Casluh and Caphtor are listed as Mizraim’s sixth and seventh sons. We touched on the debate in Chapter XIV Mizra, amongst scholars which son the Philistines descended from. That is, where the parenthesis should be. Some say where it is, after Casluh and others say after Caphtor.
English Standard Version
Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim.
We have already seen that there is some pairing of sorts, of the brothers from Mizra with Lud-im and Lehab, Anam and Naphtuh. It is worth considering the same for Casluh and Caphtor. The additional information that they were now called Philistines undoubtedly has been added to the Bible verse.
An explanation is that the sons of Caphtor ostensibly lived on the island of the same name. Casluh then migrated to Caphtor [now known as Crete] and together they left and settled on the coast of Canaan, which became known as Palestine derived from the word Philistine. Another possibility [the one favoured] and hence the parentheses, is that Casluh is the father of Caphtor. Thus, one could say Casluh is the father of Caphtor, or Casluh is the father of the Philistines. Caphtor is not described as the father of the Philstines… as he was the Philistines.
The Interlinear says: ‘And Pathrusim, Casluhim out whom came Philistim [the Pelishites or inhabitants of Pelesheth].’ The Hebrew word is H3318 – yatsa’ translated by the KJV as out , forth , come  and proceed . It means ‘to come out, go forth’ and ‘begotten, grow’ and ‘shoot forth.’ My suggestion for Genesis 10:14 to make it clear would be: ‘Casluh the father of Caphtor (from whom the Philistines came).’
There are no verses for Casluh outside of Genesis ten and 1 Chronicles one. There are a couple or so regarding Caphtor – whereas all other scriptures use the word Philistine. An indication I believe that the Philistines are Caphtor, the son of Casluh and grandson of Mizra.
English Standard Version
As for the Avvim [a clan of Nephilim], who lived in villages as far as Gaza, the Caphtorim, who came from Caphtor, destroyed them and settled in their place.)
In the Book of Jasher 10:21-23, we have extra detail on Mizra’s sons:
21 And the children of Mitzraim are the Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuchim, Pathrusim, Casluchim and Caphturim, seven families. 22 All these dwell by the river Sihor, that is the brook of Egypt, and they built themselves cities and called them after their own names.
23 And the children of Pathros and Casloch intermarried together, and from them went forth the Pelishtim, the Azathim, and the Gerarim, the Githim and the Ekronim,in all five families; these also built themselves cities, and they called their cities after the names of their fathers unto this day.
Three bear resemblance to the three of the five major branches or cities of the Philistines listed in the Bible: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gaza [Azath], Ekron, and Gath [Gith]. Gerar was another city of the Philistines and it was this city that Abraham and later his son Isaac visited its king, Abimelech. Pelisht looks a little like Pereth. The Book of Jasher supports the contention that Casluh is the progenitor of Caphtor – the Philistines.
The Philistines were the remnants of the ancient Minoan civilisation on Crete. A disaster forced many [though not all] to migrate during the same time frame the Israelites left Egypt and later were subduing Canaan.
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The Casluhim are listed among the descendants of Mizraim… (Genesis 10:14, 1 Chronicles 1:2). They are also named as the ancestors of the Philistines and the Caphtorim…
The etymology of this name is uncertain. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names cites Jerome and reads Their Boundary Protected. Fuerst’s Hebrew & Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament assumes relations with cognate words ks meaning mountain, and lh meaning to lighten burn, shine, make dry. The whole name would mean Dry, Barren Mountain. To a Hebrew audience, however, the dominant segment, which comprises the initial part of the name, looks a lot like the verb (kasal), meaning to be foolish:
The verb (kasal) means to have no skeletal strength or engage in pareidolia (falsely recognising images in random patterns…) or a “belief” in the systematic link between uncorrelated events. Nouns (kesel) and (kisla) mean stupidity or (misplaced) confidence. Noun (kesil)… is also the word for stellar constellations in general, and more specific the constellation Orion. Since all other meanings are deeply hidden, to a Hebrew audience the name Casluhim must have sounded similar to either Orionites or Bunch Of [Fools]. And if that isn’t bad enough, the segment (salah) is a common verb that means to forgive or pardon; this verb always describes God’s forgiving of man.
Together with the particle (ke), as if, like, the name would also mean As If They Forgive, or As If They Were Forgiven, which seems to express a doubt and doesn’t sound very positive; the Casluhim are the Fools. Another name that may have to do with the constellation Orion is that of the mysterious race of the Nephilim.
The Torah explains that Caphtor is the land of the Caphtorim, who descended from Mizraim… (Genesis 10:4), which is to say that the ancient culture of Egypt radiated its science and technology and ignited an independent derivative culture, on the north and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, long prior to the emergence of the Phoenicians (and note that Luke places a harbor named Phoenix on Crete: Acts 27:12). These Caphtorim appear to have displaced several earlier cultures, among which the Avvim (Deuteronomy 2:23), but somewhere along the line the Caphtorim culture itself came under pressure of others. Through the prophet Amos YHWH declared that he brought up the Philistines from Caphtor, and through Jeremiah that the Philistines emerged as a separate derivative culture from a remnant of Caphtor.
At that time this remnant of Caphtor appears to have been concentrated on an island (the noun ‘i refers to a coast region: coast, capes and islands off the coast). Most commentators seem to favor Crete as the last stronghold of the Caphtorim, which would make the Philistines displaced survivors of the Minoan culture. The Minoans had maintained a highly advanced civilization from the 4th millennium BCE, which had absorbed much of Egypt’s culture and which in turn had radiated its own identity to the Greek and Canaan coasts. After a series of natural calamities and attacks by Hittites and probably others, the Minoan culture began to decline halfway [through] the 2nd millennium BCE. Around 1200 BCE, the Minoan culture had been eradicated from the island.
It seems reasonable to expect that certain Minoan refugees began to seek refuge with their old business partners. Right around the time that the Minoan culture came to an end, Egyptian records begin to make mention of the Philistines in their realm, and the distinct Philistine identity may very well have come about when waves of late-Minoan refugees overwhelmed native Canaanite tribes.
The name Caphtor is most likely a loan word from the Minoan language to indicate Minoan Cretans. Consequentially, this word, (kaptor), came to indicate the capital on top of a pillar, named after Crete as the place from which they were first imported (Amos 9:1) or knob of bulb as seen on the Menorah in the tabernacle (Exodus 25:33). But, because the Caphtorim appear so early in the Book of Genesis, the name should also have some Hebrew connection. Hence some commentators recognize the root group (kapar): The verb (kapar) describes the formation of any sort of protective perimeter around any sort of vulnerable interior…
The renowned theologian Gesenius… proposed that the name Caphtor could be seen as the superimposition of two three-letter roots, namely (kapar) and [the verb] (katar), meaning to surround:
Noun (keter) means crown. Noun… (koteret)… denotes the capital of a pillar. The final part of the name bears strong resemblance to the word (tur), to explore or survey, and derivation (tor), dove.’
We will learn that all these definitions have merit and application.
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:
‘This “son” [Casluh] of Mizraim was the forefather of one of the more notable of the tribes, namely the Philistines… The name Casluhim (SHD 3695, kasluchiym) means fortified and is of foreign derivation. The brief entry for these people in the ISBE reads: Casluhim – an unknown people – or, according to Septuagint, of the Casmanim, which would mean “shavers of the head” – a custom of the Phoenicians (forbidden to Hebrews as a rule)…
The term Caphtorim means crowns (SHD 3732, kaphtoriy) from Caphtor (3731)… They are called Gapthoriim in the Septuagint. Capthor first appears in the Akkadian texts as Kaptara,where it was described as beyond the Upper Sea and within the sphere of influence of Sargon of Akkad. References to Kaptara are found in the 18th century BCE Mari economic archives and in texts in both Akkadian and Ugaritic in Ugarit where it is kptr… The Egyptians refer to a place as Keftiu(kftywor kftiw) from what Egyptologists date as 2200 down to 1200 BCE. Egyptologists generally accept that keftiu is the Egyptian form of Kaftara/Caphtor and it is clear from all contexts that it is Crete that is being mentioned.
It has been suggested that this tribe was in fact a son of the Casluhim (and thus a grandson of Mizraim)… The ISBE provides several theories on the identity of this group, the first one considered the most likely.
The country and people whence came the Philistines (Genesis 10:14 = 1 Chronicles 1:12 (here the clause “whence went forth the Philistines” should, probably come after Caphtorim); [Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7). Jeremiah…] calls it an “island”; there is evidence of [an] ancient connection between Crete and Philistia; and the Philistines are called Cherethites, which may mean Cretans …. These considerations have led many to identify Caphtor with the important island of Crete. It should be noted, however, that the word ‘i, used by Jeremiah, denotes not only “isle,” but also “coastland.”
Ebers (Aegypten und die Bucher Moses, 130 ff) thought that Caphtor represented the Egyptian Kaft-ur, holding that Kaft was the Egyptian name for the colonies of Phoenicians in the Delta, extended to cover the Phoenicians in the north and their colonies. Kaft-ur, therefore, would mean “Greater Phoenicia.” But the discovery of Kaptar among the names of countries conquered by Ptolemy Auletes in an inscription on the Temple of Kom Ombo is fatal to this theory.
A third theory would identify Caphtor with the Kafto of the Egyptian inscriptions. As early as the time of Thotmes III the inhabitants of this land, the Kafti, are mentioned in the records. In the trilingual inscription of Canopus the name is rendered in Greek by Phoinike, “Phoenicia.” This seems to be an error, as the Kafti portrayed on the monuments have no features in common with the Semites. They certainly represent a western type.’
This raises a pointed coincidence, as we shall see that the Philistines and Phoenicians are linked geographically and linguistically. One people are of Hamitic descent, the second from Shem. The Philistines today, are the peoples of Latino and Latina descent in Spanish Central and South America.
Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Philistine Meaning: Griever, Burrower, Weakner. From the verb (palash), to burrow or to grieve loudly.
The Philistines were an immigrant people who lived under five kings in six Canaanite cities or regions: Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, Ekron and Avva (Joshua 13:3, Judges 3:3). They dominated the region during the reign of [King] Saul [1025-1010 BCE] (1 Samuel 13:19), and even defeated him on mount Gilboa, killed his sons and drove him to suicide (1 Samuel 31:6). The Philistines were subdued and decimated by king David [1010-970 BCE] (2 Samuel 8:1), most famously in the valley of Elah where David killed Goliath of Gath, and it should be noted that the name Goliath doesn’t mean giant but refugee (1 Samuel 17:51). By the time of [King] Solomon [970-930 BCE], the Philistine cities had been largely destroyed or annexed by Israel although pockets of Philistine populations appear to have perpetuated until the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:8). The ultimate end came for the Philistine culture when they were taken to Babylon… A related tribe, the Cherethites, who were possibly a rejected class of the Philistines, had even worked their way up into David’s military elite… (2 Samuel 20:7).
… the Minoan culture… invented a writing system that remains undeciphered to this day, called Linear A… the Philistines emerged from the Minoan civilization of Crete (Caphtorim), which in turn had emerged from a class of Egyptian dreamer-astronomers (Casluhim). The Minoan civilization lasted for three millennia but ultimately [grew] weak and petered out and was displaced by Mycenaeans from mainland [Greece]. This social pressure caused by an influx of Mycenaeans from the north probably caused waves of Minoan refugees toward the south.
The name Philistine comes from the verb (palash), which originally described the digging of burrows in river banks by rodents such as rats. By doing so, these creatures weaken the shore and may ultimately cause it to collapse. In Hebrew… this verb came to denote the verbal expression of intense grief brought about by a sudden destruction:
The verb (palash) mostly means to roll around in ashes or dust due to intense grief. In cognate languages it describes the digging of tunnels or burrows.
The ethnonym (Philistine) occurs predominantly in reference to Goliath of Gath (1 Samuel 17) and his descendants (2 Samuel 21). The proper plural, (Philistines), occurs all over the Bible, but in two cases a special plural, (Philistinians) is used: 1 Chronicles 14:10 and Amos 9:7.
… noun (pura) denotes a winepress, which is a synonym of (gat), from whence comes the name Gath: The verb (parar) means to split, divide and usually make more, expand or multiply… (pa’ar) means to branch out or to glorify. Verb (para) means to bear fruit or be fruitful.
The name Cherethites: ‘Cretans, Outcasts’ from the name Crete, in turn from the verb (karat), to round up and cut off.
