Canaan & Africa

Chapter XII

Canaan: the fourth and youngest son of Ham. Before we continue in earnest, there is a vital key to understanding not just Canaan but numerous identities to follow. This matter is being laboured as it has been the single biggest block in understanding where the peoples of the Bible were and where they are now. It requires a return to point number two in the introduction. 

Original peoples dwelt in a region after the flood; they then migrated. New peoples would move in; they then would be known by the names already associated with the area, the actual land, invariably from the previous dwellers. Tracking and identifying these former peoples, plus now the new ones becomes difficult, because historians and researchers assume they can rely on the names already established for the land area as still being applicable to the new migrations who are actually completely different people. 

Giving two peoples the same name because of where they are living and not based on who they are is non-sensical and mis-leading. We will discuss why the children of Canaan dwelt where they did and who the new people were that moved into their territory when Canaan migrated. All the information one can find on Canaan and Canaanites* in books, papers and the internet, unknown to the authors themselves, invariably relates to either a. other people of Ham’s line, b. Shem’s descendants, c. the line of Cain or d. the Nephilim and incredibly, not the true descendants of Canaan. 

Israel a History of – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From Ca’naan came eleven sons, the eldest being Sidon. Sidon founded the city Sidon, and was the progenitor of the Phoenicians. From Heth came the Hittites (Genesis 23:10), who ruled over an empire in Asia Minor for over 800 years. Hittites are very active throughout the entire Old Testament. They were present in Canaan at the time of Abraham, reaching their zenith sometime later in Asia Minor, yet were still a force during the reign of Solomon 1,000 years later (II Chronicles 1:17). Eventually their empire crumbled, and there is evidence that some of the Hittite people fled eastward. Cuneiform monuments record the name “Khittae”, and this may have been modified to Cathay. Archaeologists have noted many similarities between the Hittites and the Mongoloids.’

We will discover that the Phoenicians are descended from Shem and not Ham. True Canaanites had well dispersed by the time the Israelites arrived in Canaan in 1407 BCE. The Phoenicians were sea, shipping and trading people. The original Canaanites were not fond of the sea or boats. Similarly, Heth was a prominent son of Canaan. Later, prominent descendants of Shem were also called, Hittites. These Hittites were a war-like people, establishing a powerful empire that rivalled the Assyrians. Both Empires lived side-by-side in Asia Minor and established an alliance, rather than antagonising each other. These Hittites descend from Shem. We have seen earlier that the Khitt-ae are from Kitti, son of Javan and are the Malay peoples of Indonesia. An earlier people in Anatolia prior to the Hittites were the Hattians. The Hatti, derived from Khatti – a different word – and though easily confused with the Khittae, are an entirely different people, descending from Shem.

‘The Sinites are an interesting tribe. There is tenuous evidence that they may be the ancestors of the Chinese. Possibly the Sinites migrated east all the way to China. Of the descendants of Ham, Sin and Heth are the two most probable ancestors of the Oriental people. Ca’naan’s descendants, according to scripture, “spread abroad” (Genesis 10:18). Of the lines descending from the sons of Noah, these peoples migrated perhaps more than any other. The contributions made by the descendants of Ham, the youngest of the sons of Noah, are staggering. They were the first explorers. They became the first cultivators of the basic food groups. They discovered and invented medicines, and surgical practices. They were the first to develop fabrics, and the devices used to sew these fabrics. They were the inventors of mathematics, surveying, and navigation.’

The Chinese descend from Japheth and are East Asian – not Hamitic. The Phoenicians, Hittites and Chinese have not been slaves or subjugated to other nations. The peoples described above who travelled extensively and contributed to the advancement of society are the Phoenicians who built the city of Tyre and caused Sidon to flourish, making them world-renowned with their import-export trading interests. 

A H Sayce page 55-59 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Canaan bordered on Egypt, and the name is usually explained to mean the lowlands. It originally denoted, in fact, the narrow strip of land which lies between the sea and the mountains on the coast of Palestine. Here the great cities of the Phoenicians were built, and it was from hence that the Phoenician ships started on their voyages in search of wealth. As time went on, the name of Canaan came to be applied to the land beyond the mountains on the east. In the letters written from Palestine to the Egyptian court a century before the Exodus, and discovered among the ruins of Tel el- Amarna, Kinakhkhi or Canaan denotes the district which intervened between the cities of the Philistines and the country northward of Gebal. The latter was called the land of the Amorites. In the books of the Old Testament the word Canaan has acquired an even greater extent of meaning than it has in the tablets of Tel el-Amarna. The cities of the Philistines, as well as the barren region east of them, are alike included in Canaan. Even the Amorites have become Canaanites, like the inhabitants of Hamath far away to the north.’

Canaan is mentioned many, many times in the Bible, not in reference to their people but the land they first settled, that in time became busier than grand central station in terms of human traffic and the varying numbers of nations that dwelt in the region for millennia.

‘The original land [actually much later] of Canaan was called Phoenicia by the Greeks and Kaft by the Egyptians. It is possible that both names were derived from the palms which grew luxuriantly there. Kaph and Kipptih signify a palm-branch in Hebrew, and phoenix in Greek has the same meaning. But it is also possible that the latter word was derived from the name of the country in which the Greeks first became acquainted with the palm, not that the country took its name from the tree.

The language of Canaan, as it is called by Isaiah [19:18], differed but slightly from Hebrew. The Hebrew tribes, in fact, like their kindred in Moab and Ammon, must have exchanged their earlier Aramaic dialects for the language of the country in which they settled. In no other way can we explain how it came about that the Syrian emigrant [Deuteronomy 26:5] should have acquired the ancient language of Canaan. The adoption of the new language was doubtless facilitated by the relationship of the Aramaic dialects to Hebrew or Phoenician. They belonged to the same family of speech and bore the same relation to one another that French bears to Italian.

Interesting and coincidental observation regarding language, which we will re-visit when studying Aram and Moab. 

‘It will be seen that the tribes and cities of which Canaan is said to have been the father were related to one another only geographically. The blond Amorite and the yellow-skinned Hittite of the north had nothing in common from a racial point of view either with one another or with the Semitic tribes of Canaan. Geography and not ethnology has caused them to be grouped together.

Sayce hits upon the key point regarding Canaan. The blond Amorites are not the descendants of Amor, the son of Canaan. All the information we read regarding Canaan in extraneous material and in the Bible after Abraham and certainly by the time the  sons of Jacob [Israelites] arrived [between circa 1,900 – 1400 BCE], witnesses a change in who the Canaanites were. The original Canaanites had departed for Africa and other Canaanites* had moved into the vacated strip of land, or had forced the true Canaanites south. It was a lucrative piece of real estate with its rich soil and extensive ports. There were many peoples and those who were evil, the Nephilim descended giants and those who had intermarried with them, by default fell to the descendants of Jacob during the waging of a momentous war for seven years to clear the land after they entered in 1407 BCE. 

A well known online encyclopaedia, accurately states the multiculturalism and variety of ethnicities that fell under the ‘Canaanite’ banner at the time of this intermediate period and the incorrect ascribing of the term to the Phoenicians from an ethnic vantage, yet accurate from a geographic perspective – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name “Canaan” appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations. The word “Canaanites” serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations.It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible.The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians,and after the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage (founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (chanani) of North Africa during Late Antiquity.’

Herman Hoeh, Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Originally the sons of Canaan settled in Palestine. Canaan, remember, was the first born of Ham [Canaan was Ham’s youngest son – see Chapter XI]. Canaan’s descendants – and this includes the other sons of Ham – were to be “servant of servants” (Genesis 9:25). Their children are to serve both Shem and Japheth (verses 26,27). There is nothing wrong with serving – we all have to learn to serve. Shem and Japheth must become God’s servants, too. That is why Canaan is called a “servant of servants.” Many have quoted this in direct reference to the [Black African]. As brothers of Canaan, the [Africans] have shared the same position in life, but [Africans] are not Canaanites.

Dr Hoeh has confidently stated his position, firstly, based on the later ‘Canaanite’ peoples and the trading ‘trafficking’ of the Phoenicians – very understandable, yet incorrect. And secondly, to distance himself from the thorny issue of equating the Black peoples with Canaan – particularly at time of writing in 1957 America. 

‘The Canaanites were great traffickers of old. The word Canaanite in Zechariah 14:21 is, in fact, translated as “trafficker” in the Jewish translation. The Sidonians, descendants of Canaan, were famous seamen in the days of Solomon. The Greeks called them “Phoenicians”. But the Phoenicians called themselves “Kna” or “Knana”, meaning Canaanite.’

From a historical time-line perspective, the original Sidonians were linked to Canaan [who were not sea-traders], the intermediate Sidonians to Aram [the original Phoenicians], a son of Shem and the later Sidonians, who  were linked with Midian, another great trading people and a son of Abraham. The Phoenicians lived in Canaan as the collective area was known, hence their identification with this name – it was they who were the ‘famous seamen.’

‘When Israel entered the land of Palestine under Joshua, whole tribes of the Canaanites were destroyed or driven out of central Palestine (Judges 3:1-4) because some of the Canaanites were extremely degenerate in their morals. Now turn to Genesis 10:18, “Afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad”. Where did they journey?’

The ‘extremely degenerate’ Canaanites at this time, that the sons of Jacob encountered, were not the original sons of Canaan but the Nephilim descended giants who had infiltrated the land. We will cover this subject in-depth in a later chapter.

‘The Canaanites settled the island of Malta and parts of Sicily, Southern Italy, Sardinia, North Africa and even Southern Spain and Portugal, where the sons of Javan were already living. Most people are familiar with the Phoenicians from grade and high school days. In North Africa the Canaanites are called Moors – a name probably derived from Amors, the Hebrew form of “Amorites”. From these lands they have spread into North and South America since the days of Columbus. The Portuguese – of mixed Canaanite and Tarshish stock – have settled much of Brazil. And the Sicilians are [well known] in big cities in America. The underworld “Mafia” organization which springs from Canaanitish Sicily, is but a modern version of their ancient tendency to traffic among the nations of the world.

Canaanites have also intermarried into Esau – Turkey today (Genesis 26:34), and Judah (Genesis 38:2), and Israel (Judges 3:5-7). Only a few Canaanites remain in North Palestine and Lebanon. The Canaanites are seldom included in the prophecies which pertain to this twentieth century. They exert no great position or influence in the world.’

Esau’s ‘Canaanite’ wives were not true Canaanites but – as stated earlier of the four options for non-Canaanite* peoples a, b, c & d – they were from d. Nephilim families. Judah did take a wife from the original Canaanites. The Israelites as mentioned in the Book of Judges took wives from later Canaanites from b. Shem’s descendants. We will learn that the Latins of Europe – such as the Portuguese and Sicilians – are descended from Shem and are not from Japheth or Ham. The majority of Latinos in the Americas though, are descended from a. Ham, but not from Canaan; as is also true of the Moors and the Arab peoples of the Lebanon and Palestine. Another fascinating coincidence has occurred, with regard to the Portuguese and Brazil, which we will return to in a later chapter.

The original meaning of Canaan was different. The term ‘Trafficker’ and link to trade, was applied to Canaan the land and the later people living in Canaan and not to the original Canaanites. Herman Hoeh states the brother[s] of Ham have ‘shared the same position in life’. The Bible reveals that Canaan was to be a servant people, not Ham or any of the other three brothers of Canaan. Herman Hoeh ironically, while denying the simple truth of the Canaanites classification, in the process, reveals the true identity of Canaan. For they are the Black peoples of East, Central, West and South [Sub-Sahara] Africa

Matthew 18:1-5

New English Translation

At that time the disciples came to Jesus saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” 2 He called a child, had him stand among them, 3 and said, “I tell you the truth, unless you turn around and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven! 4 Whoever then humbles himself like this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5 And whoever welcomes a child like this in my name welcomes me.

A child who has a basic understanding of world history and has learned about the slave trade, would… if presented with the question: which people in the world have endured untold hardships, extremes of poverty and the severest of suffering at the hands of slave traders, over recorded history? One can’t help but think a child, in their natural, honest speak-as-they-see-it innocence, would quickly offer the Black descended people of Africa as their answer. It has been in the scriptures, right in front of us for a very long time. 

Luke 7:35

New English Translation

35 But wisdom is vindicated [or shown to be right ] by all her children [by all those who follow her].”

It is a highly sensitive issue and many are reticent to vocalise the palpable truth; so as to escape the vitriolic criticism that could inevitably ensue. Not speaking the undeniable, doesn’t alter it or make it disappear. It is a harshness beyond compare, that a whole line of people would be punished because of one man’s transgression; though we do not see all the pieces of the puzzle put together as the Creator does. 

The reality is that the Black people have suffered at the hands of the British, Americans, Dutch, Portuguese as well as the Arabs in recent history and as recorded in the Bible, at the hand of the Egyptians – the El Amarna tablets circa 1500 BCE. African tribes have continuously waged war against each other with horrific violence, making slaves of one another. There has been no rest for the descendants of Canaan and it continues to the present day where in the main, African governments and regimes brutally subjugate their own people. 

As tragic as the taking of people from their families and homes was and transplanting them in the New World of America, the Caribbean and Brazil, with dangerous, deadly ocean crossings and often savage masters; it has resulted for future generations of African Americans to have at least a chance of a life of opportunities, far greater than their fellow peoples – those living on the African Continent today. I empathise with all the descendants of African Americans though that have not benefited in being transplanted from their homeland and if history could be rewound, this reason alone would be enough cause to turn back time.

The severity of the punishment handed down to the Canaanites stopped short with them and did not include their possession of territory. Their land is vast, with huge natural resources. In the top ten countries with the most natural resources that China tops, one African nation is included at number nine; the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Mining is the primary industry of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2009, the country had over $24 million in mineral deposits including the largest coltan reserve and vast amounts of cobalt. The DRC also possesses large copper, diamond, gold, tantalum, and tin reserves, along with over three million tons of lithium. Lithium and cobalt both integral ingredients for batteries in electric vehicles.

Regarding Canaan’s name, there is somewhat of a conflict, between what the word actually means and what it became associated with. Strong’s Concordance #H3667 includes: Merchant, Traffick, Traffickers, Trader, Lowland and from root H3665, Humiliated. Canaan, as inferred by several commentators, was to be a ‘servant of servants’, ‘humbled, subdued’ and ‘subjugated’. The land of Canaan was low lying and it became synonymous with Merchants and trafficking of goods. Saying that, Canaan as a people were also trafficked and treated as merchandise. 

Abarim Publications – bold theirs: 

‘For a meaning of the name Canaan, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Low. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Merchant or Servant… We would interpret the name Canaan as International Trade or International Synchronicity… From the verb (kana), to be brought into synchronicity.’

Canaan can mean the ‘land of purple’ from the term kinahnu: purple dye. The colour purple became associated with the Phoenicians. It is an interesting coincidence that The Color Purple is the title of Alice Walker’s 1982 novel and subsequent Steven Spielberg film. The story is about African American gender, race and nationhood. The link with purple to Canaan’s descendants is insightful, as purple is associated with the following lofty traits, invariably denied to Canaan but no less desired:

Bourne Creative:

‘Purple combines the calm stability of blue and the fierce energy of red. The color purple is often associated with royalty, nobility, luxury, power, and ambition. Purple also represents meanings of wealth, extravagance, creativity, wisdom, dignity, grandeur, devotion, peace, pride, mystery, independence, and magic.

The color purple is a rare occurring color in nature and as a result is often seen as having sacred meaning. Lavender, orchid, lilac, and violet flowers are considered delicate and precious. Throughout history, purple robes were worn by royalty and people of authority or high rank… the rare occurrence of purple in nature made it one of the most expensive color dyes to create.

The amount of melanin a person has dictates not only the colour of their skin. 

Rastafari: The Truth About Melanin – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body [more] rapidly in Black people… Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than [white infants], and [demonstrate] more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts… Carol Barnes writes “… your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (athletics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!”

The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically… Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called [Soul] in Black people. Is God Black? The Original Man was [black], “made in the Image of God” his Parent. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.

When studying Noah, we established that the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man are described as white in the Bible. The same is written in the Book of Enoch chapter 46:1-3.

1 At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor… 2 And I asked the one… who had revealed to me all the secrets… “Who is this… 3 And he answered me and said to me, “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells. And He will open all [that is] hidden… for Yahweh of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts in eternal uprightness.” 

We will look further in to man being the image of God. There is a link to the colour black as this author states; just not quite the answer one would expect.

‘Most [white people] have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, thereby limiting their [spiritual]* capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal [and] pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradition regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian [royalty’s] crowns.’

A succinct definition online: ‘Uraeus is an important symbol associated with the Gods, Goddesses, and Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is represented by the image of an upright cobra in a threatening pose and is believed to have its origins in Iaret, an Egyptian word meaning the risen one. The icon symbolized divine authority, royalty, sovereignty, and supremacy and was worn as a crown or head ornament by the ancient Egyptian divinities and rulers. This sacred serpent symbol reiterated the connection between the Gods and the Pharaohs and wearing the Uraeus conveyed legitimacy to the royal personage. The rearing cobra indicated that the ruler enjoyed the protection and patronage of Goddess Wadjet, the Lower Egypt deity. After the unification of Egypt, the Uraeus was depicted together with the Vulture, which was the symbol of Nekhbet, the patroness of Upper Egypt. The merged symbol was called ‘The Two Ladies’, the joint protectors of the country.’

‘Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally and morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most [white people] are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians 15-25%; Europeans 60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural differences between [blacks] and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, rigid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and… feelings. Melanin [gives] humans the ability to [feel] because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy.’

A case in point, is the faith* that Black people exhibit towards their Saviour and their exuberance and passion at Church services. This has often produced thoughts of respect and a little jealousy, towards their genuine peace and joy.

‘After considering Melanin to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western… science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to make [the Black race inferior], “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview).

In humans, melanin is the primary determinant of skin and hair color. However, few people know that melanin is found in almost every organ of the body and is necessary for the brain and nerves to operate, the eyes to see, and the cells to reproduce. It is also found in the stria vascularis of the inner ear. In the brain, tissues with melanin include the medulla and pigment-bearing neurons within areas of the brainstem, such as the locus coeruleus and the substantia nigra. It also occurs in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland.

Exposure to the sun has the potential to cause premature aging of the skin, as well as various skin cancers. [The] ability to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation depends on the amount of melanin in your skin, which is determined by the number of melanocytes that are active beneath the surface… Melanin is an effective absorber of light; the pigment is able to dissipate more than 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation. In even the most light-skinned people, the body’s melanocytes respond to sun exposure by producing more melanin, which creates the effect known as tanning. However, there is a limit to the degree of protection that melanin can provide, and it’s significantly higher in people with naturally darker skin.

Melanin can absorb a great amount of energy and yet not produce a tremendous amount of heat when it absorbs this energy, because it can transform harmful energy into useful energy. According to dermatologist and dermapathologist Dr. Leon Edelstein, director of the National American West Skin Pathology Consultation Service, melanin can absorb tremendous quantities of energy of all kinds, including energy from sunlight, x-ray machines, and energy that is formed within cells during the metabolism of cells. His theory is that melanin has the ability to neutralize the potentially harmful effects of these energies.

Darkly pigmented people tend to exhibit less signs of aging. Dermatologist Susan C. Taylor, author of “Brown Skin,” points out that Blacks and other people of color generally look younger than their lighter-skinned peers because of the higher levels of melanin in their skin. The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against folate depletion. 

Folate is water soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. Folate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, folate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Folate breaks down in high intense UVR. Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects.’ 

‘Dr. Frank Barr, pioneering discoverer of melanin’s organizing ability and other properties, theorizes in his technical work, Melanin: The Organizing Molecule: “The hypothesis is advanced that (neuro)melanin (in conjunction with other pigment molecules such as the isopentenoids) functions as the major organizational molecule in living systems. Melanin is depicted as an organizational “trigger” capable of using established properties such as photon – (electron) – photon conversions, free radical-redox mechanism, ion exchange mechanisms, and semiconductive switching capabilities to direct energy to strategic molecular systems and sensitive hierarchies of protein enzyme cascades. Melanin is held capable of regulating a wide range of molecular interactions and metabolic processes…”

The map of former African colonies is a grim picture. To be clear, the African people have suffered because of their forefather Canaan and his actions; not, because the Black people are inferior to any other racial line, or because they have brought suffering on themselves. Black peoples are not inferior to any other race of people on Earth. Nor do they deserve any kind of racial discrimination for their ethnic characteristics and colour of their skin.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the Greek New Testament the name Canaan is spelled Χανααν [Acts 7:11 and 13:19]  and Canaanite (female) is spelled Χαναναια (Matthew 15.22]. The masculine form Χαναναιος does not occur in the New Testament but both Matthew and Mark make mention of a Simon the Kanaanite (Κανανιτης;  [Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18]).

The name Canaan may have been original — meaning “land of purple,” says HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, which relates it to Phoenicia, also meaning purple — and turned proverbial, but it may also have been taken from the Hebrew verb (kana) and projected back upon this person… The verb (kana) means to synchronize, or to give up individual leanings in order to unite more effectively as a group. Noun (kin’a) means bundle or pack.’

A further irony, as the sons of Canaan have not been a unified people and their leaders have not given up individual leanings.

‘The Old Testament’s passion for reaching the “land of Canaan” may have a very clear connotation of reaching the blissful situation of international synchronicity. Being located on the bridge between three continents, the [intermediate] historical people of Canaan maintained a flowering culture of trade. Thus the words, meaning Canaan, and, meaning Canaanite, acquired the additional meaning of trade or merchant (Zephaniah 1:11, Ezekiel 16:29).’

The original allotment of land running north-south on the furthest eastern coast of the mediterranean or the far west coast of the fertile crescent, had been designated for Shem’s descendants. Canaan’s descendants had dwelt there before migrating southwest to Africa. Ultimately, the sons of Jacob also migrated away from this strip of land.

In the Book of Jubilees chapter Ten, verses 28-33, we read about Canaan after the flood and when land was apportioned to Japheth Ham and Shem, in the wider Near and Middle Eastern region. Recall, Madai [Chapter IV] requested to live adjacent to Shem’s descendants. 

And Ham and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion in the land of the south. And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt [the Nile], that it was very good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west(that is to) the sea [North Africa], and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him: ‘Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition; for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem; for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the [Holy Judge], and in the presence of Noah our father.’ But he did not harken unto them, and dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of Egypt… 

Canaan’s three brothers all migrated to northern Africa. Canaan followed later as predicted, settling in North West Africa. Ultimately, two brothers left Africa and two remained. One being Canaan, who eventually spread southward throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

We read in Genesis 10:15-18 ESV, of the sons of Canaan:

Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

In other words: Sidon, Heth, Jebu, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath. 

The endeavour to identify all eleven of Canaan’s lines of descendants – as there are some forty plus African nations containing Canaan’s offspring – for now, remains a future project. We will concentrate on Sidon the firstborn and Heth the second born, who is also a prominent line. 

Insight into Canaan’s sons is provided by Professor Aaron Demsky, in Reading Biblical Genealogies – Including a close look at how the description of the Canaanite lineage was constructed (Genesis 10:15-18) – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Sons of Canaan… include twelve names. In order to come up with twelve Canaanite sons – another typological number implying a full people (see below) – it needed to include different kinds of names.

… Six of the names are ethnic names, known from the lists of the indigenous Canaanite peoples, that appear either in part or in full some twenty-five times in the Bible. Three of these terms are the externally documented: Canaanites, Amorites and Hittites. The rest are unknown in non-biblical texts: Jebusites, Girgashites and Hivites. The [Perizzites], who appear in a number of these lists, are not mentioned here.

… The list also includes five Phoenician-Syrian city-states as part of the Canaanite league:

1. Sidon along the coast,

2.`Arqa (Tel `Arqa, ca.20 kms north east of Tripoli) [Ark]

3. Sin (Shian in the Assyrian sources; in later Jewish documents it is identified with Tripoli in Lebanon)

4. Arwad (Ruad, an island port between Tripoli and Latakia) [Arvad]

5. Semer (Assyrian Ṣumur, south of Arwad) [Zemar]

6. Hamath (Hama one of the major cities in middle Syria), situated on the Orontes.

The names of these “sons” are not presented uniformly.

1. The first three—Canaan, Sidon and Heth—are proper names.

2. The “descendants” are written as gentilics (i.e., relational adjectives in the nisbe form) with the definite article (the Jebusite, the Amorite), etc. Canaan also appears in this form at the end of the list.

Chiastic Form

The “descendants” are listed in chiastic order. Sidon is the firstborn followed by Heth. Following Heth are the other five Canaanite peoples, related to Heth, and then the five city states, obviously related to Sidon, as they are all Phoenician city-states like Sidon…

The Significance of Twelve

As we see from the later genealogies of Nahor (Genesis 22:20-24), Ishmael (Genesis 25:13-15), and of course, Jacob, twelve is a significant number in biblical tradition for classifying large ethnic units, or tribal leagues, in the patriarchal period. In this case of Canaan, however, we find a certain creativity in order to produce the desired number. The list has two anomalies:

1. The patriarch here is one of the twelve.

2. Five city-states (or feudal kingdoms) have been recast as clan units. 

As noted above, the larger branches of the three sons of Noah are defined not only by ethnicity and language affinity, but also by geographic proximity (verses 5, 20, 31). Moreover, emphasizing the integral territorial aspect of tribal identity, sundry geographical notices were appended, e.g., verses 10-12; 30. Similarly, in verse 19, this genealogy of Canaan is enhanced by a fascinating geographic description of the borders of Canaan (verse 19): The Canaanite territory extended from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha. This description serves both to minimalize Canaanite territory and to introduce places that will appear in later narratives.

Northern Border – Phoenician Cities  

Following a three pointed pattern of delineating borders, which I have identified, i.e., “From X, coming to Y, near Z”, the list begins with Sidon, which probably now implies the entire Tyrean kingdom on the Phoenician coast from Acco in the south to Nahr Kalb in the north (Joshua 13:4-6; compare the territory of Asher 19:24-30).

South-Western Border – Philistine Cities

The second point, on the south-western border of Canaan, Gerar (Tel Harur, present day Netivot on Nahal Gerar, i.e. biblical Nahal HaBesor), was defined by the third point Gaza, some 20 kms away. This description of the southern border of Canaan serves another literary purpose by anticipating the stories of Abraham and Isaac going to Gerar and the story of Jacob’s funeral cortège from Egypt to Hebron at the end of the book (Genesis 50:10-11).

Eastern Border – The Dead Sea and the Five Cities  

From the south western corner of the Land, the border goes to the southern edge of the Dead Sea. The description introduces the five cities [technically only four as Lot escaped to Zoar and it was spared] which are eventually destroyed in the story of Lot and Sodom.’

A possible two groupings for the descendants of  Canaan, as proposed by Demsky – 

Cities: Sidon [proper name], Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath

Clans: Heth [proper name], Jebus, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, [Canaan] 

According to Demsky, the clans are the literal sons of Canaan and amongst other places, they lived in the aforementioned cities. This position seems to create further questions. How did these six cities acquire their names? It would seem plausible they are so named after their founders. They being the first and seventh to eleventh sons listed in Genesis chapter Ten. Is an extra Canaan applicable and if so, is he Canaan junior or possibly a grandson of Canaan senior? There are a fair number of scriptures for some of the cities and sons, so we will look at a sample. The majority refer to later ‘Canaanites’ where the original sons of Canaan were not living and so are discounted in this chapter.

The Book of Jasher 7:13 includes additional or duplicate names, totalling ten sons instead of eleven, with Jebus missing:

And the sons of Canaan were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi [Arvad?], Zimodi [Zemar?] and Chamothi [Hamath].

Sidon, or Zidon in Hebrew means: ‘fishery, hunting place.’ From the verb sud, to hunt or fish. The noun mesad means fastness or stronghold – a typically defensive structure. ‘Sud’ in French means south.* When studying Kitti [Chapter VIII] – an economic, key geographic maritime, port people – we looked at Isaiah chapter 23. There are additional major nations in a similar key geographic port location.

Isaiah 23:1-3

Complete Jewish Bible

A prophecy about Tzor [Tyre]: Howl, you “Tarshish”[Japanese] ships, because the harbor is destroyed! On returning from Kittim [Indonesia], they discover they cannot enter it. 2 Silence, you who live on the coast, you who have been enriched by the merchants of Tzidon [Sidon] crossing the sea. 3 By the great water the grain of Shichor, the harvest of the Nile, brought you profits. She was marketplace for the nations. 4 Shame, Tzidon, for the sea speaks; the fortress of the sea says,“I no longer have labor pains or bear children, yet I have raised neither boys nor girls.”

Verse 12 NCV:

He said, “Sidon, you will not rejoice any longer, because you are destroyed. Even if you cross the sea to Cyprus [Kitti], you will not find a place to rest.”

Zechariah 9:1-3

Revised Standard Version

The word of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus [Aram]. For to the Lord belong the cities of Aram [son of Shem], even as all the tribes of Israel; Hamath [city of Canaan] also, which borders thereon, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. Tyre has built herself a rampart, and heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the mud of the streets.

Tyre is associated with the intermediate ‘Canaanites’ or Phoenicians; whereas the later ‘Phoenicians’ are linked with Sidon. Though the Phoenicians are White peoples descended from Shem, both nations today also contain a Black population descended from Canaan. We will study scriptures regarding Sidon, when we look at the European peoples who dwell within this nation. Sidon is en route from Tarshish and Kitti and links them to Tyre. All are major trading nations and key ports. As Sidon is associated with Hamath and other Canaanites, we are looking for a prominent nation on the coast of Africa. Sidon is the Republic of South Africa* and its black citizens include the Canaanite clan of Hiv.

Sin and Zemar are not mentioned outside of Genesis and 1 Chronicles. Ark is mentioned in Joshua 16:1-3, NET within the future lands of the tribe of Jospeh:

The land allotted to Joseph’s descendants extended from the Jordan at Jericho to the waters of Jericho to the east, through the desert and on up from Jericho into the hill country of Bethel. The southern border extended from Bethel to Luz, and crossed to Arkite territory at Ataroth. It then descended westward to Japhletite territory, as far as the territory of lower Beth Horon and Gezer, and ended at the sea.

Arvad equates with the people of Angola. Arvad is connected in a military capacity with Sidon and particularly Tyre.

Ezekiel 27:8, 11 

New English Translation: 

The leaders of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers; your skilled men, O Tyre, were your captains… The Arvadites joined your army on your walls all around, and the Gammadites were in your towers. They hung their quivers on your walls all around; they perfected your beauty.

The link between Angola and Tyre will be become very clear when we study Tyre. Excluding Arab nations, Angola is the eighth most populous African nation – with 34,141,995 people – and possesses the fifth strongest military in sub-Saharan Africa, behind Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya at fourth. The meaning of Arvad is a ‘wandering fugitive’ from the verb ‘arad, ‘to flee’ or ‘be free’ and the verb rud, ‘to wander restlessly.’

Hamath is mentioned a number of times and linked with Arvad, who in turn is associated with Sidon. Hamath is the most prominent Canaanite region [city-state] after Sidon and is the nation of Nigeria, with its people coming from the clan of Heth. A coincidence is Ham-ath being similar to the name Ham, as Niger-ia has been named from the their racial strand.

