealous with my jealousy among them, so that I did not consume the people of Israel in my jealousy. 12 Therefore say, ‘Behold, I give to him my covenant of peace, 13 and it shall be to him and to his descendants after him the covenant of a perpetual priesthood, because he was jealous for his God and made atonement for the people of Israel.’” 

14 The name of the slain man of Israel, who was killed with the Midianite woman, was Zimri the son of Salu, chief of a father’s house belonging to the Simeonites. 15 And the name of the Midianite woman who was killed was Cozbi the daughter of Zur, who was the tribal head of a father’s house in Midian. 16 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 17 “Harass the Midianites and strike them down, 18 for they have harassed you with their wiles, with which they beguiled you in the matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, the daughter of the chief of Midian, their sister, who was killed on the day of the plague on account of Peor.”

The sons of Jacob it would appear, were very easily influenced by the religions and false gods of their neighbouring nations; who were in reality, extended family. As they followed the gods of Moab and Ammon, they also worshipped the same gods of Midian. 

The Israelite that blatantly brought a Midianite woman into the camp was from the Tribe of Simeon. We will return to this story when we study Simeon and Levi, the tribe that Phinehas belonged – the priestly tribe [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad].

Numbers 31:1-18, 32-34

English Standard Version

The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Avenge the people of Israel on the Midianites… 3 So Moses spoke to the people, saying, “Arm men from among you for the war, that they may go against Midian to execute the Lord’s vengeance on Midian. 4 You shall send a thousand from each of the tribes of Israel to the war.” 5 So there were provided, out of the thousands of Israel, a thousand from each tribe, twelve thousand armed for war. 6 And Moses sent them to the war, a thousand from each tribe, together with Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, with the vessels of the sanctuary and the trumpets for the alarm in his hand. 7 They warred against Midian, as the Lord commanded Moses, and killed every male [in the battle, not literally of the nation]. 

The Midianites exist today, so we presume it was the soldiers that died and not the whole male population.

8 They killed the kings of Midian with the rest of their slain, Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba, the five kings [representing the five sons/clans] of Midian. And they also killed Balaam the son of Beor with the sword. 9 And the people of Israel took captive the women of Midian and their little ones, and they took as plunder all their cattle, their flocks, and all their goods. 10 All their cities in the places where they lived, and all their encampments, they burned with fire, 11 and took all the spoil and all the plunder, both of man and of beast…

13 Moses and Eleazar the priest and all the chiefs of the congregation went to meet them outside the camp. 14 And Moses was angry with the officers of the army, the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds, who had come from service in the war. 15 Moses said to them, “Have you let all the women live? 16 Behold, these, on Balaam’s advice, caused the people of Israel to act treacherously against the Lord… 17 Now therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman who has known man by lying with him. 18 But all the young girls who have not known man by lying with him keep alive for yourselves. 32 Now the plunder remaining of the spoil that the army took was 675,000 sheep, 33 72,000 cattle, 34 61,000 donkeys, 35 and 32,000 persons in all, women who had not known man by lying with him [virgins]. 

Thirty-two thousand Midianite girls is a large number to be integrated into the tribes of Israel. Some of the tribes barely had a total number of men, women and children of this number. It also shows the close family connection, meaning similar Haplogroups, to not significantly alter Israel’s identity. Remember, the six sons of Keturah are half-brothers of Isaac, the father of Jacob – sharing Abraham as their ancestor. 

Keturah may have been from the family of Nahor and thus much younger as Isaac’s wife Rebecca and Jacob’s wives Leah and Rachel were – thus the gene pool being very similar on both parent’s sides. It is also possible that Keturah was from Haran’s family, like Sarah. Or, the third option, the one considered the most probable is that Keturah, like Hagar who was Ishmael’s mother, was – from either a different though still inherently similar line of Peleg or more likely – from another son of Arphaxad equating to the peoples of Finland today [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. 

Judges 6:1-6, 11-16, 20-23, 25-27, 32- 40

English Standard Version

The people of Israel did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord gave them into the hand of Midian seven years. 2 And the hand of Midian overpowered Israel, and because of Midian the people of Israel made for themselves the dens that are in the mountains and the caves and the strongholds. 3 For whenever the Israelites planted crops, the Midianites and the Amalekites and the people of the East [Ishmael] would come up against them. 4 They would encamp against them and devour the produce of the land, as far as Gaza, and leave no sustenance in Israel and no sheep or ox or donkey. 5 For they would come up with their livestock and their tents; they would come like locusts in number – both they and their camels could not be counted – so that they laid waste the land as they came in. 6 And Israel was brought very low because of Midian. And the people of Israel cried out for help to the Lord.

11 Now the angel of the Lord came and sat under the terebinth at Ophrah, which belonged to Joash the Abiezrite, while his son Gideon was beating out wheat in the winepress to hide it from the Midianites. 12 And the angel of the Lord appeared to him and said to him, “The Lord is with you, O mighty man of valor.” 13 And Gideon said to him, “Please, my lord, if the Lord is with us, why then has…  the Lord… forsaken us and given us into the hand of Midian.” 14 And the Lord turned to him and said, “Go in this might of yours and save Israel from the hand of Midian; do not I send you?” 15 And he said to him, “Please, Lord, how can I save Israel? Behold, my clan is the weakest in Manasseh, and I am the least in my father’s house.” 16 And the Lord said to him, “But I will be with you [Isaiah 66:2], and you shall strike the Midianites as one man.” 

These same words were echoed nearly one hundred and twenty years later by Saul who would be the first king.1 Samuel 9:21 NET: ‘Saul replied, “Am I not a Benjaminite, from the smallest of Israel’s tribes, and is not my family clan the smallest of all the clans in the tribe of Benjamin? Why do you speak to me in this way?” Later Samuel referred to this humility that made Saul and Gideon prime candidates for service, in 1 Samuel 15:17 ESV: ‘And Samuel said, “Though you are little in your own eyes, are you not the head of the tribes of Israel? The Lord anointed you [Saul as] king over Israel.’

Gideon – what became the fifth Judge of Israel, from 1145 to 1105 BCE – then asks the Angel of the Lord for a sign. He prepares a goat and unleavened bread.

20 And the angel of God said to him, “Take the meat and the unleavened cakes, and put them on this rock, and pour the broth over them.” And he did so. 21 Then the angel of the Lord reached out the tip of the staff that was in his hand and touched the meat and the unleavened cakes. And fire sprang up from the rock and consumed the meat and the unleavened cakes. And the angel of the Lord vanished from his sight.22 Then Gideon perceived that he was the angel of the Lord. And Gideon said, “Alas, O Lord God! For now I have seen the angel of the Lord face to face.” 23 But the Lord said to him, “Peace be to you. Do not fear; you shall not die.” 

25 That night the Lord said to him, “Take your father’s bull, and the second bull seven years old, and pull down the altar of Baal that your father has, and cut down the Asherah that is beside it [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]26 and build an altar to the Lord your God on the top of the stronghold here, with stones laid in due order. Then take the second bull and offer it as a burnt offering with the wood of the Asherah that you shall cut down.” 27 So Gideon took ten men of his servants and did as the Lord had told him. But because he was too afraid of his family and the men of the town to do it by day, he did it by night.

The Lord described Gideon as a ‘mighty man of valour.’ Was He being sarcastic, or was the Eternal seeing the man he would become. Gideon doesn’t quite seem the right man for the job. He appears to be hard to convince and faith and fortitude don’t seem to be his first two attributes; but as the Creator looks on the heart, we know Gideon was special to Him. As Gideon rightly supposed, the men of the town once they saw what had happened in the morning sought Gideon out so they could kill him. Gideon’s father Joash, challenges the townsmen to let their god, Baal contend with Gideon directly or die themselves for their false worship.

32 Therefore on that day Gideon was called Jerubbaal, that is to say, “Let Baal contend against him,” because he broke down his altar. 33 Now all the Midianites and the Amalekites and the people of the East [Ishmael] came together, and they crossed the Jordan and encamped in the Valley of Jezreel. 34 But the Spirit of the Lord clothed Gideon, and he sounded the trumpet, and the Abiezrites were called out to follow him. 

35 And he sent messengers throughout all Manasseh [his own tribe], and they too were called out to follow him. And he sent messengers to Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali [all in northern Israel], and they went up to meet them.

Gideon, not about to alter his path of reticence in being the Creator’s instrument, asks a second and third time, for additional signs. There is an image of the Old Testament ‘God’ being one of impatience and wrath. Yet, as we saw with the discussion with Abraham about how many righteous souls in Sodom it would take to save the whole city, we have a very patient Deity in the face of Gideon’s stubbornness. 

36 Then Gideon said to God, “If you will save Israel by my hand, as you have said, 37 behold, I am laying a fleece of wool on the threshing floor. If there is dew on the fleece alone, and it is dry on all the ground, then I shall know that you will save Israel by my hand, as you have said.” 38 And it was so. When he rose early next morning and squeezed the fleece, he wrung enough dew from the fleece to fill a bowl with water. 39 Then Gideon said to God, “Let not your anger burn against me; let me speak just once more. Please let me test just once more with the fleece. Please let it be dry on the fleece only, and on all the ground let there be dew.” 40 And God did so that night; and it was dry on the fleece only, and on all the ground there was dew.

The Book of Judges chapter seven relates how Gideon whittled down thirty-two thousand men to just three hundred as the Lord decreed, so that Israel’s strength of numbers wasn’t given credit instead. As with the taking of Jericho, trumpets were blared and these led to the Midianites panicking and beginning to mistakenly kill each other before fleeing. One of the Princes of Midian was called Zeeb and reminds of the Netherland Province called Zee-land.

Judges 7:23-25

English Standard Version

23 And the men of Israel were called out from Naphtali and from Asher and from all Manasseh [but not Zebulun], and they pursued after Midian. 24 Gideon sent messengers throughout all the hill country of Ephraim, saying, “Come down against the Midianites and capture the waters against them, as far as Beth-barah, and also the Jordan.” So all the men of Ephraim were called out, and they captured the waters as far as Beth-barah, and also the Jordan. 25 And they captured the two princes of Midian, Oreb [meaning: raven] and Zeeb [meaning wolf]. They killed Oreb at the rock of Oreb, and Zeeb they killed at the winepress of Zeeb. Then they pursued Midian, and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon across the Jordan.

Isaiah 10:26

English Standard Version

And the Lord of hosts will wield against them a whip, as when he struck Midian at the rock of Oreb. And his staff will be over the sea, and he will lift it as he did in Egypt.

Judges 8:1-34 recounts the Ephraimites being upset that they hadn’t been included in the ‘fight against Midian.’ Nor were they willing to help with food and supplies for Gideon’s exhausted three hundred men. Gideon, said that once he had captured the two Midianite kings, he would return to flail their flesh in Succoth and break down their tower in Penuel. Once he captured the Midianite kings Zebah and Zalmunna, Gideon returned and flailed the flesh of the elders of the first city with thorns and broke down the tower and killed all the men of the second city.

Judges 8:10-12, 21-34

English Standard Version

10 Now Zebah [meaning: sacrificial victim] and Zalmunna [meaning: protection denied] were in Karkor with their army, about 15,000 men, all who were left of all the army of the people of the East, for there had fallen 120,000 men who drew the sword. 11 And Gideon went up by the way of the tent dwellers east of Nobah and Jogbehah and attacked the army, for the army felt secure. 12 And Zebah and Zalmunna fled, and he pursued them and captured the two kings of Midian, Zebah and Zalmunna, and he threw all the army into a panic… And Gideon arose and killed Zebah and Zalmunna, and he took the crescent ornaments that were on the necks of their camels.

22 Then the men of Israel said to Gideon, “Rule over us, you and your son and your grandson also, for you have saved us from the hand of Midian.” 23 Gideon said to them, “I will not rule over you, and my son will not rule over you; the Lord will rule over you.” 24 And Gideon said to them, “Let me make a request of you: every one of you give me the earrings from his spoil.” (For they had golden earrings, because they were Ishmaelites.) 25 And they answered, “We will willingly give them.” And they spread a cloak, and every man threw in it the earrings of his spoil. 26 And the weight of the golden earrings that he requested was 1,700 shekels of gold, besides the crescent ornaments and the pendants and the purple [a colour of Phoenicia] garments worn by the kings of Midian, and besides the collars that were around the necks of their camels. 27 And Gideon made an ephod of it and put it in his city, in Ophrah. And all Israel whored after it there, and it became a snare to Gideon and to his family. 28 So Midian was subdued before the people of Israel, and they raised their heads no more. And the land had rest forty years in the days of Gideon.

An Ephod in the Old Testament refers to two different things. One, it can refer to the garment or breastplate worn by the high priest. Two and incredibly, it can refer to a transportable idol. 

29 Jerubbaal the son of Joash went and lived in his own house. 30 Now Gideon had seventy sons, his own offspring, for he had many wives. 31 And his concubine who was in Shechem also bore him a son, and he called his name Abimelech [the sixth Judge of Israel, Judges 9:17]. 32 And Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age and was buried in the tomb of Joash his father, at Ophrah of the Abiezrites. 33 As soon as Gideon died, the people of Israel turned again and whored after the Baals and made Baal-berith their god. 34 And the people of Israel did not remember the Lord their God, who had delivered them from the hand of all their enemies on every side… 

Isaiah 60:6

English Standard Version

A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian [Netherlands or the Dutch] and Ephah [Holland or Hollanders]; all those from Sheba [Flanders or the Flemish]shall come. They shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall bring good news, the praises of the Lord.

This is the one instance that a son of Midian is mentioned outside the genealogical lists. Firstly, camels are a bit of a re-occurring theme in the Old Testament, particularly for Abraham’s descendants. A multitude of camels, is a reference to the abundance of wealth and treasure that is able to be carried upon camels. The camel was used for the carriage of gold and spice and other treasures of wealth [Judges 6:5]. Job 1:3 mentions camels when describing Job’s vast resources and riches [see also 1 Chronicles 5:21]. 

The word Ephah is a unit of measure. One of the trading Midianite business tricks was using two different kinds of weights and measures – buying by one and selling by the other according to Baidhawi, Tafsir-i-Raufi.

Leviticus 19:36

New English Translation

You must have honest balances, honest weights,an honest ephah, and an honest hin. I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt.

Proverbs 20:10

New English Translation

Diverse weights and diverse measures – the Lord abhors both of them.

As Ephah is the first born son of Midian and inferred as the most prominent; the people of the two provinces of North and South Holland on the western coast, have been dominant in Dutch history – with the Netherlands widely known as, or called Holland. This usage of the name Holland, is accepted by other countries and is also employed by the Dutch; though those from regions outside Holland, may find it misrepresentative to use the term for the whole nation. Netherlands means ‘low-lying country’ and the name Holland is from Houtland, or ‘Wooded Land.’

During the 900s to the 1500s, Holland was a unified political region within the Holy Roman Empire and ruled by the counts of Holland. By the 1600s, the province of Holland had grown to become a maritime and economic power; dominating the other provinces of the Dutch Republic. The area of the former County of Holland broadly covers the modern provinces of North and South Holland. These provinces include the Netherlands’ three biggest cities: Amsterdam, the capital, Europes largest port, Rotterdam and the third busiest port in the world behind 1. Shanghai, China and 2. Singapore, and The Hague, the seat of government. The two provinces of Holland have a population of 6,583,534 people as of 2019. 

Habakkuk 3:6-7

New English Translation

6 He took his battle position and shook the earth; with a mere look he frightened the nations. The ancient mountains disintegrated; the primeval hills were flattened. His are ancient roads. 7 I saw the tents of Cushan overwhelmed by trouble; the tent curtains of the land of Midian were shaking.

Some have interpreted this verse to prove a link between Cush and Midian, in that Keturah was from Cush like Moses’s third wife. This verse is merely showing the distance of the parameters of the Creators wrath; from the Netherlands in the west, right across to India in the east. Other notable scriptures on Midian include: Joshua 13:21, 1 Kings 11:18, Psalm 83:9 and Isaiah 9:4.

The Etruscan civilisation has long had a strong fascination for many people. For instance, the renowned author D H Lawrence, fell in love with the Etruscans in his closing years and explained his infatuation: “Myself, the first time I consciously saw Etruscan things, in the museum at Perugia, I was instinctively attracted to them. And it seems to be that way. Either there is instant sympathy, or instant contempt and indifference. Most people despise everything B.C. that isn’t Greek, for the good reason that it ought to be Greek if it isn’t. So Etruscan things are put down as a feeble Greco-Roman imitation. And a great scientific historian like Mommsen hardly allows that the Etruscans existed at all. Their existence was antipathetic to him… So being a great scientific historian, he almost denies the very existence of the Etruscan people. He didn’t like the idea of them. That was enough for a great scientific historian.” 

If the Etruscans weren’t Greeks – equating in the main, to the modern French – then who were they? We have read the quote from Dr Orville Boyd Jenkins from Italians and Race and his comment on the ancient Greeks being blond and blue-eyed. Here is his comment of the Etruscans: “Some scholars suggest they were thought to have been a blond, blue-eyed people. On a mural in an Etruscan tomb, a banquet scene portrays the women with blond hair.”

It is an enduring and highly controversial mystery for historians and scholars and the subject of much debate as to where the Etruscans came from; let alone where they went or who they were. Regardless, we will learn that their proximity to the growing Roman civilisation was not a fluke and this relationship has been repeated in our times as well as extending all the way back to ancient Israel.

Mehmet Kurtkaya in his article Etruscan Origins says: “… finding Near Eastern Anatolian DNA from the period of the migration, from around 1000 BC, in local Tuscans and local cattle proves beyond any doubt that the Etruscans had migrated from Turkey to Italy with their cattle, probably on [ships] out of Troy, and/or [Smyrna] or anywhere in the Aegean coast of Turkey. It is also probable that some Etruscan migration waves took place by land, via the Balkans.”

Etruscan Origins – emphasis & bold mine:

Etruscans were famed for their naval prowess! [and possibly one of the ‘sea peoples of the 14th-13th centuries BCE]. People with [‘Iranian – Turkish/Anatolian’] ancestry arrived in Sicily in around 1900 BC! [too early] Ancient genome samples were similar to Mycenaean Greece and Minoan Greece samples. Etruscans arrived in Italy during the Mycenaean period. 

In 1894, Paul Kretschmer… suggested an Etruscan substrate in Indo-European languages, and since then Etruscan / Tursenoi / Tyrrhennian was considered by a handful of European scholars as the pre-Greek substrate which [constitutes] a large part of the Greek vocabulary. Congratulations to all European scholars in the last 140 years, including Italian linguists and scholars, who have offered evidence for the migration of the Etruscans from the Near East [also]… Minoans [Philistines] and Mycenaeans [Greeks] were genetically similar… however, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry… another research paper… suggests the arrival of people to Anatolia from the Caucasus and/or Iran around 3800 BC. Considering this genetic study together with… Etruscan genetic studies, we can decisively conclude that the founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek and the Etruscan civilizations migrated from Turkey! [Further], DNA analysis in 2016 and 2017… identified a massive expansion, or a series of expansions, from Mesopotamia and/or [the] surrounding area.

According to tradition, Tarchun and his brother, Tyrrhenus, were the Lydian founders of Etruria, circa 1100 BCE. They were called Etrusci or Tusci by the Romans – whom they were closely related to – and Tyrrhenoi or Tyrseni; that is, Tuscans by the Greeks. Herodotus wrote that Tyr-senians – note the similarity with the word Tyre – were descended from Lydian colonists who landed in Etruria in the thirteenth century BCE following a great famine in Lydia [Eastern Anatolia]. It was decided to split the population in half, with those who drew the short straw being sent off to settle in the west and so ending up in northern Italy. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was shortened to Rasna. Hellicanus of Lesbos ascribes their existence to a settlement of Pelasgian refugees, who had fled from the Hellenic domination of Thessaly. 

Interestingly, the island of Lemnos appears to bear close links to the Etruscans; as the Lemnos Stele, dated to about 600 BCE, is written in a language that is remarkably similar to that of the Etruscans. It was found in a warrior’s tomb on the island along with artefacts that were similar to Etruscan items. The inference is that a community on the island was related to the Etruscans. Possibly the Pelasgians and so this would indicate a shared origin for all Etruscans, including the Lemnian pirates.

Some postulate that Rome was founded before the arrival of the Etruscans. Though dates reveal which was first and who influenced who. In this case the majority, if not all of the cities of Etruria have been found to pre-date Rome. In fact, the name of Rome itself is Etruscan in origin, as are the names of its legendary founders, Romulus and Remus. Early Rome was heavily influenced by Etruscan culture and so it more than likely that Rome was founded by the Etruscans. The Etruscan alphabet though inherited from the Greeks, was in turn passed on to the Romans. 

This is significant, as we will learn that the relationship shared between Midian and the ‘Midianites’ of Ishmael, comprises not only a geographic proximity and culture but also a similar linguistic origin and group, as shown by those languages in blue in the above diagram.

The Etruscan religion included human sacrifice, just as ancient Midian had practiced. Prisoners of war could end up on the altars of the Etruscan gods. As a part of these sacrifices, prisoners were sometimes set to fight one another. The Romans later adopted this practice and it grew into the huge gladiatorial entertainments of the Roman amphitheatres. Like the Romans, the Etruscans used bronze bars as a form of money with their value stamped on them. The Etruscans had a more affluent economy than the early Romans, though it was not a free market economy, built on money.

The Lion of the Netherlands 

The Etruscans introduced lions onto the Italian peninsula. Both Belgium and particularly the Netherlands, use lions on their state heraldry. Beginning circa 800 BCE – until 400 BCE – Etruscan civilisation and culture flourished in Etruria of central Italy and the northern Italian Po Valley, eventually achieving regional dominance. Etruscan tribes established a series of independent city states which sometimes acknowledged the authority of a form of high king. The Etruscans of the eighth and seventh centuries were significantly influenced by eastern Greek culture.

The territorial reach of the Etruscan civilisation attained its maximum area circa 750 BCE, during the foundational period of the Roman Kingdom. Its culture flourished in three confederacies of cities; Etruria – Tuscany, Latium and Umbria – the Po Valley and Campania. According to legend,there was a period between 600 to 500 BCE in which an alliance of the Dodecapolis, or Etruscan League was formed among twelve Etruscan settlements. The Etruscans dominated northern Italy until their influence over the burgeoning Roman Republic on their southern border, gradually declined and with it their territory. After 529 BCE, the balance of political power shifted away from the Etruscans in favour of Rome. The Romans grew to perceive the Etruscans as ‘former colonial masters’ thus colouring the relationship between the two peoples. It led to a series of long running wars beginning in 477 BCE. Rome and the powerful Etruscan city, of Veii – which Rome saw as a rival and threat – went to war. A year later in 474 BCE, Veii’s navy was destroyed by Hieron of Syracuse at Cumae and the city was forced to agree a treaty with Rome. 