In 2 Samuel 15:18, the Cherethites are mentioned along [with] the Pelethites but also the Gittites, who were Philistine refugees from Gath, as all three groups joined David on his flight from Absolam. By the time Sheba of Bichri of Benjamin tries to ignite a rebellion against David, the Cherethites and Pelethites are mentioned along [with] general Joab and the elite Mighty Men as they set out to deal with Sheba (2 Samuel 20:7). In the aftermath of this crisis it becomes clear that the Cherethites and Pelethites are now choice warriors and Benaiah is their general (20:23)… the prophet Ezekiel… proclaimed the Cherethites doomed, and confirms their origin among the Philistines (Ezekiel 25:16). And since the Philistines themselves originate from Crete, the Cherethites are Cretans. The word “cretin” describes a fool or deficient person and is officially of unclear origin but it doubtlessly also relates to our verb (karat).’
The words Cretan and Philistine have very similar meaning. Cretan: ‘a native or inhabitant of Crete. A person considered to be foolish or unintelligent.’ Whereas Philistine means: ‘a person who is lacking in, or hostile, or smugly indifferent to cultural values, intellectual pursuits and aesthetic refinement, or is contentedly commonplace in ideas and tastes.’
‘The civilization of Crete was one of the most advanced… in antiquity, which is probably due to the same reason why Holland became so successful in the 17th century and the United States of America in the 20th. It’s because these nations absorbed all the rejects of other nations, which created a huge diversity of people who were desperate to improve their lives.’
The countries Central and South America are mixed race nations to a very high degree with populations containing Amerindians [Tiras], imported Black slaves [Canaan], peoples of Spanish descent that includes the Hamitic, Philistines [Casluh & Caphtor] and those similarly of Spanish descent, though smaller in number who are fairer and lighter skinned [Aram].
‘The name Pelethites derives from the name Peleth, which, quite fittingly is of unclear origin. It may come from an otherwise unused verb that would be spelled (palat), and which exists in Arabic with the meaning of to flee or be swift. It may also derive from the Hebrew verb (pala), to be distinguished or separated: Verb (napal) means to fall (down, down to, into or upon). The plural form (napalim) literally means ‘fallen ones’ [possibly Nephilim and linked to the Avv or Avva displaced by the Philistines] ‘settled ones.’ Noun (nepel) refers to an abortion or untimely birth. The Pelethites were obviously Special Forces…’
Maps of Central America and the Caribbean, including Cuba and the Dominican Republic and also Crete. Cuba, where Columbus first arrived, thinking he was in Asia. Colonising of Cuba began first, then the Americas. Comparing the shape of the islands of Crete and Cuba, they are similar, though Cuba is some ten times bigger. Certainly, Cuba has been a modern type and fulfilment for the island of Caphtor.
Sons of Ham: Part III Mizraim, Christian Churches of God – emphasis & bold mine:
‘[The Philistines] are among the most frequently mentioned people in the Bible. Their control and influence in the Mediterranean was such that it was once referred to as the “sea of the Philistines” (Exodus 23:31). The Hebrew term for them is Pelishtiy (SHD 6430, meaning immigrants), a patrial from Pelesheth or Philistia, the land of sojourners.
In his ISBE entry, C.R. Conder seems convinced that the Philistines were a Semitic rather than a Hamitic people.
“The Philistines were an uncircumcised people inhabiting the shore plain between Gezer and Gaza in Southwestern Palestine … Besides these personal names, and those of the cities of Philistia which are all Semitic, we have the title given to Philistine lords, ceren, which Septuagint renders “satrap” and “ruler,” and which probably comes from a Semitic root meaning “to command.” It constantly applies to the rulers of Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath and Ekron, the 5 chief cities of Philistia.”
The fact that the Philistines were uncircumcised does not prove that they were not a Semitic people. Herodotus (ii.104) says that the Phoenicians acknowledged that they took this custom from the Egyptians, and the Arabs according to this passage were still uncircumcised, nor is it known that this was a custom of the Babylonians and Assyrians.
The Septuagint translators of the Pentateuch always render the name Phulistieim, and this also is found in 8 passages of Joshua and Judges, but in the later books the name is translated as meaning “strangers” throughout, because they were not the first inhabitants of Philistia…
In the Tell el-Amarna Letters we have also (about 1480 BC) letters from chiefs subject to Amenophis III at Joppa, Ashkelon, Gezer, Lachish and Keilah which show us a Semitic population, not only by the language of these letters, but also by the names of the writers.
In the case of Ashkelon especially the Semitic rulers are found to have worshipped Dagon; and, though the name “Philistine” does not occur, the race was clearly the same found by the Assyrians in 800 BC in the land of Palastan beside the Great Sea. (ISBE)”
It must be remembered that in 1480 BCE the Exodus [1446 BCE] had not yet occurred… The Canaanites and Amorites were still in occupation and their language was identical with Hebrew and derived from the Akkadian, Sumerian and Amorite north – yet clearly they were not Semites. It is thus of no surprise that the Hamitic Philistines used the Canaanite forms in communication with them…
The Philistines were accomplished and feared warriors. In one particular battle in the Bible, they were able to put 30,000 chariots, 6000 horsemen and innumerable troops into the field (1 Samuel 13:5). And, along with the Ammonites, the Philistines were used directly by God to punish Israel (Judges 10:7). Other nations were also given the same task at various times, namely the Egyptians, Amorites, Zidonians, Maonites (from Moab and Ammon) and Amalekites (verses 11-12). However, the arrogance or pride of the Philistines, perhaps in their pre-eminent military power, was condemned in Zechariah 9:6.
In a number of scriptures we see King David accompanied by a bodyguard of Cherethites and Pelethites, which most commentators agree were clans of the Philistines… The ISBE article gives a view contrary to the accepted one regarding these people as mercenary bodyguards to a king of Israel.
“The real explanation of these various words for soldiers seems simple; and David – being a very popular king – is not likely to have needed foreign mercenaries; while the Philistines, whom he had so repeatedly smitten, were very unlikely to have formed trusty guards. The word “Cherethi” (kerethi) means a “smiter” or a “destroyer,” and “Pelethi” (pelethi) means “a swift one” or “pursuer.“… Evidently we have here two classes of troops—as among the Romans—the heavier regiment of “destroyers,” or “stabbers,” being armed with swords, daggers or spears; while the “swift ones” or “runners” pursued the defeated foe… The Pelethi or “pursuers” may have been “runners” on foot, but perhaps more probably mounted on camels, or on horses like the later Assyrians; for in the time of Solomon (I Kings 4:28) horses and riding camels were in use – the former for chariots.”
It seems unlikely that these are merely different classes of troops, as the nation (or people: Hebrew goyim)of Cherethites is mentioned prophetically in Zephaniah 2:5; and the taking of bodyguards from among other nations, including former enemies, is not as unusual as it might appear. As one example, Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaton) is said to have employed Syrians [Aram], Libyans [Phut] and Nubians [Cush] in his bodyguard.
In fact, kings were often in more danger from their own countrymen and close associates than from (former) foreign enemies. King Elah of Israel, for instance, was killed by his own chariot commander.
In 2 Samuel 15:18, the Cherethites and Pelethites were included with 600 Gittites from the Philistine city of Gath (the home of Goliath) in putting Solomon on King David’s mule and accompanying him as a declaration of his kingship. We thus have the remarkable situation of Cherethites and Pelethites remaining faithful to the ordained kings of Israel – both David and Solomon – in contrast to such men as the normally loyal priest Abiathar, who uncharacteristically sided with Adonijah against David’s approved successor, Solomon. This example may be typical of Gentiles brought into Israel displaying greater loyalty and valuing their ‘citizenship’ more highly than many native-born Israelites.
Ironically, the land of the Philistines was also seen as a place of refuge on several occasions [as Mexico is today. There is even an expression in the United States when on the run: ‘Gone South’]. Isaac went to Abimelech (meaning Father-king: apparently an official title, as with Pharaoh of Egypt) in Philistia when famine was threatening the land of Canaan (Genesis 26:1). Similarly, the Shunemite woman was sent to Philistia by Elisha to escape the seven-year famine in Israel (2 Kings 8:1-3). And even David, former scourge of the Philistines, sought refuge in the city of Gath when pursued by Saul (1 Samuel 27:1-2).
In 1 Samuel 6, we see that while they held the Ark of the Covenant, the Philistines were given the chance for salvation – but they did not take it. In consequence, they effectively invited the plagues of Egypt upon themselves… In the time of the Judges, Israel experienced 40 years of peace under Gideon (Judges 8:28), followed by 40 years of grief under the Philistine yoke as purposed by God, until Samson was raised up [1098-1078 BCE] to deliver Israel [Judges 13:1].’
A selection of verses from the over two hundred references to the Philistines and eleven for the Cherethites, including some of the principal and traditional enemies of the sons of Jacob.
Bible in Basic English
Ethiopia and Put and Lud and all the mixed people and Libya and the children of the land of the Cherethites will all be put to death with them by the sword.
2 Samuel 15:18
English Standard Version
And all his servants passed by him, and all the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the six hundred Gittites who had followed [David] from Gath, passed on before the king.
2 Samuel 8:12
English Standard Version
… from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, Amalek, and from the spoil of Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
English Standard Version
Pharaoh king of Egypt, his servants, his officials, all his people, and all the mixed tribes among them; all the kings of the land of Uz [Aram] and all the kings of the land of the Philistines (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod);
English Standard Version
… because of the day that is coming to destroy all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every helper that remains. For the Lord is destroying the Philistines, the remnant of the coastland of Caphtor.
English Standard Version
… therefore thus says the Lord God, Behold, I will stretch out my hand against the Philistines, and I will cut off the Cherethites and destroy the rest of the seacoast.
New English Translation
I will remove the ruler from Ashdod, the one who holds the royal scepter from Ashkelon. I will strike Ekron with my hand; the rest of the Philistines will also die.” The Sovereign Lord has spoken!
The city of Ashkelon will see it and be afraid. The people of Gaza will shake with fear, and the people of Ekron will lose hope. No king will be left in Gaza, and no one will live in Ashkelon anymore. Foreigners will live in Ashdod, and I will destroy the pride of the Philistines. I will stop them from drinking blood and from eating forbidden food. [a reference to the Giants that ruled amongst them]. Those left alive will belong to God. They will be leaders in Judah, and Ekron will become like the Jebusites.
English Standard Version
There was none of the Anakim [Nephilim giants] left in the land of the people of Israel. Only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod did some remain.
English Standard Version
Ekron, with its towns and its villages; from Ekron to the sea, all that were by the side of Ashdod, with their villages. Ashdod, its towns and its villages; Gaza, its towns and its villages; to the Brook of Egypt, and the Great Sea with its coastline.
2 Samuel 1:20
English Standard Version
Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon, lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised exult.
New Century Version
The people from the city of Gaza will be sad and shave their heads. The people from the city of Ashkelon will be made silent. Those left alive from the valley, how long will you cut yourselves?
A major influx of the Philistines arrived in southern Canaan from Crete in 1177 BCE, the eighth year of Rameses III and four years after the fall of Troy in 1181 BCE. The event is recorded in the wall reliefs of Pharaoh Ramesses III. The Judge Deborah witnessed the arrival of the Philistines, during her forty years of peace, ending in 1144 BCE. The Philistines established themselves in southern Israel’s coast, but did not start oppressing the tribe of Judah until 1118 BCE, the year of Samson’s birth. Samson battled the Philistines [Judges 13:1] from when he turned twenty until his death and the destruction of the main Philistine temple palace in 1078 BCE. It would not be until the time of David [1010-970 BCE] that the Philistines were fully subdued. By 604 BCE the Philistine state, after having been subjugated for centuries by Assyria, was finally destroyed by the Chaldean, Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia. After becoming part of the Chaldean Empire and its successor the Persian Empire, the Philistines seemingly vanish from the historical record by the late fifth century BCE.
Abraham and Chedorlaomer Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gerard Gertoux – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Philistines in the time of Abraham are they Anachronistic?
The Philistines (pelisti) are mentioned for the first time in the Great inscription of Ramses III, year 8 (1185 BCE), among the list of Sea Peoples. Amenemope’s Onomasticon (c. 1100 BCE) then locates the Philistines (p-w-l-y-s3-ti) in Ahsdod, Ashkelon, Gaza, and [Ekron?]. This massive influx of Philistines in the southern coastal plain of the Levant is mentioned 23 years before they annexed the land of Israel (1162-1122). According to Justinus (Philippics Histories XVIII:3:5), the Sidonians had already pushed back the Philistine ships one year prior to the Trojan War (1186 BCE).
On the walls of Medinet Habu pirates from the Sea Peoples appear with plumed helmets while a Philistine chief is wearing a kind of beret. Emergence of the Philistines in Palestine is concomitant in Israelite and Egyptian chronologies. However, this synchronism is problematic because, according to the Bible (Deuteronomy 2:23, Jeremiah 47:4, Amos 9:7), the Philistines who came from Crete (Caphtor) were already settled in this region (c. 2000 BCE) in the time of Abraham (Genesis 21:32-34).