2 Kings 19:13

English Standard Version

Where is the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad [Arvad], the king of the city of Sepharvaim, the king of Hena, or the king of Ivvah? [Isaiah 36:19]

2 Samuel 8:9-10

English Standard Version

When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer [of Zobah], Toi sent his son Joram to King David… [1 Chronicles 18:1-5, Ezekiel 47:17]

The link between Hamath and King David of Judah is significant and not a coincidence. These verses also highlight the strength of Hamath, thus a sizeable nation commensurate with the economic or military clout of Sidon is being discussed. Nigeria with South Africa is a leading nation in Africa. It has an immense population of 212,655,051 people – seventh highest in the world. Notice on the fertility rate chart that Nigeria has one of the highest rates in the world. Nigeria is in red, located south of Niger in Pink, with the highest rate in the world.

A well known online encyclopaedia, provides a helpful summary of Nigeria’s recent history – emphasis and bold mine:

‘… The Kano [Canaan] Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, [Hamath city-state of Canaan] with other major Hausa cities… all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known… as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks…)There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire [Kainam, Kenan] as the region’s major centre for Islamic civilization.

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the [regions] Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. 

The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors’ territory as forced labour; [in] time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors’ society. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports.’

We will return to the significance of the Portuguese being the first European peoples [in the modern era] to both trade and colonise areas outside of Europe.

‘In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering… and [advancing]… with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. 

The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic [civilisation], the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.

A changing legal imperative ([the] transatlantic slave trade [was] outlawed by Britain in 1807)… [caused] after that illegal smugglers [to purchase] slaves along the coast by native slavers. Britain’s West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain. 

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company… By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River. [The] British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company’s territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern… and the Northern… [Protectorates] into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. 

Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. By independence in 1960, regional differences… were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present [day, with imbalances] between North and South. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). The United States is the country’s largest foreign investor.

Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. As of 2014 it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Next to petrodollars, the second-biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030.

Nigeria is the 25th largest economy in the world and the biggest in the sub-Saharan African continent. Its 2019 nominal GDP was $448 billion dollars. Nigeria’s economy relies heavily on the oil industry and is the largest oil exporter on the continent; with Africa’s largest reserves of natural gas. Resource extraction industries, such as coal, tin, and other metal mining are integral to the Nigerian economy. Oil dominates in terms of contribution to GDP and exports. Between a fifth and a half of Nigerians work in agriculture, primarily small-scale subsistence agriculture. Nigeria’s economy has grown rapidly in the past few decades, but it also faces significant challenges such as desertification and lack of infrastructure

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Nigerian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$29.7 billion 
  2. Ships, boats: $2.1 billion
  3. Oil seeds: $346.4 million
  4. Cocoa: $338.1 million 
  5. Fertilizers: $183.5 million 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $169.1 million 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $130 million 
  8. Tobacco, manufactured substitutes: $64.5 million 
  9. Raw hides, skins not furskins, leather: $62.8 million 
  10. Machinery including computers: $46.8 million 

Machinery including computers represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 417.9% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aircraft and spacecraft via a 141.5% gain.

Year over year, the severest decliners among Nigeria’s top 10 export categories were tobacco including manufactured substitutes (down -37.8%), mineral fuels including oil (down -36.3%) and the highly capital-intensive ships and boats product category (down -33.9%).’

The Flag of Nigeria with Coat of Arms

Heth in Hebrew means: ‘terror, dread,’ From the verb hatat, ‘to deplete of courage.’ A formidable name and the latter White peoples known by that name, certainly lived up to it. The Hittites in the Bible, are in every case, in reference to the the later peoples. One passage which refers to the original people of Heth is in Genesis chapter twenty-three.

Genesis 23:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And he said to them, “If you are willing that I [Abraham] should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat for me Ephron the son of Zohar, 9 that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he owns; it is at the end of his field. For the full price let him give it to me in your presence as property for a burying place.” 

10 Now Ephron was sitting among the Hittites, and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the Hittites, of all who went in at the gate of his city, 11 “No, my lord, hear me: I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the sight of the sons of my people I give it to you. Bury your dead.”

Jebus in Hebrew means: ‘trodden underfoot, he will trample down.’ The numerous references to the Jebusites [including all the Canaanite clans] are in the main, to the Nephilim descended giants or people that intermarried with them that dwelt in Canaan. We will look at a selection of verses for these peoples in a different chapter. Amor in Hebrew means: ‘talkers.’

Genesis 15:18-21

English Standard Version

18 On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 the land of the… 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites… 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.”

Girgash in Hebrew means: ‘dwellers in a clayey soil,’ ‘take and stroke’, Hiv: ’villagers’ and Perizz: ‘wildling, rural.’ The Canaanites and Perizzites are always placed together. Their relationship is not clear, yet they appear to be close and as one.

Genesis 13:7

English Standard Version

… and there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock. At that time the Canaanites and the Perizzites were dwelling in the land.

A well known online encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters [six clans].The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world’s populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa.

Whether there are twelve, eleven, ten or six main Canaanite lines is difficult to ascertain. The identification of six ancestral clusters though, supports Aaron Demsky’s hypothesis and so we may well have found Canaan’s six clans. The major African ethnic groups could be divided as located in: West Africa, the Horn of Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, Southeast Africa and Southern Africa. 

In Chapter X, Magog, Tubal & Meshech, the article Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Descend from Three Neolithic Super-Grandfathers stated in its additional paper – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… clade E [is distributed] mainly in Africa, so there are two hypotheses, 1) haplogroups D and CF migrated out of Africa separately; 2) the single common ancestor of CF and DE migrated out of Africa followed by a back-migration of E to Africa. From this study, the short interval between CF/DE and C/F divergences weakens the possibility of multiple independent migrations (CF, D, and DE*) out of Africa, and thus supports the latter hypothesis… Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among the hunter-gatherer groups in Ethiopia and Sudan. A3b1 is a Khoisan exclusive haplogroup [Southern Africa].’

The alternative view of mankind beginning in the Middle East is more viable and this would support what we have learned with the descendants of Canaan migrating to Africa, not from it… and then a ‘back-migration.’ Scientists concur that Y-DNA haplogroup A is the oldest [original] haplogroup – associated with Black people – and then make the incorrect assumption, that all people have come out of Africa. The exact same assumption has been made with mtDNA L0 and L1. 

This supports the unproven evolutionary theory, but does not allow for a provable pre-flood world, with a singular – Black line – [or dual racial lines if we include the Neanderthal of Day Six – a Yellow/Red line] and the introduction of a White line [through Noah and his son Shem] just prior to the Flood. After the Flood, the new races [sixteen lines from Noah’s grandsons] repopulated the world from the Hindu Kush and Indus Valley regions, as opposed to the African continent.

African Human mtDNA phylogeography at a glance, Alexandra Rosa & António Brehm, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:

L0

‘Macrohaplogroup L divides into haplogroups L0-L6… Haplogroup L0 further includes sub-haplogroups L0a, L0d, L0f and L0k… L0d, the first individual sub-clade to derive from the L0 node… its divergence from L0abfk… The distribution of this clade appears to be restricted to Khoisan people in South Africa, and to Tanzanian and Angolan populations… Similarly, sub-haplogroup L0k is found almost exclusively among South African Khoisan… existing also at low frequencies among click-speaking Tanzanian groups… 

Their L0d and L0k shared lineages, which represent more than half of their maternal pool suggest an ancestral link predating the appearance of present-day click-speakers, likely remnants of an East African proto-Khoisan population… The mtDNA pool of the Khoisan people shows over 60% of L0d and L0k lineages… 

The L0a1 sub-clade has an eastern and southeastern African distribution including Nubia, Sudan and Ethiopia… L0a2 lineages are thought to trace the dispersal of Bantu-speakers towards South Africa…’

L1

‘MtDNA L1… One of its daughter clades, haplogroup L1b, is concentrated in western-central Africa, particularly along the coastal areas… peaking in the Senegal Mandenka and Wolof… and Fulani people in Burkina-Faso, Chad and South Cameroon… L1c occurs frequently in Central and West Africans… Curiously, more recent reports state frequencies ranging 18-25% in Angola Bantu ethnic groups… A substantial revision for the L1c phylogeny has been proposed by Quintana-Murci et al. (2008). It shed additional light… and helped corroborate past relationships between Central African Bantu-speaking farmers and their hunter-gathering neighbors, the Pygmies… Both groups likely shared an ancestral Central-African proto-population rich in L1c mtDNAs… and evolved into the diverse forms observed today among the modern agricultural populations (L1c1a, L1c1b, L1c1c, L1c2-6, etc.) while L1c1a is the only surviving clade in western Pygmies… Both L1b and L1c were proposed as Central Africa autochthonous lineages…

L5

Haplogroup L5, previously known as L1e, occupies an intermediate position between L1 and L2’3’4’6… 

It has been observed at low frequencies in eastern Africa, namely Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, with minor gene flow introducing these lineages in the Mbuti Pygmies and North Cameroon Fali… The Central African Pygmies particular genetic pool including both L1c and L5 may assign them a “relict” status, similar to that proposed for the Khoisan… 

L2

Together with L3, haplogroup L2 comprises ~70% of the sub-Saharan maternal variation. Haplogroup L2a is the most frequent and wide- spread mtDNA cluster in Africa, reaching over 40% in Tuareg from Niger/Nigeria and Mali… Recent star-like demographic bursts in L2a1a and L2a2 and their expansion to southeast people are most likely associated with the expansion(s) of the Bantu-speaking populations… L2b-L2d haplogroups are dominant and largely confined to West and West-Central Africa…   

L6

The variation classified as haplogroup L6… is nowadays largely confined to Yemeni people and a few samples in Ethiopian Amhara and Gurages. It is noteworthy that L6 presents a very narrow phylogeography… Given its presence in Ethiopians, where its sister clades are also diverse and frequent… L6 has a most likely origin in East Africa, where it might have been preserved in isolation for tens of thousands of years. In any case the homeland of L6 may still be missing.

L4

Haplogroup L4 is a sister clade of L3, typical of East and Northeast Africa, although present at low frequencies… The L4a motif has been found in Sudan and Ethiopia, though initially misclassified as L3e4… Similarly we also refer to L4b2, previously known as L3g… or L4g… This is frequent in Tanzania and Amhara and Gurages from Ethiopia…

L3

… superhaplogroup L3… is widespread in Africa, its frequency and diversity providing evidence of a sub-Saharan expansion of its sub-clades towards West Africa… This superhaplogroup is subdivided into various clades and harbours also the two main M and L superhaplogroups found outside of Africa. Both L3b and L3d are prevalent in the West quadrant of sub-Saharan Africa… in average 10%…

L3b also shows considerable frequencies in the Hutu people in Rwanda… and South African Kung… L3d constitutes an important percentage of the South African maternal pool, being more expressive in Angola and Tanzania… a subset of L3b is common among Bantu speakers of south-western Africa and thus is a likely marker of the Bantu expansion… The L3e cluster has been subdivided into L3e1, L3e2, L3e3 and L3e4, since the time of HVS-I information per se… 

The oldest branches of L3e are thought to have arisen in Central Africa/nowadays Sudan… Within L3e2, the L3e2b lineages constitute the most frequent and widespread type of L3e, primarily found in West and Central Africa…

The network in Cerný et al. (2007) reflects a clear starlike phylogeny of L3e5 types found mostly in western Central Africa. Although an important diffusion has occurred into North Africa, the root type is relatively prevalent in the Chad Basin… The diffusion of haplogroup L3f ranges from Ethiopia in the east, to Angola and Mozambique in the south, the Chad Basin in Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau in the west and Tunisia in the north…

L3f1 founder lineages in Central and West Africa… L3f2 is a quite infrequent clade found almost exclusively among Chad speaking populations from the Chad Basin and virtually absent from Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan peoples… Therefore, it is contemporary with its sister clade L3f1, and probably arose around the Chad Basin area. Nevertheless, the haplogroup is present in northern Cushitic groups from Somalia and Ethiopia…’

African Americans

‘The current distribution range of African mtDNA lineages is far broader than the African continent. Long-distance gene flow mediated by the Atlantic slave trade since the 16th century is worth mentioning in this review. 

Brazilians harbor the most important reservoir of African maternal lineages outside of Africa. Early description of the genetic landscape of Brazilians with sub-Saharan ancestry confirms the historical evidence, with L1c and L3e lineages summing up to nearly half of the African share… Later studies on Afro-Americans residing in the American continent report 65% of mtDNA types in South America as having a Central African origin, 41% and 59% of Central Americans tracing progeny to West Central Africa and West Africa respectively, while North American ancestors are estimated as being 28% West-Central Africans and 72% West Africans… These results corroborate the historical record of these regions… The origin of Afro-Americans in U.S.A. is associated with West African (>55%) and West-Central/Southwest African (<45%) mothers, also in close proximity to historical data… 

Recent results on admixture analysis suggest that Africans brought to Brazil as slaves were originally from two geographical regions: i) 69% of the maternal pool of Black Brazilians in Rio de Janeiro is attributed to West-Central and Southeast Africa, close to two former Portuguese colonies (Angola and Mozambique) and ii) 82% of mtDNA lineages in Porto Alegre are found in West Africa, in the northern portion of the Gulf of Guinea… Such detailed analysis is possible given the clear mtDNA haplogroup structure which allows the discrimination of geographic/linguistic origins. Once again genetic records are in agreement with historical data…’ 

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced migration of an estimated 11 million Africans to the Americas. Only 9 million are thought to have survived the passage, and many more died in the early years of captivity. Historical accounts indicate that virtually all enslaved Africans brought to North America came from either West or West Central Africa. A recent comparison of mtDNA sequences from 1148 African Americans living in the US with a database of African mtDNA sequences showed that more than 55% of the US lineages have a West African ancestor, while fewer than 41% came from West Central or South West Africa.

Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mother to daughter with few, if any, changes occurring over many generations, it is possible to compare contemporary African-American mtDNA haplotypes with contemporary mtDNA haplotypes in a worldwide database to obtain information about the ancestral origins of these mtDNAs.’ 

‘In such a comparison, continent-specific haplotypes are readily observed, and the assignment of mtDNAs to continent of origin is relatively straightforward. The more difficult task is to tie particular mtDNA haplotypes to specific geographical regions and ethnic groups within a continent. This task is particularly difficult for Africa, as there is more genetic diversity among Africans than among people from any other continent…

The most extensive pan-African haplotype… is in the L2a1 haplogroup. 40% of African-American mtDNAs did not match any sequence in the database, it is clear that matches to a single African ethnic group will not be the outcome for most African Americans, and even when a match to a single ethnic group is obtained, multiple matches may occur in a larger database. Furthermore, for the typical African American, the maternal ancestor who was the source of the mtDNA was just one of hundreds of enslaved African ancestors. In fact, it likely that there has been more mixing of African ethnic groups in the Americas than has ever occurred elsewhere. Thus, the ancestors of virtually all contemporary African Americans came from a large number of ethnic groups located throughout the region from Senegal to Angola.

Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, multiple authors, 2007:

‘Several L haplogroup lineages occur most frequently in eastern Africa (e.g., L0a, L0f, L5, and L3g), but some are specific to certain ethnic groups, such as haplogroup lineages L0d and L0k that previously have been found nearly exclusively among southern African “click” speakers. The presence of very old mtDNA haplogroups (i.e., L0d, L0f, and L5) in Tanzanians that are rare or absent in other regions of Africa suggests populations in Tanzania may have had a large long-term effective population size and/or a large degree of long-term population structure, which has acted to preserve many divergent and rare mtDNA haplogroup lineages that appeared early in modern human history. The presence of these ancient lineages in Tanzania also suggests that eastern Africa might be the source of origin of many other African mtDNA haplogroup lineages. 

Our findings are consistent with other studies of mtDNA genetic diversity in African populations that have suggested populations in eastern Africa form a highly diverse gene pool…’

A sample of Y-DNA haplogroups from the six largest African nations; plus Ghana is included, as it has a very pure haplogroup sequence. Kenya and Tanzania are represented by Bantus and South Africa is represented by southern Bantus, the Zulu [also southern Bantu] and the Khoisan.

Ethiopia:           E1b1b – A – T – J – B – E2 

Khoisan:            A – E1b1a – E1b1b – B – E2

RSA Khoisan:   E1b1a – A – E1b1b – B – E2 

Tanzania:          E1b1a – E1b1b – E2 – B – A – T

Kenya:               E1b1a – E2 – A – E1b1b – B

RSA Bantu:       E1b1a – E2 – B – A – E1b1b

RSA Zulu:          E1b1a – E2 – B – A 

DR Congo:        E1b1a – E2 – E1b1b – A 

Nigeria:             E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Ghana:               E1b1a – E1a – E1b1b

The haplogroup J in Ethiopia is reflective of Arab peoples or admixture. The haplogroups E, A and B and their respective clades are the main Haplogroups for the Black African peoples. Ethiopia and Ghana are poles apart percentage wise, on an east – west axis and Nigeria and the Khoisan on a north – south axis.

                                 E1b1a    E1b1b       E2         B          A 

Ethiopia                                  63           1.5        1.5         10

RSA Khoisan            36         15              4         12         33

Khoisan                     23         16              2         12         44

Tanzania                   48         22            16           9          3

Kenya                         52         14            17           3         14

RSA Bantu                 55          4             21          11          5

RSA Zulu                    55                         21         20          3

DR Congo                  64         14            19                       3

Nigeria                       68           4              7          10         3

Ghana                         92           1         

Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and its population is 118,587,254 people, the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The largest ethnic group in Ethiopia is the Oromo; of which I have used their Y-DNA haplogroup spread rather than the combined population, as it affects the E1b1b, A and J percentages significantly.

Kenya in East Africa has the sixth highest population with 53,771,296 people. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is in Central Africa, with the third highest population of 92,609,143 people. The main ethnic group in the Congo are the Kongo and in Nigeria it is the Igbo. Tanzania is in East Africa, with the fourth highest population of 61,981,437 people. Ghana in West Africa, has a population of 31,898,831 people – the tenth highest.

In the south, the Republic of South Africa has the fifth highest population of 60,262,064 people, of which the vast majority are Black people. The Y-DNA haplogroups of the largest ethnic group, are from the Zulu.

People with understanding want more knowledge, but fools just want more foolishness.

Proverbs 15:14 New Century Version

“The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widely spread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible.” 

Bertrand Russell [1872-1970]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Ham Aequator

Chapter XI

Noah’s second and middle son is Ham. We will discover that his descendants have spanned across the globe, principally throughout the hottest regions of the earth relative to the equator. Ham’s children have dispersed widely and are the darker skinned peoples of the world, ranging from black to olive skin and all the shades of brown between. They are located in Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East, South West Asia, the Indian Sub-Continent, South East Asia and Oceania.

A H Sayce, page 50 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘It is true that although Semites, Aryans, and Alaro-dians represent different races of mankind, they nevertheless all alike belong to the white stock, and may thus be said to be but varieties of one and the same original race… even granting it to be probable that the various white races are all descended from a common ancestry… it is possible that they may have developed out of more than one dark race.

Abarim Publications, emphasis and bold theirs:

‘The name that occurs in the English Bible as Ham is really two completely different Hebrew names; one which is pronounced Cham, and the other Ham. They have two completely different meanings, but since English readers are so used to the name Ham… call them Ham I and Ham II:

The name Ham I – Meaning: Hot, or Protective Wall from the verb (ham), to be hot, or the verb (hmh), to protect or surround.

This name [C]Ham is identical to the adjective (ham), meaning warm, and also to the noun (ham), meaning father in law… The verb (hamam) means to be hot and is sometimes used to describe mental agitation. The noun (hamman) denotes [a] kind of mysterious small pillar (perhaps a device). The verb (yaham) also means hot, but mostly in a mental sense: to be excited or angered. The noun (hema) mostly refers to a severe mental “burning”: anger or rage.

For the meaning of this name [C]Ham, Alfred Jones (Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names) confidently derives it from the verb (hamam), meaning to be hot, and renders it Heat, Black. Then he… connects blackness with sin. What escapes the… scholar is that:

  • This version of the name Ham is also identical to (ham), father-in-law, from the unused root (hmh) of which the cognates mean to protect or surround.
  • In the Bible not blackness but whiteness is associated with sin. Miriam turned white [2 Kings 5:27] because of her aggression against Moses’ second [3rd] wife, who was a Cushite and thus quite likely very black. And the bride of the Song of Solomon, often regarded as a type of the Church, was black as well (Song of Solomon 1:5). 
  • NOBSE Study Bible Name List simply reads Hot for Ham, but in view of the above, a closer rendering would be Passion or Intensity.

The name Ham II – Meaning: Noisy from the verb (hama), to be noisy.

Ham II, which is spelled and pronounced as Ham, denotes a once-mentioned town where kings Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer and Tidal defeated the Zuzim during the war of four against five kings (Genesis 14:5).

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names derives this Ham from the verb (hama), meaning cry aloud… The… verb (hama) means to be noisy… derived masculine noun (hamon) denotes a noisy multitude.’

The Zuzim or Zuzites [Zuz] in Ham, are one of six clans of the Nephilim descended  giants mentioned in the Old Testament that lived on the earth after the flood. They are also called Zamzummim or Zamzummites [Deuteronimy 2:21]. We will study Genesis chapter fourteen in more detail. Nephilim are associated with at least two of the four sons of Ham. The definition of the word Ham inferring his descendants would be intense, passionate and at times hot headed is accurately applicable.

Psalm 105:23, 26-27

New English Translation

Israel moved to [Hebrew: entered] Egypt; Jacob lived for a time [Hebrew: lived as a resident foreigner] in the land of Ham [Africa]… He sent his servant Moses, and Aaron, whom he had chosen. They executed his miraculous signs among them, and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.

Egypt is translated from the Hebrew and Aramaic: Mizraim as Mizra is a son of Ham. He was located in Northern Africa with two of his three brothers.

Psalm 78:50-52 and 106:21-22

English Standard Version

… he did not spare them from death, but gave their lives over to the plague. He struck down every firstborn in Egypt, the firstfruits of their strength in the tents of Ham. Then he led out his people [the sons of Jacob] like sheep and guided them in the wilderness like a flock… They forgot God, their Saviour, who had done great things in Egypt, wondrous works in the land of Ham, and awesome deeds by the Red Sea.

The Book of Jubilees provides additional geographic information on the land inheritance of the sons of Ham. It is referenced against the location of the Garden of Eden. We will return to this passage when we study Eden. The lands of Ham were to the south and west as opposed to the north for Japheth. Ham was located principally, in the continent of Africa. 

Book of Jubilees 8:10-11, 22-24

10 And it came to pass… that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each… 11 And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father. 

22 And for Ham came forth the second portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west to the sea of ‘Atel and it extends towards the west till it reaches the sea of Ma’uk -that (sea) into which everything which is not destroyed descends. 23 And it goes forth towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden of Eden. 24 And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to occupy forever for himself and his sons unto their generations forever.

We now arrive at an enigmatic passage of scripture in Genesis chapter nine. A comprehensive or definitive answer to the account is elusive. It is as mysterious as Noah’s role as Ancestor Zero. The early chapters of Genesis are a very abbreviated, amalgamated version of events. The Bible stereotypically understates rather than overstates; though Genesis nine exhibits deliberate editing and censorship. Moses, who is credited with compiling the early books of the Bible may not have glossed over events as they stand and thus, subsequent scribes and translators are likely culpable. The subject matter is unsavoury, unsettling and altruistically, it is lightly trusted that the editing was intended for our sensibilities rather than a deliberate desire to cover the truth. 

Recall, we learned earlier that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine after the Flood, very likely in the Kashmir. Further details are added in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 7:1-7

1 … Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit [it typically takes newly planted vines up to three years to grow grapes] in the fourth year [10,833 BCE] and he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [Tishri: September/October]. 

2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, until the first day, on the new month [new Moon] of the first month [Abib/Nisan: March/April].3 And he celebrated with joy the day of this feast [New Moon], and he made a burnt sacrifice unto Yahweh, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, that he might make atonement thereby for himself and his sons [similar to a later Patriarch named Job]. 

4 And he prepared the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5 And he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the altar and caused a sweet savoir to ascend acceptable before Yahweh his Sovereign Ruler. 

The system of worshipping and obeying the Eternal One, through animal sacrifices was not inaugurated by Moses and Aaron during the time of the Israelites, but rather, re-activated. Abel and Noah in the antediluvian age and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob after the flood, all offered sacrifices to the Creator; for either the purpose of thanksgiving or atonement [forgiveness]. 

6 And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his children with joy. 7 And it was evening, and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept.

A number of scenarios are possible and it is remarkably similar to an ancient crime scene and a re-opening of an investigation into a very cold case. The protagonists appear to include Noah, his son Ham and, or his son Canaan. It is not ostensibly clear who the perpetrator is, nor entirely the victim.

Genesis 9:18-26 

New Century Version

18 The sons of Noah who came out of the boat with him were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 

We are first alerted to misadventure by the concluding disjunctive clause, the parenthetical, Ham was the father of Canaan

The interlinear states:

And sons Noah that went forth ark were Shem Ham Japheth Ham [H2526 Cham] father [H1 ‘ab]

Canaan is not mentioned here, yet he is in verse twenty-two; this absence is troublesome. We are told who the sons of Noah are; why delineate Canaan as Ham’s son in an indirect way, in a context about Noah’s sons. Was Canaan actually Noah’s son?

19 These three men were Noah’s sons, and all the people on earth came from these three sons.

20 Noah became a farmer [H376 ‘iyesh: husbandman] and planted a vineyard. 

NET: The epithet a man of the soil indicates that Noah was a farmer. “Noah, a man of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard”; Hebrew “and Noah, a man of the ground, began and he planted a vineyard.”

21 When he drank wine made from his grapes, he became drunk and lay naked in his tent. 

NET: The Hebrew verb (galah) in the Hitpael verbal stem (vayyitgal) means “to uncover oneself” or “to be uncovered.” Noah became overheated because of the wine and uncovered himself in the tent.

22 Ham, the father of Canaan, looked at his naked father and told his brothers outside. 

The interlinear states:

And Ham father Canaan saw* [H7200 Ra’ah] nakedness** [H6172 ‘ervah] his father told his two brethren

We are told that Ham is the father of Canaan. Why not just state Ham. The writer or editor desperately wants the reader to believe Canaan is Ham’s son. Is this because he is, though not legally. Or is it because Canaan isn’t Ham’s son at all. By including Canaan; the implication is that Ham is looking upon something that may have involved Canaan. Looked at his naked father implies that there had been a sexual act; but, by whom?

NET: ‘some would translate “had sexual relations with,” arguing that Ham committed a homosexual act with his drunken father for which he was cursed. However, the expression “see nakedness” usually refers to observation of another’s nakedness, not a sexual act (see Genesis 42:9, 12 where “nakedness” is used metaphorically to convey the idea of “weakness” or “vulnerability”; Deuteronomy 23:14 where “nakedness” refers to excrement; Isaiah 47:3; Ezekiel 16:37; Lamentations 1:8. The following verse (v.23) clearly indicates that visual observation, not a homosexual act, is in view here. In Leviticus 20:17 the expression “see nakedness” does appear to be a euphemism for sexual intercourse, but the context there, unlike that of Genesis 9:22, clearly indicates that in that passage sexual contact is in view. The expression “see nakedness” does not in itself suggest a sexual connotation. Some relate Genesis 9:22 to Leviticus 18:6-11, 15-19, where the expression “uncover [another’s] nakedness” (the Piel form of galah) refers euphemistically to sexual intercourse. 

However, Genesis 9:22 does not say Ham “uncovered” the nakedness of his father. According to the text, Noah uncovered himself; Ham merely saw his father naked. The point of the text is that Ham had no respect for his father. Rather than covering his father up, he told his brothers. Noah then gave an oracle that Ham’s [Canaan] descendants, who would be characterized by the same moral abandonment, would be cursed. 

It is hard for modern people to appreciate why seeing another’s nakedness was such an abomination, because nakedness is so prevalent today. In the ancient world, especially in a patriarchal society, seeing another’s nakedness was a major [offence]. (See the account in Herodotus, Histories 1.8-13, where a general saw the nakedness of his master’s wife, and one of the two had to be put to death.) Besides, Ham was not a little boy wandering into his father’s bedroom…’

The thrust of the verse is that Ham is complicit. If he is momentarily discounted, from an actual act against Noah directly he is not absolved from witnessing a possible aftermath of an episode involving Noah; with the addition of not responding accordingly. Rather, he flippantly chooses to alert his brothers instead.

In verse 22, the Hebrew word for saw* is translated by the KJV as see 879 times and look [104], but also as enjoy [4]. It can mean to ‘look intently at, behold, to gaze at.’ The circumstances hint that Ham did more than spot his naked father and then quickly leave to go and tell his brothers. There are two possibilities, in that Ham observed the situation before him far longer than was appropriate, or more tellingly, somehow re-arranged or manipulated the [crime] scene he discovered. Did he try to extricate himself or was it Canaan he sought to protect.

As plausible as it may be that Ham or perhaps Canaan just looked, this verse has to be put with verse 24, where it says: ‘when [Noah] woke up and learned what his youngest son had done to him.’ Support for this line of reasoning is in the meaning for the Hebrew word nakedness** in verse 22. The KJV translates it as nakedness 50 times, though also as shame [1], unclean [1] and uncleanness [1]. 

The nakedness in question is implying that the nudity on display was a shameful exposure of indecency or improper behaviour; as in ‘exposed, undefended, disgrace, blemish.’ The latin term pudenda would apply, in that in the very least, the genitalia of Noah were visible. Interestingly, pudendum though meaning human external genital organs it is especially applied to those of the female.

23 Then Shem and Japheth got a coat [H8071 simlah] and, carrying it on both their shoulders, they walked backwards into the tent and covered their father. They turned their faces away so that they did not see their father’s nakedness.

NET: The word translated “garment” has the Hebrew definite article on it. The article may simply indicate that the garment is definite and vivid in the mind of the narrator, but it could refer instead to Noah’s garment. Did Ham bring it out when he told his brothers?

Why would Ham go to the trouble of telling his brothers and not cover his father himself if it was simple exposure. Why would Shem and Japheth cover their father simply because he was naked, unless they were actually reacting to something more serious. The Hebrew word for coat [simlah] is translated in the KJV as raiment [11], clothes [6], garment [6] and apparel [2]. It signifies a wrapper or mantle [sleeveless cloak or cape] as a covering garment. 

It does contain the ‘permutation for the feminine (through the idea of a cover assuming the shape of the object beneath); [for instance] a dress, especially a mantle.’ There may be significance in this, or it may have simply been a unisex dressing gown suitable for someone who is sleeping lying down.

24 Noah was sleeping because of the wine [H3196 Yayin]. When he woke up and learned  [H3045 Yada’] what his youngest [H6996 Qatan] son [H1121 ben], Ham, had done [H6213 asah] to him, 

NET: ‘Hebrew “his wine,” used here by metonymy for the drunken stupor it produced. The Hebrew verb (ʿasah, “to do”) carries too general a sense to draw the conclusion that Ham had to have done more than look on his father’s nakedness and tell his brothers [though it does imply more than just looking was undertook by someone other than Ham].’

The Interlinear states:

And Noah awoke from his wine knew what his younger son had done

The Hebrew word for knew, yada’ is translated by the KJV as know [645], knowledge [19], perceive [18], understand [7]. It can mean to ‘know a person carnally’ and ‘to be revealed.’

Surprisingly, Ham is not specifically mentioned. We now find two clues in the Hebrew words for younger and son. The KJV translates younger [Qatan] as small [33], little [19], youngest [15], younger [14], least [10] and lesser [2]. It signifies one who is ‘insignificant or unimportant.’ This may be a reference to Ham, though this is hard to credit for him considering his position in the family hierarchy. Shem and Japheth vary in the order they are positioned in the Old Testament, between first and last [eldest or youngest], though Ham is always placed in the middle of his brothers. 