The Greek colonies in Sicily – who are called ‘Greeks’ but were rather kin of the Romans – were at their height at this time and for the Greeks – in Sicily, the prime enemy were the Carthaginians, who were also seeking to expand in the Mediterranean. The Carthaginians – who were Phoenicians from Tyre and today include the Portuguese descended peoples [refer Chapter XXIII Aram] – and the Etruscans of Midianite origin and today, the Dutch, were often allied, but once defeated by the Greeks from Syracuse, the Etruscans ceased to be a major maritime power, militarily and politically.

Meanwhile the Etruscans, who had been migrating northwards to the River Po from central Italy, had been clashing increasingly with the Celts for domination of the region. A pivotal showdown took place at the Battle of Ticinum in 474 BCE. The Etruscan force, which was little more than a well-armed militia, was butchered by the Celts in a ferociously fought battle.

Though the Etruscans flourished for a couple of centuries, then collapsing, it was not entirely due to Roman aggression. The Etruscans had stablished city states, similar to Greece, but as they didn’t use money, they did not have the essential economic underpinning to endure like the Greek states. Nor did they establish a powerful unified state under one ruling emperor. For there are no signs of any palaces and the burials reflect a very wealthy upper class, but no sign of one individual elevated above the rest. Thus they were engulfed by Rome’s rising consolidated power. Many cities became Roman municipia – chartered towns. In Imperial Rome, ‘the fat Etruscan became a figure of fun’ stemming from envy. Eventually the rich land of Etruria flourished again, but as part of the great Roman Empire. The Etruscans quite possibly included Sheba and Dedan, as the Flemings and Walloons have been part of the Low Countries in modern times.

We Are Not Our Ancestors: Evidence for Discontinuity between Prehistoric and Modern Europeans, Journal of Genetic Genealogy, Ellen Levy-Coffman, 2005 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Like the ancient Basque, the origin of the Etruscan people remains obscure. The Etruscans lived in central Italy from the 8th-2nd centuries BCE. Like the Basque, they spoke a non-Indo-European language, but unrelated to the Basque language. After the Romans rose to [dominate] Italy in the 2nd century BCE, the Etruscan language disappeared from the records. It was therefore assumed that the Etruscan population had been culturally and genetically assimilated by the Romans. But the aDNA evidence tells a different story.

Two separate aDNA studies on the Etruscans reached similar conclusions, finding essentially no genetic relationship between the ancient Etruscans and the modern-day inhabitants of Tuscany (ie, “Tuscans”) (Belle 2006; Vernesi 2004). Specifically, out of twenty-eight mtDNA sequences, only six occur in any modern-day groups. The remaining twenty-one haplotypes, identified as belonging to the JT haplogroup, do not occur in any contemporary European populations, including the common Etruscan haplotypes 16126-16193 and 16126-16193-16278. These sequences, while occurring among modern-day haplogroups J2 and T, are not accompanied by substitutions at 16069 and 16294, respectively, which are inevitably present among the contemporary motifs (Vernesi 2004).

The researchers attributed this lack of genetic relationship between Etruscans and Tuscans to two possible processes – the extinction of Etruscan mtDNA lineages among modern-day Europeans, or demographic and evolutionary processes occurring in the last 2,500 years. These processes, if they occurred, were severe enough to disrupt the genetic continuity between the modern and ancient inhabitants of Tuscany.

Researchers performed a number of simulations to investigate whether certain phenomenon, such as genetic drift, migration or a higher than average mtDNA mutation rates, could have impacted the genetic continuity between Etruscans and Tuscans. (Belle 2006) None of their simulations were compatible with the DNA results. The genetic evidence did not support the conclusion that Tuscans were the modern-day descendants of the Etruscans, although the researchers noted that the skeletal remains used for their aDNA samples may not have been representative of the entire Etruscan population, but of a more elite sub-strata. Even so, they seemed to have contributed very little to the mtDNA background of modern Tuscans.

However, the researchers also found that genetic continuity could be generated if the mtDNA mutation rate was set very high (0.5 mutations per million years as opposed to commonly used lower rate of approx. 0.05 mutations per million years per nucleotide) or if gene flow from other areas was so extensive that Etruscan descendants became underrepresented in the modern Tuscan samples. They concluded, however, that the very high mtDNA mutation rates needed to reproduce genetic continuity were “implausible” and, furthermore, the only way to determine if descendants were underrepresented in the study was to collect more modern samples over time.

Thus, the study concluded that modern-day Tuscans largely descend from non-Etruscan ancestors. Regarding the fate of the Etruscans, the suspicion voiced by the researchers was that the Etruscan lineages simply went extinct.’

This article tells us two things. First, the modern people of Tuscany have inherited the Etruscan name; but as the descendants of Abraham’s brother Nahor, they are not the Etruscans of two thousand to two thousand, five hundred years ago [refer Chapter XXV Nahor]. Second, just because a people have seemingly vanished into the mists of time, it does not mean that they have. They had to go somewhere, be somewhere and be someone today.

An Etruscan helmet in the British Museum

A portion of the future land of the Netherlands, became a Roman province that was conquered by Julius Caesar in the first century BCE. The Saxon peoples, including the Frisians, followed by the Angles and Jutes settled in the area before migrating to Britain. Later, the land became part of the empire of the Franks under Charlemagne, the House of Burgundy from 1384 to 1482 [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon], and then the Habsburg Empire from 1482 to 1567. From 800 to 1000 CE, the Vikings had raided towns and cities along the coast, settling in some areas. In 1083, the name Holland first appears in a legal document. In 1568 the land was under Spanish King Philip II, when the Dutch revolted. Their leader was Willem I, the Prince of Orange and in 1581 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands was formed. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; with Maurice of Nassau establishing it in the late 1500s.

In 1602 – two years after the English – the Dutch East India Company was formed. During the seventeenth century, the Netherlands became an international power known for its strong navy – much like the Etruscans. The Dutch empire expanded throughout the world through its colonies on nearly every continent. The Dutch were among the earliest empire-builders of Europe, following Portugal [Tyre Phoenicians] and Spain [Arameans] before them [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. During this time, the arts in Netherlands was at its peak with notable artists such at Rembrandt and Vermeer. Wars with Spain, France and England in 1652 weakened the country and began its decline; with the fourth Anglo-Dutch War of 1780 to 1784, resulting in the Dutch Republic losing a number of its colonial possessions and trade monopolies to the British Empire.

In 1688, King William of Orange and Queen Mary became the rulers of the Netherlands. In 1795, the French army invaded the Netherlands and took control, with the Batavian Republic being declared. Then in 1806, French emperor, Napoleon, made his brother, Louis, King of the Netherlands. In 1813, Napoleon and the French were defeated and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was declared. It included Belgium and had two capitals: Brussels and Amsterdam. In 1830, Belgium rebelled and broke away, forming its own independent nation.

The Netherlands endeavoured to stay neutral during both World Wars. In World War II they were occupied by Germany. The Dutch Jews were heavily targeted by the Germans. Over seventy-five percent of the one hundred and forty thousand Jewish people that lived in the Netherlands, were killed by the Germans as part of the Holocaust. A Jewish girl called Anne Frank became famous through her writing of hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam, before being captured and taken to a concentration camp to die. After World War II, most of the Netherland’s remaining colonies were granted independence. In 1948, the International Court of Justice was established at The Hague.

The Netherlands has a highly developed economy; playing a significant role in the European economy for centuries. Since the sixteenth century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade and banking have been leading sectors in the Netherlands. The Netherlands was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in 2017. Additionally, the country was ranked the second most innovative nation in the world in the 2018 Global Innovation Index.

The Netherlands stands as the 17th largest economy in the world, with a GDP of $907.05 billion in 2019. The Netherlands is a major commercial transportation hub with industrial manufacturing as well as petroleum extraction and processing. It has a highly developed agricultural sector and is the second largest agricultural exporter in the world. The Netherlands has a large financial services sector, with assets four times the size of the Dutch GDP.

In the top ten countries with the largest gold reserves, the Netherlands is number ten in the world; with 612.5 tonnes, comprising 67.4% of its foreign reserves. When the Dutch Central Bank repatriated a large amount of its gold from the United States, it also oddly announced that it would move ‘its gold vaults from Amsterdam to Camp New Amsterdam, about an hour outside the city, citing burdensome security measures.’

The original flag of the Netherlands and the current flag since circa 1650.

The main explanation for the change, is that the orange variant was used by the Prince and a distinction between the Prince’s flag and the National flag was required.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Dutch global shipments during 2020.

  1. Machinery including computers: US$103.6 billion
  2. Electrical machinery, equipment: $94 billion
  3. Mineral fuels including oil: $59.1 billion
  4. Pharmaceuticals: $49.5 billion 
  5. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $37.1 billion 
  6. Vehicles: $26.6 billion 
  7. Plastics, plastic articles: $25.2 billion 
  8. Organic chemicals: $18.2 billion 
  9. Other chemical goods: $14.5 billion 
  10. Iron, steel: $12 billion 

Pharmaceuticals represent the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 64.5% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was electrical machinery and equipment via a 55.8% gain.’

I will Maintain

Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut in 1498 and opened a gateway from Western Europe to Asia via the Cape of Good Hope on Africa’s southern tip. By 1510, the Portuguese had started making raids inland and not long after this, the Dutch Republic sent merchant vessels to India. In 1602 they founded the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie – the Dutch East India Company, or VOC.

Dutch settlement in South Africa began in March 1647, with the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, wrecked at the Cape. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope. They stayed for nearly one year and were later rescued by a fleet of twelve ships. Jan van Riebeeck was aboard one of these ships. A few years later in 1652, persuaded by some of those who had been wrecked in 1647, the VOC established a supplies station at the Cape of Good Hope under the command of Jan van Riebeeck from 1652 to 1662. The party was made up of ninety Calvinist settlers. They arrived in the bay of today’s Cape Town, on April 6, 1652, on board five ships.

The objective was not to develop a colony but to establish a port of call to service the Dutch ships travelling between the Netherlands and its trading posts in the east, supplying meat, vegetables, fruit, wine and wheat. The VOC were surprisingly dismayed in the popularity of the port and its growth into a settler colony. As the only permanent settlement option and not solely serving as a trading post the Cape Colony proved an ideal retirement destination for employees; for after several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as ‘a free citizen’ – a Vryburgher or Vrijburger – on which he had to cultivate crops that he then had to sell to the United East India Company for a fixed price. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia. 

After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state – the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population. The authoritarian rule of the Company – telling farmers what to grow, for what price, controlling immigration and trade – made some farmers escape the company rules, by moving far inland. 

There were two distinct subgroups in the Vrijburger population and the first group were the itinerant farmers who began to settle further inland, seeking better pastures for their livestock as well as freedom from the VOC’s regulations. This settler community identified themselves as Boers to describe their agricultural way of life.Their farms were enormous by European standards for the land was free and underpopulated. A few Boers adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle; known as trekboers. The Boers were suspicious of the centralised government and the increasing complexities of administration at the Cape. They continually migrated inland from the reaches of the colonial officialdom, every time it attempted to regulate their activities. 

By the mid-eighteenth century the Boers had penetrated a thousand kilometres into South Africa’s interior beyond the Cape of Good Hope, at which point they encountered the Xhosa people migrating southwards. Competition between the two communities over resources on the frontier sparked the Xhosa Wars. ‘Harsh Boer attitudes towards black Africans were permanently shaped by their contact with the Xhosa, which bred insecurity and fear on the frontier.’

The second subgroup of the Vrijburger population were known as the Cape Dutch and remained in the southwestern Cape and especially in the growing settlement of Cape Town. They were urban dwellers, more educated and maintained greater cultural ties to the Netherlands than the Boers. The Cape Dutch became the backbone of the colony’s market economy and as they had vested economic interests in the Cape peninsula, were not interested in venturing inland due to the difficulties in maintaining contact with a viable market. 

This was in sharp contrast with the Boers on the frontier, who lived on the margins of the market economy. The Cape Dutch could not participate in migrations to escape the colonial system and ‘the Boer strategy of social and economic withdrawal was not viable for them. Their response to grievances with the Cape government was to demand political reform and greater representation, a practice that became commonplace under Dutch and subsequently British rule.’ In 1779, hundreds of Cape burghers smuggled a petition to Amsterdam, demanding an end to the VOC corruption and its contradictory laws. Unlike the Boers, the contact most Cape Dutch had with black Africans were mainly peaceful and so ‘their racial attitudes were more paternal than outright hostile.’ 

In 1752, French astronomer Nicholas-Louis de Lacaille when visiting the Cape, observed that the third-generation descendants of the original Huguenot – French and German – settlers spoke Dutch as their first language. Afrikaans developed from Dutch which had originated from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland.

In 1795, after the battle of Muizenberg in present day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. Then under the terms of the Peace of Amiens in 1802, Britain acceded the colony to the Dutch in March 1803. As the Batavian Republic had nationalised the United East India Company in 1796, the colony now came under the direct rule of The Hague. The outbreak of the Napoleonic wars in May 1803, then invalidated the Peace agreement. In January 1806, the British re-occupied the colony. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 cemented the transfer of sovereignty finally to Great Britain.

Nearly one hundred years later, dissatisfaction with British rule led to bloodshed in the Anglo-Boer Wars from 1880 to 1881, 1889 to 1902 and the loss of many innocent Boer lives in British Concentrations camps. The Union of South Africa occurred in 1910 when the four British colonies combined: the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange River or Orange Free State. In the twentieth century Afrikaner nationalism took the form of political parties and secret societies, like the Broederbond. In 1914, the National Party formed to promote Afrikaner economic interests and finally sever South Africa’s ties to the United Kingdom. It rose to prominence in winning the 1948 general election; it enforced a harsh policy of racial segregation known as apartheid and declared South Africa a republic, withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. The National Party eventually left power in 1994 following negotiations to end apartheid and losing South Africa’s first multiracial elections.

Thousands of Flemish along with the Dutch, migrated to South Africa for many years between the 1600s and the twentieth century. Immigration slowed eventually, but there remains a considerable Flemish population in Southern Africa. Judging by the 2011 census figures and South Africa’s population of 60,672,691 people, some 8.2% are of white European extraction. Within that percentage the Afrikaners make up approximately 60% in the nine provinces and 5.2% of the population – 3,154,979 people. The British descended peoples comprise about 40% and 3% of the population – 1,820,180 people. A total white population of approximately 4,975,159 people.

Afrikaners are descended mainly from Dutch, German and French Huguenot immigrants, coupled with small percentages of other Europeans and also indigenous African peoples. By 1691 over a quarter of the white Afrikaner population of South Africa was not ethnically Dutch.The number of permanent settlers – just prior to the end of the Dutch administration in 1795 – numbered 26,720,of whom 50% were Dutch, 27% German, 17% French and 5.5% Scandinavian, Belgian and others. This demographic breakdown has been used in many studies to represent the ethnic makeup of modern Afrikaners, which has been criticised by academics such as Dr. Johannes Heese.

‘Based on Heese’s genealogical research of the period from 1657 to 1867, his study Die Herkoms van die Afrikaners (“The Origins of the Afrikaners”) estimated an average ethnic admixture for Afrikaners of 35.5% Dutch, 34.4% German, 13.9% French, 7.2% non-European [Chinese, India, Madagascar], 2.6% British, 2.8% other European [Danish, Norwegian, Portuguese] and 3.6% unknown. 

Heese argued that previous studies wrongly classified some German progenitors as Dutch, although for the purposes of his own study he also reclassified a number of Scandinavian (especially Danish) progenitors as German… British historian George McCall Theal estimated an admixture of 67% Dutch, with a nearly equal contribution of roughly 17% from the Huguenots and Germans.Theal argued that most studies suggesting a higher percentage of German ancestry among Afrikaners wrongly counted as “German” all those who came from German-speaking Swiss cantons and ignored the VOC’s policy of recruiting settlers among the Dutch diaspora living in the border regions of several German states.’

The degree of intermixing among Afrikaners can be attributed to the unbalanced sex ratio when under Dutch governance. Most VOC employees who sailed from the Netherlands were not allowed to bring their families with them. Between 1657 and 1806 only 454 women arrived at the Cape, compared to the 1,590 male colonists.Thus, white South African women, like their counterparts in colonial North America began to marry much younger and so also bear more children than Western Europeans. Afrikaner families were much larger in size, more interconnected and also became more clannish than those of other colonial settlements in the world. Some of the more common Afrikaner surnames include Botha, Pretorius and van der Merwe. 

Similar to other large population groups that have been propagated by a smaller gene pool of progenitors [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon], Afrikaners have experienced an increase in the frequency of some rare ailments, including skin disorders such as variegate porphyria and higher levels of cholesterol type familial hypercholesterolaemia. Afrikaners have some peculiarities genetically, which has made them of some interest to scientists. They seem to exhibit high frequencies of classical Mendelian diseases – an inherited single mutated gene – a hallmark of inbreeding or population bottlenecks. 

Whether the percentage proportions are exactly correct for the Dutch, German and French components of the Afrikaners may not be as important as the fact there are multiple strains that constitute the gene composition of the Afrikaner. I would propose that they are not the exact same people as the Dutch or Midianite descended people, but a mixture of Midianite and Kenite lines. Firstly, we have ascertained that the northern Hivites lived in the north of Israel – modern Lebanon – and were the white population that lived with the residue of Black peoples descended from Hiv of Canaan and living in Sidon; also known as Phoenicians like the Arameans of Tyre [refer Chapter XXII Canaan]. 

Secondly, we have also noted that Heber the Kenite and his family departed from those Kenites descended from Jethro and dwelt in the north of Israel’s territory in Zebulon’s and Naphtali’s allotments. The significance of this will be borne out when we study Jacob’s sons. Thirdly, we have also deduced that Jethro was likely a Kenite on one side of his family and either Midianite on the other, or remarkably a possible Midian and Lot split… that is, the equivalent of combined Dutch and French ancestry.

Fourthly, we learned of a branch of the Kenites the Rechabites, who were a god-fearing people, running a striking parallel with the Huguenots. Strictly, the Huguenots were French Protestants from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries living primarily in southern and western France. They were followers of the teachings of John Calvin or Calvinists; which emphasised the sovereignty of God and the authority of the Bible. The Huguenots were invariably ‘skilled artisans, craftsmen, farmers and professional people’ including: ‘doctors, schoolmasters, merchants, mariners, shipwrights’ and aristocrats. 

As they gained influence in society and openly displayed their faith, this attracted Catholic hostility; particularly when they declared their intention to create a ‘state within the state.’ A series of religious conflicts ensued known as the French Wars of Religion between 1562 to 1598. Persecution by the French Catholic government headed by king Louis XIV led to some three hundred thousand Huguenots fleeing France for England, Holland, Switzerland, Prussia and the Dutch and English colonies in the Americas. Interestingly, the Huguenot Society of London was formed in 1885 and it decided to not only define a a Huguenot as a French Protestant but to also include religious refugees from the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands.

In South Africa’s settlement – apart form the British – there were three main contributions as represented by the Dutch and Flemish, Germans and the French. It  underlines with the Dutch and German contributions, regardless of percentage, the interconnectedness between the Hivites and Hittites.

The Dutch imposed their language upon the French Huguenots and imposed their religion upon the northern Germans who were predominantly Lutheran. The Reformed Calvinist religion and Afrikaans language have both had a unique impact on South Africa. The strong connection of the Afrikaners to the Netherlands has remained significant. The Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958-1966, Hendrik Verwoerd was born in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Another fact hard to ignore, is that the Huguenot French component seems to have persevered to a greater extent culturally than the German. The last Afrikaner President was named F W de Klerk, his surname actually being a form of Le Clerc. Another prominent South African head of state was Daniel Francois Malan. 

One Afrikaner author, J M Greeff, 2007, states regarding his own ancestry: “It is not clear if my higher estimate of French contribution is because of a systematic mistake in Heese’s (1970) estimate, or if it is because of a quirkiness in my own ancestry. It seemed to be the case that when a lineage hit the French Huguenots it stayed in this group. It will be interesting to compare the degree of inbreeding of the early generations of Huguenots to the other early immigrants. In the light of the calculations of Heyer et al. (2005) there is an interesting possibility that the cultural inheritance of fitness may have led to a systematic bias in Afrikaners, since Huguenots tended to be more educated and trained than German emigrants who tended to be soldiers. We are currently investigating this hypothesis.”

This is maybe pertinent when viewed with our study of the French, the French Quebecers, the Basque and the Catalonians. Both the Dutch and Germans had less pressure to emigrate than the French Huguenots, who having been religiously persecuted and fleeing for their lives in vacating France, had a far stronger incentive in moving to the Cape to be completely clear of any further persecution. Possibly, the genetic contribution of the French and those who fled to Holland, has had a greater proportional impact on the whole Afrikaner composition.

The rural male population surplus of northern Germany died abroad, not returning home. These men contributed greatly to the census figures of the Afrikaner population during much of its history, though it seems plausible that their fitness was lower than the Dutch and Huguenot groups, as they lacked the resources to prosper in a world which was much closer to the Malthusian [exponential growth based on a constant rate] edge than today. Not everyone leaves descendants and it is plausible that these Germans were fated not to do so to a greater extent than the Dutch and Huguenots, whom they were employed to protect and serve. 

This would explain why the German contribution has been a shadow of the Dutch rather than the other way around. Additionally, the genetic closeness of the north German and Dutch populations may simply be the reason for the blurring of the two. It is thought by many that the Dutch are an example of ‘simply another group of north Germans who transformed their regional identity into a national one for various reasons.’ If this were true, then every small nation next to a larger one, would just be an offshoot. Biblical and secular histories, plus Haplogroups prove this line of reasoning incorrect.

Before we delve deeper, a few interesting Haplogroup facts on Abraham’s and Keturah’s sons. According to Eupedia, Iceland has the fewest number of Haplogroups in all of Europe. Haplogroup I1a is  far more distributed in Nordic countries, like Norway and Sweden, while only faint traces of it can be found in Southern European countries. A genetic study of Iceland’s population revealed that the majority of their male ancestors are Nordic, while the majority of their female ancestors are Celtic. A similar DNA study of the people of the Faroe Islands showed that 87% of their male ancestors are Scandinavian and 84% of their female ancestors are either Scottish or Irish. 

Ninety-nine percent of R1a people belong to subclades of R1a1a1 [R1a-M417, circa 3400 BCE from a bottleneck lineage originating in Ukraine], which itself derives from R-M198 and it in turn stems from R-M459. A few pertinent subclades are: R1a-L664, which is essentially Northwest European and found chiefly in Western Germany, the Low Countries and the British Isles and R1a-Z284, which is a Scandinavian subclade with an epicentre in central Norway; found also in parts of Scotland, England and Ireland. There is a central European clade that peaks in Czechs, R-M458 and an eastern clade, R-M558 pealing in Russia. 