These Philistines associated with the Sea Peoples, were therefore installed in their ancient colonies before dominating the Israelites. If biblical research experts agree that the Philistines were from Crete (the system of their confederation of five tyrants inspired by Aegeans, for example, differed from surrounding Canaanite kingdoms), the Akkadian Kaptaru or Egyptian Keftiu, they consider however their mention in the Bible prior to Ramses III as an anachronism. In fact, the translation of the Egyptian word Keftiu, “those of Crete/Cretans” instead of “Crete”, not only solves many paradoxes in Egyptian data, but also confirms the great antiquity of the Philistines, which the Egyptians called, in accordance with their origin: Cretans from islands in the middle of the [Mediterranean] sea (= the Minoans, at that time).
The term Philistia appeared during the 22nd dynasty… The Philistine cities of Ashkelon and Ekron are already mentioned in the execration texts (dated c. 1950) and archaeological excavations have shown that the Philistine city of Gerar (Tel Haror), cited in Genesis 26:1, flourished in the period 2000-1550 BCE.
In addition, Crete was never a vassal of Egypt as was the case of southern Palestine (between 1530 and 1350 BCE). As noted Vercoutter the final w in the word Keftiu (k-f-ti-w) is abnormal (plural marker) but can be explained linguistically since the Akkadian name kaptaru “Crete” corresponds to the Egyptian k-f-ti-[r] with a disappearance of the final r. Thus keftiu can be translated as “those of Kaphto[r]” which refers to Cretans in an ethnic way, not geographic…
… the Treasury of Tod (discovered in Upper Egypt) enclosed in 4 chests bearing the cartouche of Pharaoh Amenemhat II (1901-1863) [1593-1558 BCE] contains 153 silver cups of Minoan manufacturing. These findings show that trade with Crete began prior to 2000 BCE [?] and mainly concerned the exchange of metal (and of precious materials). Mesopotamia imported mainly Cretan tin and Cypriot copper to make bronze while Egypt favoured Cretan vases including silver rhytons.
A letter (EA 114) sent by Rib-Hadda, mayor of Byblos, to his suzerain, Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1383-1345) [877-840 BCE], confirms the crucial role of this port city, as well as the cities of Tyre, Beirut and Sidon, for ships transporting from Cyprus to Egypt. Thus the Egyptians of that time considered “those of Crete” (Keftiu), that they rubbed shoulders with in “Philistia”, were coming from these “islands in the middle of the sea (Crete)” with which they traded. Knossos must have been the main focus exporter, at least until 1370 BCE (date of the destruction of the palace at Knossos).
To sum up, until 1370 BCE, the Egyptians had relations with Cretans who were living in the islands in the middle of the sea (Minoans in Crete) mainly through those who were residing in their colony of Palestine (Philistines). This extraterritorial extension of Crete explains the paradoxes concerning the location of Keftiu and the representation of its inhabitants.
The term Keftiu signifying Aegean figures (Minoans from Crete) in the tomb of Rekhmire (c. 1450 BCE) also appears in tombs of Menkheperreseneb (TT86) and Amenemhab (TT85), but here this term signifies Syrian figures (Philistines), some of which carry Aegean objects. The earliest iconographical hybrid with Aegean elements is known from the tomb of Puimre (TT39). The figure from the scene with four foreign princes in the tomb of Puimre shares elements in skin colour and hair style of Aegean figures and clothes of Syrian figures. Greek historians provide some information that illuminate the ethnic origin of the Philistines.
According to Homer: Amid the vast sea is the beautiful and fruitful island of Crete thousands of men live, and 90 cities are enclosed in this country, where people speak different languages. Amidst this country stands the city of Knossos, where Minos reigned for 9 years (Odyssey XIX:173-177). Plato confirms this tradition on the primacy of Cretans (Laws I:1). A scholion on this passage says that the epithet of Zeus Pelasgikos was also read as Pelastikos. Pelasgians were originally called Pelastians from which derives the name Philistines (The words pelagos “high seas”, pelasgoi* (pélas-koi) “seamen” and pelastoi “philistines” are close).
Chronological reconstruction of Philistia: Around 2000 BCE, massive departure of Pelastians (former Philistines), a migratory ethnicity of Crete, towards Palestine (from whom it owes its name). Founding of sale counters at Ashkelon and Ekron (maybe also Ahsdod, Gaza and Gat). “Philistia” is perceived by the Egyptians as a province of the Minoan kingdom. About 1930 BCE, Abraham met Abimelech [1878 BCE], a Canaanite [Philistine] king in Philistine territory (east of Gaza) and Phicol (Indo-European name), his army commander. Abimelech gave to Sarah 11 kilos of silver (Genesis 20:16), a rare metal in Palestine but abundant in Crete. Circa 1530 BCE, expulsion of the Hyksos. “Philistia” is perceived as a Cretan principality that became vassal of Egypt. According to the biblical text, the Philistines were experts in the art of forging (Judges 1:18-19, 1 Samuel 13:19).
Circa 1185 BCE, Philistines associated with Sea Peoples and revolted unsuccessfully against Egypt. Philistia is now called by the Egyptians according to its ethnic origin (Philistines) and not according to its geographical origin (Cretans). It became a province subordinate to Israel. The name Goliath was close to the Lydian name Alyattes and to the name written ‘LWT on an inscription (dated c. 900 BCE) found at Tel es-Safi (Gath?). Circa 800 BCE, Adad-nerari III [811-783 BCE] attacked Philistia (Palastu) which became, despite several harshly repressed revolts, a vassal country of the Assyrian empire. In 604 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Ashkelon, which would then be attached to Tyr. The province of Philistia was integrated into the Babylonian empire and lost all autonomy.
Archaeologists have long believed that the Aegeans representations in Egyptian tombs fell more under artistic convention than historical accuracy. This negative bias, as for biblical data on Crete and Philistines, has since been refuted by a thorough analysis of all these representations. The first trade links between Egypt and the Aegean world could even go up to 2400 BCE because there was discovered on the island of Cythera, a glass in marble on behalf of the Solar Temple Userkaf.
These trips could possibly have been by sea because a boat with about twenty sailors on board (Egyptian and Phoenician) was represented on the walls of the mortuary temple of King Sahureat Abusir. As the history of Philistines is only beginning to emerge we cannot use its shortcomings to discredit the biblical data, which are further confirmed by archaeological discoveries.’
It isn’t imperative to understand the five to eight branches, or specifically the five principal cities and who they equate to today. Prophetic verses are aimed at the ‘Philistines’, which in the main, refer to Mexico as the leading nation. The Philistines were frequent and dangerous enemies of the sons of Jacob. The exceptional warriors of Chereth and Pereth, with the Gittites of Gath are invariably grouped together. Ashdod, Ashkelon and Gaza appear to be possibly more preeminent, in that they are mentioned more often than Gath or Ekron.
Separating the Central and South American nations into five groups, results in: a. Argentina [with Uruguay and Chile]. Argentina’s population is 45,774,597 people. Argentina in English comes from Spanish, though the word is actually Italian, argentino meaning ‘[made] of silver’ b. the smaller nations of Central America and the Caribbean; Guatemala being the largest with 18,374,893 people c. Colombia [and Venezuela]. Colombia’s population is 51,639,709 people d. the nations southwards; with Peru the most prominent and a population of 33,610,062 people and e. Mexico, with a population of 130,823,106 people.
Ashkelon in Hebrew means: ‘I shall be weighed’ or ‘the Fire of Infamy.’ Ashdod means ‘powerful’ and Gaza means ‘strong.’ Gath means ‘winepress’, Chereth means ‘destroyer, smiter’ and ‘outcast’ while ‘Peleth means ‘pursuer, swift’ or ‘separated.’ Ekron means ‘extermination, too pluck’ or ‘root up.’ Theses names definitions are strong and powerful. Assigning a name to a grouping is a guess at best and I will leave speculation aside.
What is significant, is that the combined population of these nineteen countries is approximately 415 million people. Their future allegiance with Tyre, will prove to be a formidable economic and military bloc. This number is similar to the 450 million of Mizra’s offspring in North Africa and the Middle East. Another similarity, is that as the Arab people are predominately Islamic, with a high level of zealousness; the same can be said for Roman Catholic latin America who are equally as ardent.
We will turn our attention to the precursor people of the Philistine colony on the Canaan coast, the Minoans of Crete [Caphtor]; then, their descendants who converged on the Iberian Peninsula, their migration to the New World and lastly with the most influential nation of Casluh and Caphtor, Mexico.
The Griffin Warrior: A Staggering Discovery from Ancient Greece, Philip Chrysopoulos, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The discovery of the Griffin Warrior Tomb is one of the most fascinating archaeological findings as it seems to link the Minoan and the Mycenaean civilizations. On May 28, 2015, the archaeologists excavating in Pylos, southwestern Greece, discovered a Bronze Age tomb with a skeleton surrounded by rich artifacts, suggesting it belonged to an important man. The grave belongs to the Mycenaean Civilisation… 1750 BC – 1050 BC. Also, many of the objects found seem to be related to the Minoan Civilization, c. 3500 BC – 1100 BC. Overall archaeological research has shown that the Mycenaeans had reached most of the eastern Mediterranean, including ancient Egypt, the city-states of the Near East (today’s Turkey), and the islands of the Mediterranean. However, the strongest connection discovered is the one with the Minoan Civilization in the island of Crete. The Minoan Civilization was named after the legendary King Minos, but the islanders’ culture was very different from that found on mainland Greece.
The findings were jewelry, sealstones, carved ivories, combs, gold and silver goblets, and bronze weapons, hence the warrior suggestion. The artifacts included… Carnelian, amethyst, amber, and gold beads, four gold rings, many small, carved seals with etched depictions of combat, goddesses, reeds, altars, lions, and men jumping over bulls… A plaque of ivory with a representation of a griffon in a rocky landscape…
Excavations on the Greek mainland and Crete have shown that, beginning around 1600 BC, the comparatively unsophisticated culture on the mainland underwent a transformation. “In time, there’s a blossoming of wealth and culture,” Stocker told UC Magazine. “Palaces are built, wealth accumulates, and power is consolidated in places such as Pylos and Mycenae.” For a few centuries, mainland Greeks seemed to imitate the Minoans. Pylos, an early Mycenaean power center, had buildings that resembled the large houses with ashlar masonry found at Knossos, Crete.
“There were probably four or five fancy mansions in Pylos at the time of the Griffin Warrior, all very Minoan in style,” Davis said. The mansions had painted walls, a type of artistry pioneered by the Minoans. For a time period, the Mycenaeans imported Minoan luxury goods and incorporated Minoan symbols, such as the bull, into their own art. Rich Mycenaeans were buried with Minoan luxury goods, while some other graves included locally produced Mycenaean objects, such as painted pottery, copies of Minoan originals. Mycenaean society also changed shape, becoming more hierarchical.’
Unknown source – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The best example of a palace society are the Minoans in Crete. According to Greek myth, Minos was a powerful ruler who lived in Crete in a palace so big that it is known as the Labyrinth. The Athenians had wronged him, so every nine years they had to send seven youths and seven beautiful maidens who were devoured by the Minotaur, a fearsome beast half man half bull.’
Artwork from Minoan Crete depicting a bull. Notice the double blade axe, also prevalent in their culture.
Samson from the tribe of Dan judged Israel for 20 years. He died 978 BC after 40 years of Philistine oppression. His death caused the death of thousands of influential Philistines and was the beginning of the sons of Jacob eventually overthrowing their rule. In Judges 16:23-30 ESV, we read of this event.
23 Now the lords of the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to rejoice, and they said, “Our god has given Samson our enemy into our hand.” 24 And when the people saw him, they praised their god. For they said, “Our god has given our enemy into our hand, the ravager of our country, who has killed many of us.” 25 And when their hearts were merry, they said, “Call Samson, that he may entertain us.” So they called Samson out of the prison, and he entertained them. They made him stand between the pillars.
26 And Samson said to the young man who held him by the hand, “Let me feel the pillars on which the house rests, that I may lean against them.” [the Philistines blinded Samson] 27 Now the house was full of men and women. All the lords of the Philistines were there, and on the roof there were about 3,000 men and women, who looked on while Samson entertained.
28 Then Samson called to the Lord and said, “O Lord God, please remember me and please strengthen me only this once, O God, that I may be avenged on the Philistines for my two eyes.” 29 And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and he leaned his weight against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other. 30 And Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines.”
Then he bowed with all his strength, and the house fell upon the lords and upon all the people who were in it. So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he had killed during his life.
This ‘house’ or temple palace had to be huge to hold so many people and this style of architecture was indicative of the Minoan civilisation located on Crete.
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilisation on the island of Crete… flourishing from c. 3000 BC to c. 1450 BC until a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in Europe, leaving behind massive building complexes, tools, artwork, writing systems, and a massive network of trade. The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans.