This one instance, where the Bible editors have decided to imply Ham is the youngest cannot be used in support of Ham actually being the youngest, as it contradicts other verses. Whereas, Canaan was Ham’s youngest son of four. [Alternatively, was Canaan Noah’s youngest son of four?] 

The Hebrew word for son ben, is translated by the KJV as son [2978], children [1568], old [135], first [51], man [20] and young [18]. A variety of meanings, though the one of much interest sandwiched between son and child [the member of a family group] is, grandson

The use of this word, would suddenly shift focus to someone other than Ham, who is not even stated in verse 24. Canaan on the other hand is mentioned in verse 22, when Ham looked on his father. Canaan in comparison to Ham, would be less significant in importance and ‘smaller’ than Ham literally in age and figuratively in stature. 

The Hebrew word for ‘had done’ is translated in the KJV as do [1333], make [653], wrought [52], commit [49], perform [18] and dress [13]. It signifies, ‘to fashion, to be used, to press, squeeze.’ Strongs adds: ‘bruise’ and ‘dress(ed).’ These last definitions may be of tell tale sexual significance, when we investigate two different theories next. 

Noah knew something had happened. Just being looked at doesn’t warrant cursing your’ innocent grandson. It only makes sense, if either Ham or Canaan were guilty of more than just prurient observation. How would Noah have known he was stared at, especially while inebriated? If an act of some kind had been committed against him, or affecting him, there must have been evidence for Noah to know.

25 he said, “May there be a curse [H779 ‘arar] on Canaan! May he be the lowest slave [H5650 ‘ebed] to his brothers.”

The Hebrew word for curse is translated 62 times and once as bitterly. It is a severe curse, that from the primitive root means to ‘bitterly curse, execrate.’ Execrate means ‘to detest utterly, abhor, abominate, imprecate evil upon, damn’ and ‘denounce.’ This is no simple curse but one with enormous repercussions. If it is a punishment to fit the crime, then the crime must be one of great magnitude.

The Hebrew word for servant is translated by the KJV as servant [744], manservant [23], bondman [21] and bondage [10]. It means to be a slave and the interlinear says a ‘servants of servants.’ Not a servant to other servants, but the lowest of all servants. This is a massive clue later, in identifying Canaan’s descendants.

The people of Canaan are accused of sins in the scriptures, the man Canaan is apparently guilty of nothing. Why does Noah curse Canaan and not Ham?

NET: ‘Cursed be Canaan. The curse is pronounced on Canaan, not Ham. Noah sees a problem in Ham’s character, and on the basis of that he delivers a prophecy about the future descendants who will live in slavery to such things and then be controlled by others. In a similar way Jacob pronounced oracles about his sons based on their revealed character… Wenham points out that “Ham’s indiscretion towards his father may easily be seen as a type of the later behavior of the Egyptians and Canaanites. Noah’s curse on Canaan thus represents God’s sentence on the sins of the Canaanites, which their forefather Ham had exemplified.” He points out that the Canaanites are seen as sexually aberrant and Leviticus 18:3 describes Egypt and Canaan, both descendants of Ham, as having abominable practices. Hebrew “a servant of servants” (’eved ’avadim), an example of the superlative genitive. It means Canaan will become the most abject of slaves.’

The New English Translation footnotes supports the mildest interpretation of Genesis nine and adopts the view that Ham saw his father in a compromising position of nakedness. Noah thus disrespected, then felt compelled to curse Ham’s youngest son’s descendants to perpetual slavery and impoverishment. An honest appraisal of this line of enquiry would have to admit there are gaping plot holes. Strikingly, nor does the punishment have equivalency for the crime.

Looking closely at the story, the scenario includes Ham and Canaan as perpetrators, with Noah or as strange as it may sound, a second unknown person as a further victim. Reader be aware, the next segment is unsettling.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh in his article Noah’s Four Sons, puts forward a case of a combination of two texts from two editors in the scriptural account – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A Supplementary-Hypothesis Solution

Viewed through the conceptual tool-kit of the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, one form of source criticism, it is likely that in an earlier version of the story (the J source), Noah had four sons, not three: Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan. The later Priestly source had a different tradition, however, that Noah had only three sons (5:31, 6:10, 7:13, 9:19, 10:1, all P texts).

P was by nature a conservative supplementer/editor – he finds a way to assert his view that does minimal violence to the biblical text. (According to the supplementary paradigm of biblical criticism, erasure or deletion was rarely if ever employed.) Accordingly, I would argue that P was not comfortable erasing Canaan entirely from the text in [favour] of his own view – and adds the clause “and Ham was the father of” to verse 18 to make it seem as though Canaan were Noah’s grandson rather than his son. P adds these same words again in verse 22, thereby making Ham the assailant instead of Canaan. Finally, he adds 9:19 to re-emphasize his view that Noah had only three sons. By doing so he brings J’s text in line with his own tradition of three sons, but at the expenseof the coherence of the story.

Here is the original text: [Note: // represents where the seams are.] The J Text 9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and //Canaan // 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 // Canaan saw the nakedness of his father, and told two of his brothers outside. 9:23 Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, walked backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were averted, and they didn’t see their father’s nakedness. 9:24 Noah awoke from his wine (-induced stupor), and knew what his youngest son had done to him. 9:25 He said, “Canaan is cursed. He will be a servant of servants (serving) his brothers.” 9:26 He said,“Blessed be YHWH, the God of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant. 9:27 May God make Japheth mighty. Let him dwell in the tents of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant.”

Here [an italicised]-coded version of the original J text with the P supplements: J + P (Canon)

9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was the father of Canaan. 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated. 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a vineyard. 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He lay naked within his tent. 9:22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside…

An Unexpected Corroboration?

Some intriguing corroboration to this enumeration is found in the midrash (late first millennium C.E.) – Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, 23, which also saw Canaan as one of Noah’s sons and solves the text-critical problem similarly. It goes without saying that Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer had no knowledge of J’s base text, though his harmonistic reading may be suggestive of a similar thought pattern:

Noah found a vine… the vine still had grapes upon it…he planted a vineyard from this vine…and on that very day fruit grew…he drank wine from it (the vine) and he revealed himself in his tent. Canaan came in, saw his father’s nakedness, tied a string to his penis and castrated him, then he went out to tell his brothers… Ham came in, saw his father’s nakedness and neglecting the commandment to honor one’s father, reported it to his two brothers as though he were in the market and laughing at his father. His brothers rebuked him, they took a cover, and walking backwards covered their father’s nakedness… Noah arose from his stupor, discovered what his youngest son had done to him, and cursed him, as it says, “Cursed is Canaan”.

The author of Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer not only solves the problem of Canaan, but that of Ham as well. In J, it is unclear where Ham appears in the story; he plays no part and goes unmentioned. In Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, Canaan is the son who castrates his father, thereby receiving a curse, and Ham laughs at his father instead of helping him, thus he does not get the blessing his brothers, Shem and Japhet receive, nor the curses Canaan receives. It is unclear how the author of this midrash understood the biblical text that says that Canaan was Noah’s grandson and not his son.

Similarly, and perhaps even stranger, the Quran notes that Noah had four sons (Sura 11, Hud v. 42–43). This unnamed fourth son refuses to come aboard the Ark, and instead climbs a mountain and is drowned. Some later Islamic commentators give his name as either Yam or Kan’an, the latter the Arabic version of Canaan. It is difficult to determine the relationship between Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran, though they may have shared the same source. In any case, it is striking that an ancient tradition that was erased by P hundreds of years before the first millennium C.E. found its way back into texts over a thousand years later in such disparate sources as Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer and the Quran.’

The irony is not lost of a Rabbi quoting the Quran. Conjecture and assumptions of the author aside, the explanation of an older text stating Canaan as a son of Noah possibly answers the parenthetical conundrum of Genesis 9.18. It may add meaning to why Canaan as a son of Noah was cursed directly by his father and yet still allows for the involvement of Ham and his tantamount condoning of Canaan’s actions. In a similar incident in Genesis 21:8-10, Sarah the wife of Abraham, sees Ishmael mocking Isaac. She takes a dim view and Ishmael’s banishment [with his mother Hagar] stems in part, from this incident. Though Ishmael is punished by being banished, he still receives a future blessing and inheritance.

Castration as an explanation would definitely answer the reason for the severity of the curse inflicted; as opposed to death. This was not a great option, when considering Canaan was to be the ancestor of at least six sons. Though, we are left scratching our heads as to what would be the motive? Stop Noah siring more sons, who would receive blessings and allotments of land, thus decreasing Canaan’s share? Genesis 9:24 and Noah saying he knew what his youngest [grand]son had done to him, leaves no doubt that something tangible had been done to Noah by a ‘younger son.’ Canaan was the youngest, whether his father was Ham or Noah. This is convincingly ruling out Ham and casting Canaan in the spotlight as chief person of interest. 

Dr Rabbi David Frankel in his article, Noah, Ham and the Curse of Canaan: Who Did What to Whom in the Tent? A new solution to why Canaan (not Ham) was cursed, presents alternative solutions – bold his, italics mine:

‘What Did Noah’s Youngest Son Do?

As already anticipated by the Rabbis, and suggested by some modern scholars, an earlier version of our story probably related a much more severe crime – the homosexual rape of his father when he was inebriated. This indeed is the kind of [offence] that would most naturally provoke the severe reaction depicted in the text. This assumption also accounts for the formulation of verse 24,

Noah awoke from his drunken stupor and knew what his youngest son had done to him. If his son had only looked at him, how would Noah have “known” when he awoke that this had occurred? Further, the final words “had done to him” imply a much more concrete and physical act than mere gazing. The statement that Noah knew what was done to him after waking from his drunken stupor contrasts with Lot who was similarly abused sexually by his daughters whiledrunk, and concerning whom we read(Genesis 19:35), and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose.

Leviticus 20:17 shows that “seeing nakedness” is a euphemism for sex: Leviticus 20:17 If a man has sexual intercourse with his sister, whether the daughter of his father or his mother, so that he sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace. They must be cut off in the sight of the children of their people. He has exposed his sister’s nakedness; he will bear his punishment for iniquity.

Most likely, the phrase describing Noah’s nakedness, “and he became revealed inside his tent” was meant to evoke the theme of incest, as “revealing of nakedness” serves as the euphemism for incest in the prohibitions of Leviticus: Leviticus 18:6 None of you shall come near anyone of his own flesh to uncover nakedness… Thus, the sin, in the original narrative, is not homosexual sex itself, but forced incest of a son with his father in a situation in which the father has no ability to defend himself; this would explain the harshness of the father’s curse.

How then do we explain the part of the story in which Noah’s other sons enter the tent and cover their father without looking at him: Genesis 9:23 Shem and Japheth took the garment and placed it on their shoulders. Then they walked in backwards and covered up their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned the other way so they did not see their father’s nakedness.

This clearly implies that [the] sin was gazing and nothing more.Nevertheless, I believe that the evidence in [favour] of the sexual interpretation is too strong to simply dismiss. I suggest that the text was revised by an editor who took the euphemism “seeing nakedness” literally, as if the sin was really visual alone. Whether out of deference to Noah or in the name of modesty more generally, this editor sought to temper the severe [offence] of forced incest with an incapacitated father.This reinterpretation was accomplished by adding a report about the two brothers’ contrasting act of covering their father without looking.

The same editor also added the report of the perpetrator mockingly (?) relating to his brothers that he saw their father’s nakedness (verse 22b: “He told his two brothers who were outside”) so as to facilitate the subsequent presentation of the brothers’ contrasting act; the same editor then added the blessings of Shem and Japhet, the two “good” brothers/sons, at the end of the story.

In short, according to this reconstruction, the blessings of Shem and Japhet (beginning with “he also said”) and the subordination of Canaan to both of them are secondary (verses 26-27) additions. Thus, the original story told simply of the sin of the youngest son against his father, and the cursing of Canaan to be subservient to his unnamed brothers. Admittedly, this story is disappointingly brief in comparison with the one we are used to. On the other hand, it seems only fitting that a story as unseemly as this one would lack narrative embellishment and be as concise and to the point as possible.’ 

A similar scenario is of Jacob’s eldest son Reuben, who commits adultery [incest of sorts] with his fathers wife’s handmaiden Bilhah. Reuben disqualifies himself and his descendants from the birthright blessings – which are then given to Joseph and Judah. 

‘The original story about forced rape of a father would explain why Noah would curse his youngest son so harshly, but Canaan is not Noah’s youngest son; Japhet is! In fact, Canaan isn’t Noah’s son at all! For this reason, many scholars suggest that in an earlier form of the story, Canaan must have been Noah’s youngest son, not Japhet. 

Without the redaction supplement of “Ham the father of,” v. 22 would have originally read “[Ham, father of] Canaan saw his father’s nakedness.” It indeed makes perfect sense to accept this reconstruction of v. 22, and to assume that if the story concludes with the cursing of Canaan, Canaan must have been the original youngest-son-culprit of the story.

On the other hand, the idea that Canaan was Noah’s youngest son is difficult.Verses 18-19, which introduce the non-Priestly account here, state that Noah’s three sons are Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and that they are the progenitors of the world. Moreover, the nation lists in chapter 10 (Priestly and non-Priestly alike) treat Ham as the father of Canaan and the progenitor of nations;Canaan and his offspring are only a subgroup under Ham.

The most important thing to note about the edited story is the strange preservation of the curse as directed at Canaan (three times!), in spite of the identification of the sinner of the story as Ham and the brothers as Shem and Japhet. Wouldn’t it have been more consistent to change the curse of Canaan into the curse of Ham?

In this case scenario, Noah may have disowned [his son] Canaan. As Ishmael was banished, Canaan would have been relegated in status by Noah, not just by the curse. Ham was not blameless, even so, Canaan’s posterity could have been included with Ham [to save face], rather than shown as a separate fourth line of people from Noah as originally intended. There is no other reason why the subsequent Bible texts included an adjusted table of nations to accommodate the change in Canaan’s status.

Considering the data thus far, it is very problematic in subscribing to Ham the role of perpetrator – rather than an accomplice – and somewhat problematic in subscribing Canaan as Noah’s son, rather than he being Ham’s youngest son. Even so, some consideration should be given to this second hypothesis, as Canaan’s descendant’s lines listed in Genesis Ten are numerous; more divergent than for Japheth, for Shem or for Ham’s other sons. Eleven lines are listed for Canaan. Canaan stands out and his sons descendants, exhibit a spectrum of skin tones, racial characteristics and a more detailed genome than all the other peoples in the world put together.

Dr Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh has presented the case for Genesis 9:19 ‘These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated’, as being part of the supplemented text P edit. I would offer that the whole sentence may not be additional but just the quick change from four to three sons, though the seam would indicate the whole sentence.

Dr Rabbi David Frankel concludes his article with a theory that the Genesis nine account is in fact about Ham and Canaan. Ham the actual victim. I have considered this theory and have concluded that considerable editing is required in proving it. Whereas, I can accept additions or deletions to Biblical text, the wholesale change of names and shifting verses into other chapters seems a stretch too far. 

The same author is eager to down grade Canaan’s curse to a limited curse – subservient only to Ham [Egypt] – rather than encompassing Shem and Japheth; thus throwing doubt on the Biblical account as it stands, saying it is an editorial agenda in text P to strengthen the future family status of Jacob’s sons.

It is curious that no matter how strenuously editing tries to transfer blame to Ham, it is Canaan that emerges as the accused. One commentator has suggested that Canaan was Ham’s son though not by Ham’s wife Na’eltama’uk, but by Noah’s wife Emzara. Whether there is incest in Genesis nine or not, it may have followed a previous undisclosed act of incest between Ham and a relation of Noah, but not his wife; as a peculiar anomaly links Canaan to the family of Arphaxad, one of the five sons of Shem.

The Creator has much to say on the matter of incest and it was considered a grievous transgression, punishable by death during Israelite times. We saw in the line of Seth that it was the fifth generation that began marrying their cousins. Prior to this, the second through to the fourth generation had little choice but to marry their sisters. If such an act was committed to a relation of Noah and or to Noah, it would seem that Ham or Canaan were fortunate to retain their lives; though death would have been an impossible stumbling block to Ham or Canaan’s lines continuing. Ultimately, the curse placed on Canaan’s descendants is unarguably, the most serious action Noah could have taken. Death would have been kinder, but would have eliminated a whole racial line of people before it had even begun. The most well known incident of incest in the Bible involved the daughters of Lot, which we will address when we study their sons, Moab and Ammon. 

The Book of Leviticus chapter 18, verse 6-18 is dedicated to every possible situation of incest – of which a few are quoted and statements associated with the incident in Genesis chapter nine are in bold: 

English Standard Version

6 “None of you shall approach any one of his close relatives to uncover nakedness. I am the Lord. 7 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, which is the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 9 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your sister, your father’s daughter or your mother’s daughter, whether brought up in the family or in another home. 

As might of happened with Ham and Canaan.

10 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your son’s daughter [granddaughter] or of your daughter’s daughter, for their nakedness is your own nakedness. 11 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife’s daughter, brought up in your father’s family, since she is your sister [step sister]… 14 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother, that is, you shall not approach his wife; she is your aunt. 

15 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness… 17 You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and of her daughter, and you shall not take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter to uncover her nakedness; they are relatives; it is depravity. 18 And you shall not take a woman as a rival wife to her sister, uncovering her nakedness while her sister is still alive.

The Patriarch Jacob married two sisters, though not by choice, but rather a shrewd play by his father-in-law Laban. We will also address this incident. Leviticus chapter 20:11-21 continues with punishment for incest:

English Standard Version

11 If a man lies with his father’s wife, he has uncovered his father’s nakedness; both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. 12 If a man lies with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have committed perversion; their blood is upon them. 13 If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them. If a man takes a woman and her mother also, it is depravity; he and they shall be burned with fire, that there may be no depravity among you… 17 “If a man takes his sister, a daughter of his father or a daughter of his mother, and sees her nakedness, and she sees his nakedness, it is a disgrace, and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people… 21 If a man takes his brother’s wife, it is impurity. He has uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.

The last verse applies to the time of the Israelites but not necessarily to the epoch that preceded it after the flood.

In Genesis 5:6-10 ESV ‘… Seth… he fathered Enosh… Enosh… fathered Kenan…’ Canaan’s name isn’t just similar to Cain but also in Seth’s line [and thus Noah] there was a grandson of Seth named Kenan. One could say, this is a family name.

We read in the Book of Jubilees 8:1-6

… in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu’eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam [Arphaxad’s older brother], and she bare him a son… and he [Arphaxad] called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 

And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. 

And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai [Chapter IV], the son of Japheth, and… he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: ‘Truly I have been sent’… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed [another Chesed was a son of Nahor, Abraham’s brother], his father’s brother…

In Genesis 10:24-25 ESV we read: ‘Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. In the Masoretic text of the Bible Kainam [Cainan] is left out of the genealogy as we see here, yet in the Septuagint [LXX] Cainan is included, as in the Book of Jubilees. In the New Testament book of Luke, we read the genealogy of Christ through his adoptive father, Joesph.

Luke 3:35-38

New English Translation

35 the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36 the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37 the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan, 38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

Footnote: ‘It is possible that the name Καϊνάμ (Kainam) should be omitted, since two key mss, P75vid and D, lack it. But the omission may be a motivated reading: This name is not found in the editions of the Hebrew OT, though it is in the LXX, at Genesis 11.12 and 10:24. But the witnesses with this reading (or a variation of it) are substantial: א B L ƒ1 33 (Καϊνάμ), A Θ Ψ 0102 ƒ13 M (Καϊνάν, Kainan). The translation above has adopted the more common spelling “Cainan,” although it is based on the reading Καϊνάμ. The Greek text has Kainam here. Some modern English translations follow the Greek spelling more closely (NASB, NRSV Cainan) while others (NIV) use the OT form of the name (Kenan in Genesis 5:9, 12).’

The Septuagint reading supports Luke 3:36. The fact that Cainan [Kainam, Kenan, Canaan] has been inserted in enough manuscripts to draw attention and not be discounted, is a significant red flag. The insertion of Canaan’s name leads to one conclusion: that Canaan being the biological son of Ham, was the adoptive son of Arphaxad, who became his legal father. The Hebrew word ‘fathered’ includes more than just a biological [blood-line] parent. It can mean a father-in-law, a grandfather or distant relative and in this case, a male [non-blood-line] parent who raises the child.

Why would Arphaxad adopt Canaan or make him his ward? As Cainan is shown as being between Arphaxad and his blood-line son Shelah, Canaan must have been born before Shelah. Arphaxad would be Ham’s nephew and Canaan’s cousin. Though if he was considerably older, he may have taken Canaan under his wing. 

The relationship is  of note because in the Septuagint, Genesis 10:22 it says: ‘Sons of Sem, Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Cainan…’ Canaan was ethnically of Hamitic lineage, but is also listed in the lineage of Shem.

The Book of Jubilees reveals that Rasueja [Rasu’eja] gave birth to Cainan. The distancing between Ham and Canaan – even appearing as if Canaan was not Ham’s son – and his subsequent upbringing in Arphaxad’s household would be understandable, if Ham has had a sexual liaison with Rasueja. This would have been incest and all the ramifications that went with it, for she was Noah’s great, great granddaughter. Canaan was Ham’s fourth son and as such, one of the sixteen blood-lines that re-populated the earth. Did Arphaxad retain Canaan [Cainan] in his family to spite Ham or to have a closer grip and control over Canaan, who with his descendants were ordained to be slaves; or was it an act of compassion towards his wife Rasueja and her bastard son.

From everything we have discussed, the key points are: a. Are Ham and Canaan father and son or brothers? b. Was Noah violated and if so, was it by Ham or Canaan? c. Was there a previous event that culminated with the incident in Noah’s tent? It can be argued that there has been concerted effort in the scriptures to lessen Canaan’s role and heighten Ham’s. To take the spotlight off Canaan and portray him as a victim to Ham’s transgression. Ham did something unspeakable and Canaan’s children have paid a heavy price. At face value [and behind the scenes editing] the Bible appears to state this and previously, I have accepted this interpretation from teachers who expounded that Ham is the main subject of Genesis chapter nine and consequently the guilty party. A closer inspection of the Genesis nine passage as we have discovered, has convinced me that this is not correct.

The parenthetical addition of Canaan as the son of Ham is a clue. So is Noah waking up to know what [Ham’s] youngest had done to him. And, Canaan is cursed by Noah, Ham is not. The inclusion of Canaan in Arphaxad’s household and family line, with the naming of Canaan’s mother as Rasueja, yet his still remaining in Ham’s genealogical family tree in the table of nations as a Hamite not as one from Shem, underpins the strong likelihood that Ham is his real father by incest.

Ham transgressed twice then. Once with the incestuous act against Arphaxad with his wife and again when he disrespectfully handled his father’s predicament and sided with his son. He observed Noah and the aftermath of a sexual encounter. The phrase, looked upon his nakedness is categorically more than just seeing a naked body, though in Ham’s case does not mean he is culpable of more himself – as the Hebrew infers. Whereas later, Noah was very much aware of what had been done and by whom – his grandson. Hence the proclamation against Canaan. 

Habakkuk 2:15-16

New English Translation

15  “Woe to you who force your neighbour to drink wine—you who make others intoxicated by forcing them to drink from the bowl of your furious anger so you can look at their naked bodies. 16 But you will become drunk with shame, not majesty. Now it is your turn to drink and expose your uncircumcised foreskin! The cup of wine in the Lord’s right hand is coming to you, and disgrace will replace your majestic glory!

The sin was so severe that it resulted in Canaan becoming only the second person in the Bible record to be cursed, after Cain.

Genesis 4:10-11

English Standard Version

10 And the Lord said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. 11 And now you are cursed…

In verse one of Genesis nine, the Creator blesses Noah and his sons, which includes Ham. Later in chapter nine after the incident, Ham is left out of a specific blessing and does not receive one with Japheth and Shem. It does say, Canaan was to be a slave to all his brothers. We will discover that Canaan has been a slave to some of Ham’s descendants. Whether castration or incest by rape, both are heavy accusations. Castration is difficult to accept without further evidence and a motive. From the context and his response, a sexual act of some kind, was undeniably inflicted on Noah. 

Sadly, this is the only explanation that would warrant such a devastating curse as the one put upon Canaan. If Canaan was conceived in incest, it is a peculiar parallelism indeed to then have possibly committed a similar transgression himself.

The principal mtDNA [maternal] haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants include:

Haplogroup L0 – oldest and original haplogroup on the human mtDNA tree. L0 supposedly arose one hundred and fifty thousand years ago in eastern Africa where the alleged oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans have been found. These facts are open to debate. L0a arose later, associated with the southeastern part of the African continent.

Haplogroup L1 – one of the oldest branches of the maternal family tree is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve and sister to L0. Frequently found in western and central sub-Saharan Africa, though seldom appears in eastern or southern Africa. L1 gave rise to the branches L2 to L6.

L2 – a direct descendant of mitochondrial Eve. It is currently found in a third of sub-Saharan Africans and its subgroup L2a is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among African Americans.

Haplogroup L3 – not associated with Ham’s descendants but is a daughter of mitochondrial Eve, and the ancestor of all the non-African haplogroups in the world today.

Haplogroup M – Subgroup M1 ‘intrigues scientists with its presence in East Africa’ and another subgroup, M3, is native to India.

Haplogroup N – from L3, N is one of the two major lineages with M, from which non-African haplogroups descend. Today, members of this haplogroup are found in many continents around the world.

Haplogroup R – both ancient and complex. Its members can be found all over the world. Originating in the Near East, members of haplogroup R are located in Africa and the Middle East.

Haplogroup X – associated with Southwest Asia, is also found in Europe, North Africa, and the Near East. 

Conversely, the main Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups associated with Ham’s descendants are summarised by Leonor Gusmão María BriónIva Gomes in a Handbook of Analytical Separations: Global distribution of Y haplogroups, 2008:

‘Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among… groups in Ethiopia and Sudan.

Haplogroup E is one of the most branched, with many subhaplogroups described. E1 and E2 were described in Northeast Africa, and E3 shows a wide geographic distribution, with two main clades: E3a, present all around Africa and among African-Americans; and E3b, present in Western Europe, North Africa, and the Near East.

Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup G appear in the Caucasus region; however it also shows significant frequencies in the Mediterranean areas and the Middle East.

Until now, haplogroup H has not been well studied, members of this haplogroup were mainly found in the Indian continent.

It is generally agreed that haplogroup J was dispersed by the westward movement of people from the Middle East to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.

Haplogroup K is the ancestral haplogroup of major groups L to R, but, in addition, also includes the minor K and K1 to K5 haplogroups, which are present at low frequencies in dispersed geographic regions all around the world.

Haplogroup L is found mainly in India and Pakistan, as well as in the Middle East and, very occasionally, in Europe, particularly in Mediterranean countries.

The highest frequencies of haplogroup M are shown in Melanesia, being restricted to the geographical distribution of Papuan languages.

The P clade is the parent of haplogroups Q and R, and is rarely found. It has been detected at low frequencies in the Caucasus and India.

Haplogroup R1a is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.’

Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved,  a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.

2 Timothy 2:15 English Standard Version

“A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true.” 

“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” 

Isaac Newton [1643-1727]

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Tarshish & Japan

Chapter IX

Javan’s second son Tarshish, figures prominently in the Bible. He lived the furthest of all his brothers; somewhat similar to Togarmah separating from Gomer. Tarshish grew wealthy through trade and is synonymous with shipping. Of all the eastern peoples, Tarshish had a strong orientation to the West and still does today. There is only one candidate left in East Asia who could fulfil Tarshish’s identity as a maritime island nation descended from Javan. That country, are the people of Japan.

Dr Hoeh comments:

‘Tarshish first settled in Asia Minor. The city of Tarsus was named after him. Here the apostle Paul was born. From Tarsus the tribe spread into Spain and northern Portugal, founding the famous port of Tartessus – the Tarshish of the Old Testament history of Solomon’s time…’

During Solomon’s reign [970-930 BCE], the people of Tartessus were Phoenicians and not the descendants of Tarshish who founded the city. The following regions are attributed too Tarshish and are all plausible cities and ports established during trading expeditions and migrations in the ancient past, as we have noted with Kittim in the Mediterranean. 

The Targum of Jonathan renders Tarshish as Carthage in north Africa, though a biblical commentator Samuel Bochart, read it as Tartessos in ancient Hispania [Iberian Peninsula], near Huelva and Sevilla today. Jewish scholar, Isaac Abarbanel, described Tarshish as ‘the city known in earlier times as Carthage and today called Tunis.’ An earlier identification had been with the inland town of Tarsus in Cilicia, [south-central Turkey]. American scholars William Albright and Frank Cross suggested Tarshish was Sardinia because of the discovery of the Nora Stone, whose Phoenician inscription mentions Tarshish.

Nineteenth century commentators proposed Tarshish was Britain, including Alfred Dunkin. This idea stemmed from the fact that Tarshish is recorded to have been a trader in tin, silver, gold and lead which had all been mined in Cornwall. Britain is still reputed to be the ‘Merchants of Tarshish’ today by some Christian believers. 

Much could be written on the fascinating similarities between Japan and Great Britain – Island nations on the periphery of continents, part of yet separate, from their neighbours geographically and ideologically, strong self-identity, cultural icons, empires, military and economic powers, sea-faring and maritime states, ship builders, inventors, traders… world influencers.

Steven M Collins in his book, The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! 1992, proposes two explanations on the Biblical Tarshish – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The King James Version of the Bible records in I Kings 10:22 that King Solomon “had at sea a navy of Tharshish” (other versions simply say “Tarshish”). One possibility is that Solomon had a fleet of ships based in Spain because Tartessus (in ancient Spain) is often identified as “Tarshish”… “ships of Tarshish” were recorded as having made voyages to the New World… It is also significant to note that I Kings 10:22 is the Bible’s first mention of “ships of Tarshish.” I Kings 10:22 may be a reference to a Phoenician/Israelite colony in Spain which became the homeport of a major… fleet during Solomon’s reign. If so, Tartessus (or Tarshish) was a jumping-­off point for voyages throughout the Atlantic… [and] that a reference to “ships of Tarshish” identified the fleet that Israel (together with Tyre and Sidon) had based in ancient Spain. 

The second explanation considers the possibility that the extra “h” in the word Tharshish identifies this navy with one of the clans of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin, which was named “Tharshish” (I Chronicles 7:10). Since “Tharshish” is an Israelite name, the Bible’s reference to “ships of Tharshish” could mean that this navy was primarily crewed by members of this branch of the tribe of Benjamin. It is also possible that the term “ships of Tarshish” later came to describe a particular class of sea­going vessels used by the Phoenicians. This possibility is supported by the reference in I Kings 22:48 that over a century later Judah’s King Jehoshaphat tried to “make” a fleet composed of “ships of Tarshish” for basing in the Red Sea port of Ezion­geber.’ 

This is an insightful observation, as we will learn that modern day Benjamin does indeed have a very strong ship building legacy.

‘Some readers might wonder whether the “ships of Tarshish” belonged to the Japhethic tribe of Tarshish mentioned in Genesis 10:4. While that would seem to be a possibility at first, the fact that the Tartessian “Tarshish” was located in the direction that Jonah sailed to Tarshish, and the fact that the Iberian “Tarshish” spoke a dialect of Phoenician (a Semitic language) argues for a Semitic origin for Solomon’s “ships of Tharshish” and the Iberian “Tarshish.” Further­more, there is no biblical evidence of any close cooperation between King Solomon’s Israelites and the Japhethic nation of Tarshish. Since Barry Fell’s book, America B.C. gives evidence of “the ships of Tarshish” being involved in ancient explorations of North America, this also argues that the biblical “Tarshish” was located proximate to the Atlantic Ocean (such as in ancient Spain).’