Khazaria, Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook: emphasis & bold mine:

‘In “The Norway Project”… I1 is Scandinavia’s most common Y-DNA haplogroup and it probably originated in Denmark. R1a, common in eastern Europe, is also found in this project in subclades like R1a1a and R1a1a1. R1b, common in western Europe, is also found… and… N1c1 is a subclade found… especially common among Finns, Estonians, and Saami [Madai-Japheth] so it’s believed to have come from intermarriage with Saami men. Less common haplogroups that members have include, among others, [E1b1b, G2a, I2, J1, J2b, Q1a3, and Q1a3a. E and J haplogroups have Middle Eastern origins, while Q may originate in Central Asia or Siberia, and G2a subclades probably originate in either Iran or the Caucasus region… in terms of Y-DNA, “The presence of Eu14 in Norway suggests that some admixture between Norwegians and the Finno-Ugric Uralic speakers of Scandinavia (Saami, Finns) has occurred.” (Eu14 is very common in Finland.) 

Haplogroup N3 was found at an elevated 11% of Norwegians from northern Norway (especially Finnmark where 18.6% of the Norwegians have it) whereas none of the Norwegians in southern Norway had it. Scientists believe N3 came to Norwegians through intermarriage with Saami and Finnish men… Haplogroup R1b is more prevalent in western and southern Norway, near the seacoast.

The project’s most common mtDNA (maternal) lineages are H, J, K, T2, U5, and V. Other mtDNA haplogroups include I1a, I4, T1, T1a, U1b, U2, U2e, U4a1, X, and Z1a. H is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Norwegians according to published studies, at a frequency of about 40%.

Research by B. Berger, S. Willuweit, et al. confirmed that pre-modern Norwegian men also possessed I1, R1a, R1b, and Q.’

These ‘pre-Norwegian’ men were the true Vikings – and though related, are different peoples – who migrated to the British Isles and Ireland.

‘Among 23andMe’s customers, 8-10% of Norwegians carry the T red hair allele in the R160W gene, 8-10% carry the T red hair allele in the R151C gene, and 0-2% carry the C red hair allele in the D294H gene.

“Different genetic components in the Norwegian population revealed by the analysis of mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisisms.” European Journal of Human Genetics 10:9 (September 2002), multiple authors: pages 521-529. 

The scientists studied Norwegians’ maternal and paternal lineages using DNA technology. Overall, Norwegians are genetically similar to Germans. They concluded, for instance, that the mtDNA haplogroup J, found among 10% of Norwegians, was probably “brought by the Germanic migrations to Norway.” They also showed that 75% of Norwegian men have one of the Y-DNA haplotypes Eu7 and Eu18, which are both common in Germany. They found that the non-Germanic Saami people contributed “mtDNAs with the 16144,16189, 16270 motif” to Norwegians.

Excerpts from the Abstract:

“… Both mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms showed a noticeable genetic affinity between Norwegians and central Europeans, especially Germans… Although Y chromosome binary and microsatellite data indicate that 80% of the haplotypes are closely related to Central and western Europeans, the remainder share a unique binary marker (M17) common in eastern Europeans with informative microsatellite haplotypes suggesting a different demographic history. Other minor genetic influences on the Norwegian population from Uralic speakers and Mediterranean populations were also highlighted.”

‘The breakdown of the 4 top haplogroups was:

I1 = 37.3%
R1b = 31.3%
R1a = 26.3%
N3 = 3.8%

Haplogroup N3 was found at an elevated 11% of Norwegians from northern Norway (especially Finnmark where 18.6% of the Norwegians have it) whereas none of the Norwegians in southern Norway had it. Scientists believe N3 came to Norwegians through intermarriage with Saami and Finnish men, as based on data from all populations N3 “has been interpreted as a signature of Uralic Finno-Ugric speaking males migrating to northern Scandinavia about 4000-5000 years ago”. 

Haplogroup R1a, which is common in East European populations, is most frequently encountered among Norwegians in eastern-central areas of Norway, reaching its peak (31% frequency) among those living in the Trøndelag region in central Norway. Haplogroup R1b is more prevalent in western and southern Norway, near the seacoast.

The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, and Alberto Piazza, 1994.

Their research shows that Norwegians are nearest to Germans and Dutch by genetic distance, followed closely behind by Danes, then Swedes, then English. These data are reportedly on page 270 in the table “Occidental/European genetic distances for reference purposes”.

Icelanders are largely descended from male Norwegian migrants to medieval Iceland. Many people living in northern Scotland and the islands of Orkney and Shetland have partial descent from Norwegian settlers as well.’

‘Especially common Y-DNA (paternal) haplogroups in the “Danish Demes Regional DNA Project” include I1, I1d and I1d1, I2, R1a, and R1b (and subhaplogroups like R1b1a2a1a1a4 which is also known as R-L48), and less common haplogroups include ones within the broad letter groups E, F, G, J, N, Q. In the “Denmark DNA Project”, Y-DNA haplogroups in Denmark-origin lineages include E1b1b1a1b, I2b1, I1, I1d1, J2a4b3, Q1a3, R1a1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a1a1, R1b1a2a1a1b4, and certain others. Y-DNA I1… is typically found among the Nordic peoples of Scandinavia… and in northern Germany. It is also very common in western Finland. 

According to The ALlele FREquency Database, 10.8%* of… danish people studied carry at least one T allele in the R151C (rs1805007) gene where TT usually causes red hair. “… Associations between SNP alleles and dark versus light hair colour in 378 Danes” reveals that 9 percent of these Danes carry at least one copy of the minor allele T in the SNP rs1805007 (R151C) and 8 percent** of these Danes carry at least one copy of the minor allele T in the SNP rs1805008 (R160W), both on the MC1R gene. These alleles are frequently associated with red hair in various populations. The correlation of red hair alleles in MC1R with actual red hair was found to be stronger among the Scottish participants than among the Danish participants.

23andMe and other population distance and admixture tools… [studied] the autosomal DNA of about 600 Danish high school students who documented their ancestry… “chromosome painting revealed strong genetic influence from neighboring Nordic (Sweden and Norway) and Germanic (Germany and Holland) countries and negligible influence from Finland, France and Portugal.”’

‘In “The Swedish DNA Project”, Y-DNA haplogroups… show about 35-40% of Swedish males carry I1 or its subclades. In the project are participants with I1 (L22-) itself as well as I1b, I1d, I1d1, and I1d4. Among 23andMe’s customers, 10-12%** of Swedes carry the T red hair allele in the R160W gene (one of the highest frequencies in the world), 6-8%* carry the T red hair allele in the R151C gene, and 0-2% carry the C red hair allele in the D294H gene. 

Swedish population Substructure Revealed by Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data, multiple authors, PLoS ONE 6(2) (February 9, 2011):

… 350,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from 1525 Swedes. The researchers compared the Swedish samples to 3,212 samples from populations worldwide, “including Finns, northern Germans, British and Russians”. Excerpts from the Abstract: …The Swedes – especially southern Swedes – were genetically close to the Germans and British, while their genetic distance to Finns was substantially longer. 

An excerpt from the body of [a] paper: “Genetically the Swedes have appeared relatively similar to their neighboring populations – for example the Norwegians, Danish, Germans, Dutch and British… In contrast, the Finns… do not appear genetically very close to the Swedes although they are geographically nearby.” 

3,112 European people (including among others Swedes, Estonians, Finns, Russians, Poles) were genetically tested. The Swedish samples came from the capital city of Sweden, Stockholm. The study describes a genetic barrier “between the Baltic region and Poland on the one hand, and Sweden on the other”. Further down it refers to the “barrier [that] emerged between the Eastern Baltic region and Sweden, but not between the Eastern Baltic region and Poland”. The study’s data comparing Swedes with Finns is consistent with how Swedes are descended mainly from Germanic people but came to mix somewhat with Finns… especially in the case of northern Swedes…

We have learned that the Baltic people are related to the Poles as both descend from Joktan, a descendant of Arphaxad, son of Shem. The Finns are somewhat related to the Baltic peoples of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and hence their difference to the Scandinavians and particularly their neighbours, Sweden. The percentage of I1a and N1c1 of the Norwegians and specifically the Swedes, may reflect their intermarrying with the Finns and or the Sammi to some degree; though could just as well be indicative of Keturah’s ancestry of the Finns from either one of Arphaxad’s other sons, Anar or Ashcol and hence the strong similarity between the Scandinavian nations and Finland regarding Y-DNA Haplogroups I1 and N.

Eupedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘What about modern Belgium, this small country divided by unending linguistic quarrels? Do Flemings and Walloons really have different origins? It is easy to claim that the Flemings are of Germanic descent just because they speak a Germanic language. This type of reasoning has already proved false in the case of the South Germany, where the Neolithic, Celtic and even Roman inhabitants remained slightly dominant genetically compared to the later Germanic invaders. Are Flemings and Walloons really genetically divided across linguistic lines, or could there be unexpected unity among them… For the first time in history, these issues are going to have a scientifically provable answer, thanks to DNA. 

The dominant haplogroup in the Benelux is R1b, almost equally divided between the Germanic R1b-U106 and Italo-Celtic R1b-P312 subclades. Both are present in all the Benelux, but with a very different distribution. R1b-U106 (S21) reaches its maximum frequency in Frisia (42%) and the central Netherlands (35%), then decreases progressively in the southern Netherlands (30%), Flanders (25%) and Wallonia (22%), to increase again in Luxembourg (32%). Not all subclades of U106 may be of Germanic origin. Some subclades appear to have expanded from Scandinavia and North Germany… These include L48, the largest branch of U106, and Z18, another major branch. These also happen to be the two dominant subclades in the Benelux. Within L48, Scandinavians belong almost exclusively to the Z9 branch, while the L47 branch appears to be found mostly in the Benelux and Britain. The other major branch, Z156 is subdivided in DF96 and DF98. DF98 is also found in Scandinavia and could be considered Germanic. 

However the vast majority of Z156 in Flanders is DF96, a subclade that is very rare in Scandinavia. DF96 might be more Proto-Celto-Germanic and would have dispersed around Germany and the Benelux without passing by Scandinavia. In other words 100% of the Luxembourg samples were Germanic. The sample size may to too small to judge, but it appears that Wallonia has a higher percentage of true Germanic/Nordic U106 (67%) than Flanders (56%), despite Flanders having a slightly higher percentage of U106 in total.’ 

The largest branch of R1b-U106 is L48 and the split between the Scandinavians of Z9 and the L47 of the Benelux peoples, highlights that four sons from Keturah are similar the Nordic-Scandinavian nations, while the other two brothers are more similar the Benelux-Celtic nations, to each other – just as we would expect both similarity and diversity in a family of six sons. We will also learn that the Nordic sons of Keturah are genetically more aligned with Germany the Germanic-Teutons, while the Low Countries are more aligned with the English Saxon-Vikings.

Dutch R1b-U106 has a particularly large swath of Z18 (25% of U106) like Scandinavia, but with more diversity of subclades. The dominant branch is L48 (about 40%), which has about three quarters of Z9 for one quarter of L47. In contrast with Belgium, the Dutch also have a considerable amount of S1688 (about 15%, including U198), a subclade that reaches its maximum frequency in England, but is rare in Germany and mostly absent from Scandinavia, central and eastern Europe, Italy or Iberia.So far, S1688 has not been found in Wallonia or Luxembourg and only makes up 4% of Flemish R1b-U106. U198 might be native to the Netherlands and would have been brought to England by the Anglo-Saxons from Frisia.*** 

In contrast with Flanders and England this time, the Dutch have hardly any Z156, and the little there is is DF96, perhaps of Flemish or Saxon origin. Interestingly the high percentage of Z18 and L48>Z9 in the Netherlands resembles more the pattern observed in Wallonia than in Flanders. The main difference is that the Walloons have more Z156 (from Germany) and the Dutch more S1688 (native to the region). The other main R1b subclade in the Benelux is R1b-P312 (S116), which is found in equal proportions in Flanders and Wallonia (33%), but decreases as one moves north to reach 20% in the southern Netherlands, 15% in the central Netherlands and 10% in Frisia.’ 

The strong link between the Dutch and English – S1688 [U198] – may have its origin from firstly, the taking of 32,000 Midianite virgin girls and inserting them into the Israelite gene pool. Secondly, Zipporah’s two sons with Moses, may have chosen to ultimately dwell in Midian and also marry Midianite wives. The differences we have just read between Belgium – particularly the Flemish, and Walloons – compared with the Dutch R1b clades, is highlighting the fact that Belgium is the distinct brother Jokshan, Sheba and Dedan and the Netherlands is the separate and different^^ brother, Midian.

‘Here is breakdown of R1b subclades in Belgium from the Brabant Y-DNA Project. About half of Belgian R1b-P312 belong to the U152(S28) subclade [associated with France, Switzerland and Italy]… with a slightly higher frequency in Wallonia (16%) and Luxembourg (14%) than in Flanders (10%), and it keeps decreasing as one moves north to the southern Netherlands (6%), the central Netherlands (3.5%), and is almost absent from Frisia (1%). A bit over half of U152 in Wallonia and over 80% of U152 in Flanders belong to the L2 subclade. Wallonia seems to have more diversity, with a higher presence of typically Italic/Roman subclades like Z56 and Z192, but also of… Z36. Autosomal ancestry analysis of Belgian individuals who tested with 23andMe shows that Walloons are much more likely than the Flemings to have a small percentage of Italian DNA (typically 2 to 4% + a few more percents of ‘broadly southern European’)…

The Atlantic Celtic R1b-L21 (S145) [M529]lineage, most commonly found in the British Isles, reaches its maximum in the western half of Belgium (10%), including Flemish and Walloon Brabant, then decreases to 7-8% to the east of the country. Its frequency falls to 3-5% in the Netherlands, with little difference nationwide. Most of these lineages are probably of Gaulish [Celtic] origin, although some could have been brought by the Vikings from the British Isles, especially in coastal areas. The Vikings are well known to have taken slaves among the British and Irish populations, which they brought with them to their colonies (e.g. Iceland, Normandy) and back to Scandinavia. Nowadays, over one quarter of Icelandic paternal lineages and half of the maternal lineages descend from those slaves [Scottish and Irish] brought by the Vikings. In Norway the proportion is about 15% and 30% respectively. It would not be surprising if the Vikings also brought slaves to places they founded on the continent, like Bruges, explaining how some typically Scottish or Irish subclades of L21 ended up there.’ 

‘R1a was the other main Indo-European lineage… the (southern) Dutch and the Belgians have considerably lower levels of haplogroup R1a than all the Germans. Over half of the R1a in the Benelux belongs to the West Germanic L664 subclade. Other lineages include the Scandinavian Z284 subclade and the Central/Eastern European lineages M417 and Z280. Only a few R1a samples (from Luxembourg, Utrecht) belonged to the Z2123 subclade of R1a-Z93… One R1a sample from Amsterdam belonged to CTS6, the Jewish subclade of R1a, also under Z93.^

Haplogroup I1, one of the most reliably Germanic lineages, has nearly identical frequencies in Flanders (12%) and Wallonia (10.5%), but is slightly higher in the Netherlands (16.5%), although that is still a far cry from the 35% observed in Scandinavia. Only Luxembourg has [a] surprisingly low frequency of I1 (2.5%)… The Nordic CTS6364 clade (including L22) was found in 18.5% of Dutch and 33% of Belgian I1 samples. The West Germanic Z58 branch accounted for 20% of Belgian samples (Z60>L573, Z138 and Z382 clades), and 63% of Dutch samples. Half of the Dutch Z58 belonged to the Z140 clade, which so far hasn’t been found in Belgium. Z140 is found chiefly in Denmark, the Netherlands and Britain, and to a lower extent Germany. It seems that it is mostly a Frisian and Anglo-Saxon clade***. The rest of Dutch Z58 belonged mostly to Z138 and Z382. The more East Germanic Z63 branch made up 13% and 12% of Belgian and Dutch samples, respectively. Overall, Belgians appear to carry a considerably higher percentage of Nordic/Scandinavian subclades of I1, while the Dutch possess mostly West Germanic clades.^^ This could be explained by the higher percentage of Frankish ancestry in Belgium, since the Franks originated in Denmark. The majority of the Dutch I1 might be native to the Netherlands itself or neighbouring Saxony.’ 

Haplogroup J1 is one of the most common Jewish lineages, alongside E-M34 and J2a1. In the Benelux, J1 was found almost exclusively around Amsterdam and Antwerp, two cities known for welcoming Jewish immigrants in past centuries, while J2 was also higher in both in Holland and in the province of Antwerp. It is therefore likely that the differential of 2% for these lineages in Holland and Antwerp are of Jewish origin.^’

Khazaria, Dutch & Frisian Genetics, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Dutch people live in the northwestern European country called the Netherlands. Traditionally Protestant by religion, they differ from the traditionally Catholic Dutch-speaking Flemings of the Flanders region of Belgium, a neighboring country. From 1815 until 1830, however, both countries were part of a United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and until 1581 the lands were also united.

The Dutch language, with many similarities to English, is part of a linguistic continuum that stretches into northern Germany, as varieties of Low German are distinct from the High German dialects/languages of southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and Luxembourg. The Dutch people are linguistically and culturally distinct from the Frisian people who also inhabit the Netherlands. (Many centuries ago, the Frisians had their own independent country.)

The Dutch people themselves are split into multiple autosomal DNA clusters, with a notable difference between North Dutch and South Dutch people. North Dutch people autosomally cluster close to Frisians, English, and Danes, whereas South Dutch and the Flemish autosomally cluster close to Walloons and West Germans. According to Piotr Kapuscinski, this is caused by the ancient division between North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic) peoples and Wesser-Rhine Germanic (Istvaeonic) peoples, and he notes that North Dutch descend from Frisians, Angles, Saxons, and Norse (all Germanic peoples) whereas South Dutch descend from Celts and Germanic Franks. Therefore, North Dutch and South Dutch don’t cluster close to one another on autosomal plots of population averages.

Genetically, R1b haplogroups are very commonly found in the Y chromosomes of Frisian males just as in the males of other ethnic groups in this geographic region (Atlantic-bordering Europe). As one would expect, participants in the Frisian Waddenproject often have R1b. The “Frisian Modal Haplotype” (FMH), called R1b-8, was discovered by Kenneth Nordtvedt and is tested by looking at only 6 markers. Below R1b-8 on the genetic tree is R-U106, and a level below R-U106 on the tree are subclades including R-L47, R-L48, R-L48x, and R-L148. The primary Frisian Y-DNA haplogroup is the R1b subclade called U106/S21, defined by its mutations U106 (and L48) and negative for P312. It’s coded by Family Tree DNA as haplogroup R1b1b2a1a. U106 is also found among partial descendants of Frisians like English people, as well as in parts of Benelux, Germany, and Denmark. Some other Frisian men have the Y-DNA haplogroup I1 which is most common in Scandinavia. 

“Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:7, multiple authors, (2002): pages 1008-1021. English and Welsh people are among those studied and compared to each other. They also collected samples from Norwegians and Frisians. The Frisian samples came from 94 males who live in Friesland in the northern part of the Netherlands. Excerpt from the Abstract: 

“When we compared our data with an additional 177 samples collected in Friesland and Norway, we found that the Central English and Frisian*** samples were statistically indistinguishable.” Excerpt from the Discussion section: “The best explanation for our findings is that the Anglo-Saxon cultural transition in Central England coincided with a mass immigration from the continent. Such an event would simultaneously explain both the high Central English-Frisian affinity and the low Central English-North Welsh affinity.”’

We will return in subsequent chapters to address the red hair alleles of the Scots, the J1 and J2 Haplogroups of the Jews, the English-Frisian link as well as the English-North Welsh relationship. As of writing, I have not found any substantial material on the Haplogroups for the Afrikaners in South Africa, or the indigenous inhabitants of Brussels, the Leummim. One interpretation of the name Leumm is ‘countries without water.’ Which is interesting, when compared against a landlocked territory, like Brussels. The graph below of regional genetic variation in Belgium reveals the closeness of Brussels to Flanders and Wallonia, yet also their distinctiveness from the Flemish and Walloons.

 

With regard to South Africa we have already covered the Black citizens [refer Chapter XII Canaan] and we can compare with the Y-DNA Haplogroups of the White citizens; which include those of British descent. We will endeavour to obtain a partial picture at least, by isolating out the Black and British elements if possible and with what we learn about the Dutch of the Netherlands. 

The top seven main mtDNA Haplogroups for Iceland, Scandinavia, Benelux and the Netherlands.

Iceland: H [37.7%] – J [13.7%] – T2 [10.1%] – K [9.8%] – U5 [7.7%] –

I [3.9%] – HV [3.6%] 

Norway: H [45.7%] – U5 [11.4%] – J [10.5%] – T2 [7.6%] –

K [5.4%] – HVO+V [ 3.8%] – U4 [2.7%] 

Sweden: H [45.8%] – U5 [12.1%] – J [7.7%] – K [6.4%] –

HVO+V [5%] – T2 [4%] – U4 [3%] 

Denmark: H [47.3%] – J [13.4%] – K [8.9%] – T2 [5.8%] –

U5 [5.8%] – HVO+V [3.6%] – U2 [2.7%]

Belgium & Luxembourg: H [46.9%] – K [12.1] – T2 [9.4%] –

J [6%] – U [5.4%] – U5 [3.4%] – W [3.3%]

Netherlands: H [45%] – T2 [12%] – J [11%] – K [10%] –

HVO+V [8%] – U5 [7.5%] – U4 [6.5%]

                             H       HVO+V      J          K        T2       U4       U5         I

Finland         36             7             6           5         2          1        21          4

Iceland              38             2           14         10       10         3          8          4 

Netherlands     45             8           11          10       12         7          8          3     

Norway             46             4            11           5        8          3         11          2

Sweden             46             5             8           6        4          3         12          3

Denmark          47             4            13          9         6          2          6          2

Benelux            47             3              6         12        9          3          3          2

The six sons of Keturah show a close resemblance in their maternal Haplogroups. Iceland or Ishbak, is the only one that deviates slightly, which we have addressed with their marked high percentage of Scandinavian fathers and Celtic mothers ancestry. 

The addition of Keturah’s possible family’s descendants – from Anar or Ashcol – modern Finland’s mtDNA Haplogroups shows both the plausibility of the previously speculated line of reasoning and at the same time, the variable difference that shows Finland is not a mutual descendant with the other seven nations but rather, their mutual progenitor with their father Abraham. The give away Haplogroups being H and U5.

                                 H     J    T2   U5     K     HVO+V    HV    U4     T1

Switzerland          48   12     9      7       5           5           0.5       3       2

France                   44     8     6     8       9           5              3        3       2

Italy                       40     8     8     5       8           3              3        2       3

Iceland                  38    14  10     8     10           2              2        3    0.5

Netherlands         45    11   12     8     10           8                        7        2

Norway                 46    11    8     11      5            4          0.2        3        1 

Sweden                 46     8    4     12      6            5          0.5        3       3

Denmark              47    13   6       6      9            4                         2       1

Benelux                47      6   9       3    12            3          0.7         3       2  

Comparing Abraham and Keturah’s descendants with Abraham’s brothers, Nahor and Haran highlights the re-occurring genetic relationship amongst cousins, which can be closer, than those between brothers. The Swiss from Haran are aligned more closely in mtDNA with Medan-Denmark than either France from Lot or Italy from Nahor and by degree with also Zimran-Norway and Midian-Netherlands. 