The Minoan civilization is particularly notable for its large and elaborate palaces up to four stories high, featuring elaborate plumbing systems and decorated with frescoes. The most notable Minoan palace is that of Knossos, followed by that of Phaistos. The Minoan period saw extensive trade between Crete, Aegean, and Mediterranean settlements, particularly the Near East. Through their traders and artists, the Minoans’ cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, copper-bearing Cyprus, Canaan and the Levantine coast and Anatolia [Asia Minor].
The Minoans primarily wrote in the Linear A… preceded by about a century by the Cretan hieroglyphs. It is unknown whether the language is Minoan, and its origin is debated. Although the hieroglyphs are often associated with the Egyptians, they also indicate a relationship to Mesopotamian writings. They… were used at the same time as Linear A (18th century BC). The hieroglyphs disappeared during the 17th century BC.’
‘The Linear B tablets also reveal what may have been the most important activity of all: that is textile production. Knossos ran a massive textile industry in which every aspect of manufacture and production was centrally controlled from management to wool producing cloths, to the provision of raw materials and rations to skilled specialists in textile workshops. The workforce involved was substantial. A tablet in the Ashmolean Museum records monthly rations for women at Knossos and Phaistos, and the amount of grain issued would have sufficed for 500 women at each location. The tablets record some 100,000 sheep producing between 30 and 50 tons of wool annually for luxury textile manufacturers – this was large scale industry.’
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Bull-leaping is thought to have been a key ritual in the religion of the Minoan civilisation in… Crete… the bull was the subject of veneration and worship. Representation of the Bull at the palace of Knossos is a widespread symbol in the art and decoration of this archaeological site. The assumption, widely debated by scholars, is that the iconography represents a ritual sport [non-combating bull fighting] and/or performance in which human athletes – both male and female – literally vaulted over bulls as part of a ceremonial rite. This ritual is hypothesized to have consisted of an acrobatic leap over a bull, such that when the leaper grasped the bull’s horns, the bull would violently jerk its neck upwards, giving the leaper the momentum necessary to perform somersaults and other acrobatic tricks or stunts. The sport survives in modern France, usually with cows rather than bulls… in Spain, with bulls… and in Tamil Nadu, India with bulls… ’
Bull vaulting or leaping artwork from Minoan Crete and as it is performed today
‘A running of the bulls… is an event that involves running in front of a small group of cattle, typically sixbut sometimes ten or more, that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town’s streets,usually as part of a summertime festival. Particular breeds of cattle may be [favoured], such as the toro bravo in Spain… Bulls (non-castrated male cattle) are typically used in such events.’
‘Bull fighting is very closely associated with Spain and can trace its origins back to 711 A.D. This is when the first bullfight took place in celebration for the crowning of King Alfonso VIII. It is very popular in Spain with several thousand Spaniards flocking to their local bull-ring each week. It is said that the total number of people watching bullfights in Spain reaches one million every year.’
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine
‘Tauroctony is a modern name given to the central cult reliefs of the Roman Mithraic Mysteries. The imagery depicts Mithras killing a bull, hence the name tauroctony after the Greek word tauroktonos… A tauroctony is distinct from the cultic slaughter of a bull in ancient Rome called a taurobolium; the taurobolium was mainly part of the unrelated cult of Cybele.’
Britannica – emphasis & bold mine:
‘Mithra, also spelled Mithras, Sanskrit Mitra, in ancient Indo-Iranian mythology, the god of light, whose cult spread from India in the east to as far west as Spain, Great Britain, and Germany. The first written mention of the Vedic Mitra dates to 1400 BC. His worship spread to Persia and, after the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great, throughout the Hellenic world. In the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, the cult of Mithra, carried and supported by the soldiers of the Roman Empire, was the chief rival to the newly developing religion of Christianity.
According to myth, Mithra was born, bearing a torch and armed with a knife, beside a sacred stream [Holy Spirit] and under a sacred tree [in the Garden of Eden], a child of the earth itself. He soon rode, and later killed, the life-giving cosmic bull [the Storm god], whose blood fertilizes all vegetation [the god who oversaw the creation/evolution of life on the Earth]. Mithra’s slaying of the bull was a popular subject of Hellenic art and became the prototype for a bull-slaying ritual of fertility in the Mithraic cult. As god of light [a light bringer], Mithra was associated with the Greek sun god, Helios, and the Roman Sol Invictus’ [the god who sustains and rules life on Earth].
Argentina and Uruguay have the golden sun god of May on their flags. The month of May’s name comes from the Italian Goddess of Spring, Maia. She was the wife of Vulcan. Maia is the eldest of the seven sisters, that comprise the Pleiades constellation. She is a nymph, the daughter of Atlas and her name means great one.
May begins the month in the sign of Taurus the Bull. Two common sayings describing Taurus include: ‘bull headed’ and like ‘a bull in a china shop’ and these have similarity with the definitions for being a ‘Cretan’ or a ‘Philistine.’ Also, ‘Two bulls do not live in the same shade’ [Swahili Proverb], reminiscent of ‘a Mexican standoff’, that is, no winners; and ‘Talking about bulls is not the same as facing them in the ring’ [Mexican Proverb].
Pleiades and Orion are constellations of stars seen in the night sky. Pleiades is well known as the Seven Sisters and Orion as the Great Hunter.
Both are next to the constellation of Taurus, on either side – Orion to the west and the Pleiades to the east of Taurus. Intriguingly, the Bible deems the Pleiades and Orion important enough to mention them twice.
English Standard Version
31 “Can you bind* the chains [H4576 ma’adannah – (sweet) influence] of the Pleiades or loose the cords [belt] of Orion? 32 Can you lead forth the Mazzaroth in their season [the 12 signs of the Zodiac and their 36 associated constellations], or can you guide the Bear [Ursa Major constellation] with its children? [Arcturus, a red giant star, 4th brightest in the sky, in the Bootes (the herdsman) constellation to the west of Ursa Major] 33 Do you know the ordinances of the heavens? Can you establish their rule [H4896 mishtar – dominion, authority] on the earth?
English Standard Version
He who made the Pleiades [the seven sisters] and Orion [the great hunter], and turns deep darkness into the morning and darkens the day into night, who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the surface of the earth, the Lord is his name…
The belt of Orion has been written about copiously since the three stars, Zeta, Epsilon and Delta were discovered to be in the same alignment as the three pyramids of the Giza complex. The dating arrived at astronomically from the direction of the internal shafts and where they point to in the sky, provides a date in confluence with the time of the flood 10,837 BCE during the precessional Age of Leo, for the building of the Great Pyramid. There is also evidence that the constellations of Orion to the south and Draco in the north are linked to the ancestral homes of the Sons of God and of the fallen Angels, the progenitors of the Nephilim.
Bible Science forum, Josh Hartnett – emphasis & bold mine:
‘… [the]… Pleiades as a group of seven stars… [are] visible to the naked eye as seven bright, blue-white stars, also called the Seven Sisters. Modern astronomy has shown that the constituent stars of Pleiades are expected to dissociate within the next 250 million years, and hence Pleiades is an open or unbound* cluster. That is, the motions and velocities of its constituent objects are such that the gravitational forces between them are not sufficient to hold it together (as a recognizable cluster) over the longer term. A ‘bound’ cluster, by contrast, can be shown to still be a recognizable grouping even if its motions are projected forward by a billion years or so.
Modern astronomy has revealed that more than 500 mostly faint stars belong to the Pleiades star cluster… Pleiades is a large but expanding, or unbound, cluster of stars that are all just passing the same region of space at the same time with the same motion. What was originally thought to be bound is unbound and what was thought to be unbound is bound (given current astrophysical definitions).
The text in Job 38:31, 32 describe real astronomical bodies. God is speaking to Job in practical terms about real objects that Job can see (or has seen) and He is expecting Job to give Him immediate answers. In the past, some have used this passage in Job to claim biblical accuracy in relation to the universe… it was argued that God was asking Job if he can do the same as God, while now we could turn the argument around and suggest that God is asking Job if he can undo what God has done…’
The veneration of the Bull was so prevalent and dominant in the second millennium BCE that the sons of Jacob incredibly made a golden calf idol, soon after they had been miraculously delivered from bondage in Egypt and staggeringly yet again over five hundred years later, when Israel and Judah split into two Kingdoms after King Solomon’s reign.
Exodus 32:1-8, 35
English Standard Version
When the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain, the people gathered themselves together to Aaron and said to him, “Up, make us gods who shall go before us. As for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.” 2 So Aaron said to them, “Take off the rings of gold that are in the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters, and bring them to me.” 3 So all the people took off the rings of gold that were in their ears and brought them to Aaron.
4 And he received the gold from their hand and fashioned it with a graving tool [H2747 cheret – ‘a stylus, chisel]’ and made a golden [H4541 maccekah – ‘molten metal, cast image’] calf [H5695 egel – bull-calf, bullock, a steer’ a male calf nearly grown]. And they said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!” 5 When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it. And Aaron made a proclamation and said, “Tomorrow shall be a feast to the Lord.”
6 And they rose up early the next day and offered burnt offerings and brought peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play.
7 And the Lord said to Moses, “Go down, for your people, whom you brought up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves. 8 They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them. They have made for themselves a golden calf [The Sun god, Ra] and have worshiped it and sacrificed to it and said, ‘These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!’”
19 And as soon as he came near the camp and saw the calf and the dancing, Moses’ anger burned hot, and he threw the tablets out of his hands and broke them at the foot of the mountain. 20 He took the calf that they had made and burned it with fire and ground it to powder and scattered it on the water and made the people of Israel drink it.
21 And Moses said to Aaron, “What did this people do to you that you have brought such a great sin upon them?” 22 And Aaron said, “Let not the anger of my lord burn hot. You know the people, that they are set on evil. 24 So I said to them, ‘Let any who have gold take it off.’ So they gave it to me, and I threw it into the fire, and out came this calf.”
35 Then the Lord sent a plague on the people, because they made the calf, the one that Aaron made.
This is quite a scenario. There were people who were either oblivious or chose to ignore the leadership of Moses and that the Eternal was working through him and the fact that the Creator had delivered the Israelites from Egypt through a series of ten spectacular miracles and then again in a mind boggling act of parting the Red Sea to save them and then crashing down the thousands of tons of water to kill their enemies. The very people who had cruelly enslaved them for one hundred and forty-seven years.
Moses’s elder brother Aaron is a revelation; the man chosen to found the Levitical Priesthood for the ancient Israelites and replace the perpetual Melchizedek Order. Aaron put his artistic ability to use, fashioning the calf of gold and then he used his carpentry skills to build an altar to a pagan, false god. Aaron then ironically blames the people, for being set on evil and finally how does he think he can fool Moses, with: ‘I threw [the gold] into the fire, and out came this calf.’ Miracles had been so plenteous, it was worth a shot it would seem.
The Creator shows His wrath and disgust not for the last time, when He says to Moses that they are ‘your people, whom you brought up out of… Egypt.’ It is not surprising that Moses’s loses his temper, ‘his anger burned hot’, forgetting himself and dares to smash the tablets of the Law that the supreme Creator has just given him, the very One who has also just delivered Moses and everyone that is partying, giving veneration to a god of gold that has no life, no power and for deeds not done, not worthy of any honour.
As an after thought, the Creator inflicts a plague.
It wasn’t a good start for the fledgling relationship between the Eternal and the sons of Jacob and the tempestuousness of the marriage covenant continued so that eventually the Creator divorced his chosen people and sent them into captivity some seven hundred years later for Israel and eight hundred and fifty years for Judah.
1 Kings 12:27-32
English Standard Version
27 If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the temple of the Lord at Jerusalem, then the heart of this people will turn again to their lord, to Rehoboam king of Judah, and they will kill me and return to Rehoboam king of Judah.” 28 So the king took counsel and made two calves of gold.And he said to the people, “You have gone up to Jerusalem long enough. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.” 29 And he set one in Bethel, and the other he put in Dan. 30 Then this thing became a sin, for the people went as far as Dan to be before one. 31 He also made temples on high places and appointed priests from among all the people, who were not of the Levites. 32 And Jeroboam appointed a feast on the fifteenth day [the sabbath] of the eighth month [October/November] like the feast that was in Judah [seventh month, September/October], and he offered sacrifices on the altar. So he did in Bethel, sacrificing to the calves that he made. And he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places that he had made.
We will return to the appointed feast in the eighth month in a later chapter. The weakness of Jeroboam is saddening in that he established a new feast, new temples and new false gods so as to reinforce his new position as King of Israel and not lose his power to Rehoboam, King of Judah.