Tarshish may well be the city port, located in Spain. 

Recall, we learned with Kitti, in the preceding chapter, that the verse in Daniel detailing a naval fleet setting sail from Kittim is not a reference to the west, or Rome in Italy, but as the verse states, it is a direct reference to Kitti the son of Javan. Albeit, it is a future prophecy. The difference here, is that the ‘ships of Tarshish’ are detailing a current event; though it is the ships of Tarshish stated, not Tarshish the port. With that in mind, there are verses that state a round trip to Tarshish is considerably further than Palestine to Spain. 

Bochart suggested eastern localities for the ports of Ophir and Tarshish during King Solomon’s reign, specifically the Tamilakkam continent [present day Southern India and Northern Ceylon (Sri Lanka)] where the Dravidians were famous for their gold, pearls, ivory and peacock trade.

1 Kings 10:22

English Standard Version

For the king [Solomon] had a fleet of ships of Tarshish at sea with the fleet of Hiram. Once every three years the fleet of ships of Tarshish used to come bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Contrary to Collins dismissing a relationship with Tarshish the nation, this verse may well be supporting an economic arrangement with the Tarshish of the East – rather than the city-port, of the western Mediterranean. If the visits were this infrequent, it supports Tarshish was all the way around the earth in Japan – some 5,656 miles from the Israelite Kingdom – and their ships were collecting exotic items throughout Southeast Asia and India en route. See 2 Chronicles 9:21, 1 Kings 22:48, and 2 Chronicles 20-36-37.

Psalm 72:10

New Century Version

Let the kings of Tarshish and the faraway lands bring him [King Solomon] gifts. Let the kings of Sheba and Seba [a grandson and a son of Cush] bring their presents to him.

Jeremiah 10:9

English Standard Version

Beaten silver is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz. They are the work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; their clothing is violet and purple; they are all the work of skilled men.

The Japanese are a highly skilled people with an Economy reflecting their talent, work ethic, technological prowess and subsequent wealth. The reference to violet and particularly purple, lends itself to either the Phoenicians [refer Chapter XII Canaan], or it is exemplifying the quality of the workmanship, the products and the fitness for royalty, such as King Solomon himself.

Ezekiel 27:12,25

English Standard Version

Tarshish did business with you because of your great wealth of every kind; silver, iron, tin, and lead they exchanged for your wares…The ships of Tarshish traveled for you [Tyre] with your merchandise. So you were filled and heavily laden in the heart of the seas.

Isaiah 23:1, 6, 10, 14

English Standard Version

The oracle concerning [the fall of] Tyre.

Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, without house or harbor! From the land of [Kitti (Indonesia)] it is revealed to them… Cross over to Tarshish; wail, O inhabitants of the coast! Cross over your land like the Nile, O daughter of Tarshish; there is no restraint anymore… Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for your stronghold is laid waste.

The fall of Tyre – a key trading partner – impacts both East and Southeast Asia. Notice Tarshish and Kitti, two brothers in the far East, are linked together. This is not referring to a Phoenician port in the Mediterranean. 


Isaiah 66:19

English Standard Version

and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud [son of Shem], who draw the bow, to Tubal [son of Japheth] and Javan, to the coastlands far away [Archipelago southeast Asia – Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines],that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations.

Ezekiel 38:13

New English Translation

Sheba and Dedan [grandsons of Cush] and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors [Hebrew: lions] will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’

Tarshish, an economic and military power [with Cush] stands against the great military alliance of Magog, Meshech, Tubal, Gomer [Continental Southeast Asia – Vietnam,  Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos] and Togarmah [North (and possibly South) Korea] and does not join with them.

Jonah 1:1-3

New English Translation

1 The Lord’s message came to Jonah son of Amittai, 2 “Go immediately to Nineveh, that large [Hebrew – gadol, meaning: great, populous, mighty, powerful, fierce] capital city, and announce judgment against its people because their wickedness has come to my attention.” 3 Instead, Jonah immediately headed off to Tarshish to escape from the commission of the Lord. He traveled to Joppa and found a merchant ship heading to Tarshish. So he paid the fare and went aboard it to go with them to Tarshish, far away from the Lord.

Jonah understandably, was not keen to go to Nineveh [in Mesopotamia], the very capital of the mighty Assyrian Empire. The equivalent assignment today would be travelling to Russia and preaching a message of sin and repentance to the Russian people in Moscow – daunting indeed. There is a humorous element to Jonah boarding a vessel that would not just take him away, but take him to the furthest reaches possible logistically. That furthest destination was Tarshish. Similarly, for most people today, travelling to Japan would be going to the ends of the earth. Japan is so far east, it is in the west so-to-speak. It can even be seen to be far west, depending on which direction one is looking; for example viewed from the United States. [Isaiah 2:16, 60:9].

Psalm 48:7

Common English Bible

… or like the east wind [from the Pacific] when it smashes the ships of Tarshish [Japan].

Exodus 28:20

King James Version

And the fourth row a beryl [H8658 – tarshiysh, meaning a precious stone or gem], and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their in closings.

The Hebrew term tarshish is a homonym, occurring seven times in the Bible and translated beryl in older English versions. It is also the name of a gem stone associated with the Tribe of Asher, that has been identified by the Septuagint and by Josephus as the ‘gold stone’ possibly linked to the chrysolite [gold, yellow colour] or yellow jasper.

Well known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. The meaning of Beryl in Sanskrit is light green semi-precious gemstone and in Italian, blue green from the sea. It is often colourless* [translucent], though impurities give it colours ranging from green to blue, yellow, red the rarest and even black. It is the first stone on the fourth row of the priestly breastplate [Exodus 28:20 – see also Ezekiel 1:16 and Daniel 10:6]. 

Tarshish in Hebrew means: ‘His Excellency’ and ‘breaking, subjection’. The connotation includes a ‘white dove’ or ‘dove-white’ and a ‘search for alabaster’. The verb rashash means to ‘beat down, shatter’, the noun shayish ‘white alabaster’, the noun tor, ‘dove’.

Tarshish has a similar definition as Riphath, Togarmah and Kitti in the element of either beating or breaking. This shows their familial ties and perhaps somewhat of a warning.

Abarim  Publications – emphasis and bold mine:

‘The name Tarshish (or Tharshish according to some translations) is assigned five times in the Bible: 

The first Tarshish is a son of Javan son of Japheth, son of Noah (Genesis 10:4). This name is spelled (Tarshishah) in 1 Chronicles 1:7, but the -ah ending may in fact stem from a locative suffix that means toward or unto, so that it could refer to the range of the sons of Javan: all the way to Tarshish. 

Most famous is Tarshish the city famed for its wealth and merchant fleet… but which location is unknown…

A Benjaminite (1 Chronicles 7:10).

One of seven Persian princes (Esther 1:14). Note that the name of one of two aspiring assassins of king Ahasuerus, namely or Teresh (Esther 2:21), seems like a truncated version of Tarshish. And both may have something to do with the Persian governmental title tirshatha, usually translated with “governor” (Ezra 2:63, Nehemiah 7:65).

The Hebrew name of a certain precious stone (perhaps yellow jasper, says BDB Theological Dictionary, but translated chrysolite by NIV and beryl by NAS) is also tarshish…

These names (and noun) Tarshish come from different languages and have different etymologies. The Persian prince was probably known as Tarshata, meaning His Excellency (says BDB Theological Dictionary). Another suggestion is a relation to the word tarsta, meaning the feared or revered (BDB Theological Dictionary). 

… Jones translates the name Tarshish with Breaking or Subjection, and the prefix taw would denote a thorough destruction or an ongoing one. But although Tarshish is mentioned here and there as subject of God’s wrath (Psalm 48:7, Isaiah 2:16, 23:1), it is mostly known for its great success in the economic arena. Isaiah even predicts that Tarshish is not going to be simply destroyed, as were Sodom and Gomorrah, but that its legacy will one day be employed to service God (Isaiah 60:9). It is unlikely that the name Tarshish is supposed to be linked to a verb that denotes defeat and destruction. Note that the shish-part of the name Tarshish looks a lot like the word (shayish), meaning alabaster a mostly translucent or white crystal:’

The beryl stone is transparent* in its purest form, though it can also amongst all the other colours stated, be white.

There’s an odd correlation between the color white and the number six. The nouns… shesh… and… shayish… mean alabaster, which is a whitish translucent material. The identical word… shesh… means six. The noun… shushan… describes the lily, which has six leaves and is… white. The adjective… yashesh… means old or white haired. The verb… tur… means to explore or survey and associates with a broad, circular or sweeping motion. Noun… tor… appears to describe a circular braid of hair.’ 

I am reminded of the Japanese symbol, the Cherry blossom. One of my vivid memories after being fortunate to visit the capital Tokyo in 1989, was all the beautiful white tree blossom. The braided hair is reminiscent of ancient Samurai warriors and modern Sumo wrestlers, with their long braided hair. The related Polynesians and also the Amerindians of Tiras, wore their hair similarly.

Japan comprises an archipelago of 6,852 islands covering 145,937 square miles. The country’s five main islands from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. Tokyo is the capital and largest city. Other major cities include Yokohama,  Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe and Kyoto. Japan is the 11th most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanised. About three quarters of the country’s terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 126,010,364 people on narrow coastal plains. The Greater Tokyo area has approximately thirty-six million residents – the most populous metropolitan area in the world.

The first mention of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the first century CE. Between the fourth and ninth centuries, the kingdoms of Japan were unified under an emperor and beginning in the twelfth century political power was held by a series of military dictators, the Shoguns and feudal lords, the Daimyo; enforced by a class of warrior nobility, the Samurai. A century long period of civil war ended in reunification in 1603 under the Tokugawa Shogunat. An isolationist foreign policy was then enacted until 1854, when a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade [the awakening of the great trading nation of Tarshish] to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. Japan adopted a Western styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialisation and modernisation. In 1937 Japan invaded China and by 1941 it had entered World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific theatre of war, Japan surrendered in 1945.

Japan is a great power and maintains Self-Defence Forces that are ranked as the world’s 4th most powerful military. After World War II, Japan experienced impressive economic growth [boosted by American investment and loans], becoming the second largest economy in the world by 1990, before being surpassed by China in 2010. A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made considerable contributions to science and technology.

During the 1980s, political pundits and economic analysts predicted Japan achieving superpower status; due to its population, GDP and economic growth. It was thought [as with China today] that Japan would eventually surpass the economy of the United States. Japan is considered a cultural superpower in terms of its large-scale influence in food, ‘electronics, automobiles, music, video games and anime.’ Japan has faced an ongoing period of stagnation since the 1990s, an ageing population since the early 2000s and serious population decline beginning in 2011, all of which has eroded its potential as a superpower.

‘The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and pronounced Nippon or Nihon. Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato.The characters 日本 mean “sun origin”, in reference to Japan’s relatively eastern location.It is the source of the popular Western epithet “Land of the Rising Sun.” The official name of the flag of Japan is (“nisshoki,” meaning “sun-mark flag”), but most people just call it (“hinomaru,” meaning “circle of the sun”)’ as the circle in the centre of the flag represents the sun. The flag of Japan isn’t white and red, [it is] white and crimson. The first documented use of the flag of Japan was in 701… mentioned in the “Shoku Nihongi,” a classical Japanese history text, which credited Emperor Mommu with the flag’s use.’

Japanese Flag

‘The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation… as Cipangu. The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century. A coincidental similarity between the words: Jap-an and Jap-heth. The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter.’

Japanese Naval Ensign

Japan leads the world in robotics production and use; supplying approximately 55% of the world’s total. The Japanese consumer electronics industry once the strongest in the world, is facing stiff competition from South Korea, the United States and China. Japan remains a major leader in the video gaming industry.

On the index of most technological nations in the world, Japan is number one. Japanese scientists have made enormous contributions in fields such as automobiles, electronics, machinery, earthquake engineering, optics, industrial robotics, metals and semi-conductors. Japanese researchers have won numerous Noble Prizes in recognition for their superior contribution in technological pursuits.

Japan is the third largest economy in the world; it’s GDP over $5 trillion in 2019. Effective co-operation between government and industry, coupled with advanced technological know-how have built Japan’s manufacturing and export-oriented economy. Japan is low in natural resources and dependent on energy imports, particularly after the 2011 Fukushima disaster and a general shutdown of its nuclear power industry.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Japanese global shipments during 2020.

  1. Vehicles: US$122.6 billion
  2. Machinery including computers: $121.8 billion 
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $102.6 billion 
  4. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $37.5 billion 
  5. Plastics, plastic articles: $25.6 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $22.8 billion 
  7. Organic chemicals: $14.9 billion 
  8. Gems, precious metals: $13.3 billion 
  9. Other chemical goods: $12.2 billion
  10. Ships, boats: $10.8 billion 

The gem and precious metals category was the fastest-grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 15.9% from 2019 to 2020.’ 

Japan is a member of the prestigious intergovernmental G7 Group of nations. These are the major industrialised nations, that drive the world economy, monetary issues and policy. Japan’s inclusion is significant as it is the only descendant of Japheth, the only nation from East Asia or outside the European and North American spheres. Major nations not included are Russia [11th] due to its expulsion from the G8 in 2014 because of its annexation of the Ukraine and the Crimea; as well as the less developed major economies of China [2nd], India [5th] and Brazil [9th]. The other nations of the G7 are the United States [1], Germany [4], the United Kingdom [6], France [7], Italy [8] and Canada [10].

Japan’s role in Biblical Prophecy, Steve M Collins, 2007 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Tarshish… A huge clue as to their modern identity is that Ezekiel 38:13 calls them “the merchants of Tarshish.” Their entire nation is so closely linked to merchandising goods to others that they are called a nation of “merchants”… Japan pioneered the export-driven model of mercantile sales to other nations as a national policy. This trait was so well-known that the nation was sometimes called “Japan, Inc.” in media articles… also prophesied [is] that there would be “young lions” that would be closely linked to the “merchants of Tarshish” in the latter days. There are a number of smaller Asian nations on the Pacific Rim which have copied the mercantile, export-driven success of the Japanese nation. These nations are even called the “young tiger” nations or “young tiger” economies of Asia. The “young tiger” nations include such nations as South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand…

Japan is an island nation and it lives at the doorstep of two powerful nations: Russia and China. Japan has fought wars with both nations, and China bears a vengeful grudge against Japan as a result of World War II. Russia seized Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands after World War II and its retention of these formerly Japanese islands is a bone of contention between Russia and Japan. Japan cannot hope to make allies of these nations. Therefore, Japan must side with the USA and the West by default. However, Japan and the USA have grown to be genuine allies in the period after World War II. The USA was not a harsh conqueror of Japan.

The USA (in Japan’s post-World War period of reconstruction) preserved Japan’s monarchy, treated the Japanese people and their culture with respect and laid the foundation for Japan’s mercantile success by blending Western, democratic institutions with Japan’s own unique culture Japan has become a trusted ally and friend and it becoming an ever-more important nation in the Western alliance.

An article… in… The Economist… stated that Japan [Tarshish]: “seeks closer ties with democratic India [Cush] and recently formalized a security alliance of sorts, only Japan’s second, with Australia… in addition to becoming an ally of Australia, Japan “sought a new partnership with India while building security ties with South east Asia,” and that “the main catalyst for the security pact (is) the rise of China.”’

A significant identification of Tarshish in the past was its interaction with the descendants of Shem through extensive trade and its western cultural leanings; considerably more so than any other descendant of Japheth. In modern times, Japan has repeated this assimilation of all things western to become technologically almost more western than the West. It is ironic that this began after centuries of self-imposed isolation beginning in 1624, when the Japanese government refused a Spanish trading delegation to step on Japanese land. Japan reluctantly came out of isolation due to American intervention and displays of its naval sea power from 1853 to 1864. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 374-376 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Japanese government then began copying everything they saw in white European nations, a pattern for which their country later became famous. French army officers were paid to enter Japan to remodel the Japanese army while British naval officers were paid to reorganise the Japanese Navy. Dutch engineers were paid to supervise the construction of the first major Western style public works and infrastructure… and Japanese officials were sent abroad to study the… workings of [European] governments and to select their best features for duplication in Japan.

The new Japanese parliament open[ed] in 1891, modelled directly on [European] parliaments… The Japanese constitution was drawn up by a specially-appointed commission under a samurai nobleman, Ito Hirobumi, who in 1882 sent missions to the US, Britain, France, Spain and Germany to observe their democratic systems. Eventually, the German model (and the Prussian variant in particular) was selected and implemented…

A new penal code was modelled on that of France, and a ministry of education, based on that of the United States, was established in 1871 to develop a system of universal education. Rapid industrialisation, under government direction, accompanied… political development and by 1890, Japan had completely revised its criminal, civil, and commercial law codes to match the European and American models.

By the end of the twentieth century, both Japan and China had developed into industrial giants, responsible for the production (but not the invention) of the majority of day-to-day appliances and convenience goods used all over the world. Both nations… practice immigration policies designed to preserve their racial homogeneity… unlike the … Western nations. Japan… famously refused to take Vietnamese boat people refugees of the 1970s and 1980s unless they were racially compatible with the existing Japanese population. This strict, racially-based immigration policy is Japan[s]… formula for long-term survival and progress. If maintained, this policy will ensure that they escape the fate of Western nations who have abandoned such policies.’

Japanese society is linguistically, ethnically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98.1%^^ ethnic Japanese. The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people – primary minority groups include: the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people and also  Brazilians, mostly of Japanese descent. We will return to the Brazilian connection. The Japanese population is rapidly ageing and predicted to drop to only ninety-five million people by 2050.

A study by Hideaki Kanzawa, showed that the Jomon people of Hokkaido and Honshu – the first of three peoples to have migrated into Japan – have a genome that is commonly found in Arctic populations but is rare in Yamato people – the 98%^^ majority of present day Japanese. According to Mitsuru Sakitani, the Jomon people are an admixture of two distinct ethnic groups: a more ancient group [carriers of Y chromosome D-M55] and a more recent group [carriers of Y chromosome C1a1] ‘that migrated to Japan about 13,000 years ago.’

Haplogroup D-M55 [D1a2a] originates in the Japanese archipelago and is distinct from other D-branches, with five unique mutations not found in the D haplogroups. Scientists also propose that haplogroup C1a1 originated about 12,000 years ago, which aligns with the start of the Jomon period. Haplogroup D1a2a is found in approximately 20% to 40% of the population and haplogroup C1a1 in about 6%of modern Japanese people. According to a 2011 study, all major East Asian mtDNA lineages expanded  prior to 8000 BCE, except for two Japanese lineages of D4b2b1 and M7a1a expanding circa 5000 BCE, again during the Jomon Period.

It is interesting that the timeline presented by scientists for the spreading and fanning out of the haplogroups and their subclades [haplotypes] in our racial genome, mirror the dates of key events in our ancient past. The ending of the last ice age with the Flood in 10,837 BCE and the birth of Tarshish circa 10,000 BCE – as well as the ‘time of Peleg’ circa 6755 BCE. We will look into Peleg and the Tower of Babel, when we study Nimrod and Shem’s son, Arphaxad.

Some readers will be aware that the main Haplogroups are often given as originating much further back than 13,000 years ago. The pre-flood world’s chronology and the vast difference in humans longevity is a missing key in understanding the time frames of the antediluvian world. It will be a shock for some and others will be incredulous, as I was too initially, in the knowledge that human ages lived before the flood were immense. A different method of counting was used [the sexagesimal system of the Sumerians (based on multiples of 60) as touched upon in the chapter on Noah], not the Metric decimal [based on multiples of 10] system we use today or the Imperial system based on multiples of 12 a descendant of the Sumerian counting system.

The Biblical ages of the pre-flood patriarchs appear to have been manipulated – making them easier to mentally digest – after the flood, resulting in our real pre-history being hidden. The king lists for ancient rulers length of reigns from Egypt, Babylon and Sumer are extraordinarily long. Many thousands of years for individual rulers. Historians have just dismissed them as fanciful and created a completely erroneous timeline of history more in accord with those who squeeze all creation and mankind’s history into a mere 6,000 years – based on a misguided interpretation of an edited biblical chronology.

The longevity of humans post-flood though considerable until the time of Abraham, were not nearly as lengthy as prior to the flood. A possible result of the flood and the changes in the earth’s atmosphere was to reduce human life-span [the alternative explanation, is genetic manipulation]. From Abraham’s birth [1977 BCE] we have had human longevity reduce dramatically again to a ‘maximum’ of what we are now familiar with, of approximately one hundred and twenty years. 

Genesis 6:3

New Century Version

The Lord said, My Spirit will not remain in human beings forever, because they are flesh. They will live only 120 years.”

It is one of the reasons – perhaps the principal argument – in which the Serpent in the Garden of Eden, was able to convince Eve in taking the ‘fruit’ from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil; deceiving her [and Adam] regarding the truth about life and death… subtly twisting what the Creator had taught. Adam and Eve didn’t die and in fact, lived for millennia’s. Thus the promise of dying was delayed considerably, to the point of them appearing to almost live forever; though death ultimately came, with the tragic lie of the Serpent being eventually exposed.

When scientists propose haplogroups divided and sub-divided between 20,000 – 60,000 thousand years ago for example, this may be accurate in part because Noah was born circa 16,837 BCE and possessed the entire genome for the races, which then diverged with his sons and then again with his grandsons and so on. Noah’s sons were born circa 11,837 BCE – Genesis 5.32, 9.28, 11.10-11. Adam and his wife [Mitochondrial] Eve, were created nearly thirty thousand years ago – circa 27,397 BCE – and the line from which Noah descended was from their son Seth, who was born circa 26,097 BCE. We will comprehensively study the antediluvian age in a separate chapter, as well as an unconventional chronology for the history of humankind. 

It is believed the Yayoi people – the second group of people to migrate into Japan – were migrants to the Japanese archipelago from Korea or China during the Yayoi period [1000–300 BCE]. They are seen as the direct ancestors of the modern Yamato people, the majority of Japanese, as well as the Ryukyuan people. It is estimated that modern Japanese share in average about 90% of their genome with the Yayoi. There was a third period of major migration, during the Kofun period [250–538 CE].

Ancient DNA rewrites early Japanese history – modern day populations have tripartite genetic origin, Trinity College Dublin, 2021: 

‘Ancient DNA extracted from human bones has rewritten early Japanese history by underlining that modern day populations in Japan have a tripartite genetic origin—a finding that refines previously accepted views of a dual genomic ancestry.

Twelve newly sequenced ancient Japanese genomes show that modern day populations do indeed show the genetic signatures of early indigenous Jomon hunter-gatherer-fishers and immigrant Yayoi farmers—but also add a third genetic component that is linked to the Kofun peoples, whose culture spread in Japan between the 3rd and 7th centuries.’

A 2007 study by Nonaka, reported that the frequencies of the D1b, [O1b2], and O2** lineages in Japan were 38.8%, 33.5%,* and 16.7% respectively, constituting approximately 90% of the Japanese population. It is thought that Yayoi people mainly belonged to Haplogroup O-M176 [O1b2] found in 32%* of present day Japanese males, Haplogroup O-M122 [O2, formerly O3], Haplogroup O-K18 [O1b1] and Haplogroup O-M119 [O1a] which are all typical for East and Southeast Asians. 

Mitsueu Sakitani, suggests that haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today’s Japanese, Koreans, and some Manchu, and O1a are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilisation. As the Yangtze civilisation declined, several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. One study labels haplogroup O1b1, a major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 of Koreans, the Japanese [and Vietnam] as a “para-Austroasiatic” paternal lineage.

A study in 2018, confirmed that the modern Japanese are predominantly descendants of the Yayoi and that they largely displaced the local Jomon. The mitochondrial chromosomes of modern Japanese are nearly identical with the Yayoi and differ significantly from the Jomon population. It is estimated that the majority of Japanese have about 12% Jomon ancestry or less^.  A more recent study by Gakihari [2019] estimates the gene-flow from the Jomon into modern Japanese people at only 3.3%.^

‘A 2011 SNP consortium study done by the Chinese Academy of Science and Max Planck Society consisting of 1719 DNA samples determined that Koreans and Japanese clustered near to each other, confirming the findings of an earlier study that Koreans and Japanese are related. However, the Japanese were found to be genetically closer to South Asian populations as evident by a genetic position that is significantly closer towards South Asian populations on the principal component analysis (PCA) chart. Some Japanese individuals are also genetically closer to Southeast Asian and Melanesian populations when compared to other East Asians such as Koreans and Han Chinese, indicating possible genetic interactions between Japanese and these populations. A 2008 study about genome-wide SNPs of East Asians by Chao Tian et al. reported that… the Japanese are relatively genetically distant from Han Chinese, compared to Koreans.Another study (2017) shows a relative strong relation between all East and Southeast Asians.’

We would expect to see the evidence of a link between Tarshish and his brothers located in archipelago Southeast Asia. Nor is it a surprise that the Japanese have DNA in common with Koreans and Chinese, for two reasons. 

First, they are blood brothers [first, then cousins] all stemming from Japheth and secondly, there would have been admixture if the Japanese migrated through China [and Taiwan] and then the Korean peninsula. Similar transference occurred when Koreans migrated through China and some travelled to the Japanese Islands; as well as Chinese traders who visited both Korea and Japan. 

Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This survey of Y chromosome SNPs in Asia reveals a set of 41 haplogroups, 19 of which are present in Japan. Three haplogroups are almost entirely restricted to the Japanese archipelago: haplogroup D-P37.1 and its descendants (D-P37.1*, D-M116.1*, D.M125*, and D-P42), O-47z, and C-M8. These lineages account for 34.7, 22.0, and 5.4% of Japanese Y chromosomes, respectively, and may have originated on the Japanese archipelago. The Japanese population also has high frequencies of other haplogroup O lineages that are shared mainly with Southeast Asian populations, and C lineages that are shared primarily with northern Asians. In this section, we make the case that these Y chromosome lineages descend from different ancestral populations that gave rise to the Jomon and Yayoi cultures.

We plotted the frequencies of haplogroups D, O-P31, and O-M122 in each of our six Japanese samples against the approximate geographic distances of each of these populations from Kyushu Island. Together, these haplogroups account for 86.9% of Japanese Y chromosomes. There is a U-shaped cline for haplogroup D, and inverted U-shaped patterns for haplogroups in clade O. Based on the frequencies of these two clades, we estimate the Jomon contribution to modern Japanese to be 40.3%,^ with the highest frequency in the Ainu (75%) and Ryukyuans (60%). On the other hand, Yayoi Y chromosomes account for 51.9% of Japanese paternal lineages, with the highest contribution in Kyushu (62.3%) and lower contributions in Okinawa (37.8%) and northern Honshu (46.2%). Interestingly, there is no evidence for Yayoi lineages in the Ainu [only Jomon].

The highest frequency of continental D lineages is found in central Asia (especially in Tibet (50.4%). Evidence for shared ancestry between Tibetans and Japanese is seen in the MDS plot. The survival of ancient lineages within haplogroup D in Tibetans and Japanese may well reflect long periods of isolation for both groups. Interestingly, a Y-SNP survey of Andaman Islanders found a very high frequency of haplogroup D-M174* chromosomes in this isolated population… The other postulated Japanese Paleolithic founding haplogroup, C-M8, is associated with Y-STR haplotypes that are related to Indian and central Asian C chromosomes. The presence of NO* chromosomes in Japan also may be an indication of a remnant Tibetan ancestry. A recent mtDNA study revealed direct connections of Japanese haplotypes with Tibet, parallel to those found for the Y chromosome. Haplogroup M12 is the mitochondrial counterpart of Y chromosome D lineage. This rare haplogroup was detected only in mainland Japanese, Koreans, and Tibetans, with the highest frequency and diversity in Tibet.

Our data also support the hypothesis that other Y haplogroups, such as lineages within haplogroup O-M122 (i.e., O-M134 and O-LINE), as well as the O-M95 lineage within O-P31, entered Japan with the Yayoi expansion. High frequencies of these lineages in southwestern Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian populations likely explain the affinity of these populations in the MDS plot. The entire O haplogroup has been proposed to have a Southeast Asian origin (Su et al. 1999; Kayser et al. 2000; Capelli et al. 2001; Karafet et al. 2001). In fact, nearly all lineages within the O-M175 clade… except O-SRY465 and O-47z, are present at their highest frequencies (e.g., O-M95, O-P31*, M122*, O-LINE, O-M119) in southeastern Asia/Oceania, and have been proposed to have southern Chinese origins…’

Phylogentic Tree by ISOGG (Version 14.151)

DE (YAP) Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Caribbean, Tibet 

D (CTS3946) 

D1 (M174) East Asia, Andaman Islands, Central Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia 

D1a (CTS11577) 

D1a1 (F6251/Z27276) 

 – D1a1a (M15) Mainland China, Tibet, Altai Republic 

 – D1a1b (P99) Mainland China, Tibet, Mongol, Central Asia 

D1a2 (Z3660) 

 – D1a2a (M55) Japan (Yamato, Ryukyuan and Ainu people) 

 – D1a2b (Y34637) Andaman Islands (Onge and Jarawa people) 

D1b (L1378) Philippines 

D2 (A5580.2) Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Syria, African Americans 

Wa-pedia — emphasis and bold mine:

‘The origins of the Japanese people is not entirely clear yet. It is common for Japanese people to think that Japan is not part of Asia since it is an island, cut off from the continent. This tells a lot about how they see themselves in relation to their neighbours. But in spite of what the Japanese may think of themselves, they do not have extraterrestrial origins, and are indeed related to several peoples in Asia.

Kenichi Shinoda (2003) found Chinese-looking maternal lineages (haplogroups A, B, F, M8a and M10) in the Kanto region dating from the late Jōmon period mixed with typical Jōmon lineages (M7a, N9b)… this could indicate that farmers from mainland China colonised Japan several millennia before the Yayoi invasion, which would explain why the Japanese also possess typically South Chinese Y-haplogroups not found in Korea, such as O1a, O2a, O3a1c and O3a2.

Haplogroup C is another extremely old lineage that… spread over most of Eurasia. Two subclades of C are found in Japan: C1a1 (aka C-M8, formerly C1) and C2a (aka C-M93, formerly C3). Both are likely to have been in the Japanese archipelago since the first human beings reached the region… Haplogroup C1a seems to have split… in the middle of Eurasia, one group going west to Europe, and the other east to Japan. C1a2 is now nearly extinct in Europe. C1a1 is particularly common in Okinawa (7%), Shikoku (10%) and Tohoku (10%), but is apparently absent from Hokkaido and Kyushu.’

An explanation for this occurrence, would be that Tarshish migrated through Asia as the other sons of Japheth, though like their sea-faring, maritime bothers descended from Javan [for example the Maori (Rodanim)], a portion travelled via the Mediterranean, heading south past the eastern coast of Africa, beneath South Asia, around Southeast Asia and north past China to Japan.

‘Haplogroup C2a, representing also 3% of the population, is typically found among the Mongols, Manchus, Koreans and Siberians, which suggest a propagation by the Yayoi farmers. The last surviving tribes of ‘pure’ Ainu people, living on the island of Sakhalin in Russia, just north of Hokkaido, possess 15% of C2a (the remaining 85% being D1b). There is therefore a good chance that C2a could also have come to Japan from Siberia through Sakhalin and Hokkaido. C2a is indeed found at both extremities of the country, peaking in Kyushu (8%), Hokkaido (5%), but is rare in central Japan, which supports the theory of two separate points of entry.