                            H       J      T2      K      HV        U5    HVO+V

Switzerland      48     12      9        5       0.5          7            5

Denmark          47     13       6        9                      6            4

Norway             46     11       8        5      0.2         11            4

Netherlands     45     11      12      10                      8           8

Benelux            47       6        9      12     0.7           3            3

Sweden             46      8       4        6      0.5         12            5

Brazil                 44     11                            2                        11

Portugal            44      7       6        6      0.1           7            5

Spain                 44      7       6        6          1           8           8

France               44     8       6         9         3           8           5

Poland               44     8       7        4                     10           5

Russia               41      8        7        4          2        10           4

Ukraine            39      8        8        5                    10           4

Greece               41    10        7        5                      6           2

Italy                   40     8        8        8         3           5           3

Iceland              38   14       10      10        2           8           2

Romania          37     11        5        8                      7           4

Finland            36      6        2        5                    20           7

Turkey              31      9        4        6         5          3            1

Iran                   17     14        5         7         7          3            1

From the previous chapter: ‘A pattern has emerged showing the percentage levels of the main European mt-DNA Haplogroup H, increasing as one heads west across Europe… Switzerland though, has not fitted into this genetic type as it sits firmly in central Europe. What we will notice as we progress, is that the nations of northwestern Europe – in the main – exhibit higher levels of mtDNA Haplogroup H further north and west; with the Swiss being the first to evidence this fact.’ 

The addition of Keturah’s children proves this correlation to be true, as they now bookend with Switzerland. The exception being Iceland, that has more in common with cousins Nahor-Italy and somewhat surprisingly sitting between Italy and Romania. I have added Finland for the first time since Chapter XXIV Arphaxad, to highlight its unique mtDNA sequence and its complete difference with the other Nordic nations; sandwiched between Romania and Turkey. Its percentage of U5 remaining an anomaly.

Turning to Y-DNA Haplogroups and continuing from the last chapter: ‘“Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.” R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup, in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3% and is carried by over 110 million European men. Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. 

The time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106 (S21) is more frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; R-U198 is prevalent in England, while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula; R-U152 is more frequent in Switzerland, France and Italy, and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from Central Europe westwards.

Turkey and Russia were the first two nations and both have lower levels of R1b, possessing higher levels of other Haplogroups, for instance for Turkey, it is Haplogroup J at 31% and for Russia it is Haplogroups R1a at 46% and N1c1 at 23%. Similarly for Ukraine and Poland where each has R1a at 44% and 58% respectively and Ukraine has  combined Haplogroups I1 and I2 at 26%. 

Italy was the first nation with their main Y-DNA Haplogroup being R1b and shows a marked difference with eastern Europe. The north to south axis is as important as the east to west and this explains why for instance Poland has slightly higher percentages of both clades of R1b than Russia as it is further west. Comparably, the Czech Republic displays a higher level of R-U106 than Italy which is further south; yet less R1b [M269] overall as it is the descendants of Peleg, Aram and the mixed line of Caphtor that have the highest levels of R1b [refer Chapters XV Casluh & Caphtor and XXIII Aram].

The addition of Switzerland and France highlights the north to south and east to west pattern we have noted. The Swiss exhibit higher levels of the Germanic R-U106 as reflected by their geographic position in central Europe; similar with the Czechs. Switzerland’s position northwards of both France and Italy is reflected by their higher level of R-M269. The French and Italians unsurprisingly, share an almost exact measure of R1b M269 and U106.’

Turkey:           R-M269   14% — R-U106   0.4%

Russia:            R-M269   21% — R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269   17% — R-U106      4%

Poland             R-M269   23% — R-U106     8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25% — R-U106     9%

Czech               R-M269   28% — R-U106   14% 

France             R-M269   52% — R-U106     7%

Italy                  R-M269   53% — R-U106    6%

Swiss                R-M269   58% — R-U106   13%

Netherlands    R-M269   54% — R-U106  35%

Denmark         R-M269   34% — R-U106   17%

The Dutch possess a similar percentage of R1b-M269 like their relatives the French, Swiss and Italians. The Germanic clade of R-U106 is especially high in the Netherlands, partially due to the Frisian element of the population. In fact it is a far higher percentage even than in Germany, which is similar to Denmark’s. Denmark exhibits a higher level of R-U106 in keeping with their position in both northern and western Europe. Unexpectedly, the Danish percentage of R-M269 is far lower than 50%. The reason is partially due to the fact that Denmark has a higher percentage of R1a of 15%, compared to say the Netherlands with 4%, and mainly due to the very high percentage of Y-DNA Haplogroup I1 – indicative of northern Europe – at 34%; compared to the Netherlands with 16.5% and France at 9%.

The Y-DNA Haplogroups for the six sons of Abraham and his second wife, Keturah. Belgium’s Haplogroups are near identical to the Flemish percentages; therefore figures are included for both Flanders and Wallonia.

Iceland: R1b [42%] – I1 [ 29%] – R1a [23%] – I2a2 [4%] – N1c1 [1%] – Q [1%] 

Norway: R1b [32%] – I1 [31.5%] – R1a [25.5%] – I2a2 [4.5%] – N1c1 [2.5%] –

G2a [1%] – E1b1b [1%] – Q [1%] – J2 [0.5%] 

Sweden: I1 [37%] – R1b [21.5%] – R1a [16%] – N1c1 [7%] – I2a2 [3.5%] –

E1b1b [3%] – J2 [2.5%] – Q [2.5%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – G2a [1%] 

Denmark: I1 [34%] – R1b [33%] – R1a [15%] – I2a2 [5.5%] – J2 [3%] –

E1b1b [2.5%] – G2a [2.5%] – I2a1 [2%] – N1c1 [1%] – Q [1%] 

Netherlands: R1b [49%] – I1 [16.5%] – I2a2 [6.5%] – G2a [4.5%] – R1a [4%] –

J2 [3.5%] – E1b1b [3.5%] – I2a1 [1%]- T1a [1%] – J1 [0.5%]

Flanders: R1b [61%] – I1 [12%] – E1b1b [5%] – I2a2 [4.5%] – R1a [4%] –

G2a [4%] – J2 [4%] – I2a1 [3%] – J1 [1%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] – L [0.5%] 

Wallonia: R1b [59.5%] – I1 [10.5%] – R1a [7%] – G2a [5.5%] – E1b1b [5.5%] –

I2a2 [4.5%] – T1a [3.5%] – J2 [2%] – I2a1 [1.5%] 

Luxembourg: R1b [60.5%] – J2 [8%] – I2a2 [5.5%] – G2a [5.5%] –

E1b1b [5%] – R1a [2.5%] – I1 [2.5%] – I2a1 [2.5%] – J1 [2.5%] 

                                 R1b      R1a     I1     I2a1     I2a2    E1b1b    J2       J1      G2a    

Finland                     4           5       28                  0.5        0.5                                                                               

Sweden                   22        16        37       2            4            3        3                     1       

Norway                   32        26       32       5            4            1     0.5                     1         

Denmark                33        15        34       2            6            3        3                     3        

Iceland                   42         23       29                     4                                                      

Netherlands          49          4        17        1            7            4         4     0.5          5         

Flanders                 61          4        12        3            5           5          4        1          4         

Wallonia                60          7         11       2            5            6          2                   6         

Luxembourg          61          3          3       3            6            5          8       3          6        

A comparison of the main Y-DNA Haplogroups reveals and supports a number of points. Finland is obviously an outlier; even more apparent than as already shown by its mtDNA Haplogroups. Its percentage of Haplogroup N is extraordinarily high and indicative of a very northerly location in Europe such as the Baltic nations and Russia who border Finland. Finland also shares a very similar and high percentage of Haplogroup I1 shared by all the Nordic nations. The three Scandinavian countries are all uniquely I1 driven, thus explaining the lesser percentages for R1b. 

Even the Netherlands has a relatively high percentage of I1. Sweden shows the impact of mixing and intermarriage with the Finns; whereas, the Norwegians less so. In the past, both Sweden and Iceland very probably had Haplogroup percentages near identical with Norway and Denmark.

The R1b percentages support the premise that Belgium and Luxembourg comprise the descendants of Jokshan; as their levels are all comparable yet distinct from their other five siblings. Jokshan had two sons, Sheba and Dedan had three sons. Thus providing four lines of people and with the other five sons, making a total of nine. Sheba equating to the Flemish, Letush to the Walloons, Leumm to the Brussels Capital region and the Asshurim to Luxembourg. 

                        R1b    E1b1b   J1 & J2   I1 & I2    G2a    R1a    T1a   N1C1

Spain               69          7           10             7            3         2        3

Luxembourg  61          5            11           12            6         3        

Flanders         61           5             5          20            4         4        1            

Wallonia        60           6             2          18            6          7       4            

France             59           8            8          16            6          3        1      

Portugal          56         14           13            7            7          2        3

Brazil               54         11           10            9            5          4      

Switzerland    50           8           4           24           8           4        1        1

N Italy             50         11           12           12           8          5        2

Netherlands   49          4             5          25            5          4        1   

Iceland            42                                      33                      23                  1           

Italy                 39         14           19           10           9          4        3

Denmark        33           3             3           42          3         15                   1              

Norway           32           1             1            41           1        26                   7                

S Italy              28         19          26             7          11          3        3

Sweden           22           3            3           43            1        16                   7       

Turkey             16         11           33             6          11          8        3          

Greece             16         21           26           15           6         12        5  

Romania         16         14           15           34           3         18        1        2

Poland             13          4             3            16           2         58       1        4

Iran                   10          7         32              1          10          16       3        1 

Ukraine             8           7           5            26           3          44       1        6

Russia                6           3           3           20           1           46              23

Finland              4           1                         30                          4              62

Spain remains the bookend for the western most nations of Europe with a high percentage of R1b and Russia at the other end of the nations of Europe with low R1b, is replaced by Finland. This is the final piece of scientific evidence that Finland sits genetically with the nations of eastern Europe and is not a sibling of the other Nordic nations that descend from Abraham. Finland’s high N1C1 and I Haplogroup percentages  cement its eastern position as does its Finno-Ugric language group. 

The Benelux nations of Sheba and Dedan are grouped together as expected and share a sequence similar to related neighbours France; including the Dutch speaking Flemish, which is a surprise. Most people, myself included would have thought a closer affinity to the Netherlands would be confirmed. Interestingly, the Netherlands as Midian is more closely aligned to Haran’s descendants the Swiss. ‘A situation where… cousins [can] exhibit similar traits… [having] more in common… than they have with their own siblings’ due to a closer alignment of the main haplogroups. Iceland remains an anomaly due to its mixed Scandinavian and Celtic ancestry and the three Scandinavian nations, Zimran, Shuah and Medan overall, have as much in common with southern Italy as they do with northern Italy. 

The main Y-DNA Haplogroups for South Africa are: 

E1b1a – R1b – E2 – A1 – B2 – E1b1b – J. The Haplogroups E, B and A are reflective of the Black population; R1b and J of the White people and E1b1b a shared Haplogroup. There is diversity just within the Black population of South Africa as it contains the Bantu, Zulu, Xhosa and Khoisan peoples. 

Khoisan:  E1b1a [36%] – A1 [33%] – E1b1b [15%] – B2 [12%] – E2 [4%]

Xhosa:      E1b1a [54%] – E2 [28%] – A1 [5%] – B2 [5%] – E1b1b [5%]

Bantu:      E1b1a [55%] – E2 [21%] – B2 [11%] – A1 [5%] – E1b1b [4%]

Zulu:         E1b1a [55%] – E2 [21%] – B2 [20%] – A1 [3%] 

White South African: R1b [51.6%] – E1b1b [9.6%] – J [3.8%] – E1b1a [0.6%] – E1a [0.6%]

Netherlands: R1b [49%] – I1 [16.5%] – I2 [7.5%] – J [4%] – E1b1b [3.5%] 

Disregarding the British factor in South Africa for a moment and using the predominant element of the Dutch for White South Africans, we can observe the close similarity between the Haplogroups R1b and J. Haplogroup I was missing from the data available though it would be safe to assume it is quite high amongst the White population as the British descended peoples also possess relatively high percentages. What is of interest, is the higher percentage of E1b1b and is probably attributable to admixture with the indigenous population. 

It may also be a clue to the slightly different composition of the Afrikaner to the native Dutch and whether the Kenite factor is hidden there. The inclusion of E1b1a and the rarer E1a are certainly evidence of mixing between the original and more recent peoples in South Africa. 

Inside the ancestry of South Africa’s Afrikaners, The Conversation, May 21, 2021 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘By comparing the Afrikaners in our study to 1,670 individuals from 32 populations across the world we found that 4.7% of Afrikaner DNA has a non-European origin. That may seem like a small percentage, but 98.7% of the Afrikaners were admixed.

The admixture between European and Khoe-San was more common than church records suggest. In our study, though only 1.3% of Afrikaner genes came from the Khoe-San, most Afrikaners contained some Khoe-San genes.

The highest non-European contribution (1.7%) came from South Asia, or India. This reflects colonial men’s stated preference for marrying freed Indian slaves during the founding years. A little less than 1% of Afrikaner genes have an East Asian (Chinese or Japanese) origin.

The contribution of West and East Africa is the lowest, at 0.8%. This is likely to stem from the almost 18,000 slaves imported from Africa’s west and east coasts. The fraction of genes from West Africa is slightly higher than from East Africa, reflecting the fact that while West African slaves were few, they arrived four generations before slaves from East Africa.

A common perception about Afrikaners is that they stem from very few ancestors, which would have resulted in inbreeding. Inbreeding results in long stretches of the paternal and maternal chromosomes being identical to each other. By looking at the lengths of identical stretches, it is clear that Afrikaners are as variable as the average European. This is in part due to admixture between non-Europeans and Europeans, but also because Europeans came from all over Europe.

The strongest European genetic contribution is from northwestern Europe, with the most similar population being the Swiss German population. This signal could also be interpreted as a mixture between German, Dutch and French populations – as genealogical records indicate.

In conclusion, despite laws prohibiting mixed marriages from as early as 1658, and discrimination that culminated in the apartheid system, these genetic analyses confirm that most Afrikaners have admixed ancestry. Genealogical information has indicated as much, but these genetic findings are irrefutable.’

For now – until an exhaustive study of the Afrikaner in conjunction with the Dutch is available – the true identity of the Dutch Afrikaner remains a tantalising mystery.

It has been said that ‘the people in Europe the most like the English, are the Dutch.’ The close tie between England and the Netherlands is one that will become clearer when we study the United Kingdom. Another saying – and one the Dutch may not be particularly fond, though I do not intend any slight – is that ‘the Dutch are Germans with clogs.’ As we progress, the close relationship between the Dutch and the Deutsch will become apparent. The ancient link between the Hivites and Hittites will be clarified, the inter-changing terms, Midianites and Ishmaelites – and of ‘Arabia’ and the ‘wilderness’ – will be explained, the neighbouring states of the wealthy Etruscans and formidable, militaristic Rome, will leap alive and the true identity of Ishmael will fascinate like no other.

Turn your ear toward wisdom, and stretch your mind toward understanding. Call out for insight, and cry aloud for understanding. Seek it like silver; search for it like hidden treasure. Then you will understand… and discover the knowledge of God. 

Proverbs 2:2-5 Common English Bible

“Let me say to you that truth has always lived with the minority; what the majority says at a given moment is usually wrong.”

Alan Redpath

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Aram & Tyre: Southern Italy, Spain, Portugal & Brazil

Chapter XXIII

The fifth son of Shem is Aram. Aram is the only son of Shem in the Bible, to list Shem’s grandsons. This signifies that they must be identifiable nations and peoples as we learned with the sons of Gomer, Javan and Cush. Though not as disparate or numerous as with Canaan with over forty nations of descent and Mizra with over thirty nations. It is recommended to also read Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor.

Genesis 10:23

English Standard Version

The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

Origin of the Nations, Herman Hoeh – capitals his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Trouble is boiling up in the Middle East. Syria is now the focal point of intrigue [written in 1957]. Where is Syria mentioned in the Bible? Who are the Syrians? The Syrians are the descendants of Aram, a son of Shem. Everywhere in the Old Testament where the word “Syria” or “Syrian” appears in English, the word in Hebrew is Aram or Aramean. The Arameans were called Syrians by the Greeks because they once formed part of the Assyrian Empire dominated by Asshur, the Germanic [rather, Russian] people.’

As discussed, the nation of Syria is an Arab nation and they descend from Ham’s son Mizra. The words Aram and Aramean are translated as Syria and Syrian in the Bible. The sons of Aram, dwelt to the southeast of Asshur in northern Mesopotamia and hence the similar names of Assyria and Syria and some also dwelt to the southwest – near and on the coast of northern Canaan, in juxtaposition to the later Philistines on the southern coast. The sons of Jacob inherited the central coastal region.

‘Now we are about to find an unusual characteristic of the children of Aram. Aram had four sons listed in Genesis 10:23: Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash. Compare this with I Chronicles 1:17. Here the sons of Shem include “Aram, AND Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.” First, notice that the sons of Aram are raised to the level of brothers in I Chronicles 1 – they are on an equal footing with their uncles!* Further, the name Mash is changed into Meshech, because Mash became associated with Meshech, the son of Japheth!’

We will learn that Mash from Aram, is not associated with Meshech descended from Japheth of south central China [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech].

‘Why should these sons be elevated to the position of fathers of distinct peoples? Because the sons of Aram must have possessed extremely divergent characteristics. Here is the proof! Where are the sons of Meshech or Mash today? We ought to find them in Russia, since that is where Meshech the son of Japheth is! And indeed we do find them there! In the far north of European Russia dwell the little-known [contradiction]* Zyrians or Sirians or Syryenians – the name is spelled in half a dozen different ways.

They are related to numerous small tribes*scattered throughout European Russia. And where are the sons of Hul? According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Hul, the brother of Mash, founded Armenia, a land in the Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Sea (Book I, chapter vi, section 4). The Armenians are a very business-like people. Many have migrated to America. The name “Armenian”, like the word “Syryenian” (applied to Mash or Meshech) means a son of Aram, or son of Syria. The ending “-ian” means “son of” in the Armenian tongue!’

We have learned that Gomer and a number of other identities are ascribed to either Armenia or Turkey. So many identities cannot all be Armenian or Turkish. What this shows, is how many diverse peoples at different times, lived at this strategic east-west crossroads in Asia Minor before continuing to migrate. The Armenians and Turks are just the last to arrive and dwell in a region of high migratory activity.

‘Present-day Syria, on the Mediterranean, was founded by Uz, according to Josephus. As the descendants of Gether are nowhere mentioned in prophecy, their movements do not need to be included here. See Josephus’ ANTIQUITIES and the article on “Afghanistan” in the BRITANNICA for their present location. No wonder the sons of Aram were raised to the rank of distinct people. They are extremely divergent in national characteristics. Who would ever guess today that all these people had the same father, Aram?’

As it turns out, these divergent people are not all the sons of Aram. The people previously identified as Canaanites and Javan by Dr Hoeh are in fact Aram. Aram’s four sons are all distinct peoples today, though their Haplogroups reveal they are closely related and not as diverse as proclaimed. Finally, relying on Josephus at best has limited value as he addressed what he understood at the time of his writing and at worst, he fas been found to be less than reliable in numerous instances. Peoples and nations had a long way to travel in their respective migrations before a settled picture could come into somewhat clearer focus from circa 1600 when the American colonies were forming, more specifically by 1870 when the German and Italian states united to form nations and particularly from between 1918 to 1945 with the redrawing of European boundaries.

We have seen how the sons of Shem thus far, are located on the periphery of Europe proper: Lud is Iran, Elam is Turkey and Asshur is Russia. 

The four sons of Aram are similarly located on the outer edges of Europe, in Southern Italy of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, Spain and Portugal on the Iberian Peninsula and stretched across the Atlantic Ocean in Brazil, South America.

In Genesis 25:20, a wife was found for Isaac from Abraham’s brother’s family. This brother had a close association with Aram. Dwelling in the same territory as one of Aram’s sons Uz so that a shared name of Paddan-Aram describes them both. We find in Genesis chapter twenty-two a list of sons, where Uz and Aram are both shared family names. 

Genesis 25:20 

English Standard Version

and Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban [father of Leah and Rachel] the Aramean, to be his wife.

Genesis 22:21-23

English Standard Version

21 Uz [or Huz] his [Nahor’s] firstborn, Buz his brother, Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel.” 23 (Bethuel fathered Rebekah)…

The word Paddan in Hebrew means ‘a field’ or ‘a plain.’ Therefore, the field or plain of Aram. Both of the sons named Uz from Aram and from Nahor, are the firstborn of their brothers.

Jeremiah 25:19-22

English Standard Version

19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, his servants, his officials, all his people, 20 and all the mixed tribes among them; all the kings of the land of Uz [Italy] and all the kings of the land of the Philistines (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod) [Spanish speaking Central and South America]; 21 Edom, Moab, and the sons of Ammon; 22 all the kings of Tyre [Aram], all the kings of Sidon [South Africa}, and the kings of the coastland across the sea [South East Asia];

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Uz in Hebrew means, ‘Contemplation, Inner Strength’, from the verb (‘us), to create inner strength by contemplation.

The name Uz is assigned four times in the Bible:

  • A [firstborn] son of Aram, a son of Shem… (Genesis 10:23).
  • The first-born son of Nahor and Milcah (Genesis 22:21).
  • A descendant of Seir the Horite (Genesis 36:28)…
  • A location… where Job lived (Job 1:1).

The name Uz probably arose in a language other than Hebrew… but spelled as is, it is identical to the verb (‘us) meaning to counsel, regard:

Noun (‘osma) means strength… Adjective (‘asum) means mighty or numerous. Noun (ta’asuma) is a plural and intensive formmeaning might but a whole lot of it.

The very common noun (‘es) means tree (whose fruits proverbially show its “heart”). Collectively, trees are known as (‘esa)… [such as] the cedars of Tyre…

Probably a by-form of the previous, the verb (‘us) means to counsel or regard with deep inner contemplation. To a Hebrew audience the name Uz would have meant Counsel or Contemplation, an interpretation that is confirmed by Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, which reads Counsellor. NOBSE Study Bible Name List takes a different approach and goes possibly through the root (‘sh) that yields the noun (es) meaning tree, wood or timber. Hence NOBSE reads Firmness.’