The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 228, 585-586 – emphasis % bold mine:
‘The golden calf altercation communicates more significance than the superficial text delivers, explicating why God responded the way He did. The idol was part of the bull cult of Canaan… and the mysticism of [evil] Enoch. The golden calf would not have been a calf but rather a bull… Exodus describes the idol as a calf to denigrate it… a bull, the aboriginal symbol or potency. Others… conclude the golden calf was indeed a calf and base this on the Apis/Osiris bull cult of ancient Egypt… Isis bore from her womb a calf that died and later became Osiris. The Apis bull was part of Horus-king tradition… The bull from Egypt’s rival bull cult was a symbol of power and defiance… the skill set required for Aaron to manufacture the golden calf came from Jethro… these skills were derived from his Kenite background that allegedly dated back to Tubal-Cain and Cain, the master antediluvian metallurgists. Baal and related deities were by and large portrayed as mating bulls symbolising fertility… Early depictions of Molech portrayed him to be a man with a bull’s head… [with a] striking similarity between Molech… and the bull of Minos… on Crete.‘
In the Mithras Symbolism [refer photo] the Bull is Taurus; the Dog is Canis Major, the Greater Dog star, Sirius; the Snake is Hydra and Serpens from Draco and the Scorpion is Scorpius [scorpio]. Coincidentally, all are represented in the shaft positions within the Great Pyramid.
Sun – Bull Cult: English Words Ox, Cow and Latin Taurus… derive from Sumerian Turkish, Mehmet Kurtkaya, 2019 – emphasis and bold mine:
‘Imagine how important it was for the people living in the region to have domesticated these big animals. Aurochs [bulls] are the biggest animals ever domesticated apart from the elephant. There is a dispute whether elephants are [truly] domesticated or not. Moreover, cattle and [oxen were] not only a symbol of richness, it meant richness. Domestication of… cattle was a major breakthrough that provided the opportunity for people to rely less on game hunting. Cattle provided them milk, meat and blood. Their hides were used for clothing, their [dung] as fuel, and their bones as tools.’
Wild Aurochs painted on the walls of Lascaux Caves, France
‘Gobeklitepe was deliberately buried with dirt and stones some 10,000 years ago. The reason is still unknown. “Many animals have been totem animals for tens of thousands of years. These animals were representative of the group/tribe of people and their beliefs. Cult animals were symbols. Even today, sports teams have animal mascots… maybe remnants from ancient periods. At the very least, associating a team with an animal is a major coincidence with ancient practices.”
[The] Bull is the oldest and most prominent [animal worshiped] in early agricultural societies. Latest genetics research revealed that [the] farming revolution… started in and around the Taurus mountains in Southeast Turkey and spread West to Europe and East to Iran from there. In fact, our modern wheat was first domesticated in Alacadag (Alaca mountain), near Gobeklitepe!
We know that bulls are specially portrayed by the hunter gatherers of Gobeklitepe. Not too far from Gobeklitepe, neolithic site of Catalhoyuk had a bull cult about 8000 years ago. We find a bull cult in the indigenous Hatti civilization in Turkey (Anatolia) some 4500 years ago. And in Sumer (starting around 4000 BC), bulls represented sun and sky gods, their highest gods. So, there is a continuity of [the] bull cult for civilizations in Turkey and Mesopotamia for thousands of years. The fact that Gobeklitepe is located on a hill is an indication of a very important aspect of human beliefs some 12,000 years ago: sky and sun worship. This is in line with the idea of [a] sacred mountain found in Shamanistic beliefs from Siberia. In Sumer, we find Ekur, [a] sacred mountain house where gods resided, very similar to Olympos Mountain in Ancient Greece.’
From Ankara Medeniyetler Muzesi. Bull Cult from Catalhuyuk, a famous pre-pottery neolithic archeological site in Central Turkey 9,500-6,500 BP
‘Egyptian Pyramids are the representations of the same beliefs based on sacred mountains. In Sumerian, “E” means house and the word “kur” represents a cosmic mountain, in addition to being the term for mountain: e+kur = Ekur. “Kur” is also the stem for the Turkish word “kurgan”, the burial mound found all over Eurasia, north Africa and [the] Americas. It also means the underworld. “Gin” is [a] Sumerian word for mountain. “Gan” is gate as in gate to heaven. Kur+gan = Kurgan means “underworld mountain”. Some of the highest Sumerian gods, Enlil and Enki, who resided in Ekur were thought to have brought agriculture and animal husbandry to humans.
In Turkey, Mesopotamia and the surrounding regions, the bull was commonly associated with [the] sun and later [the] storm gods. Ugur (Hurrian) religious mountain sanctuaries Musasir, Kumme, Ukku and Subria located along the Taurus mountains in Southeastern Turkey, were considered as the most important centers of the Hurrian weather god Teshub (similar to Hatti Taru). Hence, the name of the mountain ranges in Southern Turkey is the same as the word for Bull, [the] symbol animal of the storm god… They were first found in Sumer, Akkadian, Assyrian, and other ancient Near Eastern societies including the later Urartu kingdom, and Persia, Iran. Winged animal deities continued to be used elsewhere, for example in Ancient [Greece] such as the Pegasus, with [a] horse instead of the bull. [The] Cretan Minotaur is the half man-half bull deity.
Gold was the most important precious metal for ancient people, and it still is, many thousands of years later. Sumerians used gold and lapis lazuli not only as [an] ornament but more so, for religious reasons.
Gold represented the sun, and lapis lazuli the sky and the heavens. However, there was no lapis lazuli nor gold mines in Sumer or in the immediate vicinity. Moreover, their knowledge and their advanced workmanship of gold proves they worked with gold before migrating to Sumer. These are among the many evidences indicating the origins of the Sumerian people. For gold, Iran, Turkey, [and the] Indus Valley civilization are the potential sources but for lapis lazuli, there is only one source: Afghanistan! All of this clearly point[s] at [the] Northeast [the Himalayan Mountains: refer Chapter I Noah] as the direction of their migration.
Gold and Lapis Lazuli were not the only ones, they also imported silver which they used as money, as well as carnelian and chlorite. Sun Language Theory states that languages were born out of religious rituals, specifically sun [sky] worship. Taurus is the word used for bull in Latin and similar words are found in other Indo-European languages that prove a single origin for the word. Taurus is also the name of the constellation deriving from the word for bull. Moreover, Taurus is the name of the mountain ranges extending from Southwest to Southeast Turkey!
… The chapter “Gat (Gut) / Hatti / Hittite civilizations” [from] my book on Sumerian Turks:
“How many people know that Taurus, the name of the zodiac sign, derives from a rather unknown civilization that lived in Turkey in ancient times? The bull was commonly the symbol and depiction of ancient Near Eastern storm gods, Taru/Taur is [the] Gat/Hatti bull cult from some 5,000 years ago. In Turkmenistan, Sumer, Anatolia, Ancient Greece and elsewhere in many corners of Eurasia we find: Taurus.”
Taru was the name of the Hatti storm god and also the basis of Hittite Tarhunz, Etruscan Tarkan, similar in function to Greek Zeus, Indian Indra, Roman Jupiter and other Indo-European gods as well as Hurrian Teshub.
In Greek mythology, many deities had an animal form. They are called theriomorphic gods. Note the relation of the Ancient Greek word “Theri” meaning “wild beast” to the word for Hatti god Taru and the word for bull “Taurus”.
In “Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical”, late German Professor Walter Burkert explains [the] bull god in Greek mythology and shows that major Greek gods, Zeus, Dionysus, and Poseidon among others were at times associated with the bull. In Kyzikos, founded by the Pelasgians / Etruscans, Dyonisus has a tauromorphic cult image. Poseidon, the god of the sea, was associated with either a horse or a bull. Zeus, in the form of a bull, abducted Europa and brought her to Crete. It is very likely that the Latin word for sea “Mare” derives from [the] Sumerian word for bull “Amar”… and this is due to the role of [the] bull in Greek mythology! Indian god Nandi is associated with the bull. Indra also is often mentioned as a bull. In Egypt, the bull was worshiped as Apis, and representative of the Sun god Ra.
In Irish mythology, the hero Cu Chulainn appears in [the] Ulster cycle and Scottish folklore.
Donn Cuailnge the bull, appears in Tain Bo Cuailnge, a legendary tale from Early Irish mythology. From [a] Wikipedia article for “Cu Chulainn”. “Cu Chulainn shows striking similarities to the legendary Persian hero Rostam, as well as to the Germanic Lay of Hildebrand and the labours of the Greek epic hero Heracles, suggesting a common Indo-European origin, but lacking in linguistic, anthropological and archaeological material.”
“Lacking linguistic material”, wrong! And there is quite a lot of groundbreaking genetic studies involving the peopling of Europe and the British Isles that supports the connection.
As a side note, Rostam or Rustam is the legendary hero in Shahname and Iranian mythology. Irish mythological hero Cu Chulainn sounds the same as Sumerian divine bull Gugalanna! This is not a coincidence and points at the Sumerian Turkish origins of the Irish and English language and civilization.
Turkish word “okuz”… sounds and means exactly same thing as the English word “ox”. In Hungarian, the word for “ox” is “okor”. It is very telling that Turkish “okuz” which is connected to the word “Oguz” Turkish has an “r” counterpart in Hungarian, as “okor”. There are currently two versions of Turkish, one is Ogur Turkish the older one, and Oguz the newer one marked by an r-z conversion and some other features. This is additional evidence for [a] Hungarian connection to ancient Ogur Turkish which includes Sumerian. That’s why Hungarian matches Sumerian so well.’
We will return to the Hungarian, Turkish and Sumer link.
The tradition of keeping alive the veneration of the bull is highly visible in Spain, where the people of Casluh and Caphtor once lived. This is a good example of a previous people leaving behind traditions, language, names and so forth that make it look like they are the one-and-the-same people, but they are not. We will encounter a similar scenario with the Vikings who migrated from Scandinavia into Britain.
The exodus of peoples from Spain to New Spain – similar to the migration of people from Britain and Ireland to North America – was a staggering relocation of peoples. The people remaining in Old Spain are not Philistines. We will confirm that they are descended from the line of Shem, not Ham, Mizra, Casluh or Caphtor. Spain was still a huge recipient of the wealth derived from an enormous empire in the Americas, it’s just that the peoples in the America’s were not – in the vast majority – the same ethnic stock.
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine
‘The weakening of the Western Roman Empire’s jurisdiction in [Roman] Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi [Suevi] and Vandals, together with the Sarmation Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early 407 and ravaged Gaul [modern France]. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal, whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439.
The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. These Visigoths or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Wallia extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Theodoric I took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains where Atilla was routed. Euric (466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths.
In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism* of the Visigoths…’
There is considerable information here and essentially provides the names of the peoples that either remained in the Iberian Peninsula [Hispania], forming the eventual nations of Spain and Portugal and those Hispanics that departed for the New World and New Spain. We will discover that the Visigoths were the nucleus of people who remained in Spain; while the Suebians were split between those people who migrated to Brazil and those who remained to form the modern nation of Portugal. Whereas, the Vandals and Alans represent the Philistine peoples of Casluh and Caphtor, who had been migrating from the Canaan coast and through Europe for the past nearly one thousand years.
The Trinitarian view of the Godhead was first imposed on Christianity in 325 CE at the Council of Nicea, with an initial Binitarian definition and then again in 381 CE, at the Council of Constantinople, with the addition of the Holy ‘Ghost’ as a person. It is a confusing doctrine for it is concocted by men in error and not drawn from the simplicity of the scriptures; founded in truth. This new view – for Christianity, though actually an ancient idea – of the Godhead is, in paraphrased terms:
A unity of a singular Deity, composed of three co-eternal, distinct identities.
The doctrine is convoluted and serpent-like and cannot be supported by scripture, hard as people endeavour. It willingly misinterprets and mis-understands, the uniqueness of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The concept of a triune of Gods was not new. A Queen of Heaven and Mother of God reach back into time, way farther than the beginning of mankind. This is why Christ’s mother Mary, has been elevated to Mother of God status – the real Trinity of the Universal Church – hidden in plain sight, in the shadow of the Trinity doctrine, but no less foisted on unsuspecting believers.
Nimrod, Semiramis and Tammuz were a triad in ancient Babylon. In Egypt it was Osiris, Isis and Horus and in Mesopotamia, Anu, Enlil and Ea [Enki]. Hinduism has Brahma, Shivu and Vishnu and even Plato taught of an Unknown Father, Logos and a World Soul.
In Greece, there was Zeus, Athena and Apollo [or Zeus, Poseidon and Pluto] and in Rome, the most well known trio of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, though just one triad of a myriad believed by the ancient Romans. There is the triad of Al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat in the time of Muhammed, referenced in Surah 53:19-22. The Lugus – Esus, Toutatis and Taranis – in Celtic mythology and the Saha Realm in Mahayana Buddhism – Shakyamuni, Avalokitesvara and Ksitigarbha. The Three Pure Ones of Taoism, also Fu, Lu and Shou, as well as the Hooded Spirits of the Gauls, to name literally just a few.
Let no one persuade the reader that the Trinity is unique to Christianity, that it is Bible based or that it was taught by Christ and the apostles in the early church.