Over 40% of Japanese men belong to haplogroup D, a paternal lineage… 

Its first carriers would have migrated along the coasts of the Indian Ocean, from the Arabian peninsula all the way to Indonesia, then following the chain of islands up through the Philippines and using the land bridge from Taiwan through the present-day Ryukyu islands to Japan.’ 

When studying the Bible verses regarding Tarshish, we contemplated that the outposts of Tarshish from the mediterranean via India and Southeast Asia could lead to Japan. Therefore, not only were the various locations given for Tarshish ports accurate, they also provide a trail of Tarshish’s descendants all the way to Japan over a period of about 5,500 years – leading to the entry of Japan by the Yayoi by at least circa 1000 BCE.

‘Haplogroup D1b (aka D-M55 or D-M64.1, formerly known as D2)… is found almost exclusively in Japan, with a small minority in places who have had historical ties with Japan, such as Korea. D1b is most common in Hokkaido (60-65%)… If D1b colonised Japan from the north, it would explain why its frequency is highest in northern Japan and, conversely also why pre-LGM [last glacial maximum] lineages like C1a1 survived better in southern Japan…

The only other variety of D identified among the Japanese is D1a1 (D-M15), which only makes up 0.5% of the Japanese male population. This haplogroup is particularly common among some ethnic groups from Southwest China and Indochina, such as the Hmong and Ksingmul in Laos… and the Yao people in Guanxi and Vietnam. Tibetans carry about 54% of haplogroup D.

Andaman Islanders belong to the basal D*. It means that their most recent common ancestors goes back tens of thousands of years. In other words the genetic gap between these ethnic groups is immense, despite false appearances of belonging to a common haplogroup. Haplogroup D1b was formed 45,000 years ago [perhaps 30,000 years ago instead, in mitochondrial Eve], but the most recent common ancestor of Japanese D1b members lived 23,000 years ago, [between the births of Seth and Noah] which means that other D1b branches may have become extinct outside Japan. Haplogroup D1b is found among the Ryukyuans as well as the Ainus, and is thought to have been the dominant paternal lineage of the Jōmon people.

Almost exactly half of Japanese men belong to haplogroup O, a paternal lineage of Paleolithic Sino-Korean origin that is now found all over East and Southeast Asia.

Haplogroup [O1b] (aka O-SRY465) is found especially in Manchuria, Korea and Japan, and very probably came to Japan with the Yayoi people. It reaches its highest frequency in western Japan (35%) and is least common in Hokkaido (12.5%) and Okinawa (22%). In the rest of the country its frequency is around 30%. Approximately two thirds of the Japanese [O1b] belong to the [O1b2] subclade, which is much less common in Korea and Manchuria… Haplogroup [O1b2] (SRY465, M176): Found almost exclusively among the Korean, Japanese, Thai, Vietnamese and Indonesian. Haplogroup [O1b2]-47z: Found frequently among Japanese and Ryukyuans, with a moderate distribution among Indonesians, Koreans, Manchus, Thais, and Vietnamese.

Haplogroup [O2] (aka O-M122) is the main Han Chinese paternal lineage. It is an extremely diverse lineage, with numerous subclades, including many associated with the expansion of agriculture from northern China. Most of them are found in Korea and would have been part of the Yayoi migration to Japan. Within Japan, it reaches a maximum frequency in Okinawa (16%),** a region with low Yayoi ancestry. Its frequency among non-Okinawan Japanese is of 10-15%, about twice higher than in Korea, a fact that cannot be explained by the Yayoi invasion. A negligible percentage of the Japanese belong to haplogroup O1a (aka O-M119), a lineage especially common in southern China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia, and haplogroup O2a1 (aka O-M95), which is found in south-west China, Indochina, around Malaysia and in central-eastern India. Both of them might have also have come with South Chinese Neolithic farmers during the Jomon period.

Approximately 3% of Japanese men belong to haplogroup N, a lineage that is thought to have originated in China… but underwent a serious population bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum, and re-expanded after that. Japanese people belong to N1… Haplogroup N1 was found at high frequency (26 out of 70 samples, or 37%) in Neolithic and Bronze Age remains (4500-700 BCE) from the West Liao River valley in Northeast China (Manchuria) by Yinqui Cui et al. (2013). Among the Neolithic samples, haplogroup N1 represented two thirds of the samples from the Hongshan culture (4700-2900 BCE) and all the samples from the Xiaoheyan culture (3000-2200 BCE). Haplogroup N1c is found especially among Uralic and Turkic peoples…  including among the Finns, Estonians and Sami in Northeast Europe, and among the Turks in Central Asia and Turkey. It is found at low frequencies in Korea and could have arrived with the Yayoi people. 

A comparison of Malay (Bahasa Indonesia/Melayu) and Japanese languages reveals a few uncanny similarities. Apart from the very similar phonetics in both languages, the same hierarchical differences exist in personal pronouns. For example ‘you’ can be either anda or kamu in Malay, and anata and kimi in Japanese. Not only are the meaning and usage of each identical, but they also sound almost the same. Likewise, the Japanese verb suki (to like) translates suka in Malay. The chances that this is a pure coincidence is extremely low, and may reveal a common origin. Furthermore, in both languages the plural can be formed by simply doubling the word. For instance, in Japanese hito means ‘person’, while hitobito means ‘people’. Likewise ware means ‘I’ or ‘you’, whereas wareware means ‘we’. Doubling of words in Japanese is so common that there is a special character used only to mean the word is doubled (々) in written Japanese. In Malay, this way of forming the plural is almost systematic (person is orang, while people is orang-orang). Furthermore, expressions like ittekimasu, itteirashai, tadaima and okaeri, used to greet someone who leaves or enter a place, and which have no equivalent in Indo-European languages, have exact equivalents in Malay/Indonesian (selamat jalan, selamat tinggal…). One could wonder how Malay and Japanese ever came to share such basic vocabulary and grammatical features, considering that there is no known historical migration from one region to other.’

The preceding paragraph is truly incredible, if one did not suspect a common ancestor for Tarshish-Japan with Elisha-Malaysia. Though the constant reader will already know the obvious linguistic link between two such separate peoples geographically is easily, logically and reasonably explained, as they share the same father, Javan. As we have learned with Togarmah-Korea and Ashkenazi-Vietnam, both sons of Gomer, a genetic link proves beyond a shadow of a doubt the familial bond of brothers.

‘The Palaeolithic Jōmon people are thought to have arrived from Austronesia during the Ice Age. The original inhabitants of Indonesia and the Philippines might have been related to Dravidians of Southern India. Y-haplogroup C, which has been associated with the first migration of modern humans… towards Asia, is relatively frequent in Kerala (southern tip of India) and Borneo. These early Austronesians are thought to have been the ancestors of the Ice Age settlers of Japan (Y-haplogroups C1a1 and D1b). The common root of the two languages must be more recent, and indeed there is one migration that could explain the connection between the two groups: the Neolithic Austronesian expansion from southern China.’

Recall in the preceding chapter on Javan and the Polynesians descended from Rodan, we included the Melanesian [and Negritos] peoples. Yet my suspicion was that the physiognomy of these people, particularly the Australian Aborigine is similar to the Dravidian Indians. We will return to this question as the evidence indicates the Melanesians are not descended from Japheth, but rather from Ham.

‘From approximately 5,000 BCE, South Chinese farmers expanded southward to Taiwan and Southeast Asia, bringing Y-haplogroups O1, O2 and O3 to the region, which are still the dominant paternal lineages today. There is evidence of farming in Taiwan at least from 4000 BCE, but agriculturalists would probably have arrived earlier considering that the Neolithic reached the Philippines circa 5000 BCE, and Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia around 4,000 BCE… the same migration could have followed the Ryukyu archipelago until Kyushu, then colonised Honshu and Shikoku. In fact, there is no good reason why these seafaring farmers would travel as far as Indonesia and not to Japan, which is much closer.

Many more Japanese words could be of Austronesian origin. The linguist David B. Solnit estimates that among 111 common Japanese words he analysed, 28% had Austronesian cognates only, while 40% had Altaic cognates, 23% competing cognates, and 9% no cognate in either. Considering that the various branches of Proto-Austronesian split over 6,000 or 7,000 years ago, longer than Indo-European languages, it is not surprising that even languages that are undeniably classified as Austronesian today have evolved very diverging vocabularies today (except Polynesian languages, which only started to diversify with the Polynesian expansion 2,000 years ago).

It is generally more useful to look at the Proto-Autronesian root of words rather than to try to find direct matches between modern Japanese and modern Austronesian languages. For example, the Proto-Austronesian root for fish is *sikan, which gave sakana in Japanese (and maybe also ika, which means squid), ikan in Malay, ika in Fijian, and isda in Tagalog. 

Cases of high lexical-semantic retention over six millennia like kamu/kimi, anda/anata and suka/suki are extremely rare. The Austronesian connection with Japanese was first suggested in 1924 by the Dutch linguist Dirk van Hinloopen Labberton. Many linguists have since proposed the hypothesis that the Japonic language family evolved from an Austronesian substratum (Jōmon) onto which was added an Altaic superstratum (Yayoi).

However, if Austronesian speakers came to Japan with South Chinese Neolithic agriculturalists, the original Jomon people would have spoken another language, either one of Siberian origin, in light of the mtDNA ties between Jomon and Ainu people and eastern Siberians, or a language isolate, reflecting the uniqueness of the Jomon paternal D1b lineage. Therefore, Middle and Late Jomon people would already have spoken a hybrid language. Likewise, the Koguryoic Korean language of the Yayoi people would also be a hybrid incorporating Altaic elements of Mongolian origin into an older Korean substratum of Paleosiberian origin. Since the 6th century CE, the Japanese started incorporating words from Chinese after adopting Buddhism and Chinese characters, in the same way that English absorbed a huge amount of Norman French and Latin words in the late Middle Ages [another Japanese, Great Britain similarity]… approximately half of the Japanese vocabulary is of Chinese origin. This explains why Japanese does not neatly fit in one or even two linguistic families, but is a hybrid of at least five separate sources: aboriginal Jomon, Austronesian, Korean, Altaic and Chinese.

Cultural and religious similarities also exist between Japan and Austronesia… most ethnic Malays and Indonesians are Muslim, but traditional religion survives in some islands, including Bali, which practices a syncretic form of Hinduism and aninism. Basically, Balinese religion is a form of Hinduism that has incorporated the aboriginal animistic religion. The parallel with Japan is obvious for people familiar with this culture. Japanese Shintoism is also a form of animism, and is practised side-by-side with Buddhism, a religion derived from Hinduism, sometimes blending the two religions in a syncretism known as Shinbutso-shugo. The relation between Hinduism and Buddhism is irrelevant here, and both are relatively recent imports in historical times. Before that, however, Jomon people and Neolithic Austronesians would have practised a very similar form of animism.

Japanese matsuri (festivals) resemble so much Balinese ones that one could wonder if one was not copied from the other. During cremations in Bali, the dead body is carried on a portable shrine, very much in the way that the Japanese carry their mikoshi. Balinese funerals are joyful and people swinging the portable shrine in the streets and making loud noise to scare the evil spirits. There are lots of other cultural similarities between ancient cultures of Indonesia and Japan. For example, both Balinese temples and Japanese shrines, as well as traditional Japanese and Balinese houses have a wall surrounding them, originally meant to prevent evil spirits from penetrating the property. Despite the radical changes that Indonesian culture underwent after the introduction of Islam and Christianity, and the changes that Buddhism brought to Japan, it is still possible to observe clear similarities between the supposed original prehistoric cultures of the two archipelagoes.’

We would expect more similarities between Japan and Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines culturally, linguistically and ethnically, rather than with Korea or China. The Koreans and Chinese are cousins, whereas the language and cultural similarities with the Malay-Polynesian peoples supports the proposition that the Japanese as Tarshish, are the brother of Elishah [Malaysia], Kitti [Indonesia], Dodan [Philippines] and Rodan [Polynesia]. An earlier quote from the section on Togarmah:

‘The study…[of]… Jung et al. (2010) said…that Koreans are genetically homogenous. The study said that the affinity of Koreans is predominately Southeast Asian with an estimated admixture of 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian for Koreans… all of the Koreans which were analyzed uniformly displayed a dual pattern of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian origins. The study said that Koreans and Japanese displayed no observable difference between each other in their proportion of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian admixture.’

The main Japanese mtDNA haplogroups include: D4 [34%], M7 [12.5%], B4 [7.5%], G [7.5%],

A [7%], N9 [7%], F [5.5%] and B5 [4.5%]. 

A comparison of the mtDNA haplogroups common throughout Southeast Asia of M, B5 and F show that the percentages decrease in both estranged northern nations. Japan [Tarshish] and Korea [Togarmah] very similar, have the closest match with the Philippines [Dodan] that happens to be located between the northern two and the southern three nations [Ashkenaz, Minni, Elishah] sampled.

Vietnamese:  M7    [10]%    B5    [7%]      F1    [19%] 

Thais:              M     [9%]       B5a [9%]      F1a  [9%]

Malays:           M7a   [39%]    B5    [11%]     F1a  [17%]

Filipinos:        M7c  [11%]    B5b [8%]      F1a  [4%] 

Koreans:         M7   [11%]     B5    [5%]      F     [5%]

Japanese:       M7   [13%]     B5    [5%]     F      [6%]

The principal Y-DNA haplogroups for the minority peoples in Japan, the Ainus – descended from the Jomon – and the Ryukyuans, descended from the Yayoi.

Region / HaplogroupCD1bNO1aO1bO2QOthers
Ainus (n=20)15%85%0%0%0%0%0%0%
Ryukyuans (n=132)8.5%45.5%1.5%1.5%22%19%0%1%

The main Y-DNA haplogroups for the Yamato majority of Japan, the descendants of the Kofun period.

Japan:   D1b – O1b – O2 – C – K – N1a – O1a – D1a – Q – F

Japan:   D1b [ 39%] – O1b [33%] – O2 [19%] – C [11%] – K [1.5%] – N1a [1.3%]

– O1a [1.2%] – D1a [0.5%] – Q [0.4%] – F [0.2%]  

The Japanese possess the key Oriental haplogroups of O, C and K, also exhibiting the lesser haplogroups, N and Q. The high percentage of Y-DNA haplogroup D is unique amongst the descendants of Japheth with the only other peoples, being the Tibetans of Tibet and a lesser extent the Koreans.

Japan:           D1b – O1b – O2a1 – C –  K – N1a – O1a – D1a – Q – F

Malaysia:      O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F

Indonesia:    O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F 

Java:              O1b – O1a – O2a1 – C – K 

Korea:            O2a1 – O1b2 – C – K – N – O1a – D1b – Q 

Vietnam:       O2a1 – O1b2 – Q1a – O1a – C – D1 – N 

Sumatra:       O2a1 – O1a – O1b – F – C – K – D

Philippines:  O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b 

Thailand:      O2a1 – O1a – C – D1 – K 

Though Japan does have a similarity with Korea and by extension Vietnam, it is the Malay peoples of Malaysia and the Indonesian Island of Java, that are most closely aligned – with Sumatra and the Philippines being the least similar. 

Japan:           O1b  [33%]     O2a1  [19%]     O1a  [2%]      K  [2%]      C  [11%]

Malaysia:      O1b  [32%]     O2a1  [28%]    O1a  [8%]      K  [8%]      C  [6%] 

Java:              O1b  [42%]     O2a1  [23%]    O1a  [23%]    K  [2%]      C  [2%]   

Korea:           O1b  [33%]      O2a1  [42%]   O1a  [3%]      K  [4%]      C  [13%]

Vietnam:      O1b  [33%]      O2a1  [40%]    O1a  [6%]                        C  [4%] 

Sumatra:      O1b  [14%]      O2a1  [30%]   O1a   [18%]    K  [4%]      C  [5%]  

Philippines: O1b  [3%]        O2a1  [39%]  O1a   [28%]    K [20%]    C  [5%] 

As Vietnam is to Korea, so is Malaysia to Japan. Togarmah is estranged from his brothers in continental southeast Asia and of those brothers, Ararat, Minni, Riphath and Diphath, it is Ashkenaz that the closer genetic tie is shared. Similarly, Tarshish estranged from his brothers in archipelago southeast Asia and of those brothers, Kitti, Dodan and Rodan, it is Elishah that the closer genetic tie is exhibited. 

Someone might say, “Look, this is new,” but really it has always been here. It was here before we were.

Ecclesiastes 1:10 New Century Version

“The more obvious a discovery, the more obvious it seems afterwards.”

Arthur Koestler [1905-1983]

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Noah Antecessor Nulla

Chapter I

For the purpose of this work, we will begin with Noah and his family as our starting point and the family tree or Table of Nations, listed in Genesis 10:1-32 and 1 Chronicles 1:1-20.

Professor Aaron Demsky comments in Reading Biblical Genealogies, The Table of Nations, Humanity as an extended Family:

‘Genesis 10, known as the “Table of Nations,” describes mankind after the Flood; it is a veritable storehouse of ethnographic and geographical information regarding the biblical period. The chapter divides humanity into the descendants of the three sons of Noah: Japheth, Ham and Shem in that order according to their increasing numbers and according to their ethnic closeness to the unmentioned Israel, whose Patriarch Abraham was not yet born. This chapter expresses the ideal brotherhood of humanity, implying an innate equality and collective responsibility. This ideal is expressed in the use of segmented genealogies creating a world of one big family: the Sons of Noah.’

Continuing in Genesis, English Standard Version:

These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2 The sons of Japheth: 

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.

6 The sons of Ham: 

Cush, Egypt [Mizra], Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan… 13 Egypt [Mizra] fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim. 

15 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the  Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed… 20 These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber… children were born. 

22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. 25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan… 31 These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32 These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Dr Herman Hoeh’s Introduction in Origin of the Nations – capitalisation his:

‘Let us first turn to Genesis 10 and 1 Chronicles 1. Here is the place to start. Yet here is the place from which almost no one begins. To begin here is looked upon as “unscientific.” 

These two chapters hold THE KEY NAMES… The whole human family sprang from the three sons of Noah. But their descendants turn up today in the least expected places! Now read Genesis 10:32: “These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and OF THESE were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.” Did you notice the wording of this verse! “of these” were the nations divided – not after some other families, but OF THESE VERY FAMILIES MENTIONED IN GENESIS 10. The nations today are descendants of these family names.

All nations and races sprang from Japheth, Ham and Shem, the three sons of Noah. From the three sons sprang 16 grandsons of Noah. These 16 family names illustrate all the general types of people extant today. All these sons had children, but their names are not recorded in Scripture. We did not need to know their names in order to understand the Bible.

Let us now begin the most thrilling story of adventure ever written, yet a story with real meaning for today!’

Historian Arthur Kemp explains race versus ethnicity and the importance of understanding the second point raised in the introduction, discussing migration.

March of the Titans, 1999 & 2016, pages 1 & 8:

‘A race is defined as a group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes which determine that group’s physical appearance and, more controversially, their cognitive abilities. Ethnicity is defined as the creation of groups by individuals (most often within racial groups but also possible across racial divides) of certain common traditions, languages, art forms, attitudes, and other means of expression. A culture is the name given to the physical manifestations created by ethnic groups – the actual… religion, social order, and achievements of a particular group… ethnicity and culture – are directly dependent upon each other, and flow from each other in a symbiotic relationship.

… If all [of a specific nation of] people on earth had to disappear tomorrow, then fairly obviously, [their] civilization and culture would disappear with them. It is this startlingly obvious principle which determines the creation and dissolution of civilizations – once the people who create a certain society or civilization disappear, then that society or civilization will disappear with them. If the vanished population is replaced by different peoples, then a new society or culture is created which reflects the culture and civilization of the new inhabitants of that region… That this should happen is perfectly logical. It has nothing to do with which culture is more advanced, or any notions of superiority or inferiority. It is merely a reflection of the fact that a civilization is a product of the nature of the people making up the population in the territory.’ 

Regarding Haplogroups – the fourth point mentioned in the introduction – Eupedia explains:

‘Mitochondrial DNA is found outside the cell’s nucleus, inside the mitochondria – organelles that provide energy to the cell. It consists of only 16,569 base pairs, or 0.000005% of the human genome. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited only through one’s mother. As it does not recombine like chromosomes, it can be used in population genetics to trace back ancestry on the matrilineal side and to divide populations into haplogroups. The same can be done on the patrilineal side using the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), which is inherited exclusively from father to son and does not recombine with the X chromosome. Only a few mutations distinguish the Y chromosome of a man and his father. These mutations are cumulative from generation to generation, so it is easy to trace the family tree of humanity by analyzing these mutations (SNPs) [single nucleotide polymorphism] on the Y chromosome and mtDNA.’

Humanity have two lineages, the Y-DNA Haplogroups traceable via their fathers and mtDNA Haplogroups traceable from their mothers. Maternal Haplogroups are determined from mitochondrial DNA information passed down from mothers to all of her offspring; whereas paternal Haplogroups are determined from the Y chromosome passed down only from fathers to sons. Every single human being belongs to or has, a Haplogroup sequence. However, males have input from two sets of Haplogroups and females only have one. Thus males inherit a number of maternal Haplogroups from their mother and a selection of paternal Haplogroups from their father; while females only inherit a series of maternal Haplogroups.

A brief summary of Mitochondrial DNA analysis by John M Butler, Defining mtDNA Haplogroups in Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology, 2012:

‘Over the course of typing mtDNA samples from various populations, researchers have observed that individuals often cluster into haplogroups that can be defined by particular polymorphic nucleotides… These haplogroups were originally defined in the late 1980s and 1990s by grouping samples possessing the same or similar patterns when subjected to a series of restriction enzymes that were used to separate various mtDNA types from diverse populations around the world… 

Haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and M are typically associated with Asians while most Native Americans fall into haplogroups A, B, C, and D. Haplogroups L1, L2, and L3 are African, and haplogroups [N], H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, and X are typically associated with European populations…’

Scientific discovery in the decade beginning the late 1980s has corroborated the table of nations in Genesis Ten. We can be confident as we progress, that Noah’s three sons and their wives represent the three main racial strands on the earth today – Asian, African and European. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 3:

‘Research carried out by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza and two colleagues, P. Menozzi and A. Piazzia, in their work The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994), has revealed an astonishing 2,288 genetic point difference between whites and black Africans… the English differ from the Danes, Germans, and French by a mere 21-25 points of genetic difference, whereas they differ from North American Indians by 947 points…’

During the course of this research it became imperative that an improved chronology was devised. It is impossible to have a wholly complete or ‘accurate’ chronology for the very distant past. Conversely, it is possible to form a reasonably accurate time frame much further back than one would first anticipate.  It has involved considerable effort to create a reliable timeline from before Adam through to the present day. A whole different jig-saw puzzle and a significant challenge in its own right. A chronology based on a re-interpretation of the Old Testament Bible chronology prior to the Great Flood, combined with the Sumerian sexagesimal numerical counting system for the postdiluvian age to Abraham, has contributed to a pragmatic timeline of Earth’s ancient history. As there are already conventional and revised chronologies, it is an unconventional chronology

Everything You Know Is Still Wrong, Lloyd Pye, 2009 & 2017, pages 375-376: 

‘Sumerians… created an efficient system of mathematics based on the number 60 (called sexagesimal). It enabled them to easily divide into tiny fractions and to multiply with equal ease into the millions, to calculate roots and raise numbers by any power. The 60-second minute and the 60-minute hour are two vestiges that remain from their original system. 

So are the 360-degree circle, the 12-inch foot, and the dozen. 

They had accurate calendars fashioned around the mind-boggling timeframe of 25,920 years, the “Great Year” based on a sophisticated celestial phenomenon known as precession (the time Earth’s polar axis needs to circle the sky and point again at the same North star) [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].’

There is considerable support in dating the biblical flood to coincide with when the last ice age ended approximately 13,000 years ago – or precisely, 10,837 BCE. A growing number of scientists and historians – outside of the mainstream institutions that deliberately support an erroneous agenda of either no flood at all, a localised Middle Eastern flood or that it occurred about 2400 BCE – concur with the dating of circa 11,000 BCE.

For instance, though humans were eating cereal-based foods well before the flood, wheat was only domesticated since the last ice age; created from a still-living ancestor plant known as emmer. Wheat is a grain crop with some 25,000 different cultivars in the world today and most of these 25,000 different forms of modern wheat are varieties of two broad groups, called common wheat and durum wheat. Common or bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, accounts for some 95 percent of all the consumed wheat in the world today – the other 5 percent is made up of durum or hard wheat, Turgidum durum, used in pasta and semolina products.

Lloyd Pye, pages 517-519, 523 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In The Twelfth Planet Zecharia Sitchin calls Sumeria “The Sudden Civilisation”… it blossomed out of nowhere nearly 6,000 years ago… its roots extend back twice that farThe first official traces of domesticated plants and animals appear… around 12,000 ya, which scientists acknowledge was the time and point of origin for virtually all the domesticated agriculture and animal husbandry that has subsequently spread around the world.

… the first farmers… chose to begin cultivation in highlands… a terrible choice because they are subject to extreme variations in weather, they possess thin, less-than optimally-fertile soil, and they require construction of labour-intensive terraces to hold the poor soil in place… After the Flood, the plains were covered with soggy mud and silt that could not dry out or be washed away until new riverbeds provided drainage by carving their way down from the mountains above, which would have required many centuries.

In the Wars of Gods and Men, Zecharia Sitchin points out: 

“Scholars are agreed that agriculture began… with the harvesting of ‘wild ancestors’ of wheat and barley some 12,000 ya (10,000 BCE), but (they) are baffled by the genetic uniformity of those early grains grasses; and they are totally at a loss to explain the botano-genetic feat whereby within a mere 2,000 years(8,000 BCE)such wild emmers doubled, trebled, and quadrupled their chromosome pairs to become the cultivable wheat and barley of outstanding nutritional value (and) with the incredible ability to grow almost anywhere, and with the unusual twice-a-year crops.”

We first read of the patriarch Noah in Genesis 5:28-29, English Standard Version:

28 … Lamech… fathered a son 29 and called his name Noah [H5146 – Noach: ‘rest’], saying, “Out of the ground that the Lord has cursed, this one shall bring us relief [comfort] from our work and from the painful toil of our hands.” [Genesis 3:17-18]

Noah is referred to in Sumerian texts as ZI.UD.SUD.DRA and in separate Akkadian accounts as Atra-hais, meaning ‘exceedingly wise’ and in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as Ut-napishtim. The Greco-Roman account, records the name Duecalion for Noah. Noah means rest or quiet. Noah being saved from the impending doom of a worldwide flood meant mankind could continue and therefore we are alive today; a testament to the Creator’s promise to spare Noah.

Ezekiel 14:14

English Standard Version

… even if these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness, declares the Lord God.

Noah was one of the three most righteous men to live, listed with Daniel and Job. When this was written, Daniel was still alive. Even though Noah’s righteousness didn’t save humanity; it was in part because of his very righteousness, that ultimately mankind was spared. 

2 Peter 2:5

King James Version

And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;

Book of Enoch Chapter Ten:

“1. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel [Ariel an Archangel – refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega] to the son of Lamech, and said to him: 2. ‘and tell him in my name “Hide thyself!” and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. 3. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.’

The world in Noah’s day had grown evil beyond measure. Corrupted by fallen Angels who had interfered with the creation on Earth and humankind in particular. The Creator planned to cleanse the earth and start anew. 

The account is explained in Genesis 6:1-22, New Century Version:

The number of people on earth began to grow, and daughters were born to them. 2 When the sons of God saw that these girls were beautiful, they married any of them they chose. 3 The Lord said, “My Spirit will not remain in human beings forever, because they are flesh. They will live only 120 years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days and also later.* That was when the sons of God [Angels] had sexual relations with the daughters of human beings. These women gave birth to children, who became famous and were the mighty warriors [giants] of long ago. 5 The Lord saw that the human beings on the earth were very wicked and that everything they thought about was evil.He was sorry he had made human beings on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain. 7 So the Lord said, “I will destroy all human beings that I made on the earth. And I will destroy every animal and everything that crawls on the earth and the birds of the air, because I am sorry I have made them [note: marine life not included].” 

8 But Noah pleased the Lord. 9 This is the family history of Noah. Noah was a good [H6662 – tsaddiyq: ‘just, lawful, righteous’ – spiritual] man, the most innocent [H8549 – tamiym: ‘complete, healthful, without blemish, undefiled’ – physically] man of his time, and he walked with God. 10 He had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11 People on earth did what God said was evil, and violence was everywhere. 12 When God saw that everyone on the earth did only evil, 13 he said to Noah, “Because people have made the earth full of violence, I will destroy all of them from the earth. 14 Build a boat of cypress [H1613 – Gopher: meaning ‘to house in’] wood [H6086 – ets: meaning ‘tree’ from H6095 – atsah: meaning ‘firmness, shut’] for yourself. Make rooms in it and cover it inside and outside with tar [H3722 – kaphaph: meaning ‘to cover over’ (with bitumen [pitch]) or ‘to make an atonement, to cleanse’]…

17 I will bring a flood of water on the earth to destroy all living things that live under the sky, including everything that has the breath of life. Everything on the earth will die. 18 But I will make an agreement with you [Genesis 9:8-17] – you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives will all go into the boat. 19 Also, you must bring into the boat two of every living thing, male and female. Keep them alive with you. 20 Two of every kind of bird, animal, and crawling thing will come to you to be kept alive. 21 Also gather some of every kind of food and store it on the boat as food for you and the animals.”

22 Noah did everything that God commanded him.

We will repeatedly encounter the Nephilim during our journey and we will discuss them in more detail [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin and Destiny of Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Various sources that recount a global flood, mention other survivors apart from Noah’s family; consequently, Nephilim presence in the post-flood world is mentioned repeatedly in the Old Testament.*

Not only does Noah receive high praise for his character from his Maker, these verses also describe the physical purity of his genealogy. An unarguable reason why Noah was the ideal candidate to continue the human race. Noah’s ancestors going back to Adam and his son Seth, are listed in Genesis chapter five.

Author Alan Alford says the following regarding Noah in his first book, Gods of the New Millennium, 1996 – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘Noah’s birth was far from normal. According to the Book of Enoch, when Noah was born, his father Lamech was extremely perturbed to find that, “his body was white as snow and red as the blooming of a rose”. Lamech was so shocked that he asked his father Methuselah to make enquiries of Enoch who was staying among the sons of the Gods (the Nephilim), because: “I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the God of Heaven and his nature is quite different, and he is not like us… And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but from the angels.” Enoch’s response was to assure Lamech that Noah was indeed his son, but his unusual disposition was part of a plan to save Noah and his family in a coming deluge. It would seem that Noah’s father may have become known as Lamech, meaning “He who was Humbled”, as a result of this rather embarrassing accusation against his wife. Lamech’s hope for better times was not to come true, for mankind’s problems were only just beginning. According to the Atra-Hasis, some time before the Flood… God… decided to punish… man with infectious diseases and a series of droughts… and the Biblical reference to the ground which had been cursed by the Lord may well refer to the beginning of the last ice age…’

This description is not necessarily saying Noah was an albino, though this is a plausible scenario. It could be referring to Noah being fair, with very pale skin. We find a remarkably similar description, of the Son of Man in Revelation 1:14-15, New Century Version:

His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like flames [G5395 – phlox: ‘a flash or blaze’] of fire. His feet were like bronze [G5474 – chalkolibanon: superficially ‘fine brass’, though could be a ‘metal like gold if not more precious’] that glows in a hot furnace…

The description is not necessarily saying the Son of Man has red or orange eyes. He could have blue eyes which are radiant and piercing. The colour of a pure, high temperature flame is blue-white. People can be described as having flaming eyes or smouldering blue eyes. Similarly, it is not necessarily correct to assume bronze or brass means brown or coppery, as the Greek word chalkolibanon derives from a compound of 5475 and 3030, which mean ‘whiteness’ or ‘brilliancy.’ When fine brass is burnt in a furnace it becomes white hot. When it cools, it remains white with a golden hint to it.