We will study Italy separately; now looking at the remaining three sons of Aram. Hul, Gether and Mash who none are specifically mentioned again in the Bible, even though they are distinct nations as advocated by Dr Hoeh. Two of the three are prominent and are stated, though with different nomenclature. One is called Tyre throughout the Bible and the other sometimes as Aram or Syria, though invariably as Damascus. Damascus was the capital of Aram which included primarily the descendants of Gether and today  are the Spanish. Hul and principally Mash or Meshech, are associated with Tyre. 

Abarim Publications, bold mine:

‘Aram meaning: ‘Elevated, Citadel’ from the verb (rum), to be high.

Altogether, the name Aram or Syria occurs 12 times in the New Testament [Other] Biblical Arams are:

  • A son of Shemer, son of Heber, son of Beriah, son of Asher, the eighth son of Jacob and the second of Zilpah (1 Chronicles 7:34).
  • A district in Gilead (1 Chronicles 2:23).
  • … the King James and the Darby translations list an Aram in the genealogy of Christ, but this Greek Aram is due to an odd transliteration of the Hebrew name Ram. Modern English versions of the Bible speak of Ram (Matthew 1:3, Luke 3:33).

The name Aram comes probably from the common Hebrew verb (rum) meaning to be high, rise up: The verb (rum) means to be high or high up in either a physical, social or even attitudinal sense, and may also refer to the apex in a natural process: the being ripe and ready-for-harvest of fruits. Subsequently, our verb may imply a state beyond ripe (higher than ripe, overripe), which thus refers to rotting and being maggot riddled. This means that to the ancients higher did not simply mean better, and an arrogant political status that was higher than it should be equaled rot and worms (Acts 12:23).

Derived nouns, such as (rum) and related forms, describe height or pride. Noun (ramut) describes some high thing. The noun (‘armon) refers to a society’s apex: a citadel or palace. The noun (re’em) describes the wild ox, which was named possibly for the same reason why we moderns call a rising market a “bull” market. The similar verb (ra’am) means to rise.

The noun (‘armon), meaning citadel, is thought to derive from a root (‘rm), which, according to BDB Theological Dictionary, is probably a by-form of the Hebrew verb (rum) and which is identical to our name Aram. The name Aram, in fact, may derive from the idea of a global capital…’

The aspect of being high in altitude is reflected in Spain’s capital Madrid, which averages 646 metres above sea level. This is not necessarily high for a town or city, though it is the highest capital in the world. Parts of Madrid can be 750 meters above sea level. Some have made note of 666 metres for parts of Madrid and the correlation with the number of the Beast. A film incorporating Madrid as the birthplace of the Antichrist was made by Spanish film director Alex de la Iglesia called, The Day of the beast. Notice the reference to the bull, recalling its strong link with the Philistines and still within Spain today. Finally, the idea of a global capital is insightful; remember this when we study Italy in Chapter XXV. One source says Aram can mean a flaming fire. Aram’s capital – mirrored by Spain’s capital Madrid today – is represented by Damascus in the Bible and can also mean a sack of blood. The son of Aram that populates Spain is Gether.

Abarim Publications:

Gether meaning: ‘Winepress Of Vision’, ‘Circle Of The Winepress’ or ‘Fear.’

From (1) the noun (gat), winepress, and (2) the verb (ra’a), to see or understand… and… the verb (tur), to explore or survey… From the verb (gur), to fear. 

Jerome suggests that [Gether] consists of two elements.. The verb (yagan) probably meant to beat or press… The second part of the name Gether, according to Jerome, may come from the verb (ra’a), meaning to see: The verb (ra’a) means to see, and by extension to understand. It may mean to become visible (of, say, an angel) or to become understandable (of, say, a theory). Noun (ro’eh) means either seer, or prophetic vision, and noun (mar’a) means either vision as means of revelation, or mirror.’

The Spanish are known for their wine production.

‘The verb (garar) means to drag or drag away, mostly in a circular or repetitive* motion. The verb (gara) means to strive or agitate strife, obviously not by means of one singular assault but rather by repeated provocations and withdrawals. Noun (tigra) means contention or opposition. Nouns (gor) and (gur) both denote lion cubs. Perhaps young male lions were named after the verb (gur) because they are expelled from the pride and are forced to roam adjacent territories. Perhaps a third identical verb (gur) means to dread, but perhaps it describes dread that is built up over time and from many little threats and suspicions. Nouns (magor) and (megora) mean fear or terror…’

Judges 10:6

New Century Version

Again the Israelites did what the Lord said was wrong. They worshiped Baal and Ashtoreth, the gods of Aram, Sidon, Moab, and Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines. The Israelites left the Lord and stopped serving him.

Judges 18:7 

Bible in Basic English 

Then the five men went on their way and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, living without thought of danger, like the Zidonians, quiet and safe; for they had everything on earth for their needs, and they were far from the Zidonians [South Africa] and had no business with Aram [Spain].

2 Samuel 8:6

English Standard Version

Then David put garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought tribute. And the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.

Isaiah 7:8

New King James Version

For the head of Syria [Aram] is Damascus, And the head of Damascus is Rezin. Within sixty-five years Ephraim will be broken, So that it will not be a people.

Isaiah 9:12

English Standard Version

The Syrians [Spain] on the east and the Philistines [Central and South America] on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.

Isaiah 22:6 

Bible in Basic English

And Elam [Turkey] was armed with arrows, and Aram came on horseback; and the breastplate of Kir [wall of Moab] was uncovered.

2 Kings 16:10

English Standard Version

When King Ahaz [King of Judah] went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, he saw the altar that was at Damascus. And King Ahaz sent to Uriah the priest a model of the altar, and its pattern, exact in all its details.

Jeremiah 49:23

English Standard Version

Concerning Damascus: “Hamath [Nigeria] and Arpad [Ethiopia] are confounded, for they have heard bad news; they melt in fear, they are troubled like the sea that cannot be quiet.

Ezekiel 27:18-19

New Century Version

“‘People of Damascus became traders for you because you have many good things and great wealth. They traded your goods for wine from Helbon, wool from Zahar, and barrels of wine from Izal. They received wrought iron, cassia, and sugar cane in payment for your good things.

Amos 1:5

Amplified Bible

“I also will break the bar [of the gate] of Damascus, And cut off and destroy the inhabitant from the Valley of Aven (Wickedness), And the ruler who holds the scepter, from Beth-eden (Damascus); And the people of Aram [conquered by the Assyrians] will go into exile to Kir,” [Moab]  Says the Lord.

The reference to the gods of Aram, Baal and Ashteroth, as well as their altar, is the same religion of their neighbours or affiliated peoples. Today, the descendant religion of this ancient false system of worship is the universal church of Catholicism. Notice the Syrians and Philistines in the Bible are linked frequently, just as Spain and Spanish Central and South America are closely linked by history and religion. The Arameans have also had an influential role in the affairs of Ephraim and Judah. Damascus is highlighted as an economic power and Spain historically and today, is one of the biggest economies in the world.

Spain is located on the eastern Iberian Peninsula in south west Europe. The peninsula has witnessed a lot of activity over the centuries with the influx of numerous peoples and empires. The Phoenicians arrived in the ninth century BCE, followed by the Carthaginians, the Greeks and the Romans; with the Romans having a lasting impact on Spain’s culture, naming it Hispania. The invading Visigoths drove out the Romans circa 500 CE. In 711 the Moors, including returning Alans and Vandals [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor] came across the Mediterranean Sea from North Africa and re-conquered most of Spain, naming it al-Andalus – al-An[s] and -[V]Andal’s. They would remain there for hundreds of years until the Europeans retook Spain as part of the Reconquista. 

In 1137, the Kingdom of Aragon was formed and in 1139, the Kingdom of Portugal was established. In 1469, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon married. The infamous Spanish Inquisitions began in 1478 and a year later, the Kingdom of Spain was formed when Isabella and Ferdinand were made King and Queen uniting Aragon and Castile. In 1492, the Reconquista ended with the conquest of Grenada and Columbus [re]discovering the New World, while searching for India – hence the naming of the West Indies.

During the 1500s – the Age of Exploration – Spain became the most powerful country, in Europe and probably the world. Inspired by their North and South American colonies and the great wealth of gold they acquired. A turning point in 1588 was the battle of the world’s two greatest navies, with the British – led by Sir Francis Drake – defeating the Spanish Armada. 

In 1761 Spain joined the Seven Years’ War against their old nemesis Great Britain. In 1808 the Peninsular War was fought against the Napoleon led French Empire and the Spanish American wars of independence began. By 1833 the majority of the Spanish territories in America had gained their independence. The Allies won the Peninsular War in 1814, with Spain being freed from French rule. Spain later lost the Spanish-American war of 1898 and ceded huge territory in the continental United States as well as Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Spain became a republic in 1931 and in 1936, Spain endured a civil war. The nationalist forces won – beating the Republicans – with a General, Francisco Franco becoming leader and a dictatorship lasting until 1975. From 1959, the Spanish miracle, began; a period of economic growth and prosperity. Spain had a GDP of $1.39 trillion in 2019, making it the 14th largest economy in the world by GDP. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Spanish global shipments during 2020.

  1. Vehicles: US$50.3 billion 
  2. Machinery including computers: $22.3 billion
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $17.6 billion 
  4. Mineral fuels including oil: $14.4 billion 
  5. Pharmaceuticals: $14 billion 
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $11.9 billion 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $11.2 billion 
  8. Meat: $9.8 billion 
  9. Vegetables: $8.1 billion 
  10. Articles of iron or steel: $7.4 billion 

Meat was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 23% since 2019. The leading decliner among Spain’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil which fell -29% year over year.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Hul meaning: ‘Circle, Writhing.’ From the verb (hul), to writhe.

The name Hul comes from the root group (hul I & II): Verb (hul I) denotes a whirling in circular motions.* It comes with quite a cluster of derivatives, most notably the noun (hol), meaning sand; the noun (hil), meaning pain so bad that it makes one writhe (specifically childbirth)… Verb (hul II) means to be strong, and the important derived noun (hayil) means might. A by-form of the previous: the verb (halam I) means to be strong.’

Hul’s meaning of strong is similar to Uz, of strength and Hul’s circular motion is the same as for Gether. Both Gether and Hul writhed in motion and gave ‘birth’ to nations. 

Hul identifies with Portugal and it gave birth to the nation Brazil. Brazil equates to the youngest of Aram’s four sons, Mash; specifically addressed as Tyre in the Bible. The Mash or Meshech from Aram does share with Meshech of Japheth, the trait of being part of or compressed with, a larger body of people. Meshech of China, with Tubal and Magog [refer Chapter X]; whereas Mash of Aram is possibly merged with Hul, it certainly has significant numbers of African and American Indian peoples. Prior to that, large numbers emigrated from Italy, their brother Uz to Brazil.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mash meaning: ‘Departed, Drawn Out’ From the verb (mush), to depart, or (masha), to draw out, or (mashak), to draw or drag.’

The definition of mash is highly relevant when viewed in the context of the formation of Brazil.

‘In Genesis 10:23, Mash is listed as a son of Aram, who is a son of Shem… In 1 Chronicles 1:17 the same genealogy occurs, although the various generations are now all listed as sons of Shem. And Mash is called (Meshech). Another man named Meshech is mentioned as a son of Japheth, who is another son of Noah (Genesis 10:2). He is mentioned about half a dozen times in the Bible… and it’s clear that these are the names of nations rather than individuals…

The name (Mash) does not occur as regular word in Hebrew, but it may be viewed as a contraction of the word (mush), meaning depart or remove (or rather: could be viewed as an expansion of an original): The verb (mashash) means to feel; to sense or search for tactilely. This verb has no derivatives but does show up in two alternate forms, namely (mush) and (mish). 

An assumed whole other verb (mush) or (mish) means to depart or remove… Perhaps these two verbs relate in the sweeping or scanning motion* that usually accompanies tactile reconnaissance. This same motion could be applied to describe [as] being footloose or untethered. Verb (nasa’) describes an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it.

Noun (nasi’) describes a lifted-up one, i.e. (1) a captain or chief, or (2) a mist or vapor. Noun (si’) means loftiness or pride [see Aram]. Noun (se’et) means dignity, swelling or outburst, a rising-up. This noun is spelled the same as (she’t), ruin or devastation, from the verb (sha’a), to be noisy or ruinous.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

Tyre meaning: ‘Rock‘ From the noun (sur), rock.

Tyre is the Greek/Latin name for the famous Phoenician city often mentioned together with Sidon (Joshua 10:29). It still exists today, being situated south on the coast of Lebanon,  just north of Israel. Famous Biblical Tyriansare Hiram, the builder of the temple of Solomon, and Jezebel the wife of king Ahab. Another famous Phoenician was Hannibal of Carthage, which was a Tyrian colony.

The name Tyre could be considered a Hebrew equivalent of the Greek name Peter, and when Jesus said that upon this “rock” he would build his church (Matthew 16:18), his original audience doubtlessly remembered how Solomon built the temple of YHWH on the rock of Phoenician knowledge and resources (1 Kings 5:1-12). In New Testament times the city of Tyre was still a booming town (spelled in Greek as, Turos). Jesus referred to it (Matthew 11:21), preached to visitors from it (Luke 6:17) and retreated to its region (Matthew 15:21). The apostle Paul spent seven days there while the ship he was travelling with was unloading…

The Semetic, and thus original, name for Tyre is pronounced Zor or Zur… scholars assume that the Hebrew name for Tyre, equals the regular word (sur) meaning rock (Jeremiah 21:13, Job 14:18). In Deuteronomy 32:31 the author compares the gods of the nations to the living God and says, “Indeed, their rock is not like our Rock”: Verb (sur II) means to confine, secure or besiege. Noun (masor) means siege and (mesura) means stronghold. Verb (sur III) means to be an adversary. Verb (sur IV) means to form or fashion. Noun (sura) means form and noun (sir)means image. Verb (sur V)… probably means to be sharp. 

The important noun (sur) means rock, and is equivalent to the Greek noun (petra), from which comes the name Peter. Verb (sarar I) means to bind… Adjective (sar) means narrow. Nouns (sar) and (sara) mean distress and yield denominative verb (sara), meaning to suffer^ distress. Verb (sarar II) means to show hostility and relates to verb (sur III). Noun (sar) means adversary. Noun (sara)means vexer or rival-wife. Verb (yasar) means to fashion or form… Verb (srh) probably describes the bleeding of an odoriferous tree. Noun (sari) denotes a kind of costly balsam.’

In the future, Tyre will be both powerful and problematic. Especially allied with the Philistines – the Spanish Latino descended nations of Central and South America, particularly Mexico – towards the United States.  

Joshua 19:29

English Standard Version

Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre. Then the boundary turns to Hosah, and it ends at the sea…

1 Kings 7:14

English Standard Version

He was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in bronze. And he was full of wisdom, understanding, and skill for making any work in bronze. He came to King Solomon and did all his work.

2 Chronicles 2:14

English Standard Version

… the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan [brother of Naphtali], and his father was a man of Tyre. He is trained to work in gold, silver, bronze, iron, stone, and wood, and in purple, blue, and crimson fabrics and fine linen, and to do all sorts of engraving and execute any design that may be assigned him, with your craftsmen, the craftsmen of my lord, David your father.

Psalm 87:4

New English Translation

I mention Rahab [Egypt] and Babylon to my followers. Here are Philistia [Spanish Central and South America] and Tyre [Brazil], along with Ethiopia [India]. It is said of them, “This one was born there.”

Isaiah 23:1,8

New King James Version

The burden against Tyre. Wail, you ships of Tarshish! [Japan] For [Tyre] is laid waste, So that there is no house, no harbor; From the land of Cyprus [Indonesia] it is revealed to them. Who has taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, Whose merchants are princes, Whose traders are the honorable of the earth?

Isaiah 23:15-17

Revised Standard Version

15 In that day Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, like the days of one king. At the end of seventy years, it will happen to Tyre as in the song of the harlot: 16 “Take a harp, go about the city, O forgotten harlot! Make sweet melody, sing many songs, that you may be remembered.” 17At the end of seventy years, the Lord will visit Tyre, and she will return to her hire, and will play the harlot with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. 

Jeremiah 47:4 

BBE

Because of the day which is coming with destruction on all the Philistines [Central and South America], cutting off from Tyre [Brazil] and Zidon [South Africa] the last of their helpers: for the Lord will send destruction on the Philistines, the rest of the sea-land of Caphtor.

Joel 3:4

English Standard Version

“What are you to me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the regions of Philistia? Are you paying me back for something? If you are paying me back, I will return your payment on your own head swiftly and speedily.

Zechariah 9:3 

BBE

And Tyre made for herself a strong place, and got together silver like dust and the best gold like the earth of the streets.

Acts 21:3

English Standard Version

When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left we sailed to Syria and landed at Tyre…

Brazil was born in the modern age in the year 1500, when Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral, with thirteen ships and twelve hundred men, discovered Brazil – thinking it was a large island – while on route to India; subsequently claiming the land for Portugal. In 1532, Sao Vicente was established as the first permanent settlement in Brazil by Portuguese explorer Martim Afonso de Sousa. The primary export was sugar. In 1565 the city of Rio de Janeiro was founded. The Dutch established a colony called New Holland on the northwest coast of Brazil in 1640; while Portugal declared its independence from Spain. The following year, Portugal officially took over the territory of New Holland from the Dutch. In 1727, the first coffee bush was planted in Brazil by Francisco de Melo Palheta. Brazil ultimately became the world’s largest producer of coffee. 

Slaves were imported from the Sub-Sahara Western Africa slave trade – as well as the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique in East Africa – to work the fields. Nearly three million slaves were brought from Africa during the three centuries from 1500 to 1800. The Portuguese during this time had defeated the French to re-take Rio de Janeiro and also took control of several Dutch and British outposts. In 1763, the capital city was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janiero.

In 1807, the Portuguese royal family escaped from Napoleon and fled to Brazil. In 1815, the once colony was elevated to a kingdom. Although the king, Dom Joao VI , returned to Portugal in 1821, his son Pedro, remained in Brazil, declaring Brazil’s independence in 1822; after annexing Uruguay as a province in 1821. Pedro I became emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil. In 1824, the first constitution of Brazil was adopted and the fledgling country was recognised by the United States. In 1888, slavery was abolished by the Golden Law – four million slaves being set free. 

In 1889, the short-lived monarchy was overthrown by a military coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca and replaced with a federal republic. Since then, the country has been ruled by elected presidents as well as enduring^ military coups and martial rule.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Brazilian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Oil seeds: US$29 billion 
  2. Ores, slag, ash: $28.9 billion 
  3. Mineral fuels including oil: $24.7 billion 
  4. Meat: $15.8 billion 
  5. Sugar, sugar confectionery: $8.9 billion
  6. Iron, steel: $8.7 billion
  7. Machinery including computers: $8.7 billion 
  8. Vehicles: $6.8 billion 
  9. Cereals: $6.5 billion 
  10. Food industry waste, animal fodder: $6.5 billion 

Sugar plus sugar confectionery was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 64.9% year over year since 2019. In second place for improving export sales was the ores, slag and ash category which rose 14.2% led by iron ores and concentrates. Brazil’s shipments of oil seeds posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 9.8% year over year.’

Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world and is the dominant economic power in South America, with a GDP of $1.84 trillion in 2019. Brazil’s very ‘diversified economy runs the gamut from heavy industries, such as aircraft and automotive production, to mineral and energy resource extraction. It also has a large agricultural sector that makes it a major exporter of coffee and soy beans.’

Brazil has steadily grown in importance as a prime breadbasket of the world; exporting five of the world’s major crops. The country has two key agricultural regions; one in the Southern region which is fertile from higher rainfall and also a drier North Eastern region. The former is responsible for a big percentage of the nation’s grains, oil seeds and export crops while the latter produces its cocoa and tropical fruits. Other important agricultural products in the country include wheat, rice, sugarcane, corn, citrus and beef. Cattle farming in Brazil is massive with millions of tonnes produced yearly, so much so that deforestation of the Amazon Rain forest has become a critical issue. Nether-the-less, Brazil remains the world’s leading meat exporter. Brazil is also the leading sugarcane producer in the world with a total yield of about six hundred million tonnes every year. Amongst the world’s top soybean producers, Brazil is ranked second. The country also produces vast amounts of corn and is the world’s third largest exporter. 

Brazil also ranks highly at number six of the top ten countries with the most natural resources, one spot behind Russia. ‘Brazil possesses commodities worth $21.8 trillion, including gold, iron, oil and uranium. The mining industry focuses on bauxite, copper, gold, iron, and tin.’ Brazil impressively, contains the ‘largest gold and uranium deposits in the world and is the second-largest oil producer.’ Timber remains the country’s most valuable natural resource, which accounts for over 12.3% of the world’s total timber supplies. This has echoes of the Cedars of Lebanon, so important to the Phoenicians of Tyre and the Kingdom of Israel for ship building and subsequent mercantile and commercial trade routes throughout the Mediterranean and well beyond the Pillars of Hercules – the Straits of Gibraltar.

There are two distinct identities for Aram, apart from Uz that is incorporated within southern Italy. The Aram-Damascus component comprised of Gether in Spain and the Hul-Mash descendants of Portugal and Brazil. Aram-Damascus-Gether historically were arch rivals of the sons of Jacob and up until the modern age remained so. Tyre-Mash-Hul had an economic-trading relationship with Israel and that has been mirrored in recent history. We will look at Aram initially and then concentrate on Tyre. The further we go back into pre-history these two identities are blurred, then as we enter the time of Abraham around 2000 BCE, the two begin to become clearer as separate entities. One of the most distinctive identifying points of interest is language. Aramean was one of the most prominent languages amongst the descendants of Shem and today, the descendant romance languages are equally influential and widespread. 

2 Kings 18:26 

English Standard Version

Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebnah, and Joah, said to the Rabshakeh, “Please speak to your servants in Aramaic, for we understand it. Do not speak to us in the language of Judah  [Hebrew] within the hearing of the people who are on the wall.”

The top ten spoken languages in the world today include three romance languages of which Spanish and Portuguese are included. Some of the top ten are obviously included like China, India, the Arab nations, Russia and Indonesia which all have sizeable populations, or influence on near neighbours. Whereas, England, France and especially Spain and Portugal have much smaller populations. Their colonies though have contributed to the volume of people that speak their languages. The ancient world was no different. The ancestors of Spain and Portugal travelled the breadth of the world via mercantile trade and in so doing, spread the Aramaic and Phoenician languages.

World Atlas:

1. English – 1.13 Billion Speakers

2. Mandarin – 1.12 Billion Speakers [China]

3. Hindi – 615 Million Speakers [India]

4. Spanish – 534 Million Speakers

5. French – 280 Million Speakers

6. Standard Arabic – 274 Million Speakers

7. Bengali – 265 Million Speakers [Bangladesh]

8. Russian – 258 Million Speakers

9. Portuguese – 234 Million Speakers

10. Indonesian – 199 Million Speakers

Arameans were distinctively defined by their use of either the West Semitic Old Aramaic Language between 1100 BCE and 200 CE, written using the Phoenician alphabet and also a modified Aramaic alphabet. As early as 900 BCE, Aramaic competed with the East Semitic Akkadian language and script of Assyria and Babylonia; spreading throughout the Middle East. By 800 BCE, Aramaic had become the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire and also ‘during the Achaemenid period as Imperial Aramaic. Although marginalised by Greek in the Hellenistic period, Aramaic in its varying dialects remained unchallenged as the common language of all Semitic peoples of the region until the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the [seventh century CE], when it [was] gradually superseded by Arabic.’ 