The Arian* view, upheld by the Goths for centuries, simply held that the Holy Spirit and Christ were not God, like the Father. Rather, the Father is the one true God; Christ his begotten, created son and the Holy Spirit, God’s divine essence and being, as well as His power with which He simultaneously creates and upholds the creation [1 Timothy 1:17; Revelation 3:14; Acts 1:8].
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine
‘The name Alan is an Iranian dialectal form of Aryan. Having migrated westwards [from Central Asia] and [becoming] dominant among the Sarmations [the future Slavs] living between the Don River and the Caspian Sea… The Alans are mentioned in the Vologases inscription which reads that Vologeses I, the Parthian king between around 51 and 78 AD, in the 11th year of his reign (62 AD), battled Kuluk, king of the Alani.The 1st century AD Jewish historian Josephus supplements this inscription. Josephus reports in the Jewish Wars (book 7, chapter 7.4) how Alans (whom he calls a “Scythian” tribe) living near the Sea of Azoz crossed the Iron Gates for plunder (72 AD) and defeated the armies of Pacorus, King of Media, and Tiridates King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologese I.’
There are three points of interest. First, the old foes Israel and the Philistines were fighting each other once more. A different time, a different place and with different names but still the same peoples; with the duality of living near each other and the same requirement to fight.
Second, we will study the Parthians and investigate their identity as sons of Jacob – for it is no coincidence that the Mexican Philistines dwell adjacent to the United States of America, acting one half, friendly economic ally and one half troublesome rival neighbour, with twin detrimental society changing influences of the drug trade and human traffic of some two thousand illegal immigrants a day, entering the United States – and third, the Alans Philistines are holding to type and plundering. We will repeatedly confirm that the Vandals and Alans were masters of looting and pillage warfare.
‘In 135 AD, the Alans made a huge raid into Asia Minor via the Caucasus, ravaging Media and Armenia.They were eventually driven back by Arrian the governor of Cappadocia, who wrote a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or ‘War Against the Alans’) that is a major source for studying Roman military tactics.
From 215 to 250 AD, the Germanic Goths expanded south-eastwards and broke the Alan dominance on the Pontic Steppe. The Alans however seem to have had a significant influence on Gothic culture, who became excellent horsemen and adopted the Alanic animal style art. After the Gothic entry to the steppe, many of the Alans seem to have retreated eastwards towards the Don, where they seem to have established contacts with the Huns. Ammianus writes that the Alans were “somewhat like the Huns, but in their manner of life and their habits they are less savage.”Jordanes contrasted them with the Huns, noting that the Alans “were their equals in battle, but unlike them in their civilisation, manners and appearance”.
Around 370, according to Ammianus, the peaceful relations between the Alans and Huns were broken, after the Huns attacked the Don Alans, killing many of them and establishing an alliance with the survivors. These Alans successfully invaded the Goths in 375 together with the Huns.They subsequently accompanied the Huns in their westward expansion. Following the Hunnic invasion in 370, other Alans… migrated westward.As the Roman Empire… [declined] the Alans split into various groups; some fought for the Romans while others joined the Huns, Visigoths [Spain] or Ostrogoths [Eastern Goths, Italy]. A portion of the western Alans joined the Vandals and Suebi in their invasion of Roman Gaul…’
The Alans joined their kin, the Vandals and the unrelated Visigoths; all entered Spain and the Ostrogoths in Italy. Many Italians migrated to the New World, especially to Argentina and Uruguay. These Italians, are principally a different people to the Italians in Italy, just as the Spanish of Spain are not the same as the Hispanics who moved to the America’s.
‘In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including [their leader] Godigisel… died in the resulting battle… The Alan king Respendial saved the day for the Vandals in an armed encounter with the Franks at the crossing of the Rhine on December 31, 406.
The Vandals crossed the Rhine, probably while it was frozen, to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel’s son Gunderic, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine.
Following the fortunes of the Vandals and Suebi into the Iberian Peninsula (Hispania, comprising modern Portugal and Spain) in 409,the Alans led by Respendial settled in the provinces of Lusitania [west] and Cartaginensis. The Kingdom of the Alans was among the first Barbarian kingdoms to be founded. The Siling Vandals settled in Baetica [south], the Suebi in coastal Gallaecia, and the Asding Vandals in the rest of Gallaecia.
In 418 (or 426 according to some authors), the Alan king, Attaces, was killed in battle against the Visigoths, and this branch of the Alans subsequently appealed to the Asding Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown.
Although some of these Alans are thought to have remained in Iberia, most went to North Africa [crossing the Strait of Gibraltar]with the Vandals in 429.Later the rulers of the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum (“King of the Vandals and Alans”). There are some vestiges of the Alans in Portugal,namely in Alenquer (whose name may be Germanic for the Temple of the Alans, from “Alan Kerk”, and whose castle may have been established by them; the Alaunt is still represented in that city’s coat of arms), in the construction of the castles of Torres, Vedras and Almourol and in the city walls of Lisbon, where vestiges of their presence may be found under the foundations of the Church of Santa Luzia.
In 422 Gunderic decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition… For the next five years… Gunderic created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean. In 425, the Vandals pillaged… Hispania and Mauritania, sacking Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena) and Hispalis (Seville)…The capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals to engage in widespread naval activities.In 428 Gunderic… died… He was succeeded by his half-brother Genseric who although he was illegitimate (his mother was a Roman slave) had held a prominent position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.
Genseric is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian leader of the Migration Period… he probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his contemporaries.It is possible that the name Al-Andalus (and its derivative Andalasia) is derived from the Arabic adoption of the name of the Vandals. The Vandals under Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius’ assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa… Genseric seized Carthage on October 19 . The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and… he built his kingdom into a powerful state.
The impression given by ancient sources… was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage’s Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.Historian Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa was a time of economic instability.
During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Genseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the Mediterranean was so substantial that the sea’s name in Old English was Wendelsæ (i.e. Sea of the Vandals). After Atilla the Hun’s death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire.’
Map of the Vandal and Alan Kingdom at the height of their power. Notice the geography of their lands. Coastal and islands as in keeping with their preference for these types of regions, as evidenced by Minoan [island] Crete and Philistine [coast] Canaan.
‘In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered his daughter’s hand in marriage to Genseric’s son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome.
Petronius Maximus killed Valentinain III and claimed the Western throne. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric’s son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia… on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great received Genseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope’s influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.’
‘As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean, it became important to the Roman Empire to destroy the Vandal kingdom. In 460, Malorain launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the battle of Cartagena.’
In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals under the command of Basiliscus, which reportedly was composed of 100,000 soldiers and 1,000 ships. The Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships. Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese, but were driven back by the Maniots at Kenipolis with heavy losses.In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage. In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals… and in 476 Genseric was able to conclude a “perpetual peace” with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.From 477 onwards, the Vandals produced their own coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins.
Differences between the Arian Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.
He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop.Huneric, Genseric’s successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.Generally most Vandal kings… persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.
According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopaedia: “Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the “era of the Migrations”, died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years… [The Vandal-Alan Kingdom waned over the next fifty years and] in 534 Gelimer [Vandal leader] surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals. North Africa… became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled. Many Vandals… fled to the two Gothic kingdoms (Ostrogothic Kingdom and Visigothic Kingdom) [Italy and Spain].
The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia states that “Gelimer was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith.In the words of historian Roger Collins: “The remaining Vandals were then shipped back to Constantinople to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared”. Some… Vandals remained in North Africa while more migrated back to Spain.’
The Vandals did not cease to exist – they disappeared of sorts, just not quite in the way Roger Collins is saying – as they were assimilated into the Gothic lands of Spain and Italy, to later emigrate to the Americas.
‘The etymology of the name [Vandal] may be related to a Germanic verb “wand – to wander” (English wend, German wandeln). The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil “shining wanderer; dawn wanderer, evening star”, or “Shining Vandal”…
Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, “sacking and looting” Rome [in AD 455]. This led to the use of the term “vandalism” to describe any pointless destruction, particularly the “barbarian” defacing of artwork.
English Restoration Poet John Dryden wrote, Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, / Did all the matchless Monuments deface. Vandals and other “barbarian” groups had long been blamed for the fall of the Roman Empire by writers and historians.’
Two important points to remember about the Vandals and Alans; firstly, their corollary traits with the Philistines – rampaging and pillaging with total disregard for property, building elaborate palaces, and staying true to their roots as sea peoples, migrating by ships and dwelling on coasts and isles. Secondly, some Vandals and Alans did stay in North Africa, some ventured to Italy and so forth, though the vast majority returned to Spain. We will pick up their story again now another thousand years onwards.
‘Castile, under the reign of Henry III, began the colonization of the Canary Islands in 1402… The conquest of the Canary Islands, inhabited by Guanche people, was only finished when the armies of the Crown of Castile won, in long and bloody wars, the islands of Gran Canaria (1478–1483), La Palma (1492–1493) and Tenerife (1494–1496). In 1492, Spain drove out the last Moorish king of Granada. After their victory, the Catholic monarchs negotiated with Christopher Columbus a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus instead inadvertently “discovered” the Americas, inaugurating the Spanish colonization of the continents. The Indies were reserved for Castile.
Spanish immigration to Cuba began in 1492, when… Columbus first landed on the island, and continues to the present day. The first sighting of a Spanish boat approaching the island was on 28 October 1492, probably at Baracoa on the eastern point of the island… Columbus on his first voyage to the Americas, sailed south from what is now the Bahamas to explore the northeast coast of Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola. Columbus found the island believing it to be a peninsula of the Asian mainland.
In 1511, Diego Velazquez de Cuellar set out with three ships and an army of 300 men from Santo Domingo to form the first Spanish settlement in Cuba, with orders from Spain to conquer the island. In 1517 Cuba’s governor Diego Velazquez de Cuellar commissioned a fleet under the command of Hernandez de Cordoba to explore the Yucatan peninsula. They reached the coast where mayans invited them to land. They were attacked at night and only a remnant of the crew returned.
Velazquez then commissioned another expedition led by his nephew Juan de Grijalva, who sailed south along the coast to Tabasco part of the Aztec empire.
In 1518 Velazquez gave the mayor of the capital of Cuba, Hernan Cortes, the command of an expedition to secure the interior of Mexico but, due to an old gripe between them, revoked the charter. In February 1519 Cortes went ahead anyway, in an act of open mutiny. With about 11 ships, 500 men, 13 horses and a small number of cannons he landed in Yucatan, in Mayan territory,claiming the land for the Spanish crown. From Trinidad he proceeded to Tabasco and won a battle against the natives. Among the vanquished was Marina (La Malinche), his future mistress, who knew both (Aztec) Nahuatl language and Maya, becoming a valuable interpreter and counsellor. Cortes learned about the wealthy Aztec Empire through La Malinche.
In July his men took over Veracruz and he placed himself under direct orders of new king Charles I of Spain. There Cortes asked for a meeting with Aztec Emperor Montezuma II, who repeatedly refused. They headed to Tenochtitlan and on the way made alliances with several tribes. In October, accompanied by about 3,000 Tiaxcaltec they marched to Choula, the second largest city in central Mexico.
Either to instill fear upon the Aztecs waiting for him or (as he later claimed) wishing to make an example when he feared native treachery, they massacred thousands of unarmed members of the nobility gathered at the central plaza and partially burned the city. Arriving in Tenochtitlan with a large army, on November 8 they were peacefully received by Montezuma II, who deliberately let Cortes enter the heart of the Aztec Empire, hoping to know them better to crush them later.The emperor gave them lavish gifts in gold which enticed them to plunder vast amounts.
In his letters to King Charles, Cortes claimed to have learned then that he was considered by the Aztecs to be either an emissary of the feathered serpent god Quetzacoatl or Quetzalcoatl himself – a belief contested by a few modern historians. But he soon learned that his men on the coast had been attacked, and decided to hostage Moctezuma in his palace, demanding a ransom as tribute to King Charles. Meanwhile, Velasquez sent another expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, to oppose Cortes, arriving in Mexico in April 1520 with 1,100 men.Cortés left 200 men in Tenochtitlan and took the rest to confront Narvaez, whom he overcame, convincing his men to join him. In Tenochtitlan one of Cortes’s lieutenants committed a massacre in the Great Temple, triggering local rebellion. Cortes speedily returned, attempting the support of Montezuma but the Aztec emperor was killed, possibly stoned by his subjects. The Spanish fled for the Tlaxcaltec during the Noche Triste, where they managed a narrow escape while their back guard was massacred. Much of the treasure looted was lost during this panicked escape.
After a battle in Otumba they reached Tlaxcala, having lost 870 men.Having prevailed with the assistance of allies and reinforcements from Cuba Cortes besieged Tenochtitlan and captured its ruler Cuauhtemoc in August 1521. As the Aztec Empire ended he claimed the city for Spain, renaming it Mexico City.’