In Daniel 7:9-10, New English Translation: 

“While I was watching, thrones were set up, andthe Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lamb’s wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. 10  A river of fire [the Holy Spirit] was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence.

The Ancient of Days and source of all life is similarly described. Some translations say the Ancient One. The CEV translates as, the Eternal God and the TEV as, One who had been living for ever. 

The Book of Enoch corroborates the biblical description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days.

Book of Enoch 46:1-4

1 At that place,I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor like that of one among the kodesh [holy] malakim [angels]. 2 And I asked… “Who is this, and from whence is he who is going as the prototype of the Before-Time?” 3 … “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells… for Yahweh [Lord] of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts… 4 “This Son of Man whom you have seen is the One who would remove the kings and the mighty ones [rulers of this world] from their comfortable seats and the strong ones [the unseen rulers of this world] from their thrones…”

The Bible states that Noah was ‘perfect’ in his ‘generations’. The word generations, is the Hebrew word Toledah, and means ‘descent.’ The Hebrew word Tamim means ‘without blemish’ in his generations and is the technical word for bodily and physical perfection; not a reference to Noah’s righteousness. It is the same word used for the purity of sacrificial animals. Noah was without blemish physically because – in his pedigree from Adam and Seth – his lineage had not mixed with any other human line or more crucially, been tainted by the Nephilim. 

The Genesis Apocryphon parallels the birth of Noah in the Book of Enoch: 

‘… behold I thought then without my heart that conception was due to the watchers and the holy ones and to the giants, and my heart was troubled within me because of this trial. Then I, Lamech approached Bathenosh my wife in haste and said to her, ‘… by the Most High, the Great Lord, the King of all the world and Ruler of the Sons of Heaven, until you tell me all things truthfully… Tell me… and not falsely… Then Bathenosh my wife spoke to me with much heat [and mastered her anger]… said ‘O my brother, oh my lord, remember my pleasure … the lying together and my soul within its body. [And I tell you] all things truthfully… I swear to you by the Holy Great One the King of the heavens, that this seed is yours and this conception is from you, whose spirit was planted by you and by no stranger or watcher or son of heaven.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 31 – emphasis authors, bold mine:

Lamech mistook the holy nature of Noah as possessing the startling physical characteristics of [a] baby Nephilim… the first book of Enoch: 

“… Methuselah, took a wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him and bore him a son. And his body was white as snow and as red as a rose; the hair of his head as white as wool and his demdema (long curly hair) beautiful; and as for his eyes, when he opened them the whole house glowed like the sun… And his father, Lamech, was afraid of him and fled and went to Methuselah his father; and he said to him, “I have begotten a strange son. He is not like a[n ordinary] human being, but [he] looks like the children of the angels of heaven to me, his form is different and [he is] not like us… It does not seem to me that he is of me, but of angels.”

‘So too, did Atlantean giants, according to Frank Joseph, author of the Destruction of Atlantis, possess ruddy, white skin, with blond and red hair and glowing eyes… other ancient giants… also possessed fair skin and were known as lucent, or “shining gods”…’

Something was strikingly evident immediately upon Noah’s birth, reflected in his unique physical appearance. The description again, could refer to albinism, with a white, pinkish skin and white hair; or pale skin with platinum blond hair. If the Nephilim, being angelic-human hybrids had white skin, with blond or red hair, and Noah stood out like one of them, this would imply that humans possessed darker shades of skin tone rather than lighter up to this point. Lamech’s reaction signifies that he saw something special in Noah’s miraculous birth. One chosen by the Creator before birth, as were Jeremiah, John the Baptist and Melchizedek.

Jeremiah 1:5

English Standard Version

“Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations.”

Lamech is afraid of Noah, and runs to his father Methusaleh with his concern. Methusaleh contacts his own father Enoch, who responds in calming their fears; revealing to them Noah’s role as the saviour of humanity in the upcoming Flood, as well as actually giving Noah his name. 

Book of Enoch 106:6-8, 10, 12, 16, 18-19

“… and [Lamech feared] that a wondrous phenomenon may take place upon the earth in  [Noah’s day]. So I am beseeching you now, begging you in order that you may go to his grandfather Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling place is among the [angels].” When Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to us at the ends of the earth; for he had heard that I [Enoch] was there… [Methuselah says:] 

“my father, hear me: For unto my son Lamech a son has been born, one whose image and form are not like unto the characteristics of human beings; and his color is whiter than snow and redder than a rose, the hair of his head is whiter than white wool, and his eyes are like the rays of the sun…” … Lamech, became afraid and fled, and he did not believe that he the child was of him but of the image of the [angels] of heaven… 

“There shall be a great… deluge and a great destruction for one year… Now, make known to your son Lamech that the son who has been born is indeed righteous; and call his name Noah, for he shall be the remnant for you, and he and his sons shall be saved from the corruption, which shall come upon the earth on account of all the sin and oppression that existed, and it will be fulfilled upon the earth in his days. After that there shall occur still greater oppression than that which was fulfilled upon the earth the first time [yet future]; for I do know the mysteries of the [holy] ones; for He, Yahweh, has revealed them to me and made me know; and I have read them in the heavenly tablets.”

By having Enoch name his great-grandson, it intensifies a connection that is already found in the Bible; in their typological location in the primeval genealogy, seventh [number symbolising perfection and applicable to Enoch] and tenth [number symbolising completion or judgement and very applicable to Noah] from Adam.

Enoch and Noah are kindred spirits, as the same phrase is applied to both of them and to them alone: they walked with God – contrast with Abraham in Genesis 17:1, Genesis 6:9 and 5:24 ESV.

When Abram was ninety-nine years old the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.

Noah was a righteous man; he was blameless in his age; Noah walked with God.

Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, for God took him.

It would appear that the Nephilim – and likely their fallen angelic fathers, based on the description of the Son of Man and the Ancient of Days – were not white as in a European, but rather they were white like an albino. For those who have seen the Matrix trilogy, the second film features dreadlocked characters who exhibit exactly the kind of white we are speaking of. Serious consideration must be given to Noah being the first truly light skinned human. His father’s description of him in the Book of Enoch, would explain Noah’s seemingly other-worldliness. It may well be more than coincidental that Albinism affects the production of the pigment melanin, that colours skin, hair and eyes. 

It is a lifelong condition from birth, though it does not worsen with age. People with albinism have a reduced amount of melanin, or no melanin at all. This affects albinos colouring and eyesight. Albinism is caused by for the want of a better word, ’faulty’ genes a child inherits from their parents. 

One in 17,000 babies in Europe and the USA are born with either Oculocutaneous albinism [OCA], which involves the eyes, hair and skin, or Ocular albinism [OA], which is much less common and affects only the eyes.

Dr Mary Lowth clarifies – capitalisation theirs:

‘People presume that all people with albinism have white hair and white skin; however, this is not usually the case. A common myth is that they have red eyes; however, this is also not true. Most people with albinism have blue eyes and some have hazel or brown eyes. However, in certain light conditions there is a reddish tint reflected through the iris and pupil from the retina and the eyes appear red (similar to the ‘red eye’ in flash photography). Albinism results from inheriting an albinism gene from both the mother and the father (who often have normal pigmentation themselves, as their OTHER gene is normal). When both parents carry the albinism gene (and neither parent has albinism) there is a one in four chance at each pregnancy that the baby will be born with albinism. If a parent has albinism then they will pass on one affected gene to their child. The child will still only develop albinism if they also inherit an albinism gene from the other parent.’

There are seven types of Oculocutaneous albinism. We will look at the main condition. 

‘OCA1 results from a genetic defect in an enzyme called tyrosinase. This enzyme helps the body to make melanin pigment. There are two subtypes of OCA1. In OCA1A, the enzyme is completely inactive and absolutely no melanin is produced, leading to white hair and very light skin. In OCA1B, the enzyme is minimally active and a small amount of melanin is produced. This leads to hair that may darken to blond, yellow/orange or even light brown, as well as slightly more pigment in the skin.’

Noah’s whiteness may or may not have been a ‘faulty’ gene or defect, but he does seem to be the melanin absent or reduced, Ancestor Zero and fulcrum of the equation on either the actual origination of the different races or the increased diversity of races after the flood, their characteristics and the varying amount of melanin skin pigmentation with the broad range of skin tones – that would ultimately differentiate his three sons and sixteen grandsons from one another [refer Chapter XVI Shem Occidentalis]. 

Alan Alford’s comments on this question, in Gods of the New Millennium – emphasis his, bold mine.

‘The Flood thus acted as a gateway or bottleneck through which the genes of man were transmitted to the post-Flood generations. According to the Bible, the three sons of Noah – Shem, Ham and Japheth – took separate territories and fathered everyone in the world alive today. Did these three sons represent three distinct races? Modern studies of human racial diversity are unfortunately few and far between. As Jared Diamond notes:

“The subject of human races is so explosive that Darwin excised all discussion of it from his famous 1859 book On the Origin of species. Even today, few scientists dare to study racial origins, lest they be branded racists simply for being interested in the problem.”

‘Genetic scientists, however, have projected backwards from all of the human racial diversity which exists today and found a common point, known as mtDNA Eve (Mitochondrial Eve)… These findings suggest that racial diversity must have been preserved on Noah’s Ark if the Flood occurred only 13,000 years ago. Biblical scholars would (agree) with this conclusion. 

A major clue lies in the names of Noah’s sons, particularly the name Ham which literally means “He who is Hot”, implying a dark coloured skin. Furthermore, the location of the Hamitic tribes in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10) has been clearly identified by Biblical scholars as the African lands. The Koran, too, is explicit in referring to separate nations on board Noah’s Ark, when it states “blessings upon thee and on the nations with thee”. The scenario of preserving mankind’s racial diversity on Noah’s Ark is entirely consistent with the Biblical record that all living creatures were saved. 

Unfortunately, most people have regarded the tale of the Ark as a myth, due to the logistical problems of confining so many types of animals and birds in such close proximity, added to the practical difficulties of gathering together so many different species. 

However, if we were to be forewarned of a Flood tomorrow, we would, with the benefit of modern scientific knowledge, not round up the animals themselves but their genes. And there are two clues which suggest that this is exactly what happened 13,000 years ago. The Utnapishtim legend of Noah states that Utnapishtim loaded aboard whatever he had of “the seed of all living creatures”. And in the Atra-Hasis (Fragment III)… God… (says) “game of the field and beasts of the field, as many as eat herbs, I will send unto thee”. An echo of this is found in Genesis 6:20 which states that “two of every kind… will come to you”. If the seed or genes of all living animals were kept alive in the Ark, why not also the genes representing human diversity? However, the problem of human races goes much further back in time, prior to Noah’s Ark, for no-one can explain how the races evolved. As Jared Diamond points out, all of the current theories on the origin of racial characteristics have fundamental weaknesses. In my view, the key to the mystery is genetic science. Here is my theory on how (it was done).

The unusual birth of Noah, discussed earlier, was the first step in (a) far-sighted strategy… (before) selecting… three women from three diverse races of mankind… the eggs of each of these women were fertilized by Noah’s sperm, and implanted into three surrogate mothers. Nine months later, Noah became the father of three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, as recorded in the Bible… the three ethnic mothers of Shem, Ham and Japheth were to marry their own sons. 

These, then, were the three women who accompanied Noah, his unnamed wife and his three sons onto the Ark. Using this strategy… caused a further significant dilution of Noah’s “pure” genes and a significant increase in the proportion of “ethnic” genes in the next generation. Whilst Shem, Ham and Japheth had retained 50 per cent of the pure seed. Their sons and daughters became 25 per cent pure seed and 75 per cent ethnic… three separate races emerged…

There are several further factors which tend to corroborate the above theory… the independent account in the Book of Enoch of Noah’s unusual white/red pigmentation describes a deliberate step… for obtaining a greater range of colour variation in the three new lines of mankind. Without Noah’s whiteness… could only have blended three shades of black. Is it possible that Lamech’s fathering of Noah was really subject to genetic intervention?

A fragment from the Book of Noah, discovered at Qumran, records an ambiguous response from Lamech’s wife, when questioned about the conception of Noah. She implored her husband to “remember my delicate feelings” – perhaps a sign that she was keeping a secret of the Gods. (Another) corroborating factor is the apparent birth of all Noah’s three sons in the same year. The King James Version of the Bible (KJV) translates the original Hebrew literally: And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham and Japheth.

The New International Version of the Bible (NIV), on the other hand, has attempted to conceal the impression of three sons in the same year by altering the translation: After Noah was 500 years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth. The deliberate vagueness of the word “after” suggests a fudge. However, in order to make the illusion succeed, it is also necessary to disguise the fact that all three sons were 100 years old when the Flood occurred 100 years later. Therefore the NIV states: Two years after the Flood, when Shem was 100 years old, he became the father of Arphaxad. However, the KJV retains the original and literal meaning of the Hebrew: Shem was a hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the Flood. 

Whilst the NIV fudge conveniently allows 24 months for the birth of three separate children, the reality is that all of Noah’s sons were born in the same year. Why did the NIV Biblical revisionists find this idea so offensive that they tried to hide it? Could it have implied to them that Noah’s three sons came from three different wives within the same year?’

A thought provoking hypothesis that certainly gives pause for consideration. The origin of the races is a complete mystery to researchers and theologians alike. Alan Alford’s theory offers an original and plausible solution. As the introduction of the variety of racial branches from sixteen grandsons strongly appears to have been new, how many races before the flood were there? Just the one from Adam and Eve’s sons Cain and Seth, or two or more?

It is has been entertained that the mark of Cain introduced in Genesis 4:15, relates to  Cain’s skin changing from white too black. An alternative explanation would be required, if Cain was already dark skinned. Regarding Adam, it states in Genesis 2:7, English Standard Version:

… then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.

There is an anomaly in that we will learn that Adam was not Cain’s biological father [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Nor did Adam start as ‘dust from the ground’ but became dust from the ground; this was not his beginning. The incident in the Garden of Eden led to his and Eve losing their spiritual status in exchange for a composition that was physical. This was the core of the Serpents’s trick played on Eve. 

The name Adam in Hebrew from the root, dmm means ‘to begin, to produce.’ Adam had a beginning, as one from the soil. The name Adam is the same as the noun, ‘adam, which means man[kind] in [the] sense of ‘a creature made from earth,’ or likeness-made-from-soil. The verb dama, describes making an ‘image’ and the noun dimyon means ‘likeness.’ Adama means ‘arable soil’ or ‘clay-red earth’. Adam does not mean red as in colour or complexion. Verbs adom and adem mean red, as do the adjectives adom and admoni, as well as the noun edom [used for Abraham’s Grandson, Esau]. The ubiquitous noun, dam means ‘blood, the seat of life.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Adam… means Acre Man, but since the word for acre is distilled from the action of producing agricultural crops, the name Adam really means Produce… But that root that covers the action of producing is also the same as the root that covers redness. That means that Adam is also Red Man. Since red is the color of blood (2 Kings 3:22) and also since the name Adam is the word (dom), meaning blood, with an aleph in front of it, and alephs sometimes appear in front of words without essentially altering the meaning, Adam also means Blood Man. And since blood is the seat of the breath (or life), Adam is also Life Man. All in all, the name Adam is probably best interpreted as Living Creature or rather the corporeal part of a living creature. The name Adam simply means Corporeal One or Dustling; prior to receiving breath, Adam was quite literally a corpse (Genesis 2:7).’

Some have incorrectly surmised that Adam’s redness – from red-clay earth – meant he was white with a ruddy complexion. One commentator says: “Adam means ruddy complexioned, to show blood (in the face), flush or turn rosy.” Later, we will learn that King David of Judah and Jacob’s brother Esau are described in this manner. Adam is not. For Adam, it is accentuating his coming alive and beginning as the first of his kind – with different genetic DNA, symbolised by his blood – for indeed, their were other humans created prior to Adam [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega].

The line of Cain in Genesis chapter four is fascinating, because we learn that another Lamech, different from the father of Noah is the progenitor of polygamy, having two wives. They are only the second and third women after Eve to be recorded in the old Testament, implying significance. Adah means ‘ornament’ and has the connotation of beauty. Zillah means ‘dark’ or ‘to be dark’. So some have conjectured that Adah was light skinned and Zillah dark skinned; or, it could be referring to Zillah possessing a proclivity towards the dark side.

Intriguing, are the two sons born of Adah and especially the son from Zillah and their very Japheth-like names. There is the progenitor of Cain’s line, Cain and on Seth’s family tree, a Cainan – a later Hamitic name. The Book of Jasher in chapter two says that Cainan, the Grandson of Seth was the father of three sons and two daughters, who are none other than Adah and Zillah. The book also says that Zillah was barren when she was old, until towards the end of her life.

In Genesis chapter four, we learn there were other humans – not descended from Adam and Eve – in the Land of Nod, where Cain went to dwell. 

Genesis 4:16-17

New Century Version

16 So Cain went away [not just physically but also spiritually] from the Lord and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden. 17 He had sexual relations with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. At that time Cain was building a city, which he named after his son Enoch.

Cain already had a wife – a sister according to some sources, a fallen Angel in others – before sojourning to Nod and building a city. 

Book of Jubilees 4:9

And Cain took Awan his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch… And… houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch.

Cain would not build a city, if it were not for an already large population of people living in Nod. Genesis 1:27 reveals man was created on the Sixth Day or era, whereas, Genesis 2:7 shows Adam was created on the ‘Eighth Day’, the day or era after the Seventh Day rest. If there were inhabitants prior to Cain’s arrival, they were not descended from Adam and Eve. We will return to this question in a later chapter. Cain didn’t waste any time, in becoming the first person in endeavouring to establish and consolidate centralised power – a precursor for a one world government. The Way of Cain has survived many millennia right through to our present day and age.

When Adam’s son Seth is born, we learn in Genesis 5:3 NCV:

When Adam was 130 years old, he became the father ofanother son in his likeness [H1823 – dmuwth: ‘similitude’]and image [H6754 – tselem: ‘resemblance’], and Adam named him Seth.

Seth was in other words, the spitting image of his biological father. The line of Seth, his sons and their wives is amplified in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 4:11-28

11 … Seth took Azura his sister to be his wife, and… she bare him Enos. 13 … Enos took Noam his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… [calling] his name Kenan. 14 And… Kenan took Mualeleth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Mahalalel. 15 … Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dinah, the daughter of Barakiel the daughter of his father’s brother, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Jared, for in his days the malakim of Yahweh descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 

16 And… Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Baraka, the daughter of Rasujal, a daughter of his father’s brother… and she bare him a son… and he called his name Enoch. 20 And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Edna, the daughter of Danel, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 27 And… Methuselah took unto himself a wife, Edna the daughter of Azrial, the daughter of his father’s brother… and he begat a son and called his name Lamech. 28 And… Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was Betenos the daughter of Baraki’il, the daughter of his father’s brother, and… she bare him a son and he called his name Noah, saying, ‘This one will comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for the ground which Yahweh has cursed.’ 

Let’s ask the question: was the consternation exhibited by Lamech toward his son Noah due to everyone – Cain, Seth and the inhabitants of Nod, the people of Day Six – in the antediluvian world, having darker shades of skin, black or brunette hair and brown eyes. The earth then – the antediluvian epoch – whether it be human beings, flora and fauna or the climate, was not exactly the same as today. This is partly why the conundrum of the origin of the races exists. If there were only one, two or three races and they ranged from possibly black to dark or medium brown skin, with dark hair and brown eyes, then Lamech’s shock of seeing Noah so completely and utterly white skinned and fair, with platinum blond hair and blue eyes would not be surprising at all. It would have been very disturbing.

The names of Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives are not stated in the bible, though they are mentioned in the Book of Jubilees [circa 160-150 BCE] as ‘Adataneses the wife of Japheth, Na’eltama’uk the wife of Ham and Sedeqetelebab, Shem’s wife. The Syriac Targum, a similar work, states the wives names as Arathka for Japheth’s wife, Zedkat Nabu for Ham’s wife and Nahalath Mahnuk as Shem’s wife.

Noah’s wife is mentioned five times in Genesis, without her name being revealed. Some believe she could be Naamah, the sister of Tubal-Cain in Genesis 4.22. As she is from the already imperfect line of Cain, it would seem to be a contradiction for Noah to marry Naamah, mixing the two genetic lines. With that said, if there is any merit in Alan Alford’s theory or a version of it, Noah may have had three wives from which three sons were born; taking only one wife on board the Ark.

The Book of Jubilees 4:46-47, supports the Bible and states Noah had one wife and that she bore all three sons:

Noah took to himself a wife,and her name was Emzara,the daughter of Rakeel, the daughter of his father’s brother [a brother of Lamech]… And in the third year thereof she bore him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she bore him Ham, and in the first year… she bore him Japheth.

Genesis 11:10 states Shem is two years younger than Japheth, yet Genesis 10:21 says Shem is the eldest. Comparing all the Bible verses where the three sons are mentioned, it would seem that their order of birth was Japheth, Ham and then Shem. Shem is then sometimes placed first in order because from him, the patriarch Abraham would later be born. If Noah had only one wife and Alford’s theory is not applied, then Japheth, Ham and Shem very likely had wives with different genetic characteristics. 

The Book of Tobit [ circa 225-175 BCE] does not name Noah’s wife, though does say she was one of his ‘own kindred’. An Arabic source and Islamic tradition links Noah’s wife from either his own family bloodline from Methuselah or less accurately, Mehujael from Cain’s line, giving her name as Haykel or Amzurah respectively – Amzurah being similar to Emzara.

Unknown source: 

‘[Noah’s] family were probably mid-brown, with genes for both dark and light skin, because a medium skin colour would seem to be the most generally suitable (dark enough to protect against skin damage and folate destruction, yet light enough to allow vitamin D production). Adam and Eve would most likely have been mid-brown as well, with brown eyes and brown (or black) hair. In fact, most of the world’s population today is mid-brown.’ 

There is genetic evidence supporting the world’s inhabitants before the flood being darker skinned and medium brown in tone. We will investigate this question in a later section, as Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups support such a conclusion. Noah appears to be the carrier of those genes that were passed on to his three sons that with their wives produced sixteen grandsons now ranging from dark to light and black to white, that had not existed previously. For Noah too have this DNA mutation or variation that introduced variety and produced more races, he must have either inherited recessive genes, passed down from Adam, Eve and Seth, or his genetic code was manipulated prior to his birth.

Albinism seems to be a throwback to when humans were dark and the mutated gene* that causes reduced melanin or white skin appeared. Research supports the introduction of light skin in our more recent past – an acknowledgment that earlier humans did possess brown skin.

White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists, Liz Lea Floor, 2015 – emphasis and bold mine:

The myriad of skin tones and eye colors that humans express around the world are interesting and wonderful in their variety. Research continues on how humans acquired the traits they now have and when, in order to complete the puzzle that is our ancient human history. Now, a recent analysis by anthropologists suggests that the light skin color and the tallness associated with European genetics are relatively recent traits to the continent.

An international team of researchers as headed by Harvard University’s Dr. Iain Mathieson put forth a study at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists recently. Based on 83 human samples from Holocene Europe as analyzed under the 1000 Genomes Project, it is now found that for the majority of the time that humans have lived in Europe, the people had dark skin, andthe genes signifying light skin only appear within the past 8,000 years.This recent and relatively quick process of natural selection suggests to researchers that the traits which spread rapidly were advantageous within that environment, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 

This dramatic evidence suggests modern Europeans do not appear as their long ancient ancestors did.Previous research published in 2008 found that the earliest mutations in the eye-color genes that led to the evolution of blue eyes probably occurred about 10,000 years ago in individuals living in around the Black Sea. The surprising aspect of the findings is that while it is fundamental to natural selection that advantageous genetic attributes spread, it is not often a speedy process. The study shows that these genetic pale skin traits swept across Europe speedily, and that phenomenon is of particular interest to researchers.’

Humans are not from Earth – A Scientific Evaluation of the Evidence, Ellis Silver, 2017, pages 27, 42 and 278 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Until about 7,700 years ago, all humans had brown eyes… Since blue eyes offer more protection against cataracts, it’s surprising that they didn’t evolve much sooner. And it’s bizarre that they’re rarely found in climates where the sunlight is strongest… Everyone with blue eyes has a single, common ancestor who lived about 7,700 years agoand had a genetic mutation – a single switch that turns off or limits the eye’s ability to produce melanin. Researchers have found that if this gene is completely destroyed it leads to albinism.* Around the time that blue eyes first appeared, so did white skin…

… light skinned people appeared on Earth more recently than most of us realize… when the allele associated with light skin first originated in the SLC24A5 gene… lighter skin, like blue eyes, might simply have been a genetic anomaly rather than a necessity. The Caucasian did first appear around 7,700 years [ago], and we don’t know why. We’d been living in temperate regions including Scandinavia for tens of thousands of years before that time, yet we retained our dark skin, hair, and eyes. And it seems we hadn’t succumbed to vitamin D deficiency. So the sudden switch to white skin, blond hair, and blue eyes is both unexpected and unexplainable. Most mainstream biologists say it was a simple genetic mutation that people found attractive. But another explanation is that the Caucasians were hybrids…’

White skin, blond and red hair with blue and green eyes, suddenly came out of nowhere, springing out of the genetic gene pool, much like Noah. A recent study has offered more accurate dating for this genetic mutation, between 11,000 to 19,000 years ago. We will learn that this dating is especially accurate. 

The dating of 8,000 years ago is still highly relevant, as that takes us back to the time of Peleg and the Tower of Babel, at which time one of Shem’s sons had a pronounced divisional split in his descendants line. This was represented by the major Y-DNA paternal mutations of the European R1a and R1b Haplogroup strains. R1a being one of the principle Haplogroups of Eastern Europeans – aside from Central and South Asia – and R1b the main Haplogroup of Western Europeans – apart from the Latino-Hispano peoples of the Americas. 

The Genetic Origin of the Nations, 2006 & 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The scientific evidence indicates that there were seven so-called “Eves” to the genetic mtDNA pool in the Caucasian [line] but thatthere are 26 female lines overall. 

Noah was understood to be pure in his generations. The Bible also maintains that the people in the Ark were all the family of Noah. Thus, to properly account for the genetic diversity, Noah must have maintained the capacity to throw genetically distinct offspring, and this offspring had the characteristics of the line from which it came, but not the entire sequence that Noah had originally. For Noah to be the father of the human structure he is held to have had the capacity for the… YDNA substructure, as all humans are descended from him. Any male on the planet will have only the mutations that signify his branch and path. Noah held the base YDNA that was able to mutate into… other subgroups.

… when we examine the tree of mtDNA we find some interesting group derivatives. The so-called “supergroups” are really only in three basic groups. In other words, they came from three main female lines. That is what we would expect to find if we assume there were only three females that bred on from the Ark, namely the wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth. These Haplogroups are all descended from a single female supergroup, namely Haplogroup L. So in reality, all females are descended from one female line, Hg L. That is super L [L0]. This line then split into L1, and then L2 and L3. The line L3 diverged and from L3 came the other mtDNA mutations. Thus, all females came from one Eve whose mtDNA line was L.

The supergroups M and N were next to diverge or mutate. From a biblical point of view we can argue easily that L was formed with Eve and the other groups were pre-Flood divisions that came on to the Ark. Thus, we could correctly argue that L, M, and N came on to the Ark within the accepted biblical account. All mtDNA Haplogroups are subdivisions of L, then M and N and subsequently R, which itself is a mutation of Hg N. 

Thus, we can assume that Eve produced the line L and the three wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth are at least the three groups L, M and N. There may have been further divisions given the fact that Noah may have had daughters not mentioned and their mtDNA line may have been L, or M or N. It may have even been R, if we assume that the entire L line came in through the wife of Ham, as the L line is almost confined to the sub-Saharan tribes. We also have to address the fact that Eve was dark skinned and the fact that Adam means the one who was red. Thus the capacity for the development of skin colour was an original trait [even if recessive] of the human creation. 

M produced three subdivisions… including C [and Z, which split from each other], and D and G… [with subdivisions] E and Q… [all associated with East Asian peoples].

We might thus also deduce that the wives of the sons of Noah were taken from the one family lineage, maintaining purity in the generations in the female line also. The L2 and L3 split may have come from the family structure before the Flood. [Any] daughters of Noah and the wives of the sons could have carried all three of the L subdivisions and the basic core sub-groups of M, N and perhaps R. It is therefore possible that the women of the Ark… could easily have contained the basis for the modern mtDNA diversity. 

The supergroup N… split… [including] Haplogroups I and W… The R supergroup split into the following: B; F; HV, which split into H and V; P; The J and T subdivision; and U, from which came K… [all associated with European peoples].’

According to the author, the mtDNA super Haplogroup L originated with Eve and split into L1, L2 and L3. All mtDNA L haplogroups from L0 to L6 are primarily associated with Black African people and to a lesser extent, Arabs. The remainder of the mtDNA Haplogroups then derived or mutated from L3. L3 gave rise to the super subgroups M and N. Broadly speaking, L3 relating to African peoples, M with East Asian and N to European. The author states that Japheth, Ham and Shem’s wives would have carried these new mutations. For the three wives of Noah’s sons to each represent these three core racial strands, the connecting dots not suggested by the author are that these wives could have also been daughters of Noah by his wife Emzara. 

Noah would have passed on to each son the paternal genetic sequencing [Y chromosome DNA] for Japheth and his subsequent seven sons, Ham and his four sons and Shem and his five sons. Noah’s wife would have received the maternal recessive genes [Mitochondria DNA] originating in the L3 line from Eve, which included Haplogroups M and N. 

Thus, L3, M and N were new mutations that had not existed during the antediluvian epoch. The new Haplogroups had lain dormant until being activated or awakened by congress with Noah. 

The new racial characteristics now exhibited in Noah’s daughters, ‘Adataneses, Na’eltama’uk and Sedeqetelbab who then married their brothers; Japheth, Ham and Shem – who also exhibited the new mutations – revealing two new racial strands – of bluntly, yellow [M] in Japheth and ‘Adataneses; white [N] in Shem and Sedeqetebab; to add to an original brown skin tone, that now carried a new mutation too, creating extra diversity [L4-L6] in Ham and Na’eltama’uk.

It is understandable why these eight people were saved and that not just Noah was genealogically pure, but so was his wife. They then had six children prior to the flood  who received the three new core racial strands, which then mutated into the sixteen new sub-racial strands through their children after the flood – Noah’s and Emzara’s grandchildren. This leaves the L1 and L2 pre-flood lines from Eve. The simple answer is that L1 was passed to Cain and his family line and L2 was passed to Seth and his family line that later included Noah and his wife. L3 [with M and N] being the mutation from Seth’s line L2. The L1 and L2 lines were thus darker skinned lines, with the lighter shades of skin and racial diversity – included in the L3 line – we presently have now, deriving from Noah and his family. The undeniable scientific support for this argument, is that a black couple can have white children, but a white couple cannot have a black child. 