The Phoenician language was a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic languages. Its descendant language spoken in the Carthaginian Empire was Punic. Their evolved language descendant surfaced as Latin, from which we derive Italian and French of course. Though it is Spanish, which is the biggest heir to ancient Aramaic; and it is Portuguese that comes from a direct line of descent from the original Phoenician – notice the letter P – from Phoenician to Punic and to Portuguese. 

Who were the Arameans? Is There a Connection Between the Amorites and the Arameans? Daniel Bodi – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In Sumero-Akkadian texts from the period from 2400 to 1600 BCE, Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian amurru occur as a geographical term… In OB times, the Amurru region embraced the great Syrian desert, the Orontes River valley, and the Amanus Mountains. In later Assyrian texts, Amurru was an established name for Syria-Palestine. 

While in the 24th century BCE, Eblaite sources refer to a “king (LUGAL) of Mar-tu,”… the specific reason why the Amorites began migrating to the south-east of Mesopotamia in the course of the 21st century BCE still eludes us. The period stretching from 2000 to 1595 BCE is sometimes called “The Amorite era,” with reference to the political influence assumed by the Amorites and their epigones. During the 17th century BCE the Amorite power began to decline with the final demise experienced under the attacks of the Hittite king Mursili I, around 1595. There is no surviving Babylonian account of the conquest of Babylon by the Hittites. After this date the Amorite kingdoms are replaced by the establishment of new entities directed by new ethnic groups like the Hittites, the Kassites and the Hurrites. In Late Bronze Age, the kingdom of Mittani… also known as Ḫanigalbat and as Nahrin “Rivers” occupied northern Syria, between the Tigris and the Euphrates.’ 

Geographically, the Amorites and the Aramean clans originally occupied the same region. 

Another valuable corpus of texts useful in the reconstruction of the geographic and linguistic continuity between the Amorites and the Arameans is provided by the so-called Suhu texts, from the MB period. Just as with the term Amorite, the term Aram can stand for a toponym, a geographic region in Syria, a conglomerate of tribes, and a language. The earliest attestation of the term Aramu appears as a toponym. The Ebla texts dating from the end of the 3rd millennium BCE mention a toponym a-ra-mu. The Aramean invasions of Mesopotamia from the west began at the latest during the late 2nd millennium BCE and are attested from the time of Tiglath-pileser I (1114-1076 BCE) of Assyria and Marduk-nadin-ahhe (1099-1082 BCE) of Babylonia. 

Ahlamu, forerunners of the Arameans, had been present in Mesopotamia in the Kassite period… The Amorites spoke a language belonging to the Northwest Semitic ones to which Phoenician, Aramaic… represent some chronologically more recent offshoots. There seems to exist a linguistic continuity between the Amorite and the Aramaic languages. R. Zadok has suggested that certain eastern members of the Amorite dialect cluster, which were spoken in the Djezireh and on the fringe of the Syrian desert, were the ancestors of the Aramaic language. 

In the Hebrew Bible there are two examples where two daughters are offered to the same man. First among the patriarchal stories, Laban offered Jacob two daughters for wives, Leah and Rachel, and later Saul offered David likewise his two daughters, first Merab then Michal. The coarse Jacob-Laban story in Genesis 29:26-28, narrates how the former obtained the two sisters Leah and Rachel for wives seems to serve the purpose of showing how the nemesis or divine retribution is at work. 

Jacob cheated his older brother Esau, now he gets cheated in turn by waking up in the morning finding himself in bed with the older daughter Leah while he desired Rachel, the younger one. This patriarchal tradition of incestuous marriages chronologically precedes the strict prohibition of a marriage to two sisters at the same time found in Leviticus 18:18. The law in Leviticus was formulated probably in the Persian times as a reaction to the incestuous marriages of the Persian Achaemenid royalty, where princes married their sisters. 

The ancestors of the Hebrew tribes issued from Laban’s sister Rebekah (with Isaac) and his two daughters Leah and Rachel (with Jacob, Rebekah’s son) lived in paddan-‘aram, an expression to be connected with Akkadian paddanu, padanu “the way, the path,” meaning in this case “the way of the Arameans” 

(Genesis 25:20 “Rebekah [Isaac’s wife], was the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean”; After marrying Rachel and Leah the daughters of Laban the Aramean, Jacob returned to Canaan: Genesis 48:7 [Jacob says] “for when I came from Paddan, Rachel to my sorrow died in the land of Canaan”). 

The incestuous practice of giving two daughters to the same man is attested among the Amorites as the Mari documents show. As R. Zadok suggests, the nucleus of some of the chronologically later Aramean tribes seems to have evolved from the previous conglomerate of the Amorite ones. They both occupied Northern Mesopotamia and thrived in the same geographical area. 

Moreover, scholars are becoming increasingly aware of the similarities in the marriage transactions between the Amorite semi-nomads and the ancient Hebrews. J. Sasson compares the way Isaac obtained Rebekah, Laban’s sister from the “city of Nahor” in Haran, as a spouse as described in Genesis 24:1-27, with the way the Sim’alite Amorite warlord Zimri-Lim negotiated his marriage with Sibtum, the daughter of Yarim-Lim from Ḫalab (Aleppo), by a proxy as described in several cuneiform letters from Mari ARMT XXVI 10; 11; 13. Both marriage transactions share numerous specific details which are best explained as being due to the conservatism of marriage customs in Northern Syria. They tend to confirm the continuity between the Amorite tribes and the Aramean ones… 

Rebekah’s and Sibtu’s betrothals share the following elements: long-distance negotiations by wise servants or ambassadors, rich gifts to the bride and the family of the bride, the veiling of the bride, her own acceptance of her new status, the attachment of maids to her person, the merging of two families, the anxiety of the bride’s family, the long trek back, and the preparation of a chamber for the new mistress of the house. In the case of Jacob being offered two sisters Leah and Rachel as wives, it reflects Laban the Aramean’s indelicate attempt to manipulate and control him. 

As a result of intensive scholarly research on ancient Amorite traditions, history and customs, it has become increasingly evident that there exists a connection and a geographical, historical and linguistic continuity between the OB Amorite nomadic tribes and the MB Aramean ones

The geographic area where the ancient Amorites settled corresponds to the area occupied by the Aramean tribes at the end of the second millennium BCE.’ 

I have included the author’s expose of Jacob and his wives as we will study the family he married into in Chapter XXV Nahor. It is well to remember that the Paddan-Aram of Nahor’s family are distinct from the Arameans of Aram. Abraham’s brother Nahor is represented by the peoples known as Mitanni, as well will uncover. The link between the Amorites of this period and the Arameans is supported in the fact that these Amorites are described in historical sources as including blonds. Therefore, they cannot be the original black peoples descended from Canaan, nor is it likely that they were all Nephilim of similar name. 

The Mitanni empire was composed of different smaller kingdoms spread throughout the land between Anatolia and Babylon [modern Turkey and Iraq]. The Mitanni took control of the Tigris and Euphrates basin after the fall of Amorite [Aramean] Babylon to the Hittite King Mursili I circa 1595 BCE and the Kassites in turn ruled the fallen Babylon. The Mitanni had good relations with the Kassites and Hurrians. The Hurrians we will learn, are descendants of Abraham’s other brother, Haran. Notice the word Hur-[ri]-an contains Haran, their original forefather within its spelling. We will explore this relationship further when we study Abraham’s brothers in Chapters XXV and XXVI. After the Battle of Megiddo circa 1482-1457 BCE, Egypt and the Mitanni fought each other relentlessly. This was mirrored, when the Visi-goths of Gether clashed with the Alans, Vandals, Moors of Casluh and Caphtor – the Philistines – centuries later.

Prior to this, the Hurrians had been based in the region surrounding Urkesh – northern Ur, not Ur in southern Mesopotamia near Babylon – and Arrapha. They appear to have formed a successful relationship with the Mitanni circa 1600 BCE. The Hurrian warrior nobility enabled the combined peoples to coalesce into a feudal state, that by 1500 BCE were dominating their neighbours. By 1420 BCE the domain of the Mitanni king Saustatar stretched from the Mediterranean all the way to the northern Zagros Mountains, in western Iran. Saustatar ‘sacked the Assyrian capital of Assur, and humiliated its inhabitants by sending the doors of the city’s famous temple to Wassukanni, the capital of Mitanni.’ This led to a cease fire between Egypt and the Mitanni kingdom and an alliance was forged between the next king of Mitanni, Artatama I who succeeded Saustatar and the Egyptians. 

Wassukanni is thought to be Tell al-Fakhariyeh in present day Syria. The pharaohs of Egypt called the Mitanni region, Naharina – also Nahrin and Maryannu – after the Assyro-Akkadian word for river. Notice the word Nahar-ina has Nahor, their original progenitor within its spelling. The Me-ta-ni region was also known as  Aram-Naharaim – Rivers of Syria. Assyrians, always referred to Mitanni as Hanigalbat or Hani-Rabbat and the Hittites – a related people – used the appellation Hurri. ‘The earliest attestation of the term Hanigalbat can be read in Akkadian within the “Annals of Hattusili I” (circa 1650-1620 BCE) along with the Hittite version mentioning “the Hurrian enemy”.’

The combined Hurrite-Mitanni kingdom was a regional power from circa 1500 – 1300 BCE. The Hurrians were gradually overshadowed by the Hittites on the west and the Assyrians to the east and weakened by internal strife; while the Mitanni kingdom was relegated to province status and a pawn within the Middle Assyrian Empire.The people of Mitanni have been incorrectly linked by some scholars with the Gutians, of Gether the previous millennia. 

We have spoken of the Guti previously, regarding the four king alliance with Chedorlaomer of Elam [refer Chapter XIX]. The fourth King, Tidal king of Nations was a king of the Gutium not of Assyria as some Biblical researchers propose. The Gutians early history is as mysterious as is the subsequent Mitanni’s. The Guti had lived in the Zagros Mountain range and had gradually settled in increasing numbers in Akkad and Sumer. Then circa 2200 BCE, had swept down in force; defeating the Akkadian Empire and subjugating most of Sumer, ruling for about a century before being driven west.

Going forward two thousand years, the ‘Germanic’ Visigoths were the Western Got-h-s,  the descendants of the Gut-i from Geth-er separated from their Ostrogothic brethren in the Italian Peninsula by the divisions of their peoples circa 270 CE. 

The Visigoth kingdom had been based north of the Danube, in the region of modern Bulgaria and Romania and was created with the consent of Rome. Later, falling out with Rome, the Goths after a sojourn via Scandinavia established their own kingdom with a capital in Tolosa, modern day Toulouse and the province of Gallia Aquitania in south western Gaul. The Goths then forced out the Alani and Vandali [Alans and Vandals] from the Iberian Peninsula, when they migrated southwards into Hispania. The Visigoth Kingdom lasted from 418-711 CE. In 507, they were defeated – and their King Alaric II was killed in battle – by the Franks, led by Clovis I. The Visigoths were then hedged in and limited to, Hispania – with the Kingdom of the Suebi in north eastern Iberia – remaining south of the Pyrenees. It is probable that the word Goth is a derivative name, for the Gut-ones, a people that migrated from Scandinavia as well as from Geth-er.

In the modern era, ‘Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, spawning a large cultural and linguistic legacy.’The origins of the Roman name Hispania and the modern Espana are presumed to have derived, from the Phoenician and Carthaginian reference to the region as Spania, or from the Iberian word Hispalis meaning ‘city of the western world.’ The root of the Phoenician term span means to forge metals, thus i-spn-ya would mean, ‘the land where metals are forged.’ Another plausible explanation is the the claim that Hispania derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning ‘edge, border,’ a reference to the Iberian Peninsula constituting the southwest corner of the continent of Europe.

In 1492, ‘the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781 year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.’ The Austrian Hapsburg monarchy that ruled Spain,was one of the leading world powers throughout the [1500s] and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world’s leading maritime power.’ Spain achieved the first circumnavigation of the world in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. ‘It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs – Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II  (1556–1598).’ 

The current population of Spain is 46,781,945 people. The PLVS VLTRA on the Spanish flag means ‘further beyond’ in Latin. In the context of the coat of arms of Spain, it means beyond the Straits of Gibraltar, referring to the Americas and the former Spanish territories and to go beyond.

The word Canaan, with regard to the land of [pronounced keinan since circa 1500, due to the Great Vowel Shift beginning in southern England] comes from the Hebrew knʿn and the Greek Χανααν, Khanaan. 

It appears as ki-na-ah-na in the Amarna Letters [14th century BCE], and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium. The etymology is uncertain, though the term derives from the Semitic root knʿ ‘to be low, humble, subjugated’ as studied in Chapter XII. Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of lowlands, in contrast with Aram, who was located further east inland at higher altitude, in the highlands. Ephraim Avigdor Speiser in 1936 alternatively suggests, the term derives from the Hurrian, Kinahhu, purportedly referring to the colour purple; thus Canaan and Phoenicia would be synonyms for the Land of Purple, as previously discussed. 

‘Tablets found in the Hurrian city of Nuzi in the early 20th century appear to use the term Kinahnu as a synonym for red or purple dye, laboriously produced by the Kassite rulers of Babylon from murex molluscs as early as 1600 BC and on the Mediterranean coast by the Phoenicians from a byproduct of glassmaking.’ The Purple cloth of Tyre was a renowned Canaanite export mentioned in the Book of Exodus and the Romans attached nobility and royalty to it.

‘In 2003, Christine Marie Thompson identified the Cisjordan Corpus, a concentration of hacksilber hoards in Israel and Palestine.’ The hoards are all silver dominant; with the largest hoard found at Eshtemo’a, present-day as-Samu and contained 26 kg of silver. In this geographical region that was part of Phoenicia, the hoards date to circa 1200–800 BCE. There is no other known concentration of silver hoards in the Mediterranean and its date range overlaps with the reigns of King Solomon of 970 to 930 BCE and  that of Hiram of Tyre between 980 and 947 BCE.

The Hacksilber objects in these Phoenician hoards, have lead isotope ratios that match ores in the silver producing regions of Sardinia and Spain. Anciently, the island of Sardinia was associated with metal trading and was also called by the ancient Greeks as ‘Argyrophleps nesos’, Island of the silver veins. The Hacksilber evidence confirms what Homer and the Greek historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus all stated; that the Phoenicians were exploiting the metals in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic, prior to making them permanent colonies. Before the Phoenicians, Tarshish had dwelt in the same Mediterranean locations and similarly traded [refer Chapter IX Tarshish].

For the Phoenicians to successfully travel and trade, they needed the best ships.* From 1200 BCEthe Phoenicians built large merchant ships and developed the Keel on the underside of the hull for ocean going stability. Pegged mortise and tenon joints proved  an innovative forefront adaption for hundreds of years. The Phoenicians were possibly the first to introduce the bireme – two decks of oars, around 700 BCE – also used by the Greeks and Assyrians. An Assyrian account describes Phoenicians evading capture with these ships. The Phoenicians are also credited with inventing the trireme; regarded as the most advanced and powerful vessel in the ancient Mediterranean world, again adopted by the Greeks and Romans.

The Phoenicians developed several maritime inventions. The amphora, a type of container used for both dry and liquid goods which became a standardised measurement of volume for nearly two thousand years. The remnants of self-cleaning artificial harbours have been discovered in Sidon, Tyre, Atlit and Acre.  

Carthage

The first example of admiralty law appears in the Levant at this time and the Phoenicians also contributed greatly to cartography in succeeding centuries. In modern times, the Portuguese and Spanish – ‘Phoenicians’ [Hul and Mash] and ‘Arameans’ [Gether] – were many decades ahead of the Dutch, French and British who also all developed successful merchant and military navies.

Thought Co, N S Gill, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

Phoenicians from Tyre (Lebanon) founded Carthage, an ancient city-state in the area that is modern Tunisia. Carthage became a major economic and political power in the Mediterranean fighting over territory in Sicily with the Greeks and Romans. Eventually, Carthage fell to the Romans, but it took three wars. The Romans destroyed Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War, but then rebuilt it as a new Carthage. Although Alpha and Beta are Greek letters that give us our word alphabet, the alphabet itself comes from the Phoenicians, at least conventionally. Greek myth and legend credit the dragon-teeth-sowing Phoenician Cadmus as not only founding the Boeotian Greek city of Thebes but bringing the letters with him. 

The 22-letter abecedary of the Phoenicians contained only consonants, some of which had no equivalent in Greek. So the Greeks substituted their vowels for the unused letters. Some say that without the vowels, it was not an alphabet. If vowels aren’t required, Egypt can also make a claim for the earliest alphabet. Were this the only contribution of the Phoenicians, their place in history would be assured, but they did more. So much, it seems as though jealousy prompted the Romans to set out to annihilate them in 146 B.C. when they razed Carthage and were [rumoured] to have salted its earth.’

The Phoenicians are also credited with:

  • Inventing glass.
  • The bireme (two tiers of oars) galley.
  • The luxurious purple dye… known as Tyrian.
  • Circumnavigating Africa.
  • Navigating by the stars. 

The Phoenicians were merchants who developed an extensive empire almost as a by-product of their quality merchandise and trading routes. They are believed to have gone as far as England to buy Cornish tin, but they started in Tyre, in an area now part of Lebanon, and expanded. 

By the time the Greeks were colonizing Syracuse and the rest of Sicily, the Phoenicians were already (9th century B.C.) a major power in the middle of the Mediterranean. The principal city of the Phoenicians, Carthage, was located near modern Tunis, on a promontory on the Northern Coast of Africa. It was a prime spot for access to all areas of the “known world.”

The people of Carthage seem more primitive compared to modern sensibilities than the Romans or Greeks for one main reason: They are said to have sacrificed humans, babies, and toddlers (possibly their first born to “ensure” fertility). Unlike the Romans of their time, the leaders of Carthage hired mercenary soldiers and had a capable navy. 

They were extremely adept at trade, a fact that allowed them to rebuild a profitable economy even after the setbacks of military defeat during the Punic Wars, which included a yearly tribute to Rome of almost 10 tons of silver. Such wealth allowed them to have paved streets and multi-story homes, compared with which proud Rome looked shabby. According to Polybius (born circa 204 B.C.), the Greek historian Timaeus of Tauromenion (circa 357-260 B.C.), dated the founding of Carthage to 814 or 813 B.C.’

The author raises two salient points that show the link between the Phoenicians and their descendants, the Portuguese of Portugal and Brazil. The correlation of Greek stemming from Portuguese has been replicated with Latin deriving from Phoenician-Punic and then giving rise to the Romance languages. We will discover that the Greeks modern day descendants also speak a Romance language and are bound in language to the Portuguese as they were anciently. The Phoenicians like the Portuguese after them, were adept traders and capable ship builders, even possessing a Navy, though they were not imperialistic militarily and did not maintain an army or seek to fight wars.  

The story of the Phoenicians is one of two halves, east and west. In the east with the rise of the merchant traders of Tyre and the other Phoenician coasals cities; then west, in Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain and particularly Carthage. Carthage was an excellent location for commanding Mediterranean mercantile trade routes. It was halfway along the North African coast, perfectly situated for facilitating the commercial and mining transactions in copper and silver between the rich mines of Spain or Britain and the empires of the Eastern Mediterranean. It is a glaringly obvious replication when twenty-three centuries later, we see the east to west transference again; from Portugal of the Iberian Peninsula to Brazil in South America.

The Phoenicians: Mysterious Merchant Mariners Whose Inventions Impacted the World Forever, Dhwty, 2019 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Phoenicians were an ancient people who once ruled the Mediterranean. Despite little being known about them as very few of their inscriptions have survived, their legacy has had an enormous impact on the world, which is still felt today.

Scholars have speculated that the Phoenicians referred to themselves as ‘Kena’ani’ (‘Kinahna’ in Akkadian, or ‘Canaanite’ in English). Interestingly, in Hebrew, this word also meant ‘merchant’, which is an apt description of the Phoenicians. The term ‘Phoenicians’, however, is commonly used today, as it was the Greeks who called these people by this name. The ancient Greeks referred to the land of the Phoenicians as ‘Phoiniki’, which is derived from the Egyptian ‘Fnkhw’, meaning ‘Syrian’. The Greek ‘Phoiniki’ is phonetically similar to their word for the color purple or crimson (‘phoinix’). This is due to the fact that one of the most valuable objects produced and exported by the Phoenicians was a dye known as Tyrian purple. Thus, the Phoenicians were known also as the ‘Purple People’.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Phoenicians were originally from the Red Sea area, but later emigrated to and settled along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. Archaeologists today, however, regard Herodotus’ account of the Phoenicians’ origins as a myth. In addition, there is a lack of evidence to support the claims that the Phoenicians emigrated to the eastern Mediterranean from other areas of the ancient world. Instead, it is accepted that the Phoenicians were originally from the eastern Mediterranean and may have developed from the Ghassulian culture, which is an archaeological stage in southern Palestine dating to the Middle Chalcolithic period, i.e. the 4th millennium BC.

The Phoenicians flourished during the 1st millennium BC. During that time, there were other Canaanite cultures inhabiting the region as well, and archaeologists are unable to differentiate between the Phoenicians and these other cultures in terms of material culture, language and religious beliefs. This is due to the fact that the Phoenicians were themselves Canaanites [as in inhabitants of the region not blood relatives of the original son of Ham, Canaan].’

There were other peoples and cultures in the densely populated and very popular land of Canaan. Other sons of Aram, the sons of Isaac, the sons of Lot and further sons of Abraham as well as the odd Elioud giant or two. None of these peoples – like the Phoenicians – were Canaanites by race, only by their residency in the land of Canaan. This is an extremely important point to comprehend. The belief that all these peoples were Canaanites, has blurred and blinded the endeavour to actually identify all these distinct peoples.

‘Glass was already being produced by other civilizations including the Mesopotamians and Egyptians. The glass produced by these civilizations was colored and it is speculated that the Phoenicians were the first ones to produce transparent glass. Yet another produce of Phoenicia was cedar wood, which the region is famous for, as far back as the Mesopotamian period. One of the main consumers of cedar wood during the 1st millennium BC was Egypt, as the demand for wood by the Egyptians was greater than the local supply. Therefore, cedar wood was imported into Egypt from Phoenicia. During the 14th century BC, for instance, the Phoenicians paid tribute to Egypt by offering cedar wood, as attested in the Amarna Letters. 