The Spanish adopted at this time and continued throughout the Americas, a program of destroying indigenous settlements and then re-building them, destroying native art and literature, so that hardly any records remain today and near genocide of Amerindian populations, including Aztecs and Incas. From Cretans, to Philistines to Vandals and now Conquistadors, 5,000 years of history for the descendants of Casluh and his son Caphtor are charted with destruction and desecration. One item the Philistines were prudent enough not to destroy was the Israelites Ark of the Covenant which they captured and held for some twenty years [1 Samuel 4:1-11].
Early Chinese descriptions of the Spanish in the Philippines:
“These barbarians (Europeans) [Philistines] have a grim look, untidy hair, and an unpleasant smell.
They have no rituals worthy of the name, they’re liars, and are rather arrogant. They conquer countries by fraud and force, ingratiating themselves in a friendly way, before they oppress the natives. At the heart of their conduct is Violence.”
‘Mexihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire… with its people being known as the Mexica. After the colony achieved independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, [the] territory came to be known as the State of Mexico, with the new country being named after its capital: Mexico City, which itself was founded in 1524 on the site of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Mexico City is the… largest city of Mexico and the most-populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the world.It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft).
… the population of Greater Mexico City is [21,918,936 people] which makes it the second-largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere (behind Sao Paulo, Brazil… [22,237,472 people]). Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by indigenous people the other being Quito, Ecuador. The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in… 1521… Mexico City was systematically rebuilt by Cortes… Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the 300-year colonial period from 1521 to independence in 1821. The two pillars of Spanish rule were the State and the Roman Catholic Church, both under the authority of the Spanish crown. In 1493 the pope had granted sweeping powers to the Spanish crown, with the proviso that the crown spread Christianity in its new realms.
[Montezuma’s] successor and brother Cuitlahuac took control of the Aztec empire, but was among the first to fall from the first smallpox epidemic in the area a short time later.Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, among whom smallpox, measles, and other contagious diseases were endemic, epidemics of Old World infectious diseases ravaged Mesoamerica starting in the 1520s. Severely weakened, the Aztec empire was easily defeated by Cortes and his forces on his second return… The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain [Nueva Espana] in 1535.The indigenous population stabilized around one to one and a half million individuals in the 17th century from the most commonly accepted five to thirty million pre-contact population. During the three hundred years of the colonial era, Mexico received between 400,000 and 500,000 Europeans,between 200,000 and 250,000 African slaves and between 40,000 and 120,000 Asians. The first census in Mexico (New Spain) that included an ethnic classification was the 1793 census. Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Europeans ranged from 18% to 22% of New Spain’s population, Mestizos from 21% to 25%, Indians from 51% to 61%…
The total population ranged from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354. Society was organized in a racial hierarchy, with whites on top, mixed-race persons and blacks in the middle, and indigenous at the bottom. In the late eighteenth century the crown instituted reforms that privileged Iberian-born Spaniards (peninsulares) over American-born (criollos), limiting their access to offices. This discrimination between the two became a sparking point of discontent for white elites in the colony.
Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 square miles)… making it the world’s 13th-largest country by area, 10th-most populous country and most populous Spanish-speaking nation. It is a federation comprising 31 states. Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilisation; it was home to many advanced… civilizations, most well known among them the [Olmecs], Maya and the Aztecs. The War of Texas Independence in 1836 and the Mexican-American War led to huge territorial losses in Mexico’s sparsely populated north, contiguous to the United States.
The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure… advanced naval dockyards… and advanced missile technologies. In recent years, Mexico… has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,missiles,aircraft,vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,defense systems,armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts, with the exception of World War II. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.
The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade.
Mexico has the sixth largest electronics industry in the world after China, United States, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation. The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities…’
Mexico’s GDP was $1.27 trillion in 2019, making it the 15th largest economy in the world. Over recent decades, Mexico emerged as a manufacturing economy under a series of free trade arrangements with the United States, Canada, and forty-four other nations. Many major United States manufacturers have integrated supply chains with counterparts or operations in Mexico. ‘The international drug trade constitutes an ongoing challenge to Mexico’s development, which has directly contributed to violence and corruption in the country.’
‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Mexican global shipments during 2020.
- Vehicles: US$100.7 billion
- Machinery including computers: $75.5 billion
- Electrical machinery, equipment: $75 billion
- Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $18.6 billion
- Mineral fuels including oil: $16.8 billion
- Plastics, plastic articles: $9.1 billion
- Furniture, bedding, lighting, signs, prefab buildings: $9.1 billion
- Vegetables: $8.5 billion
- Gems, precious metals: $8.15 billion
- Beverages, spirits, vinegar: $8.11 billion
Vegetables represent the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 13.9% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was gems and precious metals via a 13.5% gain led by silver and gold. The leading decliner among Mexico’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil thanks to a -32.7% drop year over year for that product category.’
‘The large economy, area, population and politics make Mexico a regional power and a middle power,and is often identified as an emerging power. However, Mexico continues to struggle with social inequalities, poverty and extensive crime; the country ranks poorly on the Global Peace Index.’
Aside from Mexico as an economic leader, Venezuela is number eight in the top ten countries with the most Natural Resources. Venezuela, has an estimated $14.3 trillion worth of natural resources. It is the leading exporter of bauxite, coal, gold, iron ore, and oil. Incredibly, the country’s oil reserves are greater than those of the United States, Canada, and Mexico combined. Venezuela is the third largest producer of coal after Brazil and Colombia. It also has the eighth largest reserves of natural gas accounting for 2.7% of the global supply and Venezuela also has the second largest reserves of gold deposits in the world.
‘Regardless of ethnicity, the majority of Mexicans are united under the same national identity… it is also observed that when asked directly about their ethno-racial identification, many Mexicans nowadays do not identify as Mestizosand that “static” ethnoracial labels such as “White” or “Indian” are far more prominent in contemporary Mexican society than the “Mestizo” one is…
…estimates of the percentage of European-descended Mexicans vary considerably depending of the criteria used: recent nationwide field surveys that account for different phenotypical traits (hair color, skin color etc.) report a percentage between 18%– 23%if the criteria is the presence of blond hair, and of 47% if the criteria is skin color… While during the colonial era, most of the European migration into Mexico was Spanish, in the 19th and 20th centuries a substantial number of non-Spanish Europeans immigrated to the country,with Europeans often being the most numerous ethnic group in colonial Mexican cities.Nowadays Mexico’s northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European populations, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry.
The Afro-Mexican population (1,381,853 individuals as of 2015)is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent. Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period, and some 200,000 Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico’s indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions. Most of the African-descended population was absorbed into the surrounding Mestizo (mixed European/indigenous) and indigenous populations through unions among the groups. Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the 2015 inter-census, 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous.
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs (mostly Christians), began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated 400,000 Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry.’
A sampling of quotes from a forum entitled: What ancestry do most Mexicans have really?
- ‘… even the Spanish mixed with the Moors, and were already a heavily mixed group before they arrived to the Americas… Actually, most Spanish/Spaniards were and still are white people, not mixed. The claim of Spain being racially and genetically mixed is often exaggerated. As for Mexicans most Mexicans are a mix of European, Native American, African, Asian in varying degrees.
- I’ve been to both Spain and Mexico and the difference in physical appearance in both countries is quite palpable… the average Mexican face stands out in Spain, you can easily tell they come from the americas.
- Mexicans are very diverse. Many look hardcore native, others look Arab, others look Italian, and others blend with white Americans (albeit most of these have light skin, dark brown hair, and dark eyes). All of my brothers and sisters and I look so different, it is amazing. I look Asian. My sister looks Middle Eastern. Everyone thinks my mother is Armenian. My little sister has blondish hair with hazel eyes. My father looks Native American. My extended family is just as mixed!
- Many of the Spaniards were of [‘Jewish’] or Morisco (Moorish) heritage. There are records that in 1492, 1 out of every 4 Spaniards was a Jew or of [‘Jewish’] background. Because of the Inquisition, a great deal of those Converso Jews and Moors fled to the New World to escape, so factor in how many of those made it to Mexico and started families. Moriscos were Moors forced to convert to Catholicism, and were also discriminated and persecuted for centuries due to the Inquisition because of their Muslim roots. I am Mexican of Jewish Converso blood on my father’s side.Many of my dad’s family look Middle Eastern.
- Around the middle of the 10th century, the majority of Spaniards living within Andalusia had converted to Islam. The Arabic language was then fully adopted by the 12th century, and it had supplanted the Arabized-Latin dialect (“Mozarabic”) that was spoken in Andalusia. Muslims did make the majority of Andalusia at one period in history. By the time of the Fall of Granada, the Muslim Spaniards had assimilated the minorities (Mid-Easterners, North Africans, Visigoths, Blacks, East Europeans) and the whole nation had become an “Arab” Andalusian society. That is to say, they identified as “Arabs” and… [were] called “Moors” in the West… Today’s Spaniards are not Muslim nor Arabic-speaking because the Christian Spanairds from [the] north… converted them to Christianity and imposed the Romance (mostly Castillian) language upon them. North Africans, Arabs, and Jews are ancestors of some Mexicans…’
March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 430:
‘Although led by a white-looking elite, the vast majority of the population of Mexico was, and still is, of mixed-racial origin, and openly antagonistic to the white settlers to the north [the USA], referring to them disparagingly as “gringoes,” a slang term which means “foreigner.” That Mexicans and other Latin Americans refer to whites as “foreigners” reveals much about the racial attitudes which prevailed, and still prevail, in this part of the world.’
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine
‘In the Y-chromosome, the haplogroup R1b (West European gene) is prevalent and is carried by 50% of Mexican men. Haplogroups J1/J2 (Middle Eastern) and E1b1b (North African) combined show up in 20% of Mexican men. Haplogroups G, I, and R1a (Caucasus, Balkans, and East European, respectively) show up at a combined 12% of Mexican males. Haplogroup Q (Amerindian/Native American) is carried by around 16% of Mexican males.’
It is apparent comparing Latins from Spain and Latinos or Hispanics from the Americas that there is a difference. Many Central and South Americans do look like, or could pass as, an Arab. There are also people with fair skin and features more reminiscent of a European in these countries too. As varied amounts of Europeans have migrated to the Americas, there are a small minority of those of Spanish and Italian descent who are actually true Spanish and Italian and not descendants of Casluh and Caphtor. They are not descended from Mizra and though migrating from Spain and Italy, they are not Vandal, Alan or Moor heritage but rather possess Visigoth or Ostrogoth ancestry.
We will later confirm an historic precedent for these two peoples being closely aligned as they were in the Iberian Peninsula as Vandals and Visigoths and in the ancient past as Philistines and Phoenicians.
There are clades associated with Europeans, just as there are for Arabs, Indians, Asians and Africans. The Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a is found outside of Europe, for example South Asia, though it is principally a European marker. Europe is split in half with R1a being indicative of Eastern Europe and the Slavic peoples and R1b associated with Western Europe, from the Nordic nations in the north through to the Latin nations of Southern Europe.
What the online encyclopaedia does not delineate is that the Haplogroups identified as ‘European’, principally R1b, are 1. if it is one in common such as the major subclade for non Asian and Africans, R1b-M269 [R1b1a1a2], it is exhibited in different percentages in the Central and South American white populations than the Spanish and Italians of Europe and 2. There are a variety of minor R1b subclades that are not typical to northwestern or western Europeans and it is these R1b subclades that are found frequently in the Mexican and other Central and South American nations.
For instance, the Haplogroup I percentage in Europe is high particularly I1 in northern Europe; but in Latin America, I1 is virtually non-existent, with I2a2 the most frequent, though far less frequent than in Europe, particularly compared to southeastern Europe. In western Europeans, J1 and J2 are at low percentages. In Latin America they are marginally higher; with the percentage of J1 and J2 highest amongst the Arabs.
The R1b1a1a2 [R1b-M269] of Latin America, reveals its ancestral link with Iberia in southwestern Europe. This is due to the fact that this is where the Hispanics have most recently originated from and they have intermixed with the Spanish over many centuries. Some descendants of Casluh and Caphtor may still live in Spain; for example within the Basque and Catalonian populations. We will follow up on the Basque and Catalonians in another chapter.
The following article addresses the difference in the percentage ratio of the R1b haplogroup in the Mexican people, compared to their origin with the Spanish in Spain – as well as the inclusion of R1b in the Native Indian population prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Geneticists have been lax, in assuming that European peoples in the Americas [including the United States, Canada and other immigrant nations of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa] descending from Europe, carry the exact same haplogroup sequencing ratios. The truth is that these new nations outside Europe, are unique and individual nations with their own haplogroup identities. The principal way of understanding these new nations identities is to understand that they are not exact extensions of the mother country, but different daughter nations.