Recent research has found incredible evidence to corroborate the Genesis account regarding humankind descending from three original fathers. 

Finding Ham, Shem, and Japheth via the Y-Chromosome, Genesis and Genetics, 2021 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… we have examined [paternal] Y-chromosome genomes searching for Noah and his three sons, Ham, Japheth, and Shem. They were easy to find.  According to our analysis, if you have the rs17306671 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Shem. If you have the rs9786139 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide A you are from Ham. If you have the rs3900 Y-chromosome mutation nucleotide G you are from Japheth. The following presents the easy-to-follow logic and analysis… [and] Our findings are consistent with the Bible and modern science raw data.

…Y-chromosome DNA is exclusively found in males; it is inherited from one’s father. The Y-chromosome has approximately 60 million base pairs, each of which is subject to mutations. Mutations develop in the Y-chromosome, typically at the rate of 2 mutations per generation. This is based on a mutation rate of 1.0*10^-9 mutations /nucleotide/year (Reference 1) and 30 years per generation. 

These mutations allow us to track ancestry. If one man populated all the earth, all males would have his Y-chromosome, and if this man had two sons, one would expect that roughly half of the world would have one son’s mutations and the other half would have the other son’s mutations. Furthermore, if our original ancestor had 10 grandsons, one would expect that each grandson would have mutations that would each exist in approximately 10 percent of the male population. Successive generations would continue to generate new mutations that would form a human family tree, known as a phylogenetic tree to geneticists.

In our research, we used the above principles in tracking our most ancient ancestors. We made no assumptions and shelved our preconceived ideas. We wanted to see where the data led us. Our strategy was simple; we gathered the Y-chromosome mutations, which are seen in more than 5 percent of human males, and entered them into a spreadsheet. We looked for patterns and color-coded the resulting groups. The data used in this research came from the 1000 genomes project and retrieved using the Ensembl browser. The data appeared to be correct with no errors. No data was eliminated due to suspect errors, and no data was “cherry-picked” to suit any preconceived ideas. Our thanks to the great effort of those who did the sequencing and publishing of the raw data. We also greatly appreciate that it was made available to the public.

We started by taking 57 Y-genomes of diverse people (Americas, East Asia, Europe, South Asia, and Africa). Next, we gathered mutations that were in at least 5 percent of the world’s male population. The technical term for this is those with a Mean Allele Frequency (MAF) greater than or equal to 0.05 (5 percent). These mutations are the most interesting; any smaller MAF mutation is a subset of those greater than 5%.

The spreadsheet… provides 57 rows (individual male humans) and 30 columns (mutations over 5 percent of the population). Each column element of the matrix was color-coded to show us whether the individual had the mutation or not. We noticed patterns beginning to form… Next, we switched columns and rows to form groups. The groups were obvious. We also took each group and moved the columns so that the columns for each group with the largest MAF were on the left. Now we can see a clear pattern in the figure below. We see that each individual fits into just one group and had no mutations in any other group. Also, we see that every individual in the group has the mutation with the greatest MAF; this is the mutation of the most ancient ancestor of that group. 

Looking at the matrix… we see that each group has one maximum MAF. The yellow is .38, the red is .52, and the green is .10. They add up to 100 percent. Now that we have shown that our most ancient ancestor had three sons, we can state that this finding is consistent with the Bible. The three groups are consistent with the three sons of Noah: Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Therefore, one could easily conclude that Ham is the yellow group, Shem is the green group, and Japheth is the red group.

Note: Noah’s Y-chromosome is also known since it would be that of the three sons with all mutations removed.’ 

‘Bible in Genesis 10, the Table of Nations, states that all humanity came from these three sons:

Genesis 10:1  Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

Genesis 10:32  These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

This means that roughly 1/3 of the earth’s male population came from each son, but, since Japheth had 7 sons, Ham had 4 sons, and Shem had 5 sons; therefore, the worldwide distribution should be closer to the following:

Patriarch    Number of sons     % Projected World Population        Observation

Japheth          7 sons                                        43.75                                      52

Ham                4 sons                                         25                                          38

Shem              5 sons                                         31.25                                     10

 The chart above shows that both the Ham and Japheth results were higher than expected, and Shem was lower than expected. However, this can be explained in at least two ways:

  1. The Ham and Japheth offspring are in the world’s heavily populated areas, namely South and East Asia.
  2. (2) The Thousand Genomes Project did not provide representatives of the Near East, the Mid-East, or Northern Africa, all of which would increase the Shem percentage, thereby decreasing Ham and Japheth’s percentages.

The above two issues are not meant as criticism but offered as an explanation.’

The percentage is lower for Shem, compared with Japheth and Ham because the descendants from Shem only include those people who are of European descent. Excluded from these people are the Latino-Hispano peoples of Central and South America who are either Hamitic or descend from Japheth, as well as – a surprise for many – the Arabic peoples of North Africa and the Middle East, who are also related to the equatorial people of Ham. Adding the White western populations of Europe with those in the New World equals approximately eight hundred million people, or a tenth of the approximate eight billion people on the planet.

‘Our findings are consistent with the Bible, secular ancient history, and genetic diversity:

  1. The Bible documents Noah and his family to be the only ones spared from the deluge which flooded the entire earth, and the earth was repopulated through Noah’s three sons.
  2. The historical period began when the Sumerians began writing cuneiform tablets. These early writings documented the kings before and after the flood. Also, the Sumerian legends are consistent with the world being populated by the three sons on the Ark.
  3. According to the Bible and Sumerian history, all humanity came from one family. As they migrated throughout the world, the genetic diversity would be lost from those who separated from the core population; therefore, the most genetic diversity should be where Noah’s family settled, the Near East. Those who migrated to the Americas, Australia, and southern Africa lost some genetic diversity. We can consider two levels of observing genetic diversity, first, what we see and, second, what DNA tells us. We can easily see eye color, skin color, and hair color. Looking at a globe, it is apparent that those with the most visual diversity meet in the Near East, the place of disembarkation from Noah’s Ark. From a DNA standpoint, one can look at the diversity of haplogroups, both Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial. The extremities are South Africa, Australia, and the Americas, which have only a few haplogroups. The location with the most haplogroups is, again, in the Near East.

To summarize our findings:

(1) From a Y-chromosome perspective, it appears that all humanity came from three male humans.

(2) Item (1) is not proof of the Biblical narrative concerning Noah’s three sons, but it is consistent with it. To prove it, one would have to sequence every human male ever born and analyze his genome. If anyone can trace an individual human Y Chromosome back to some basal mutation other than the three given, please let us know…

(3) We can now project Noah’s DNA; it is that of his three sons with no mutations.

(4) Our findings are consistent with the Bible, Sumerian history, and our current state of human diversity.

Future analysis: It is now possible to know the Y-chromosome DNA of each of Noah’s grandchildren. This is in our job jar.’

Noah’s epoch prior to the flood comprised major centres of civilisation and futuristic alien-like technology. Staggeringly further ahead than our current technology – though we ourselves are rapidly progressing to that point. We read in Matthew 24:37-38, English Standard Version:

37 For as were the days of Noah, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 38 For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark…

These verses reveal that mankind will be living life as usual and acting as if the Son of Man is not coming. As the flood caught the world unawares in the past, so too will the return of the Son of Man, in the future. 

Alan Alford comments on the literal boarding of every animal species – presumably some plant species as well – on to the Ark, has left the credibility of the account vulnerable. The exception, would be the seven of each kind of clean [domesticated] animals taken on board and the birds stated; these would have been literal animals.

The world was an impressive, yet tragic dystopia, so for Noah to protect and continue each species primarily via DNA, may explain how an improbable event becomes a very plausible one. The word ark in Hebrew can mean a ‘box, basket or chest’. It has the connotation of a protective egg. A safe place; a nourishing environment. Given the superior technological capability, we can begin to appreciate the length of time it took to build the ark – in realty, either a submersible vessel [submarine], an aircraft [space ship] or combination of the two. For we learn in Genesis 6:14 that the Ark was hermetically sealed.

The cataclysm of the flood was so violent and severe a literal wooden [incorrectly translated gopher wood – as not a wood from timber, but an unknown substance] ship, would have been easily destroyed. Descending down very deep or possibly into earth’s orbit, would have been the only way to survive. 

If the ark had mainly DNA samples, seven pairs of clean animals, [see Leviticus 11:1-46 and Deuteronomy 14:3-21] birds and vegetation to eat, with just eight people, then it would have been a realistic, controllable size to manoeuvre. It corroborates the dimensions of the vessel in Genesis 6:15-16, New Century Version, that would have been too small for every animal species.

15 This is how big I want you to build the boat: four hundred fifty feet long, seventy-five feet wide, and forty-five feet high. 16 Make an opening around the top of the boat that is eighteen inches high from the edge of the roof down. Put a door in the side of the boat. Make an upper, middle, and lower deck in it.

Genesis and Genetics, delve deeper into the logistics of the Ark and its inhabitants and the actual housing of the earth’s primary species. 

The Genetics of Kinds – Ravens, Owls, and Doves, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The basic dilemma concerning the voyage of Noah’s Ark is: how did Noah keep so many kinds of animals alive on the Ark for a year? Since there are so many birds species presently living on earth (Sibley, Charles G., and Monroe, Burt L.), the tendency for creationists is to speculate that the Biblical kinds were only a portion of the present-day species, and that the Ark contained possibly only the “genus,” “family,” or “order.” The problem with this speculation is that it is in conflict with the Biblical, fossil, and DNA evidence. The Bible clearly states that every kind and sort of bird was taken on the Ark (Genesis 6:19, Genesis 7:14); and, the fossil record shows that before the flood there were multiple species of each genus, family, and order. Then, the most daunting task encountered by this speculation is explaining how the reduced number of kinds expanded into the numerous species living today. This dilemma has placed creationists in the position of having to decide between the Bible and evolution. Many have chosen a euphemistic version of evolution and used terms such as microevolution, natural selection, speciation, etc.. However, it is still evolution. This means that if evolution could produce these species in such a short time, there would be much available proof of evolution; however, this is not the case and evolution is not observable; the only reason evolutionary theory has survived is by expanding the time frame to millions of years and by adding the multiple, fictitious common ancestors. 

John Woodmorappe addressed these problems of lodging large numbers of animals in a book called “Noah’s Ark: a Feasibility Study” (Woodmorappe, John. 1996). He went into great detail in discussing the problems of space, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation, air quality and all the other problems associated with the Ark. 

His feasibility study resulted in the conclusion that if only a portion of the present-day species (fewer than 16,000) were onboard, it would be possible, although difficult, to keep them alive on the Ark for approximately one year. 

This book did a very good job of defining the problems involved with lodging so many animal[s] and keeping them alive; however, in all practicality, it would take a miracle to survive the work, the environment and the predator/prey instincts. 

Anyone who has kept one horse in a stall knows what a Herculean task it would be to keep thousands of animals on the Ark.’ 

Our conclusion would necessitate that on the order of 6000 amphibia, 10,000 bird, 6,000 mammals, and 8,000 reptile kinds/species were aboard the Ark. Accounting for pairs, sevens of clean animals, and those that have gone extinct since the flood, the total number aboard the Ark would be on the order of 100,000. This would be no problem for the very large Ark with all of the animals in Biblical “deep sleep”.

‘Genetic resets are documented in the Bible… 

The First Genetic Reset 

As a result of the original sin, God reset the creation genetics. The DNA was necessarily changed in humans in that they became mortal and women’s pain was multiplied in childbirth (Genesis 3:16). Other DNA changes included the serpent who lost his legs (Genesis 3:14); and, all of the livestock and beasts of the field were cursed (Genesis 3:14), “but not as much as the serpent.” This implies… DNA changed in all the livestock and beasts of the field. Concerning plants, the earth brought forth “thistles” and “thorns” (Genesis 3:18) implying new and different DNA and a new ecosystem to accommodate the new genetics. 

The Second Genetic Reset 

The second DNA reset occurred at the time of the flood. Man’s life span was greatly reduced from 900[0] plus years (Genesis chapter 11) implying a DNA change; the concept of clean and unclean animals appeared in the scriptures (Genesis 7:2) ; and, the authorization of eating meat was introduced (Genesis 9:3).The flood changed the entire ecosystem implying significant DNA changes to all life forms. The fossil record bears out that the ecosystem was very different before the flood, e.g. massive dinosaurs with small nostrils, dragonflies with 2 foot wingspans, and tropical vegetation near the poles.’

‘Twice, God gave the command to “be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth”. The first occasion was in the beginning on day six… (Genesis 1:28). The second occasion was after the departure from the Ark (Genesis 8:17,9:1). So, it is evident that His purpose did not change in the new ecosystem; He wanted the new world to be filled; this required man and animals to be equipped for survival and reproduction in the new world, including its new ecosystem. There was no time for natural processes (i.e., multiple accidents and accidental selection of accidents) to prepare the creation for the new world…

It is evident that God reduced lifespan immediately after the flood down to approximately 120 years at the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 34:7) and 70 years at the time of David (Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2: 10-12).

This is a transition that is probably coincident with the ice age which was initiated by the flood… And, the entire ecosystem was changing to what we have today. These facts render the question, “what mechanism did God use to accomplish this?” 

DNA is a language (Collins, 2006) and God possibly spoke the genetic reset… and it appears that mitochondrial heteroplasmy is a possible [tool] that he used for this task. 

In human reproduction, the mature oocyte contains 100,000 to 750,000 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies and is fertilized by the sperm which generates a blastocyst containing approximately 483,000 copies of the mtDNA in the Inner Cell Membrane (ICM); which in turn develops and harbors the Primodial Germ Cells (PGM) each of which contains approximately 200 copies of the mtDNA (St. John, Justin C., 2010); and each of the embryonic stem cells used in this construction contain approximately 20 copies of mtDNA (Rivolta MN, 2002). The processes involved with replication and inheritance of mtDNA are not well understood, but show what varied genetic information is available for transmission of mitochondrial DNA from generation to generation. 

This transmission of mtDNA is quite different than nuclear DNA in that with nuclear DNA, only one copy is transferred to the next generation. It is a shuffled mixture of ovum haploid and sperm haploid DNA, but once it is determined the resulting embryo is defined by only one nuclear DNA. This method of transmission of mtDNA is of great interest concerning the inheritance and possible prevention of mitochondrial diseases, but also of interest from a genealogy standpoint. It has been found that it is common to have mitochondria that are heteroplasmic, meaning that it contains more than one mitochondrial genome. From a creationist standpoint, this is very interesting in that this heteroplasmic mitchondria could explain why the genetic reset took several generations to establish as documented in Genesis chapter 11. If there are only a few copies of a certain variation of mtDNA in the oocyte, they can be latent for several, or even many generations. 

Mitochondrial heteroplasmy is somewhat common in humans. The American Journal of Human Genetics reported in 2010 that 37 heteroplasmies at 10% frequencies or higher at 34 sites were found in 32 individuals (Li, M., et. al. 2010). It would be tempting to use this heteroplasmic attribute coupled with a stocastic modeling to explain speciation after the flood; but, it wouldn’t fit the general theme of the Bible. There is a difference between natural variation which gives us our uniqueness and mutations which have developed due to the original sin. Mutations result in disease and shorter life span. Heteroplasmy, is most probably a result of sin. 

The subject species examined in this paper [Raven, Owl, Dove] are genetically distinct, meaning the species do not have a genetic overlap, but all demonstrated a genetic void between species. The data show that within species the natural variation, genetic distance, is approximately one percent of cytb [Great Owl to great Owl 1% or less] and between species the variation is much greater: between 4.1 percent and 25.3 percent. This means that if one species varies from another by 10 percent of cytb, there is a void of 9 percent (10-1/2-1/2). There is no known mechanism that can bridge this void to produce a new species, especially in the short, young earth, timeframe. This is true for all our subjects as shown by the data presented in section 3.0 of this paper [not shown]. 

Any variation of bird displaying this genetic void is assumed to be a unique kind and most probably was represented on the Ark. 

Tables 5a. and 5b. [not shown] show that even owls of the same genus have diversity commensurate with the human compared to chimpanzee variation [of] (11%) [Great Owl to Eagle Owl, 11% – Spotted Eagle Owl to Barn Owl, 25.3%]. So, considering that speciation was involved in generating these owls is tantamount to saying that the ark not need carry a chimpanzee since they could evolve from Noah, or worst yet that Noah was a chimpanzee and evolved to modern humanity. This is a severe logic problem.’

Other comparisons include Pig to Mouse, 20.3%; African Lion to Domestic Cat, 12.9%; Horse to Cow, 19.3% and Cow to Zebra Fish, 29%.

‘It appears from this owl analysis that it is not possible to decide which creatures were on the Ark without having DNA. 

Another tool God uses to control His creation is that of “deep sleep.” Here are three Biblically documented examples of God using “deep sleep”: 

To make physiological changes – When God created Eve, he put Adam into a “deep sleep” so Adam would not feel the pain of the surgery in which Adam’s rib was removed (Genesis 2:21).

To establish a new covenant – When God established the covenant with Abram (Abraham), he, Abraham, was put into a deep sleep. While Abraham was in this “deep sleep” the Lord dealt with him and prepared Abraham for a new covenant (Genesis 15:12).

To separate enemies – When Saul wanted to kill David and had the opportunity, God put Saul and his entire army of 3000 into a “deep sleep” (1 Samuel 26:2,12) so that David would be spared.

The tool of “deep sleep” may very well have been employed on the Ark providing the perfect solution to all the problems: it would provide the anesthetics for the physiological changes required to reset the DNA; it would give God an opportunity to establish His new covenant with all flesh; it would protect the prey from the predators; and, of course, it would solve all the problems of space, food, waste, and air quality. The design of the Ark is obviously not suited to keep the creatures alive in the full metabolic state, but well suited to the “deep sleep” state. The exact mechanism for “deep sleep” is not known, but it is logical to assume that it shares some similarities with the various mechanisms that we observe in nature: hibernation, comas, aestivation, brumation, and dormancy. Each of these mechanisms is different and serves the purpose for which it was designed. 

We know that God… masterfully designed the Ark to accommodate the safe and peaceful transportation of the creation from one eco-system to another. It is a point of interest that all mammals have the ability to hibernate and that mammalian metabolic rates can be reduced to as little as 1% of normal rates (Carey HV, et. al, 2003). 

The results of this investigation support the Biblical statement of Genesis 7:14 “… and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.” 

All of the birds in this investigation were distinct and differed from one another sufficiently to secure a birth on the Ark. Also, these results support the long held stance of creationists that the species are distinct with no intermediate forms (Morris, 1974). 

There is no known mechanism that could explain the genetic diversity of the post-flood birds; even evolution, if it did exist, could not function quickly enough to explain the genetic diversity in the Biblical time frame. Any attempt to explain this genetic diversification by natural processes, such as speciation, is indefensible faced with the DNA evidence. 

The following hypotheses are submitted which are in tune with the DNA evidence and the Bible, requiring no reliance on evolutionary principles. 

1. The DNA of the original creation was reset to accommodate the new ecosystem. 

This is in agreement with the fossil record, the cytochrome b genetics presented in this paper and the Bible. The fossil record is clear, many existing species lived before the flood, but they were somewhat different: usually in size or small differences in bone structure. The genetic reset hypothesis explains this and can be generalized as follows: the genetics of pre-flood creatures are different than the genetics of modern creatures; this was accomplished by God’s voice, speaking the required changes into the creation preparing it for the new covenant and the new eco-system. One of the best examples of this is in pre-flood [Homo neanderthalensis] man (Genesis and Genetics, 2011).

2. The occupants of the Ark were generally in a deep sleep. 

The Ark’s design is perfectly suited to the deep sleep scenario and in God’s own words the goal was to “keep them alive” ( Genesis 6:19). There are examples of God using deep sleep in the Bible… all of which apply to the state of affairs on the Ark. Contrary to common perception, life on the Ark may have been very peaceful with all of the animals asleep; this presents a comforting picture: all the reset animal DNA necessary to replenish the world with its new eco-system, in one peaceful… Ark. 

3. Divine wisdom and creativity 

God created all things in six days [epochs], it should not be difficult to accept that He had the perfect design for the Ark and made the perfect provisions for those on it; He is not only a divine creator, but He is also full of mercy (Psalm 100:5)… the Bible implies that not one animal was lost, during the voyage of Noah’s Ark (Genesis 8:19). Just looking at the Ark design should be enough to lead one to believe the animals, and [possibly] Noah, were in a deep, merciful sleep. 

4. Defining “Kinds” – Rule of Thumb 

From this very limited research, it appears that a kind will vary in cytochrome b from its own kind by generally one percent or less; if the variance is 4 percent of more, the subjects are different “kinds;” and any variance between 1 percent and 4 percent are in a gray area and would need more investigation using additional genes.’ 

Lloyd Pye discusses the incredible aspects and implications of the Great Flood, offering his theory on its cause, in Everything You Know Is Still Wrong 2009 & 2017, pages 495, 497-498, 501-503, 505-507 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘… a remarkable number of cultures past and present believe a worldwide inundation did occur within human history, though they tend to be hazy on its details. The Sumerians are not. They state emphatically that a Great Flood surged up from the south… a sudden, overwhelming event… They say it occurred around 11,000 BCE [10,837 BCE unconventional chronology], at the end of the last Ice Age. 

Ironically, their contention is strongly supported by conventional science, which has determined that the last interglacial warming trend began slowly, at around 13,000 BCE in the northern hemisphere, and gradually moved south until around 11,000 BCE, when something happened to accelerate full global warming to warp speed – in perhaps as little as twenty years.

Because so many sources around the world forcefully assert that a Great Flood did cause widespread death and destruction, we need to explore the kinds of actual events that might have created one. And guess what? There is a genuinely legitimate candidate in the Antarctic icecap. Today it covers 5.5 million square miles, it contains 7.0 million cubic miles of ice, and it has an average thickness of over a mile. A ridge of mountains under it divides it into two sections: the West Antarctic Ice Sheet [WAIS] (about 1/4 of the total), and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (3/4 of the total). 

The WAIS slants from the mountain range division toward the Pacific Ocean. The much larger East Sheet points opposite, toward the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. At the South Pole the ice is two miles thick and flows slowly toward Africa. All that was quite different… 11,000 BCE. Earth was coming out of the last ice age that had gripped Earth for the previous 90,000 years [probably closer to 7,000 years], and world sea levels were more than 300 feet lower than today. 

Today those 330-plus feet are covered by 3.5 million cubic miles of water, but during the ice age much of that water was trapped in ice swirled across the polar ice caps. Even today, the Antarctic continent at the South Pole holds over 60% of the fresh water on Earth, and if it were all to melt, sea levels would rise by over 190 foot (58 metres). 

… a strong earthquake could rattle the continent to its foundations… [caused by] a large celestial body passing in the vicinity… with enough gravitational force to create geophysical disturbances on any other planet it passes near. A planet like… Nibiru, for example? 

As it happens, Sumerian texts claim Nibiru did indeed pass through the solar system at around 11,000 BCE, which makes it a prime candidate to shake a badly cracked icecap off of its foundations on Antartica… [after] 90,000 [years of icecap build up and] 2,000 years of warming… [causing] huge cracks to develop along the shelf edges where the unstable water-supported ice adjoined the far more stable land-supported ice.

Now imagine the size of waves that would be kicked up by icebergs with volumes from hundreds of thousand to perhaps a million or more cubic miles! Walls of water as high as a mile (over 5,000 feet) or more might surge forward! Apart from disrupting worldwide weather patterns, the tsunamis would strike every ocean, sea, and coastal plain on earth. The planet would slosh for days (the text says six), until equilibrium was reached at some greatly elevated sea level… the new level… is where it would stay, because as any iceberg melts, it only changes its form, not its volume.

In 2010, researchers at the University of Sheffield in England announced that they had found evidence of a catastrophic flood at approximately 13,000 ya (exactly when the Sumerian tablets place the flood), which created such havoc that it temporarily shut down the Gulf Stream (the constantly circulating current of warm water that keeps global temperatures as steady as they are)… a sudden influx of cold water into the North Atlantic… temporarily impaired the current. 

An alternative theory was published… [by]… the National Academy of Sciences in May 2012, proposing that some sort of celestial body entered Earth’s atmosphere at roughly 12,900 ya [I propose 12,833 years ago – only 67 years difference], but broke up before it could make a large, easy-to-find impact crater (although thousands of smaller impact craters may have been produced by the debris). Nonetheless, the force of its passage through the atmosphere could have initiated tidal waves… new evidence collected from Greenland ice core samples in 2013, combined with evidence from soil samples in North America published in 2017, shows that right about 13,000 ya… there was suddenly an “abundance” of platinum at surface level in these areas. This precious metal is extremely rare on Earth, but it is common in asteroids. The new results fit perfectly with a large, platinum-laden asteroid crumbling on entry into Earth’s atmosphere and spraying fine debris over a huge area.’ 

Outside the Genesis account, the flood is mentioned in the following Bible verses: 

Psalm 29:10

English Standard Version 

The Lord sits enthroned over the flood…

Isaiah 54:9

English Standard Version

“This is like the days of Noah to me: as I swore that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth…

1 Peter 3:19-20

English Standard Version

… in which [the Son of Man] went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.

Added to the scenario presented by Lloyd Pye, there would have been the dramatic influence of the following.

Genesis 1:6-8

New English Translation

6 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters and let it separate water from water.” 7 So God made the expanse [H7549 – raqiya: ‘firmament, vault {arch} of heaven supporting waters above’] and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. It was so. 8 God called the expanse “sky.” There was evening, and there was morning, a second day [or epoch].

Footnotes

  • The Hebrew word refers to an expanse of air pressure between the surface of the sea and the clouds, separating water below from water above. It is called “sky.” An expanse. In the poetic texts the writers envision, among other things, something rather strong and shiny, no doubt influencing the traditional translation “firmament” (NRSV “dome”). Job 38:18 refers to the skies poured out like a molten mirror. Daniel 12:3 and Ezekiel 1:22 portray it as shiny. The sky or atmosphere may have seemed like a glass dome. Though the Hebrew word can mean “heaven,” it refers in this context to “the sky.”

The atmosphere was different on the antediluvian Earth. It may be an important component in the added longevity of humans before the flood, an explanation for the lengthy Ice age and an additional puzzle to the production of Vitamin D. 

The expanse or sky, divided the oceans, seas and land from a vault or canopy of water surrounding the earth above the sky, in the Earth’s atmosphere. A cloudier sky would have positively affected the climate, generating less distinction between seasons; levelling out both temperate and tropical regions so that the whole planet was highly habitable – until the Ice age hit. Another difference would have been the decreased rays of UV radiation from the Sun to safer levels than today.

Genesis and Genetics, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The early atmosphere was different from what we have now. The fossil evidence shows us that there were giant dragonflies, mammoth millipedes, and huge cockroaches, just to name a few. These insects could not survive in our present atmosphere and would have required 30 to 50 percent more oxygen than we have presently. 

This early atmosphere would affect the vitamin D production in humans… Increased oxygen, by itself, would not significantly reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the surface of the Earth, but ozone which does filter ultraviolet radiation is a product of oxygen. The assumption being that a higher percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere would result in a more protective ozone layer.’

Vitamin D is required for healthy bones, teeth and muscles. As it is contained in only a few seafoods, our bodies can produce it through certain cholesterols in other foods, which are converted into Vitamin D from exposure to the Sun’s radiation. The liver and kidneys then turn the vitamin into an active form we can use called D3. Dark skinned people can be prone from deficiency as the higher percentage of melanin in their skin, blocks the suns rays more effectively. This is a factor in our present climatic conditions. 

Reliance on the Sun may not have been the primary option; or human skin tone was dark enough to protect against skin cancer, yet light enough to receive the necessary UV rays. Did the inhabitants of the early Earth have an alternative way of procuring Vitamin D, or did they have different food? Genesis 3:18 reveals the world before the flood – specifically, the agrarian line of Seth – had a plant based diet and it was only later after the flood that enigmatically, meat – including Vitamin D rich seafood – was introduced into the diet [Genesis 9:3-4].

The passing of a celestial body, whether a rogue planet and or, an accompanying comet or asteroids would have undoubtedly impacted on this firmament dome of water. The plunging of this vast volume of water downwards to the earth would have been seismic and added with the huge tidal waves sweeping the earth, could have easily and literally covered the entire earth and left none alive, unless protected.

Genesis 7:4-24

New English Translation

For in seven days I will cause it to rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will wipe from the face of the ground every living thing that I have made.” 

Noah was 600 years old when the floodwaters engulfed the earth. Noah entered the ark along with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives because of the floodwaters. And after seven days the floodwaters engulfed the earth.

In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month [April/May, Hebrew calendar], on the seventeenth day of the month – on that day all the fountains [springs] of the great deep [underneath the ocean] burst open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And the rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights. The flood engulfed the earth for forty days. As the waters increased, they lifted the ark and raised it above the earth. 

The waters completely overwhelmed the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the waters. The waters completely inundated the earth so that even all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered. The waters rose more than 20 feet above the [tallest] mountains. And all living things that moved on the earth died, including the birds, domestic animals, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all humankind. The waters prevailed over the earth for 150 days.

The heavens were opened, in that the vast canopy of water dropped onto the earth – for forty days and nights – so that even the top of Mount Everest was covered. The verses are very specific even, of the level the waters reached; leaving no doubt that the Great Flood was a global catastrophic event, smothering the earth for five months.

Noah and the Deluge Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gérard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The sudden disappearance of many animal species as well as moving erratic blocks would fit better with the biblical explanation of the Flood. The flood story is presented as an authentic history in the Gospels (Matthew 24:37-39, Luke 17:26-27). 

According to the Bible there was at the origin some waters upon the earth (sea and ocean) and waters above the earth in the form of a vault of water (Genesis 1:7). At the time of the Flood… the vault of water fell to earth… 

The disappearance of the vault of water (2 Peter 3:5-6) resulted in a new climate (Genesis 8:22) and its collapsing on the earth’s crust led to the emergence of big mountains (Psalm 104:6-8),which is consistent with the model of Pangaea in the plate tectonics. 

In the past the oceans were smaller and the continents were larger than they are now, as is evidenced by river channels extending far out under the oceans. It should also be noted that scientists have stated that mountains were much lower than at present, and some mountains have even been pushed up from under the seas.’ 

Pangaea, a scientifically proved supercontinent which broke up and resulted in the seven continents we know today – North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica.

‘As to the present situation, it is said that: there is ten times as much water by volume in the ocean as there is land above sea level. Dump all this land evenly into the sea, and water would cover the entire earth, one and one-half miles [2,400 metres] deep (National Geographic, January 1945, page 105). With the sudden opening of the ‘springs of the watery deep’ and “the floodgates of the heavens,” untold billions of tons of water deluged the earth (Genesis 7:11). This may have caused tremendous changes in earth’s surface. 

The earth’s crust is relatively thin (estimated at between 30 km and 160 km thick), stretched over a rather plastic mass thousands of kilometres in diameter. Hence, under the added weight of the water, there was likely a great shifting in the crust. In time new mountains evidently were thrust upward, old mountains rose to new heights, shallow sea basins were deepened, and new shorelines were established, with the result that now about 70 per cent of the surface is covered with water. This shifting in the earth’s crust may account for many geologic phenomena, such as the raising of old coastlines to new heights. It has been estimated by some that water pressure alone was equal to “2 tons per square inch”, sufficient to fossilize fauna and flora quickly . 