We do not know to whether the Phoenicians had a shared identity and if they considered themselves as a single nation. Nevertheless, we do know that they established city states which were politically independent. It seems that each city state was ruled by a monarch, whose power was limited by a powerful oligarchy. In addition, there is no evidence that the cities banded together into a federation. Instead, they operated independently. Among the most notable Phoenician city states were Tyre, Sidon and Byblos. 

Byblos (known today in Arabic as Jbail) is located about 30 kilometers (20 miles) to the north of modern day Beirut. Byblos is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world… Like Byblos, Sidon (known today in Arabic as Saida) was already an ancient city by the time it became an independent city state. Sidon was established during the 3rd millennium BC and prospered in the following millennium as a result of trade. On the other hand, Tyre (known today in Arabic as Sur) was probably originally founded as a colony of Sidon. In time, Tyre surpassed Sidon as the most important Phoenician city state as it traded and established its own colonies in other parts of the Mediterranean. According to tradition, the famous city of Carthage was established as a colony of Tyre in 814 BC. Both Sidon and Tyre are also mentioned frequently in the Old Testament. For instance, the king of Tyre, Hiram, is recorded as providing Solomon the materials required for building the temple in Jerusalem. 

One of the major battles of Alexander’s campaign against the Persian Empire was the Siege of Tyre, which occurred in 332 BC.’

The early history of Sidon is difficult to ascertain. It may have well founded Tyre. The important point is that in time, Sidon though ‘Phoenician’ was peopled by different people to the Arameans of Tyre. We have studied Sidon briefly in Chapter XII Canaan, regarding Canaan’s descendants. We will also investigate the British descended peoples  as well as the Dutch Afrikaners. It is these ‘Dutch’ ancestors that became the prominent peoples of Sidon and are also called ‘Phoenicians.’ Again, their primary endeavour as was Tyre’s was to create wealth through trade and not a conventional empire. This was replicated by the Dutch millennia later, just like the Portuguese. Spain tellingly on the other hand was intent on building an empire and derived its wealth accordingly. To be clear, the Phoenicians were the Hul-Mash line of Aram – Portugal and Brazil – and the Syrians of Damascus were the Gether line of Aram – Spain. The Uz line of Aram blended with Nahor’s children and we will investigate them separately.  

The southwest of Iberia was already a very old Roman province – founded in 27 BCE – when it was invaded in the fifth century. Named Lusitania after the Lusitani people, it comprised much of the southern half of modern Portugal and the westernmost parts of modern Spain. The peninsula was successively invaded by the Vandali – the Vandals and Alans of Caphtor and Casluh, the Philistines – and the Suevi from Hul and Mash of Aram and then by the Goths of Gether from Aram. 

Portugal itself first emerged as a march, border county of the kingdom of Asturias in 868 CE. It was one of the few areas not fully conquered by the Umayyad Moors; though Portugal became a vassal of the Kingdom of Leon. It slowly grew in strength and in 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal. Portugal subsequently broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia in 1095.

Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself King of Portugal in 1139. Eventually in 1179 a papal bull officially recognised Afonso I as king. The Algarve was fully reconquered from the Moors in 1249 and in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. In 1373 Portugal formed an alliance with England: 

‘… which is the longest-standing alliance in the world. Over time, this went far beyond geo-political and military cooperation (protecting both nations’ interests in Africa, the Americas and Asia against French, Spanish and Dutch rivals) and maintained strong trade and cultural ties between the two old European allies.’ 

This alliance was ratified by the Treaty of Windsor in 1386 and has continued until the present day. When we study the identity of the four peoples of the United Kingdom, we will appreciate that it is more than a passing coincidence of the significance of this alliance between the modern Phoenicians and England. The early genesis of the Portuguese Empire began when the Portuguese Armada sailed to the rich Islamic region of Ceuta in North Africa in 1415. The decisive event though was when Portuguese explorer, Bartolomeu Dias discovered the southernmost part of Africa in 1487 – the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, modern day Sidon.

The Age of Discovery of European nations, venturing outside the Mediterranean began with Portugal, the modern day Phoenicians. During the 1400s and 1500s, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power, building a vast global maritime and commercial empire – economically, politically and culturally to rival England, France and Spain. Though Portugal was not a power within European affairs, its worldwide colonies and trade were supreme, founded on a strong thalassocracy.

A thalassocracy or thalattocracy meaning, a sea power:

‘… is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.Traditional thalassocracies seldom dominate interiors, even in their home territories. Examples of this were the  Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon and Carthage and the Italian maritime republics of Venice and Genoa. The Ancient Greeks first used the word thalassocracy to describe the government of the Minoan civilisation [Philistines], whose power depended on its navy. Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter* ship, the caravel, which could sail farther and faster,and, above all, was highly maneuverable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind.’

The Portuguese discovered the valuable Spice Islands of Indonesia and Malaysia in 1512, landing in China a year later. In 1513, Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, reaching the ‘other sea’ from the New World. Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one year span. ‘East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian [Spanish] expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and later by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastian Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world.’

Joao Rodrigues Cabrilho, was a Portuguese navigator who sailed for the Spanish Crown and was the first European to set foot in California, landing on the shore of San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542; claiming California for Spain. In 1543, the arrival of the Portuguese to Japan initiated the Nanban trade period, where the Japanese adopted several technologies and cultural practices, such as European styled ships. When the Chinese banned direct trade by Chinese merchants with Japan, the Portuguese filled this commercial vacuum as intermediaries between China and Japan.  

The Portuguese bought Chinese silk, selling it to the Japanese in return for Japanese mined silver. Silver was very highly valued in China, so that the Portuguese could use Japanese silver to buy even larger stocks of Chinese silk. By 1573, when the Spanish established a trading base in Manila, the Portuguese intermediary trade was ended because of China’s new source of incoming silver originating from the Spanish Americas.

By the 1600 and 1700s, Portugal retained most of its colonies, though had gradually lost its competitive edge in wealth as the Dutch, French and English, from 1495 entered and dominated the respective spice and slave trades. Portugal was progressively weakened by a series of events, beginning with Spain’s abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada; for Portugal was in an uncomfortable dynamic union with Spain and contributed many ships to the Spanish invasion fleet. The country  then suffered further setback when the destruction of much of its capital city occurred during an earthquake in 1755. The occupation by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent loss of its largest and prized colony Brazil, in 1822 was decisive. Finally, from the middle of the 1800s to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil or the United States. Today, Portugal has a declining population that currently stands at 10,151,779 people.

Many propose that Portugal derived its name from the Callaeci people of Calle. The Romans built a port at the mouth of the Douro, which they called Portus Calle in 200 BCE, after defeating the Carthaginians. Portus became Porto [Oporto] and Calle became Galle. Cale or Caileach was the name of a Celtic deity. Port of Cale became Portucale and by the seventh century, Portugale and finally by the eleventh century Portugal. The Celtic word cale or cala meant ‘port, an inlet’ or ‘harbour.’ It is probable that Galacia in Spain has derived from Callaeci and Gallaeci[a].

Some scholars ‘propose that the Celtic branches [P-Celtic and Q-Celtic] all share the same origin, and place names such as Cale, Gal, Gaia, Calais, Galatia, Galicia, Gaul… all stem from one linguistic root.’ Certain French scholars support the belief that the name may have come from Portus Gallus, the Port of the Gauls. In this, there may be the truth. Gael and Gaul may be linked as in the ‘Port of the Gael.’ It is very possible that the Callaeci or Gallae-ci were originally Gaels. The Gaels eventually left Portugal and migrated to Ireland. We will return to this journey in detail.

The word Brazil is linked with the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once was plentiful along the Brazilian coast.In Portuguese, brazilwood is pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology ‘red like an ember’, formed from brasa [ember] and the suffix -il [from -iculum or -ilium]. Brazilwood produces a deep red dye and was highly valued by the European textile industry. It was the ‘earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.’ Not a coincidence, that the Phoenicians were famous for their purple dye over 2,500 years earlier. Throughout the 16th century, huge amounts of brazilwood were harvested along the Brazilian coast. The official Portuguese name in original Portuguese records was the Land of the Holy Cross [Terra da Santa Cruz].Sailors and merchants called it simply the Land of Brazil [Terra do Brasil] due to the brazilwood trade. 

The Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in South America and in Latin America, with 214,915,961 people. Brazil is the world’s fifth largest country by area and the sixth most populous. The federation is composed of the union of twenty-six states. Brazil is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations in the world.

Brazil is a regional and middle power in international affairs. ‘On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging, potential superpower. A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be – or to have the potential to soon become – a superpower.’

The United States once a superpower is now a hyperpower – one that dominates all other states in military, culture, economy, technology and diplomacy. Several nation states are potential superpowers, though all have aspects that may hinder them attaining superpower status. They include the European Union and the BRIC economies of Brazil [Tyre-Mash-Aram], Russia [Asshur], India [Cush] and China [Magog, Tubal and Meshech]. Japan [Tarshish] is labeled a cultural superpower due to the large scale influence of Japanese popular culture. Its status as a potential superpower has eroded due to an ageing, declining population since the 1990s and lack of substantial economic growth since the 1980s. 

Brazil as Tyre in the bible will ultimately become an economic world powerhouse, if not necessarily a political or military superpower. An article in The Diplomatic Courier, by former British Ambassador to Brazil, Peter Collecott, ‘identifies that Brazil’s recognition as a potential superpower largely stems from its own national identity and ambition. Collecott points out that for the past two hundred years Brazil has sought to emerge as a serious global economic and political power, a position “that [Brazil] instinctively feels is her due.”’

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In his 2014 publication, The BRICs Superpower Challenge: Foreign and Security Policy Analysis, professor Kwang Ho Chun carefully assesses the likelihood of the BRICs countries [Brazil, Russia, India, China] attaining the status of superpowers. Regarding Brazil, Kwang Ho Chun highlights that the country possesses enormous and almost untouched “strategic” natural resources, including valuable minerals, a tenth of the world’s fresh waterand Earth’s largest remaining rainforest. Because of this, Kwang Ho Chun feels it is likely that Brazil could gain a dominant role in international relations, especially when it comes to environmental issues. This soft power influence is further enhanced by Brazil’s policy makers seeking to engage in as many international organizations as possible and forming alliances, most notably on social, diplomatic and economic issues.’

These traits and aspirations mirror ancient Tyre closely, as a state with considerable global economic influence and power. Brazil this century, could quite possibly challenge Germany, 4th; Japan, 3rd; and China for number two ranking of largest world economy.

‘Despite its economic potential and Brazil’s “self-image as a country with a great destiny,” Kwang Ho Chun believes that the country “falls far short of the levels required for a superpower.” Supporting his belief, he emphasises Brazil’s apparent lack of “traditional hard power” (i.e. military power and global security influence) as a major obstacle. Kwang Ho Chun writes that Brazil has “little incentive to invest in its military” as “the country developed in an environment with hardly any inter-state security threats”, therefore Brazil “may never be in a position to accumulate enough influence on global security matters to meet the criteria of being a superpower.”Instead, Ho Chun feels that Brazil will emerge as a great power with an important position in some spheres of influence but limited in others such as international security.’ 

This is insightful, as again it describes ancient Tyre. Its military was simply to defend its  ‘Rock-island’ isolation position. Tyre was not interested in becoming an imperialistic military empire, as Brazil seeks economic influence over military power.  

The motto of the Brazil flag: Order and Progress

According to the Brazilian National Research by Household Sample [PNAD] of 2008: 48.43% of the population, approximately 104 million people, described themselves as White; 43.80% or 94 million as Pardo or Brown; 6.84% or 15 million as Black; 0.58% or 1.2 million as Asian; 0.28% or approximately 599,000 people as Amerindian [officially called Indigena or Indigenous]; and 0.07% or approximately 150,000 people did not state their race.

It is probable that some people have self identified as white, when in fact they are mixed, even slightly and then a certain proportion of those who claim to be brown may be mixed in varying degree and are more white^^ than brown. Thus the figure for White people may be higher than forty-eight percent and for ‘Brown’ people lower than forty-three percent. As we have studied the Amerindian Haplogroups in Chapter II Tiras and the African in Chapter XII Canaan, we will concentrate on the people descended from Aram. 

It is challenging finding up-to-date comprehensive research on the White population of Brazil, though what is available shows they are unsurprisingly, most similar to the Portuguese and then southern Italians, though a closer inspection shows they also have common ground with the Catalonians of north eastern Spain.

The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages, multiple authors, 2000 – emphasis & bold mine:

Brazilians form one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world, the result of 5 centuries of interethnic crosses between peoples from three continents: the European colonizers, represented mainly by the Portuguese; African slaves; and the autochthonous Amerindians. When the Portuguese arrived, exactly 500 years ago, there were ~ 2.5 million indigenous people living in the area of what is now Brazil. The Portuguese-Amerindian admixture started soon after the arrival of the first colonizers. Mating between European men and indigenous women became commonplace and later (after 1755) was even encouraged as a strategy for population growth and colonial occupation of the country.’ 

‘The Amerindian tribes underwent a drastic demographic decline due to conflicts with the European colonizers and diseases to which they were not adapted. Today [2000] there are ~ 326,000 Amerindians in Brazil, living on land set aside for them by the federal government. Africans were introduced beginning in the middle of the 16th century, brought to Brazil as slaves to work on sugarcane farms and, later, in the gold and diamond mines and on coffee plantations. Historical records suggest that between 1551 and 1850 (when the slave trade was abolished), ~ 3.5 million Africans arrived in Brazil. As to the European immigration, it is estimated that ~ 500,000 Portuguese arrived in the country between 1500 and 1808. From then on, after the Brazilian ports were legally opened to all friendly nations, Brazil received increasing numbers of immigrants from several parts of the world.’ 

Portugal remained by far the most important source of migrants, followed by Italy, Spain, and Germany. In the 20th century, Asian immigration took place, mainly from Japan, as well as from Lebanon and Syria. According to Callegari-Jacques and Salzano(1999), 58% of the immigrants who arrived in Brazil between 1500 and 1972 were Europeans, 40% were Africans, and 2% were Asians. The question that arises is, How much did these different groups actually contribute to the gene pool of present-day Brazilians?’

Haplogroup Frequencies within the Three Continental Fractions of Brazilian mtDNA Pool


Frequency in brazil
HaplogroupOverallNorthernNortheasternSoutheasternSouthern
NativeAmerican:




A0.300.150.370.390.27
B0.290.310.270.300.27
C0.240.380.090.180.27
D0.160.150.270.120.18
Total1.001.001.001.001.00






African:




L1a0.100.180.060.17
L1b0.040.050.030.17
L1c0.190.290.090.230.17
L20.200.140.230.23
L3d0.060.090.33
L3e0.300.430.320.32
L3*0.040.050.06
U60.060.140.060.17
Total1.001.001.001.001.00






European:




H0.440.270.650.450.39
pre*V0.030.070.030.03
V0.060.060.130.03
HV*0.010.03
U0.160.130.180.160.15
pre*HV0.010.03
J0.110.200.060.030.18
T0.140.270.060.130.12
I0.010.07
X0.030.060.03
Total1.001.001.001.001.00

The Brazilian sample includes mtDNA lineages from almost all the familiar European haplogroups, except for some marginal ones, such as W and other quite-rare haplogroups related to haplogroup I. The frequency of the dominant haplogroup H (44%); in the European fraction is somewhat higher, on average, than that observed in Europe but is well within the range of western-European H frequencies… [and] suggests predominantly western-European ancestry. Considering that 30% of the European immigrants (including the Portuguese colonizers) to Brazil came from Italy, one can expect that a considerable number of mtDNA lineages in the Brazilian sample have Italian ancestry.’

The main mtDNA Haplogroups of Brazil, Portugal, Sicily, Spain, Catalonia and the Basque.

Brazil: H [44%] – U [16%] – T [14%] – J [11%] – V [9%] – HV [2%] –

X [3%] – I [1%] 

Portugal: H [43.9%] – H1+H3 [26%] – J [6.8%] – U5 [6.5%] – L [6.4%] –

T2 [6.3%] – K [6.1%] – HVO+V [4.8%] – T1 [3.3%] – U [3%] – I [2.2%] –

H5 [2.1%] – X [2%] – W [1.8%] – U4 [1.7%] – U2 [1.2%] –

HV [0.1%] – U3 [0.9%] 

Sicily: H [45.2%] – J [6.7%] – K [6.3%] – N1+I [6%] – HV [5%] – T2 [4.4%] –

X [3.7%] – U5 [3.3%] – T1 [2.7%] – HVO+V [2.3%] – U1 [2%] – U [1.7%] –

U4 [1.3%] – U2 [1%] – N2 +W [1%] – U3 [0.7%] 

Spain: H [44.1%] – H1+H3 [28%] – U5 [8.1%] – HVO+V [7.5%] – J [6.6%] –

T2 [6.4%] – K [6.3%] – H5 [2.6%] – L [2.4%] – T1 [2.1%] – U4 [1.9%] –

U [1.8%] – X [1.7%] – U3 [1.4%] – W [1.4%] – U2 [1.1%] – I [1.1%] –

HV [0.7%] 

Catalonia: H [29.5%] – U5 [10.1%] – K [10%] – T2 [7.6%] – HVO+V [7.5%] –

J [7%] – W [5%] – U [3.9%] – U4 [3.8%] – L [3.1%] – U3 [2.5%] – X [2.5%] –

T1 [1.3%] – U2 [1.3%] – I [1.3%] – HV [0.5%] 

Basque: H [49%] – H1+H3 [44%] – U5 [11.7%] – HVO+V [7.9%] –

J [7.6%] – T2 [6%] – K [5.3%] – H5 [2.8%] – X [2.3%] – U [1.9%] –

T1 [1.5%] – W [1.1%] – U2 [1%] – HV [0.8%] – U4 [0.8%] – I [0.6%] –

L [0.3%] – U3 [0.3%] 

When comparing the main mtDNA Haplogroups, the similarly between Portugal and Spain is surprisingly striking. Sicily is a closer match with Portugal and Spain than either Catalonia or the Basque, the two ancient enclaves of settlement within Spain. Even Catalonia and the Basque country are quite distinct from each other and appear the odd ones out in the group entirely.

                        H       J      T2      K      L      HV     H1+H3   U5     H5   HVO+V

Portugal            44      7       6        6       6      0.1         26           7        2          5

Spain                 44      7       6        6       2      0.7         28          8        3          8

Sicily                  45      7       4        6                   5                        3                    2                     

Basque              49      8       6        5    0.3     0.8        44          12       3          8

Catalonia          30      7       8      10       3      0.5                      10                    8

Brazil’s Haplogroup percentage sequence is unsurprisingly close to Portugal and Italy, where most of its White population has originated. A closer comparison shows that Brazil and Spain are fascinatingly marginally closer to each other than to either Portugal or Sicily.

                        H       U        T         J     HVO+V    HV      X      I    

Brazil                44      16       14       11          9             2         3      1     

Portugal           44      13       10        7          5          0.1         2      2       

Sicily                 45      10        7         7          2             5         4                  

Spain                44      14        9         7          8         0.7          2      1

Basque             49      16        8         8         8         0.8          2      1

Catalonia         30     22        9         7          8         0.5          3      1

The relatedness of these peoples highlights their common ancestry coupled with their cultures and language, all supporting these being the four sons of Aram and his descendants today. Identity experts have continually stated that these Latin nations are Canaanites from Ham or sons of Japheth’s son, Javan. The constant reader will now hopefully agree that these explanations are lacking solid support [refer Chapter VII Javan & Chapter XII Canaan].

                        H       J      T2      K           HV     H1+H3   U5     H5   HVO+V

Portugal            44      7       6        6            0.1         26           7        2          5

Spain                 44      7       6        6            0.7         28          8        3          8

Brazil                 44    11                                   2                                               9

Russia              41     8       7       4               2         15         10       5         4

Turkey             31     9       4       6               5           5           3       2      0.7

Iran                  17      14       5       7             7                        3                0.6

Comparing Portugal, Spain and Brazil with Russia, Turkey and Iran reveals that Lud, Elam, Asshur and Aram are clearly distinct from each other; though still also visibly related as cousins. If we compared their Haplogroups with India or China it is palpable that these nations are from the different line of Shem rather than Ham or Japheth. It also clearly delineates the similarity of Portugal, Spain and Brazil with each other as brothers.

R1b M343 / M415 

Eupedia, Phoenicians & Greeks – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The oldest city in Iberia is Cadiz, which was founded by the Phoenicians as Gadir or Agadir in 1104 BCE. The Phoenicians also founded Almunecar, Malaga, Cartaya and Huelva, and settled in other existing cities such as Tartessos and Carmona.

Based on the haplogroups found in modern Lebanon and in their former colonies, the Phoenicians seem to have carried a mixture of haplogroup J2a, J1, E1b1b, G, R1b-M269/L23, T, L, R1b-V88, R2 and Q1b, roughly in that order of frequency. It is not easy to assess the percentage of modern Iberian lineages of Phoenician origin because many other peoples brought similar haplogroups. The most uniquely Phoenician lineages, which were normally not found among the ancient Greeks and Romans, are Q1b, R1b-V88 and R2. And indeed all of them have been found, mostly in Portugal and south-west Andalusia, but only at trace frequencies (under 0.5%).’

It is the view of this writer that these three Haplogroups on the end are doubtful as being ‘Phoenician’; whereas the first five are spot on, with the exception of R1b which would be first. The article has the preconceived view that Phoenician equals North African or Arab, which is incorrect.

‘The island of Ibiza was another major Phoenician colony, which has the particularity of having been left in isolation for most of its subsequent history. It is therefore likely to have more Phoenician lineages than average. That is probably the case as Adams et al. (2008) found 17% of haplogroup T on Ibiza, by far the highest percentage in Europe for the Middle Eastern lineage, but also 13% of haplogroup G (more than anywhere else in Iberia) and 4% of E-M123 the Levantine variety of E1b1b.

Not surprisingly, the second highest percentage of haplogroup T identified in Iberia is in Cadiz (10%). Like haplogroup T, E-M123 is mostly found in Murcia, Andalusia, Extremadura and Portugal, suggesting that this is where the Phoenicians had the largest genetic impact. Not surprisingly haplogroups J1 and J2a also peak in these regions.

In 406, the Alans (who were not Germanic but of Iranic origin [nor were the Vandals]), the Suebi and the Vandals crossed the Rhine together, invading Gaul, then three years later, they crossed the Pyrenees into Roman Hispania. The Suebi migrated to the western half of Iberia, where they established the Kingdom of Gallaecia (409–585). The Vandals and the Alans went south to Andalusia, then crossed over the North Africa in 429, where they founded a kingdom that also comprised Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.

The Suebi… As a Germanic tribe, they would have brought haplogroups I1, I2a2a, (M223, formerly known as I2b1), R1b-U106 and R1a (L664, Z282 and Z283 subclades) to the Iberian peninsula, and indeed all of them except R1a are found essentially in the western half of the Iberian, especially in Portugal and Galicia. R1a is found in northern Castile, Asturias and Cantabria, and could… have been brought there by the Visigoths…

The Basques are indeed somewhat different genetically from other Spaniards. They have a bit more Northwest European ancestry [similar to France]… The absence of Red Sea and Southwest Asian admixture indicates that the Basques do not have any Phoenician [Aram], Jewish, Greek, Roman or Arabic ancestry. Looking at maternal lineages, the Basques also stand out from the rest of the peninsula, lacking many haplogroups… This is in perfect agreement with the fact that Basque language is non-Indo-European. What generally comes as a surprise is that 85% of Basque paternal lineages belong to the Proto-Celtic R1b-P312.

Interestingly the Catalans also lack the Southwest Asian ancestry, but do have some Red Sea and Caucasian genes. The Southwest Asian admixture is slightly more common in southern Portugal and Andalusia, which is consistent with the higher historical presence of Phoenician, Roman and Arabic people in that region. The Basques and the Catalans are the only Western European completely lacking genetic contribution from Southwest Asia. This is also translated in an extreme scarcity of Y-haplogroups J1, E-M34 and T, which are all typically Southwest Asian linages.’ 

Khazaria, Portuguese Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries – emphasis & bold mine

‘Varieties of R1b, a common Y-DNA haplogroup in western Europe, are found in abundance among Portuguese men. About 60 percent of Southern Portuguese and about 83 percent of Northern Portuguese belong to the subclade of R1b known as the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). There are even some areas in Portugal where the AMH is found in about 90% of men.

The mtDNA haplogroups H, U, and L were found in substantial numbers in the population of Portugal in ancient times (including the Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic eras) just as they are today. Millions of mixed-race (white/black/Amerindian) descendants of Portuguese live in Brazil today. Some Portuguese of Portugal themselves have a small portion of black ancestry as well. This is true of the mainland, in part since African slaves were brought to southwestern Portugal’s Alcacer do Sal region in the 1400s-1800s… Portuguese people occasionally match European Jews in the autosomal DNA databases as a result of having shared Sephardic Jewish ancestors.’  

Peter Ralph and Graham Coop. “The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe.” PLOS Biology (May 7, 2013). Excerpts:

“… Patterns for the Iberian peninsula are similar, with both Spain and Portugal showing very few common ancestors with other populations over the last 2,500 years. 

However, the rate of IBD [identical-by-descent] sharing within the peninsula is much higher than within Italy – during the last 1,500 years the Iberian peninsula shares fewer than two genetic common ancestors with other populations, compared to roughly 30 per pair within the peninsula – Italians share on average only about eight with each other during this period…”

“Genetic characterisation of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity.” American Journal of Human Biology 22:5 (September-October 2010): multiple authors, pages 588-595. Excerpts from the Abstract:

‘…in Pias, the Mediterranean influence might be traced to ancient contacts with Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians, who established important trading networks in southern Iberia.”’

“Relatedness among Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians studied by HLA allelic frequencies and haplotypes.” Immunogenetics 47:1 (1997): multiple authors, pages 37-43. Excerpts from the Abstract:

‘The results of the present HLA study in Portuguese populations show that they have features in common with Basques and Spaniards from Madrid…’ 

“Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula”, 2016, multiple authors: Excerpts from the Results section:

“…Within the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has overall higher values of haplotype diversity than Portugal… Nucleotide diversity has its highest value in the Mediterranean area, but it is also high in Portugal… The high frequency of haplogroup H in the North of Iberia spans all along the Portuguese territories, where frequencies range from 49% in the North to 45% in the South. Haplogroup U constitutes the second most frequent haplogroup in Iberia; its frequency is similar in the main Iberian regions; it reaches the highest frequency in North of Portugal (26%)…”

“Portuguese mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity – An update and a phylogenetic revision”, multiple authors, 2015. Excerpts from the Abstract:

“In general, a typical Western European haplogroup composition was found in mainland Portugal, associated to high level of mitochondrial genetic diversity. Within the country, no signs of substructure were detected.” 

“Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: Not a genetic edge of European variation”, Annals of Human Genetics 64:6, multiple authors, (November 2000): pages 491-506.
       

‘A study consisting of mitochondrial DNA samples from 100 Northern Portuguese, 82 Central Portuguese, and 59 Southern Portuguese. Portuguese people have more genetic diversity than some of their neighbors. They carry “all the most important European haplogroups…” They also carry the mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L, both of African origin. U6 is “restricted to North Portugal whereas L was widespread all over the country.”’

Catalonians and Gascons of France

Being Western Europeans, it is no surprise that the most common Y-DNA haplogroup among Catalans is a branch of the R1b haplogroup. R1b1b2a1 is nearly exclusive to western Europe, and the sub-haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2c is common among Catalans and Gascons.’

The Basques, Catalonians and Gascons have as much or more in common genetically with France than Spain. We will delve into this further when we study the French.

The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages, multiple authors, 2001 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Amerindians [Tiras] originally peopled South America… Centuries later (on April 22, 1500), the Portuguese “discovered” Brazil, by then inhabited by 2.4 million Amerindians… Colonization of the new country initially involved men only; the immigration of European women during the first centuries was insignificant… Thus, the first Brazilians arose by mating between European males and Amerindian females. During the period 1500–1808, 500,000 Portuguese, mostly men, arrived in Brazil. 

The most frequent Y chromosomes in white Brazilian males belonged to haplogroup 1 [R1b] (54%), which has been observed in high frequencies (40%–80%) in Europe and seems to be absent from Africa and Japan. Accordingly, this haplogroup was seen in 60% of the Portuguese tested. In Brazil, haplogroup 1 showed discrete regional variation, with the lowest frequency in the south. 

Second in frequency (18%) was haplogroup 2 [E1b1b], which has a rather wide geographical range that includes Europe, Africa, and Asia. This haplogroup was also the second most common among the Portuguese (13%) and is known to be especially frequent in Italy, from where 30% of the European immigrants to Brazil originated. Haplogroup 2 showed regional variation, having the highest frequencies in the south (29%) and in the northeast (18%). Its relatively high frequency in the south of Brazil is probably related to the large Italian immigration to this area. 

The same applies to haplogroup 3 [I1 & I2], geographically distributed in northeastern Europe and Asia, which was observed in 3.5% of the Brazilian males. The fact that it was seen almost exclusively in the south of Brazil suggests a European origin.

Haplogroup PN2 [J2] was the third in frequency, having been seen in 10% of Brazilians, with even regional distribution. This haplogroup is observed in 50% of the North Africans and in frequencies >29% in Egyptians, Greeks, Italians, and Lebanese. Haplogroup 21 has been shown to have a north-south cline in Portugal, climbing from a frequency of 10.6% in the north to 24.5% in southern Portugal. Haplogroup M34 [J1], defined by the M34 mutation, is a subtype of haplogroup 21 and, apparently, has a low frequency but a quite broad geographical distribution in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. It was seen in 3% of the Brazilians and 2% of the Portuguese samples.

The 12f2 deletion at DYS11 defines haplogroup 9 [G], the next most common Y-chromosome lineage observed in Brazil (8%). This haplogroup shows maximum frequency in Jews and other Middle Eastern populations, but it is also found in North Africans and Europeans. Portugal, where haplogroup 9 was seen in 6% of the individuals studied, seems to be the major source of these Y chromosomes in Brazil. There was a large Jewish population in Portugal until 1509, when Jews were deported during the Inquisition. To avoid expulsion, many Jews converted to Catholicism and became “New Christians,” many of whom immigrated to Brazil, carrying haplogroup 9 Y chromosomes. However, there were contributions from other populations. For example… haplogroup 9 shows the highest frequency (16%) in the north of Brazil. Intrigued by this observation, we searched the historical records and discovered that in the early 19th century there was a significant immigration wave of Moroccan Jews to the Amazon area, with eventual settlement in Manaus and Belem.

With the exception of an unknown number of colonizers who arrived during the Dutch 30-year domination of the northeast of Brazil in the 17th century, Portugal was the only significant source of European immigrants to Brazil until 1808. Starting in the mid-16th century and continuing until 1855, 4 million African slaves were sent to Brazil… In 1808 the Portuguese court, fleeing Napoleon’s army, moved to Brazil and opened its seaports to trade with all nations. This was soon followed by the arrival of settlers from other countries. During the period 1820-1975, 5,686,133 immigrants, mostly Europeans, arrived officially in Brazil… Portuguese and Italian immigrants arrived in almost equal numbers (comprising almost 70% of the total), followed by immigrants from Spain,Germany, Syria, Lebanon, and Japan.’

Brazil has been populated principally from the three other sons of Aram; Hul, Uz and Gether. The Portuguese element in Brazil descends principally from Mash, rather than from Hul of Portugal. It is probable that the peoples that migrated from Portugal, Italy and Spain are in part from Hul, Uz and Gether though predominantly from Mash. Mash like Meshech in China, is at once large and yet bound easily with other related peoples.

Now, after 500 years, it is worthwhile to ask about the genetic composition of the Brazilian population. We decided to try to partially answer this question by using lineage markers to ascertain the ancestry from different continents. In the first part of this project we analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs and were surprised to find the high Amerindian (33%) and African (28%) contributions to the total mtDNA pool of white Brazilians… 

In the present study, we analyzed Y-chromosome UEPs in 200 Brazilian males from four different regions in Brazil (a subset of the 247 individuals typed for mtDNA). Our data demonstrate that the vast majority^^ of Y chromosomes in white Brazilian males, regardless of their regional source, is of European origin, with a very low frequency of sub-Saharan African chromosomes and a complete absence of Amerindian contributions. Together, our results configure a picture of strong directional mating in Brazil involving European males and Amerindian and African females. This is in consonance with the known history of the peopling of Brazil since 1500.’

Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background, multiple authors, 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

Brazil is a country of continental extension, and it is currently divided into five main geopolitical regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South) with diverse histories of colonization and settlement, a fact that is reflected in the genetic structure of the current Brazilian population. The sample from the Northern region presented the highest Native American ancestry (8.4%), whereas the more pronounced African contribution could be observed in the Northeastern population (15.1%). The Central-Western and Southern samples showed the higher European contributions (95.7% and 93.6%, respectively). The Southeastern region presented significant European (86.1%) and African (12.0%) contributions. 

The subtyping of the most frequent European lineage in Brazil (R1b1a-M269) allowed differences in the genetic European background of the five Brazilian regions to be investigated for the first time. Further studies using SNPs to increase the discrimination between lineages inside haplogroup R-M207 were performed in large samples from West Asian and European populations, revealing different gradients for R1b1a-M269 sub-clades inside Europe. The L11-derived allele (also known as S127) separates Western European from the Eurasian lineages. Inside R-M207, the frequencies of these sub-haplogroups were all investigated in each geopolitical region [of Brazil]. 

The haplogroup Q1a2-M346 and its sub-lineages, mainly Q1a2-M3, are almost completely restricted to Native American populations… haplogroups E1b1b-M123 and J-P209 present higher frequencies in Central-Western Brazil (4.1% and 16.0%, respectively) than in Portugal (1.2% and 10.4%, respectively). More than 50% of the Y chromosomes belong to the R1 branch, namely to the sub-lineage R1b1a-M269… Haplogroup R1b1a-S116*, which has its greatest frequency in Iberia was, by far, the most frequent haplogroup observed in our sample, representing 32.5% of the Y chromosomes investigated… the haplogroup R1b1a-S116* was the most frequent in the five geopolitical regions of the country emphasizing the strong influence of the early Portuguese colonization… Portugal was estimated to be the main source of the male European lineages to Central-West, Southeast and South Brazil. The North and the Northeast showed the highest contribution from France and Italy^, respectively… [and] the Northeast appears to have a higher Eastern European^ contribution than do other Brazilian regions. 

The highest migration rate from Lebanon was to the Central-West, whereas a significant migration from Germany was observed to the Central East, Southeast and South.

The sub-haplogroup R1b1a-U106 (S21)is more frequent in Central and Eastern Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany, while R1b1a-S116, more frequent in the Western portion of the continent, is further subdivided into several haplogroups

The sub-lineage R1b1a-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula

R1b1a-U152 is more frequent in France and Italy

and R1b1a-M529 has higher frequencies in England and Ireland

The sub-lineages R1b1a-M153 and R1b1a-M167 were described at high frequencies in Basque Country. R1b1a-M167 was also found at high frequencies in the Pyrenees [Catalonia].’

We will discover that the English and Irish are from the same specific familial line -that is, share the same father – and that the French and Italians [Northern and Central] are broadly related, in that their fathers were brothers. The peoples of the Iberian Peninsula share the same R1b-S116 with Brazil, confirming their shared status as brothers descending from the same father. 

The principal R1b sub-Haplogroups in Brazil. The L23 is of Eastern European origin. The following table shows the predominant R1b to be S116 which as mentioned, originates in the Iberian Peninsula from both Portugal and Spain. The extent of Italian and German immigration is shown by the levels of U152 and U106 R1b, respectively. Notice that the five geopolitical regions of Brazil are genetically closer to Portugal and Spain than any other nation of Europe. 

As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b  sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from western Europe eastwards with its epicentre in Central Europe. Turkey and Russia are the first two nations and both have lower levels of R1b, possessing higher levels of other Haplogroups, for instance for Turkey, it is Haplogroup J at 31% and for Russia it is Haplogroups R1a at 46% and N1c1 at 23%.

Turkey:   R-M269   14%   –  R-U106   0.4%

Russia:    R-M269   21%   –  R-U106   5.4%

Y-DNA distribution across Brazilian regions and an intriguingly high % of Y-DNA I, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘I’ve just read this study (Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background) on the distribution of male lineages of Brazilians and there is something that struck me as very intriguing and, I think, difficult to explain… what do you think can explain this:

There is a surprisingly high percentage of haplogroup I, 8.9% as a whole and reaching a (for me) astounding 11.5% in the Northeast^ of Brazil, the region that least received the post-1830 non-Iberian immigration, and until the 1880s the most populous region (now the 2nd one). I thought I1 and I2 lineages would correlate a more Eastern/Northeastern European influx, but that definitely is not the origin of most Northeastern colonial immigrants from Europe as far as I know. 

Could the Dutch have left such a noticeable impact on Y-DNA when their Dutch Brazil in the northeast lasted less than 30 years, and also – according to their Portuguese defeaters, at least – they were expelled en masse from Brazil? There was also some short settlement and longer trading voyages by Frenchmen in the Northeastern coast. These hypotheses, though, wouldn’t solve the issue that I is also strong in the North (10%), never occupied by the Dutch or French.

I thought of a clear mistake in the analysis or a very skewed and misleading sample, but looking at the other Y-DNA percentage they look totally reasonable and explainable: highest E1b1a (8.2%) in the Northeast, the largest center for slaves in roughly ~1530-1780; highest R1(xR1b), i.e. mostly R1a, in the South (5.5%), by far the main destination of the Germans and Slavs; highest Q1a2 (8.1%) in the North, the last region to be effectively colonized outside the coastal region and still today with the largest Amerindian population. So, everything fits just right, except for that high I1+I2 percentage in the Northeast/North!

As an aside, I found it interesting that, even with the relatively minor contribution of non-Western European Y-DNA (Amerindians, Africans, other Europeans), the haplogroups E1b1b (10.9%), J (10.1%) and G (5.1%) are very present, adding to a full 26.1%, more than 1/4 of the male lineages. That really indicates how strongly the (traditionally/originally) non-IE lineages resisted in Portugal.

Another interesting finding, though maybe coincidental due to patterns of the demographic formation, is that the Y-DNA distribution of the Brazilian Northeast appears as the most Central European-shifted among the 4 regions (i.e. a bit closer to France and, [less of] Italy), while the Southeast has the Y-DNA makeup closest to Portugal’s, even though it’s received the largest and most diversified number of immigrants from 1860 to our days. I really don’t know what to make of those results, how to explain them fitting into Brazilian history. What would you suggest/hypothesize?

Judging from the article preceding, it would appear that the answer includes the presence of people from north eastern Europe. High percentages of Y-DNA Haplogroup I is present in certain Slavic nations from northern Europe and not just concentrated in south eastern Europe – for instance, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Keeping in mind as well that Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy and Sicily also have similar levels of Haplogroup I 

Brazil: R1b [54%] – E1b1b [10.9%] – J1/J2 [10.1%] – I1/I2 [8.9%] –

G2a [5.1%] – R1a [4%] – E1b1a1 [3%] – Q1a2 [2%]

Portugal: R1b [56%] – E1b1b [14%] – J2 [9.5%] – G2a [6.5%] – I2a2 [3%] –

J1 [3%] – T1a [2.5%] – I1 [2%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – R1a1a [1.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Southern Italy: R1b [27.5%] – J2 [21.5%] – E1b1b [18.5%] – G2a [10.5%] –

J1 [4%] – I2a1 [3.5%] – R1a1a [3%] – I1 [2.5] – T1a [2.5%] – I2a2 [1%]

Sicily: R1b [26%] – J2 [23%] – E1b1b [20.5%] – G2a [8.5%] – R1a [4.5%] –

T1a [4%] – J1 [ 3.5%] – I1 [3.5%] – I2a1 [3%] – I2a2 [1%] – Q [1%]  

Spain: R1b [69%] – J2 [8%] – E1b1b [7%] – I2a1 [4.5%] – G2a [3%] –

T1a [2.5%] – R1a1a  [2%] – J1 [1.5%] – I1 [1.5%] – I2a2 [1%] 

Catalonia: R1b [66.5%] – E1b1b [8.5%] – J2 [7.5%] – G2a [4.5%] –

I2a1 [3.5%] – I1 [2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – R1a1a [1.5%] – J1 [1.5%] –

T1a [1%]

Basque: R1b [85%] –  I2a1 [5%] – J2 [2.5%] – E1b1b [2.5%] –

G2a [1.5%] – I1 [0.5] – J1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Brazil:        R1b – E1b1b – J1/J2 – I1/I2 – G2a – R1a – E1b1a1 – Q1a2

Portugal:   R1b – E1b1b – J2 – G2a – I2a2 – J1 – T1a – I1 – I2a1 – R1a – Q 

Catalonia: R1b – E1b1b – J2 – G2a – I2a1 – I1 – I2a2 – R1a1a – J1 – T1a

S Italy:       R1b – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – R1a – I1 – J1 – I2a1 – T1a – I2a2

Sicily:         R1b – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – R1a – T1a – J1 – I1 – I2a1 – I2a2 – Q

Spain:        R1b – J2 – E1b1b – I2a1 – G2a – T1a – R1a  I1 – J1 – I2a2

Basque:     R1b –  I2a1 – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – I1 – J1 – Q

From a Haplogroup sequence perspective, particularly looking at the first key three to five Haplogroups for the four sons of Aram, Brazil and Portugal are more closely aligned, whereas Spain and Sicily – including southern Italy – are more closely paired. The strong regional identities of the Basque resemble the Spanish and Catalonia surprisingly, parallels Portugal – including Brazil.

Brazil:        R E J I G R 

Portugal:   R E J G I J 

Catalonia: R E J G I I

S Italy:       R J E G R I 

Sicily:         R J E G R T

Spain :       R J E I G T 

Basque:      R I J E G I

Abbreviating the Haplogroups, we see the close similarity between the Portuguese and Brazilians. It would be interesting to have more insight in how the Casluh and Caphtor, or Philistine element has shaped Spain’s genetic history and its current Haplogroup composition. Comments from a geneticist regarding Spain’s national genealogy would be welcome with regard to the impact on the Spanish Visigoths that reside on the Iberian Peninsula and those Spaniards who left for the New World – the Alans, Vandals and Moors.

                            R1b    E1b1b     J       I      G      R1a     T

Sicily                   26         21       27      8      9        5        4

S Italy                 28         19       26      7     11        3        3

Brazil                  54         11        10      9      5        4      

Portugal             56         14        13      7      7        2        3

Catalonia           67           9          9      7      5        2        1

Spain                  69           7        10      7      3        2        3

Basque               85           3          3      6      2                                         

What does this all mean? Well, the Y-DNA Haplogroup table explains why the Basques may not feel comfortable living as part of Spain and their desire to achieve independence as a separate state. In marked contrast are the 7,739,758 people in Catalonia who are in fact very similar to the rest of Spain in their Y-DNA Haplogroups. Spain would not be supportive of any independence claims by Catalonia as we witnessed in 2017. The impact on Spain’s economy would be enormous should Catalonia gain independence. This is in stark contrast to the mtDNA Haplogroups we saw earlier, that showed the opposite, in that the Basque though slightly removed were way more similar to the closely aligned Brazil, Portugal, Spain and Sicily. It was in fact the Catalonians, that stood out differently. 

The table also highlights the strong mixing the Ostrogoths have had with North Africa; E1b1b, J1 and T and with southern Europe, J2 and G. It confirms the expected strong similarity between Brazil and Portugal. It surprisingly shows just how close the Spanish and Catalonians are in their paternal lineage and just how different the Basque are to everyone else. It certainly confirms their isolation and non-mixing with neighbours over the centuries. We will investigate the Basque and Catalonians more fully when we study the French, as the surprises do not end here.

                            R1b    E1b1b     J       I      G      R1a     T       N1C1

Spain                  69           7        10      7      3        2        3

Portugal             56         14        13      7      7        2        3

Brazil                  54         11        10      9      5        4      

S Italy                 28         19       26      7     11        3        3

Turkey                16         11        33      6     11        8        3          4

Iran                     10          7        32       1     10      16       3           1 

Russia                  6           3          3    20      1       46                 23

A comparison of Aram’s descendants with those of Shem which we have studied so far, shows the difference of their inherited levels of Y-DNA Haplogroups as well as admixture. Iran and Turkey are J1 and J2 driven showing the intermixing with the Arabs and their genetic similarity with south eastern Europeans, respectively. They have lower levels of R1b and R1a, the key Haplogroups of either western or eastern Europeans. The Southern Italians show the result of strong admixture with increased levels of Haplogroups E1b1b, J and G compared to say Spain, as well as their lower percentage of R1b as a result. 

Russia is high in R1a, I and N1c1, which are low or non-existent – such as N, an exclusively northern European Haplogroup – in the Latin peoples. Haplogroup I1 is prevalent in northern and I2 in south eastern Europe and hence the lower levels in the Latin nations. Brazil, Portugal and Spain are all similar, though Brazil and Portugal reveal the admixture with sub-Saharan and Northern Africans in their higher levels of E1b1b. They exhibit low levels of R1a due to virtually no interaction with eastern Europe directly and only principally received through immigration of peoples to Brazil; plus, high levels of R1b, as is common with peoples throughout western Europe and the Americas. As Russia has much in common with Slavic eastern Europe genetically, the Spanish and Portuguese share a very similar genetic template with Italy and France.

People with good sense know what I say is true; and those with knowledge know my words are right.

Proverbs 8:9 New Century Version

“Most people believe most of the things they believe only because they believe that most people believe them.” 

Mokokoma Mokhonoana 

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