The concentration of [Carbon-14] during the last glaciation was much lower than at present, this fact has been highlighted by dendrochronology (measure of age by the rings of a tree). Scientists suppose that the long-term variation correlates with fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field strength (the geomagnetic moment). The geomagnetic moment affects C-14 production because cosmic rays are charged particles and are therefore deflected by a magnetic field. If the magnetic moment is high, more cosmic rays are deflected away from the earth and production of Carbon will fall; if low, the production rises. According to the biblical account, the earth was surrounded by a vault of water before the Deluge (perhaps in the stratopause where the temperature is at present around 0°C). Now water has the remarkable property of stopping neutrons very effectively since a screen of 23 mm thick stops 90% of neutrons (and a screen of 46 mm thick stops 99%), as demonstrated by nuclear pools. If there was water, Carbon production could not take place, which would explain the decrease in C-14 before 1000 BCE…’ 

‘The Okotoks Erratic, [Alberta, Canada]. According to geologists, this enormous quartzite block, weighing about 16,500 tonnes and measuring about 41 x 18 x 9 metres, was carried here on the surface of a glacier. It came from the Rocky Mountains (Canada) in the Jasper area (a location 450 km away), probably between 18 and 10 thousand years ago. That means that Canada was completely under a sheet of ice 10,000 years ago (a deluge of ice).’

In Genesis chapter seven, all physical life ended that was not aboard the Ark. The Bible uses the word humankind, instead of humans or people. It does not include the Nephil-kind in being destroyed. We observed, that the Nephilim were on the earth after the flood. Any Nephilim post-flood, could be survivors. 

The flood was decreed to halt the corruption of humanity by rebellious dark angels and so these fallen Angels were put in restraint. Presumably, they did not produce further offspring this side of the deluge? As this matter has wider repercussions in explaining biblical identities, we will return to the topic in later sections. The Book of Jubilees also records the Flood narrative, with additional details.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Five:

22 And Noah made the ark in all respects as He commanded him, (on the new month [moon] of the first month) [1st of Abib/Nisan – March/April]… 23 And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof… in the second month [Iyar – April/May], on the new month [new moon] of the second month, till the sixteenth [first day of the week]; and he entered… and Yahweh closed it from without on the seventeenth evening [2nd day of the week]. 24 And Yahweh opened seven flood-gates of heaven, And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number. 25 And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven[s] forty days and forty nights, And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until the whole world was full of water. 26 And the waters increased upon the earth: Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the high mountains, And the ark was lift up above the earth, And it moved upon the face of the waters. 27 And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five months – one hundred and fifty days. 

28 And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar,* one of the mountains of Ararat. 29 And (on the new month [moon]) in the fourth month [Tammuz – June/July] the fountains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were restrained; and on the new month [1st day] of the seventh month [Tishri – September/October] all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. 30 And on the new month of the tenth month [Tevet – December/January] the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new month [new moon] of the first month [1st day of Abib/Nisan – March/April] the earth became visible [one year to the day]. 31 And the waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the seventh year… [seven years since Noah began to build the Ark] thereof, and on the seventeenth day [2nd day of the week] in the second month [Iyar – April/May] the earth was dry. 32 And on the twenty-seventh** [5th day of the week] thereof he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving thing.

As the worst of the flood effects dissipated, the ark would have risen to the oceans surface or descended down onto the surface as explained in Genesis 8:1-5, New Century Version:

But God remembered Noah and all the wild and tame animals with him in the boat. He made a wind blow over the earth, and the water went down. The underground springs stopped flowing, and the clouds in the sky stopped pouring down rain. The water that covered the earth began to go down. After one hundred fifty days it had gone down so much that the boat touched land again. It came to rest on one* of the mountains of Ararat on the seventeenth day of the seventh month. The water continued to go down so that by the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains could be seen.

A salient point is that when the early part of Genesis was compiled, many thousands of years had passed. It says ‘mountains’, not Mount Ararat so that the location is a mountain range not a specific peak [Book of Jubilees excepted]. There is reason to consider that the Ararat mountains in Asia Minor drew their name from a more ancient location and that is, the Himalayan mountain range to the east and north. Searchers of Noah’s Ark may well have been looking in entirely the wrong place, when heading to Mount Ararat in present day Turkey. Heading westward from Turkey leads to southern Europe, not Mesopotamia or Sumer [Genesis 11:2]. Please refer to point number two in the introduction. 

A persistent belief is that the Garden of Eden was located below the Hindu Kush in present day Kashmir. What is not considered, is that Kashmir may be the re-beginning of civilisation after the flood. 

When the Ark could safely navigate the surface of the oceans, it is credible that the first observed land to appear would be amongst the now highest mountains on the earth. If the Ark rested on one of these peaks in the original mountains of Ararat, it would explain how civilisation after the flood appeared first in the Indus Valley, present day Pakistan. There are numerous mountains – all plausible, including K2 – that are over 8,000 metres in height, like Mount Everest. 

It would be logical that after the passengers on the Ark eventually disembarked, they found a suitable region to live, right where they were. Kashmir is stunning with its majestic mountains and lakes and is located in one of the four Himalayan Mountain ranges, the Karakoram range in the north west. Below is the Western Himalayan range. To the east is the Great Himalayan range, where Everest is located and then the Eastern range – Brahmaputra. Its climate was likely quite different 13,000 years ago and would account for:

Genesis 9:20

New Century Version

Noah became a farmer and planted a vineyard.

Book of Jubilees Chapter Seven:

1 And in the seventh week** [late in the 4th month Tammuz – early July] in the first year [after the flood] thereof… Noah planted vines [today, ideal planting is from October to March] on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year [it takes a grapevine from rootstock, four to five years to mature]… and he guarded their fruit [prune in November; ensure roots are not damp through adequate drainage and that the soil is nutrient rich], and gathered it in this year in the seventh month [end of summer harvest, September/October – usually from August to October]. 2 And he made wine… and put it into a vessel, and kept it… 

Remember, the lower lands and plains were water soaked, soggy and boggy for many years. Legend holds that Noah was rather reclusive and dwelt near where the Ark came to rest; with the Book of Jubilees stating in 10:15: ‘And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat.’ Possibly, remaining in Kashmir was as far as Noah travelled after the flood. In the Epic of Gilgamesh – part of the plot summary repeated below from Spark Notes – The King of Urek, Gilgamesh [attributed to Nimrod – Noah’s great grandson] begins a quest and journeys very far to the solitary Utnapishtim or Noah. He seeks immortality and allegedly meets with Utnapishtim to learn his secret, as he has lived longer than any other man after the flood [refer Chapter XXI The Incredible Identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod].

‘… Gilgamesh, king of Uruk [south of Babylon]… was two-thirds god and one-third man. He built magnificent ziggurats, or temple towers [Tower of Babel], surrounded his city with high walls, and laid out its orchards and fields. He was physically beautiful, immensely strong, and very wise. Although Gilgamesh was godlike in body and mind, he began his kingship as a cruel despot. He lorded over his subjects, raping any woman who struck his fancy… He accomplished his building projects with forced labor, and his exhausted subjects groaned under his oppression… Gilgamesh… traveled to the edge of the world and learned about the days before the deluge and other secrets of the gods, and he recorded them on stone tablets.

… Gilgamesh hopes that Utnapishtim can tell him how he might avoid death… After a harrowing passage through total darkness, Gilgamesh emerges into a beautiful garden by the sea [Garden of Eden]… Gilgamesh journey[s] across the sea and through the Waters of Death to Utnapishtim. 

Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood – how the gods met in council and decided to destroy humankind. Ea, the god of wisdom, warned Utnapishtim about the gods’ plans and told him how to fashion a gigantic boat in which his family and the seed of every living creature might escape. When Gilgamesh insists that he be allowed to live forever, Utnapishtim gives him a test. If you think you can stay alive for eternity, he says, surely you can stay awake for a week. Gilgamesh tries and immediately fails. So Utnapishtim orders him to… return to Uruk where he belongs… When Gilgamesh returns to Uruk, he is empty-handed but reconciled at last to his mortality…’

Gilgamesh eventually found the reclusive Utnapishtim, though was left frustrated as access to the Tree of Life had been withdrawn and there was no way to cheat death. 

Noah’s family would have grown quickly and with sixteen grandsons all jockeying for position, they would later travel south along the Indus River, populating it as they travelled. Mankind continued migrating westward and civilisation eventually re-emerged in the fertile crescent of the Middle East. The family groups now substantially larger, stamped their names throughout the Middle East, North Africa, West Asia, Asia Minor [Turkey] and the Greek Archipelago, and it is from these records that Genesis Ten’s geography is derived. Well after the initial, early smaller groupings along the Indus River. 

A possible reason the bulk of Noah’s family travelled west and not east, is that either the grandchildren knew civilisation had once been important there pre-flood and were keen to re-visit so-to-speak, or – we do not know where Noah and his sons had dwelt previously, if not Atlantis, Lemuria, or an unfrozen Antartica even – the Middle East might have actually been their original homeland.

The Races of the Old Testament, A H Sayce, 1891, pages 39-42:

‘… the tenth chapter of Genesis is ethnographical rather than ethnological. It does not profess to give an account of the different races of the world and to separate them one from another according to their various characteristics. It is descriptive merely, and such races of men… are described from the point of view of the geographer and not of the ethnologist.’ 

Sayce’s stance is peculiar, for it would seem the converse would be more logical, since a genealogical family tree is being listed. I propose the account in Genesis Ten is both ethnological and ethnographical. That is, the family groups are listed in a certain order and described living next to each other in a particular fashion because they are family. Families stay together and the listing of Noah’s son’s grandchildren is to help us understand who is more related to who. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘… when it is said that Elam and Assur were the children of Shem, it is to geography, and not to ethnology, that we must look for an explanation. 

Assyria, Elam, and Babylonia, or Arphaxad as it seems to be called in the Ethnographical Table, all bordered, at one time, one upon the other. They constituted the three great monarchies of the eastern world, and their three capitals, Nineveh, Susa, and Babylon, were the three centres which regulated the politics of Western Asia. They were brethren not because the natives of them claimed descent from a common father, but because they occupied the same quarter of the world.’

Sayce is claiming geography is the key element in their positioning, yet the land they occupy is secondary and merely reflecting their relationship as brothers from the same father. Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad are three of the five sons of Shem. The remaining two sons, Aram and Lud, migrated further afield anciently. We will discover that Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad’s descendants today live in a similar pattern as in the past. They dwell closer to each other and their histories have been more entwined. Aram and Lud are located more on the periphery of Shem’s children today, again similar as in the past. Please refer to point number one in the introduction.

‘Attempts have been made to explain the names of the three sons of Noah as referring to the colour of the skin. Japhet has been compared with the Assyrian ippatu white, Shem with the Assyrian samu olive-coloured/ while in Ham etymologists have seen the Hebrew kham to be hot. But all such attempts are of very doubtful value. It is, for instance, a long stride from the meaning of heat to that of blackness a meaning, indeed, which the Hebrew word never bears. Moreover, the sons of Ham were none of them black-skinned, with the possible exception of a part of the population of Cush. [Professor] Virchow has shown that the Egyptian, like the Canaanite, belongs to the white race, his red skin being merely the result of sunburn.’

I will endeavour to show that Japheth’s children can be light skinned, though others are not; that some of Shem’s children are olive-coloured and that Ham’s children do in fact live in the hot parts of the world, close to the equator. We will find, that all very dark skinned people have descended from Ham – though not all of Ham’s children are dark – and that the original children of Canaan were dark skinned, not red or sunburned – and that in time, white people became known as Canaanites because they lived in the same land after the original Canaanites had migrated south-west. Please refer to point number two in the introduction.

Races of People, William C. Boyd PhD [Geneticist], 1955, pages 43-45:

‘The color of normal human skin is due to the presence of three kinds of colored chemicals, or pigments. The most important of these pigments is melanin, a dark-brown substance… The second of the three pigments is carotene. This is a yellow substance which is present in carrots (from which it gets its name) and egg yokes as well as human skin… The third pigment is haemoglobin, which is the red coloring matter of blood… the haemoglobin occurs in the blood vessels beneath the skin, so that very little can show through. The presence of fair amounts of either melanin or carotene in the skin covers it up completely. Haemoglobin does show up however in the skin of white men, particularly in those of light complexion. It is the haemoglobin that accounts for pink cheeks and the ability [too] blush.’

A H Sayce says regarding our origin, page 38:

‘Great as may be the diversity between race and race under the microscope of the ethnologist, the unity which underlies it is greater still. God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth. Black or white, red or yellow, we are all bound together by a common nature ; we can all alike claim a common ancestry, and recognise that we have each been made in the image of the Creator.’

Sayce is quoting from the Apostle Paul in the book of Acts.

Acts 17:26

King James Version

26 And hath made of one blood [Adam] all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation…

In the English Standard Version it says in verses 24-25:

24 The God who made the world and everything in it… 25 nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything. 

New Century Version, verse 26:

26 God began by making one person, and from him came all the different people who live everywhere in the world. God decided exactly when and where they must live.

Daniel 7:13-14 

New English Transaltion

13 “I was watching in the night visions, And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him. 14 To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty. All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving him. His authority is eternal and will not pass away. His kingdom will not be destroyed.

We really are one, not as in ‘one human race’ [we are a variety of races], but rather one humankind; containing family groups grown large, now called peoples or nations. Most scientists now agree that all humans are genetically extremely similar – unexpectedly so, for evolutionists to adequately explain. 

The biological differences between races are small. The DNA differences are minute. The DNA of any two people in the world typically differs by just 0.2%. Of this, only 6% [a minuscule 0.012%] can be linked to racial categories – the rest is within race variation. Most evolutionists would concur that the various races did not have separate origins and evolve from different groups of animal primates. They would reluctantly agree with the biblical creationist, that all peoples have come from the same original ancestor.

There is a false perception that different racial characteristics like skin colour are due to  remarkably different genetic configurations. An understandable but incorrect premise. For example, it is easy to think that since different groups of people have yellow skin, red skin, black skin, white skin, and brown skin, there must be many different skin pigments and therefore different chemicals for colouring, involving numerous codes in the DNA for each race. 

Rather, we all have the same colouring pigment in our skin, melanin. It is a dark-brown pigment that is produced in varying amounts in unique cells in our skin. If we had none as previously discussed, then we would have a very white or pinkish skin colouring of an albino. If we produce small amounts of melanin, we are white. If our skin produces a lot of melanin, we are black and in between, all the shades of brown.

From an untitled article: 

‘Other substances can in minor ways affect skin shading, such as the coloured fibres of the protein elastin and the pigment carotene… we all share these same compounds… Factors other than pigment in the skin may influence the shade perceived by the observer in subtle ways, such as the thickness of the overlying (clear) skin layers, and the density and positioning of the blood capillary networks. 

In fact, ‘melanin’, which is produced by cells in the body called melanocytes, consists of two pigments, which also account for hair colour. Eumelanin is very dark brown, phaeomelanin is more reddish. People tan when sunlight stimulates eumelanin production. Redheads, who are often unable to… tan, have a high proportion of phaeomelanin.’  

We will encounter individuals on our journey who are red. An article on Eupedia elaborates – emphasis & bold mine:

Red hair is a recessive genetic trait caused by a series of mutations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a gene located on chromosome 16. As a recessive trait it must be inherited from both parents to cause the hair to become red. Consequently there are far more people carrying the mutation for red hair than people actually having red hair. In Scotland, approximately 13% of the population are redheads, although 40% carry at least one mutation. There are many kinds of red hair, some fairer, or mixed with blond (‘strawberry blond’), some darker, like auburn hair, which is brown hair with a reddish tint.

This is because some people only carry one or a few of the several possible MC1R mutations. The lightness of the hair ultimately depends on other mutations regulating the general pigmentation of both the skin and hair. Skin and hair pigmentation is caused by two different kinds of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. 

The most common is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer responsible for dark hair and skin, and the tanning of light skin. Pheomelanin has a pink to red hue and is present in lips, nipples, and genitals. 

The mutations in the MC1R gene imparts the hair and skin more pheomelanin than eumelanin, causing both red hair and freckles. Redheads have very fair skin, almost always lighter than non-redheads. 

This is an advantage in northern latitudes and very rainy countries, where sunlight is sparse, as lighter skin improves the absorption of sunlight, which is vital for the production of vitamin D by the body. The drawback is that it confers redheads a higher risk for both sunburns and skin cancer.

Studies have demonstrated that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain and also require greater amounts of anesthetic than people with other hair colours. The reason is that redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two different hormones: the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (for pigmentation) and endorphins (the pain relieving hormone).’

‘Folk wisdom has long described redheads as hot-tempered and short-tempered. Red hair has long been associated with Celtic people. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans described the Celts as redheads… red hair is an almost exclusively northern and central European phenomenon… these people share a common ancestry that can be traced back to a single Y-chromosomal haplogroup: R1b.

… the frequency of red hair is highest in Ireland (10 to 30%) and Scotland (10 to 25%), followed by Wales (10 to 15%), Cornwall and western England, Brittany, the Franco-Belgian border, then western Switzerland, Jutland [Denmark] and southwest Norway. The southern and eastern boundaries, beyond which red hair only occurs in less than 1% of the population, are northern Spain, central Italy, Austria, western Bohemia, western Poland, Baltic countries and Finland.

The question that inevitably comes to many people’s minds is: did red hair originate with the Celtic or the Germanic people? Southwest Norway may well be the clue to the origin of red hair. It has been discovered recently, thanks to genetic genealogy, that the higher incidence of both dark hair and red hair (as opposed to blond) in southwest Norway coincided with a higher percentage of the paternal lineage known as haplogroup R1b-L21, including its subclade R1b-M222, typical of northwestern Ireland and Scotland… It is now almost certain that native Irish and Scottish [Women] Celts were taken (probably as slaves) to southwest Norway by the Vikings, and that they increased the frequency of red hair there.

What is immediately apparent to genetic genealogists is that the map of red hair correlates with the frequency of haplogroup R1b in northern and western Europe. It doesn’t really correlate with the percentage of R1b in southern Europe, for the simple reason that red hair is more visible among people carrying various other genes involved in light skin and hair pigmentation.’

‘Mediterranean people have considerably darker pigmentations (higher eumelanin), especially as far as hair is considered, giving the red hair alleles little opportunity to express themselves. The reddish tinge is always concealed by black hair, and rarely visible in dark brown hair. Rufosity being recessive, it can easily stay hidden if the alleles are too dispersed in the gene pool, and that the chances of both parents carrying an allele becomes too low. Furthermore, natural selection also progressively pruned red hair from the Mediterranean populations, because the higher amount of sunlight and strong UV rays in the region was more likely to cause potentially fatal melanoma in fair-skinned redheads.

At equal latitude, the frequency of red hair correlates amazingly well with the percentage of R1b lineages. The 45th parallel north, running through central France, northern Italy and Croatia, appears to be a major natural boundary for red hair frequencies. Under the 45th parallel, the UV rays become so strong that it is no longer an advantage to have red hair and very fair skin. Under the 41th parallel, redheads become extremely rare, even in high R1b areas. 

The 45th parallel is also the traditional boundary between northern European cultures, where cuisine is butter-based, and southern European cultures, preferring olive oil for cooking. The natural boundary probably has a lot to do with the sun and climate in general, since the 45th parallel is exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole.’

We will investigate further the Celts, the British Isles, the significance of red hair and its correlation with the Y-DNA, R1b Haplogroup.

It is unimaginable how anyone, could hate, torture, or kill their fellow human being because of the colour of their skin. Skin is only skin deep – just seven layers of tissue, coloured by a pigment we all possess in varying degree. An African and a European could have two children. 

One has dark skin and straight hair, thin lips, a smaller nose and narrower, blue eyes. The skin may be dark, the features European. Whereas, the other child has light skin, curly hair, fuller lips, a broader nose and larger brown eyes. The skin may be light, the features African. The features are more racially characteristic than the skin tone. 

1 Samuel 16:7

New Century Version

God does not see the same way people see. People look at the outside of a person, but the Lord looks at the heart.”

The Bible laid bare, is a story about and to a family. That family has grown exceptionally large, comprising multiple billions. At the heart of that extended family, there is one particular family that was given certain responsibilities and had certain expectations of them. They were to be blessed regardless if they measured up or not, as a promise had been made by the Creator, bound by his word to an ancestor that had proved himself beyond faithful. The Bible is written in essence from this family’s perspective and the messages, warnings, events and circumstances in the bible, pertain to them. Other family members – people and nations – are mentioned either directly or indirectly in proportion to their interaction with this one central family. 

Acts 10:34-35

New Century Version

34 Peter began to speak: “I really understand now that to God every person is the same. 35 In every country God accepts anyone who worships him and does what is right.

There are a number of subjects we have touched upon in this chapter that deserve further consideration and so we will return to these topics in later sections. We shall now turn our attention to Genesis chapter ten and begin with the first son of Noah mentioned, Japheth and his seven sons.

“There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know”

Harry S Truman [1884 – 1972]

God gave the people a dull mind so they could not understand. He closed their eyes so they could not see and their ears so they could not hear. This continues until today.

Romans 11:8 New Century Version

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

The Noachian Legacy

A sensational Investigation into Ancient Peoples and Empires – revealing the hidden Identities of their Descendants – as our Modern Nations and Powers 

Primus Verba

My life long enthusiasm for the diversity of peoples and their cultures on our shared home, the singularly solitary and beautiful, watery blue orb we call Earth, was sparked around the age of ten when my father gave me a number of overflowing envelopes filled with postage stamps. He had kept every stamp from every letter from about the time I had been born. This included countless that he had received from his work. We had lived in Morocco for the first five years of my life and there were many from there as well as other exotic sounding nations – for me – including Persia [Iran] – Arabic writing I couldn’t understand, though fascinated with its artistry [Egypt] – and Hellas [Greece]. I spent hours over many weeks soaking them in the bath tub to remove their paper-backing and then diligently sorting them into countries and finally into albums.

This patient process led me to studying atlases and procuring a world map to see where exactly, all these new exciting countries were located. Little did I know, there were in fact some two hundred nations in the world. My eventual passion for [ancient] history, geography, and vexillology has combined over the years to include valuable research into heraldry, geo-politics, anthropology, ethnology, philology, etymology, legends and myth. All this through stamp collecting and my father unwittingly sending me on a journey I could not have imagined; following a trail that was more intriguing and dramatic the further along I ventured.

As a child, I had begun to question who really were the previous great nations and their empires of old and… thrillingly, who and where might they be now! Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, the Phoenicians, the Chaldeans, the Medes and Persians, the Greeks, Romans, Byzantium, the Goth and Frankish kingdoms, the Ottoman Empire. 

A crucial development was a certain teaching of the church that we had begun attending at about the same age of ten. I cannot recall when I became fully aware – though it was while I was young – of the belief that the family tree of nations listed in the Bible, as well as other other non-canonical books is in fact an account of the ancestors of the descended nations in existence today.

Though our church’s material was a valuable springboard, it fell short in answering my now all-consuming questions on the aforementioned great empires and peoples. I had been accepting of the identities as expounded and that they were accurate. It was years later, in my twenties when I challenged the teachings of our church one by one, that I came to look at the identity of nations much more closely to check their authenticity.

This began – in about 1991 – an in-depth study into the doctrine and thus a formerly casual acceptance and interest now began to evolve into a serious passion and probably more honestly an obsession. For when I looked at each identity one by one, I was struck aghast that only a small handful made sense and the vast majority did not. Either I was heading off in a tangent, or the foundational premise I had thought to be sound needed to be questioned and it-would-seem, rebuilt. A thirty year quest has ensued to fully understand the subject and endeavour to fit the pieces together more accurately.

A couple of serious points. Firstly, the subject of nations identities from the Bible divides like no other doctrinal teaching. Either one is enthusiastically receptive to the subject or vehemently opposed and sitting squarely in team scepticism. Those in opposition are themselves, likely in one of two camps. There are sincere believers in the Bible, yet see no sense, or place for this knowledge in their paradigm of beliefs. That is, it is not essential for salvation, nor does it have any relevance in their lives. Then there are others who do not believe the Bible is inspired and that it is rather just a collection of fables, platitudes, proverbs and the such that may be interesting, though not something to place serious value upon.

My purpose is not to try to win over either or to change their views. I would be surprised if they should even wish to read this work or sacrifice the time and energy on it. As Dale Carnegie said: “A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still”. 

There are readers whom hopefully are more receptive as they may have either a surface knowledge, or possibly considerable research after years of interest. The issue they may have with this work, is that it will fly contrary to the majority of teachings they are familiar with – from the preceding past one hundred and fifty years while it has gained popularity – and it might be asking too much to shift preconceived and pre-heard ideas that have become comfortable and well-intrenched. I am fascinated to find that people will often clutch onto the first explanation of a nation’s identity that they read or hear and it is then held close to their heart in a vice-like grip and woe to the person who try’s to loosen that clasp. 

To the constant and faithful readers who with me, share a reciprocal interest and desire to grow in knowledge and understanding… I trust that you will enjoy the journey we are about to embark on as much as I have. I would be very glad to hear from anyone that has a similar passion and desire to share, so that we can all further our understanding. I am continually learning and revising and open to teaching from others of like mind, welcoming helpful input.

I will aim to be non-dogmatic in my approach – be patient if I forget myself and am over zealous – I am not trying to prove emphatically necessarily, but rather, present my thoughts and submit my findings. A theory one could say and a springboard for further study and understanding. I have read numerous articles and books – especially on the Lost Tribes of Israel – and I believe there is a lot of confusion on the subject.

It is a colossal irony of enormous magnitude that those who dismiss the Bible outright, or those who place little value on the Old Testament verses that describe peoples and nations [past and future] – are using this teaching – as proof to satisfy in their own minds that either the Bible is not true or that vast sections of the Old Testament are of no value. Whereas the actual converse is applicable! The more one can identify peoples in the Bible that equate to modern nations today, the more compelling and incontrovertible the veracity of the Old Testament verses become, offering the most profound proof there is, that the Bible is actually inspired to reveal what is true.

The Bible has endured a sizeable proportion of editing and suffered censoring at the hands of those who compiled each Testament. Whether the scriptural verses that discuss peoples and nations have been or not, I am presently unaware. I do not believe there is any impediment to understanding them, as they are presented. There is helpful supplementary material in two books that did not make the biblical canon: the Book of Jasher and The Book of Jubilees. Many subjects that are Bible based or incorporate the Bible as part of their research can be supported by a variety of extra-biblical sources and secular material. The identity of nations is no different, though I trust as we progress, that the credibility of the written word of the Old Testament becomes overwhelmingly evident as the bedrock foundation in unlocking identities.

The second serious point is that it is next to impossible to cover this topic without a detractor crying racist or anti-Semite. One can speak of anthropology or ethnicity and little issue. Mention race and you are potentially in a hot seat. Anyone who knows me, can attest I am the least racist person. My interest in people and their origins and identity would make no sense otherwise. I sincerely mean no offence to anyone and apologise unreservedly if anything is inadvertently said that could be construed to be anything other than entirely respectful to all peoples included and discussed.

Some may be thinking: what are my credentials? Well, you may be disappointed if you value intellectual scholarship. I do not have a masters or a doctorate. I took Geography at High School and passed as well as History, achieving second place in my High School. I completed two semesters of History at University, gaining an Associate of Arts in Theology and the Fine Arts. I have been fortunate to have experienced a myriad of cultures and peoples, while visiting some forty countries and have been blessed to have lived in six different nations.

I believe what has held me in better stead, has been my willingness to accept what I have come to understand, yet be willing to be flexible enough to modify my view if I see the pieces are not smoothly interlacing. Also, through a thorough examination of every scripture in the Bible on the families and their subsequent descendants, many times over; while cross-referencing the verses, studying them word by word and checking definitions of key words and relevant people’s names. 

This process has been quite literally a gigantic jig-saw puzzle of thousands of pieces. With so many pieces it wasn’t easy, as I didn’t know which pieces were missing. I know I still don’t have them all. If others have missing pieces, I would be fascinated to continue learning. We are by our very nature prone and limited at times to perceiving ideas and even facts from our own individual perspective. I have endeavoured throughout to approach – what has been tantamount to – an investigation, with integrity and impartiality as much as possible.

Before we begin in earnest, I have noticed researchers have relied quite heavily on etymology, heraldry symbols and sometimes superficial connections. I think they are important and lend interesting support. It can be easy to place possibly, over credence on them that can then be mis-leading and less constructive rather than helpful.

I have taken a different approach in four main areas that I believe may have been invaluable in unlocking the enigma of the nations identities.

a. As the original nations of the world began as families grown large, they understandably lived in close proximity to other families that were closely related. A geographic proximity and closeness that I believe has been replicated today. In other words, nations generally migrated in similar lines or paths, whether parallel or in tandem from the Middle East region and have ended up in Europe, Asia and so forth living next to those exact same people who are more closely related to themselves.

b. An area that has tangled up many researchers is that of names used for peoples in one area and then those people migrate and move under a different name – because languages kept evolving and also friends or foes would use different names or labels for people. We will strike this phenomena repeatedly, but to use one quick example. The people of Ham’s son Cush moved into an area of land in East Africa – below and to the south of present day Egypt and the Sudan – and it became known as Ethiopia, a translation of Cush. Cush’s descendants have long gone from the area, now lived in by the modern nation of Africans with that name. The people that live there now are not Cush. We will find that Cush migrated to the Arabian peninsula and continued eastward. Therefore, in the Bible when it mentions Cush – past or future – or is translated as Ethiopia, being inter-changeable, it means the people of Cush and where they reside now. Not, the people currently living in the modern nation called Ethiopia. This is very important to understand and completely alters the meaning of certain verses that have been interpreted in error.

c. Relating to point two: language changes and evolves continually. Compare an English or American English dictionary from fifty years ago with one from the present day. The amount of new and changing words is vast. Hence how nations can have very different identifying names over the course of two hundred years, let alone two thousand years. Similar to point one: Languages spoken today are a major clue to who is related to whom and it is similarly linked to geographic location. Similar language does not stand alone but added with other evidence adds weighted support.

d. I happened on Haplogroups and my research was impacted from that day forward. To receive confirmation of humanities present locations worldwide was monumental; pivotal evidence in supporting the proposition that humankind is one family grown large and that distinct family groups are identifiable through our DNA. Certain peoples are clearly more related to some than others and therefore match the family groups listed in the Old Testament.

I am indebted to the following two men and their research. The Origin of the Nations, 1957, by Dr Herman Hoeh and Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, 1902, by J H Allen.

Most importantly, I wish to give grateful appreciation to my wife. Tirelessly she has listened to me go on and on, with my findings and theories. I ran everything on this subject past her for thirty years and still counting. On walks, sharing a drink in the garden, sitting on the sofa or last thing at night in bed as she struggles to stay awake and then can resist no more. Me still talking until I realise she is asleep. To have a sounding board, who countless times helped me refine a point or a new line of enquiry is of incalculable value. She is a sizeable part of this work – thank you.

“What we know is a drop, what we don’t know is an ocean.”

Isaac Newton [1643 – 1727]

“In a time of universal deceit – telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”

George Orwell [1903 – 1950]

“All iconoclasts have to swim upstream against a relentless tide of opposition… the fate of all rebels…”

Lloyd Pye [1946 – 2013]

“I challenge anyone to assert that they have done more than simply parrot the words of the official anonymous or generally accepted superficial sources. And I ask does that satisfy one who is truly looking for an answer?”

Nara [2009] 

“To whom will he teach knowledge, and to whom will he explain the message…

Isaiah 28:9 English Standard Version

© Orion Gold 2020 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com