Y chromosome Haplogroup R in America, The overlooked lineage, Austin Whittall, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘There is a very particular Y chromosome haplogroup in the Americas which is often ignored, overlooked or clumped together with “others” since it is not considered a founding lineage: haplogroup R. with its M173 mutation.
Since modern Eurasian populations are predominantly haplogroup R, the Spaniards and Portuguese, French and British have a high proportion of hg. R in their genes. It was these people who discovered and conquered America so their admixture with the conquered American Native races will surely be reflected in contemporary Native Americans’ Y chromosomes by the presence of typically European R haplotypes.
Officially there are two Y chromosome haplogroups accepted as founding lineages in America: haplogroup Q, which prevails among Amerindians with a 92.9% frequency and a less frequent haplogroup C, which is found at a much lower 7.1% frequency among indigenous American men, mostly in North America, but also with a patchy distribution in South America [refer Chapter II Tiras]. Then we have Haplogroup R which is considered by some to also be another Y chromosome founding Amerindian haplogroups. See, for instance Schurr et al., (2004) who add haplogroups P-M45, F-M89 and R1a1-M17 to hgs. Q and C as founding lineages.
But others such as Zegura et al., (2004) are quite convinced that haplogroup R in Native Americans is of a recent European origin and that it admixed into the local natives during the last 500 years, after the discovery of America in 1492. This is a reasonable assumption: Hg. R is found among Europeans at very high frequencies. But, it is also found all over the world, so why would it be absent in America?
Although the presence of hg. R in South eastern Asia and Australia could also be attributed to European colonization (the Spaniards in the Philippines, the French in Indochina, the Dutch in Indonesia, and the British in Australia, etc.), but actually there is no serious academic objections to the notion that these are local Asian haplotypes and not the outcome recent admixture… [combined] data from three papers… show the frequency of hg. R in certain parts of the Old World and the Americas…
…the Asian frequencies are relatively low (2.5 to 8.6%), furthermore haplogroup R has not been detected in the highlands or coastal areas of Wests New Guinea and Papua New Guinea, New Britain, Moluccas, Vietnam (surprising since this was actually a French Colony) Taiwan or China. The American data on the other hand is quite different; the frequencies are much higher among some groups (12.6 to 100%), and lower in others (2.5 to 8.3%), at levels similar to those found in Asians.
This panorama indicates, in my opinion that America has the basic ancient coating of haplogroup R at Asian levels which was later overlain by additional hg. R from the European settlers. The problem is that mainstream science places all hg. R natives into the “mixed – races” category and dismisses haplogroup R as a founding lineage among Native Americans.
The whole of Mexico which has a very dense population and a history of admixture… of Spaniards with Native Americans and also (but to a lesser extent, African slaves) has a very low frequency of haplogroup R. Why?
Spaniards have a high frequency of hg. R and were particularly keen on mingling with the locals (natives) and with the African slaves (in Northern South America and Central America mostly), to an even greater degree than the more Puritan New England settlers. Admixture was due to a very concrete cause: women did not want to cross the oceans and settle in the New World. The few that did were wives of the Royal government officials. So the only available source of women were the local natives. Initially Spanish colonies were based on exploiting the local natives in mines and smelters to produce precious metals for export back to the Metropolis. The conquistadors were men whose aim was to make a quick fortune and return home to wife and family. Their relationships in America were basic and obviously had only one outlet: the local women. Only much later would European women migrate to America but again, they would only wed within their social circles.
So quite soon, Spanish American societies had plenty of mixed-race people: Spanish with Indian resulted in Mestizo, Spanish and Mestizo in Castizo, Mestizo and Indian: Coyote, a black and a Spanish woman: Mulato, and so on…. To maintain social order, each group had its privileges and obligations marked out by the Crown’s law (for instance Mestizos could not bear arms or have Indians given to them as encomienda – a form of serfdom), these legal inequalities eventually festered into the independence revolutions that began in 1810 and led to the creation of Spanish Americas Republics, ran by Criollos (descendants of Spaniards, but born in America) and Mestizos.
So, why is the prevalence of R haplogroup lower in Mexico and their former Colonial territories in S.W. USA? Do Spaniards have less proportion of haplogroup R than the French (in Canada) or the Britons (in the Eastern Seabord states)? No they don’t. Current Spaniards have between 51 and 85% haplogroup R, similar to the frequencies found among English and French.So this is not the cause of the unequal cline. And we have seen above that there was no reluctance on their part towards mingling with the natives.
I believe that the reason for this is that haplogroup R was already present among the natives as a founding clade in America, introgression with Europeans added some percentage points to the mix, and very likely it incorporated new European R haplotypes, but there was a substantial presence of hg. R among North American natives.These appear… in the joining-network trees as outliers with unique haplotypes not shared with Europeans. The exceptions that confirm the rule. The issue can be easily settled. An in depth sequencing of native hg. R haplotypes would help distinguish the “American” lines from those haplotypes that are surely “European”, however this has not been done. There is a clear preconception – prejudice among scholars that simply ignores the option that hg. R is a founding lineage among Amerindians.’
Austin Whittall as far back as 2014, raises a key point. Though not just any differences between the founding Spanish and the Amerindian Y-DNA R Haplogroup but taken one step further to include a comparison between the founding Spanish and those that remained. Science will eventually provide the data we seek. It would not be a surprise if it supports the premise that R1b subclades carried to the America’s are not all the same as those that either remain in Spain or more accurately are not all exhibited by the Spanish in Spain. In fact the Mexico DNA Project poses a similar question – bold mine:
‘It is widely believed that a large percentage of the earliest settlers of Mexico may have origins in the Middle East and were a result of the expulsion of non-Catholics out of Spain, just before the conquest of Mexico. Did the early Iberian settlers of Mexico have proportionately different origins than modern day Spaniards?’
We will discover in fact, that there are clues that the differences in R1b subclades in the Americas do exist, as completed studies by the Mexico DNA Project on specific people and surnames reflective of Mexican heritage via Spain have flagged outlier R1b Haplotypes.
Since most studies consider haplogroup R as a non-Native American line, it is “often removed from phylogenetic analysis”. As an example I quote a paper (Malhi et al., 2008) which describes the methodology: “All individuals that did not belong to haplogroup Q and C were excluded from the Haplotype data set because these haplotypes are likely the result of non-native admixture”. And that is that; the data that is inconvenient is not even analysed. In all fairness, some studies have included Amerindian hg. R in their data (to disprove it as a founding lineage) and others have proposed it is a founding lineage, but that was long ago…
[A] paper… compares haplotypes… [and] overlooks something very interesting: 28.3% of the populations sampled belonged to hg. R., the majority were R1b1a2, [now R1b1a1a2; R1b-M269]but 2 individuals out of the 40 belonging to hg. R, were typed as being R1a1a1. This is an uncommon paragroup identified by the mutations M17 (for R1a1a) and M417 (for R1a1a1), both are very basal and are found in men living in a vast area: Northern India, Slavic countries, Siberia, and, evidently America. This is not the typical R1b Western European haplotype, it is a rare variety. Of course, the authors do not analyse the R hg. samples at all. They declare it foreign and then focus on the accepted Amerindian lineages (Q and C).
A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine
In a study conducted in 2014 by V. V. Ilyinskyon on bone fragments from 10 Alanic burials on the Don River, DNA could be abstracted from a total of seven. Four of them turned out to belong to yDNA Haplogroup G2 and six of them had mtDNA I. The fact that many of the samples share the same y- and mtDNA raises the possibility that the tested individuals belonged to the same tribe or even were close relatives. In 2015 the Institute of Archaeology in Moscow conducted research on various Sarmato-Alan and Saltovo-Mayaki culture Kurgan burials. In this analysis, the two Alan samples from the 4th to 6th century AD had yDNAs G2a-P15 and R1a-z94, while from the three Sarmatian samples from 2nd to 3rd century AD two had yDNA J1-M267 and one possessed R1a.Also, the three Saltovo-Mayaki samples from 8th to 9th century AD turned out to have yDNAs G, J2a-M410 and R1a-z94 respectively.A genetic study published in Nature in May 2018 examined the remains of six Alans buried in the Caucasus from ca. 100 AD to 1400 AD. The sample of Y-DNA extracted belonged to haplogroup R1and haplogroup Q-M242.
The Haplogroup findings in this study are significant as it shows the Alans are related to the ‘Spanish’ who migrated to the Americas. The Y-DNA haplogroups J and G, are lesser clades of Europeans, particularly Western Europeans – and Q is almost non-existent. Haplogroups J and G are more prominent in the Latins of the Americas and they are even more prominent in the Arabs of North Africa and the Middle East.
Eupedia: Genetic History of the Italians, Maciamo Hay, 2013 & 2017 – emphasis & bold mine:
‘The Vandals were the first to reach the Italian peninsula. They had migrated to Iberia, then crossed over the North Africa in 429, where they founded a kingdom that also comprised Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Sardinia is the best place to look for traces of their DNA because on the one hand it is the best studied region of Italy, and on the other hand no other Germanic peoples settled there (apart from a very brief Gothic reign), which means that the presence of Germanic lineages on the island would incontestably be of Vandalic origin.
Based on the detailed Y-chromosomal study of 1200 Sardinians by Francalacci et al. (2013), the Vandals appeared to have carried 35% of R1a, 29% of I2a2a, 24%* of R1b, 6% of I2a1b and a mere 6% of I1. The subclades identified were I1a3a2 (L1237+), I2a2a (L699+ and CTS616+), I2a1b (M423+), R1a-Z282 (including some Z280+), R1a-M458 (L1029+), R1b-U106 (Z381+), R1b-L21 (DF13>L513+), R1b-DF27 (Z196>Z209+). The probable reason for the elevated (Proto-)Slavic R1a and the presence of the Eastern European I2-M423 is that the Vandals stayed in Poland before migrating to the Roman Empire. Over a third of Vandalic male lineages were therefore of Proto-Slavic origin.’
Not sure if these figures are helpful or not as the percentages for R1a and I2a2 do not appear to match anyone today. Of most interest are the R1b details as both R1b-L21 and R1b-DF27 are strongly associated with Iberia. R1b-U106 is associated with Central Europe and not naturally indicative of western Europe, thus highlighting the difference of the ‘Spanish’ that left for the America’s compared to the Spanish that stayed.
The main Arab mtDNA Haplogroups are H, L, J, T2 and U and the main Y-DNA Haplogroups are J1, J2, E1b1b, G and T. The Y-DNA Haplogroups are not indicative of Europeans, apart from exceptions in southeastern Europe. The main European Haplogroups are R1b, R1a, I1, I2a1 and I2a2. Thus, if the Spanish exhibit higher levels of Haplogroups associated with Arabs, then this supports the premise that the Latins of Central and South America are related and are brothers of Mizra’s other sons. Particularly, if there is a link with Pathros [Egyptians] and Casluh.
There is scant information on the Haplogroups of Spanish descended peoples in the Americas. Particularly regarding mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups as the focus, understandably, is placed on the Amerindian wives that the vast majority of Conquistadors and settlers took. The main haplogroups of the Native American wives as discussed in Chapter II Tiras are A2, B2, C1 and D1 [93.3%]. The Haplogroups associated with the Spanish admixture [6.7%] of H, J, K, T, U and V [and L3 from Africans – 0.7%] are all low percentages in the diagram and pie chart as it shows the mtDNA of the Mexican Mestizo [European and Indian mixed] population.
Online forums included one person with Native American ancestry, who stated their mtDNA Haplogroup was B2g2 and another said, ‘a Cuban-American friend had tested 95% European and 4% Native American, yet had the mtDNA Haplogroup A2d1, which is Native American.’
The main R1b sub-Haplogroups from R1b-M269 include the following:
R1b-U106 [S21 and M405], which is more frequent in Central Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany, though still common in western Europe.
R1b-U152 [S28], is most frequent in France and northern and central Italy.
R1b-M529 [L21 and S145], has higher frequencies in Ireland and Britain.
R1b-S116 [P312], is a sub-lineage associated heavily with the Iberian Peninsula.
DF27 includes R1b-M153, located primarily in the Basque Country, [Spain and France, also in Gascony], with very high frequency.
DF27 also includes R1b-M167, which is found at high frequencies in northeastern Spain, the Pyrenees and principally Catalonia. It is also found in the Basque Country, Portugal, parts of western Europe, Wales and Cornwall, England.
Interesting R1b sub-clades that showed up in the Mexico DNA Project’s analysis included R1b1-P25 a north African clade relating particularly to Jews. R1b-L21>DF73 a northwestern Iberian clade. L21 is typically associated with northwestern Europe. R1b-L150 a North African and eastern European clade and R1b-P66, of rare Italian origin. This is pertinent as we know some Vandals and Alans migrated to Italy.
Of more interest was not the expected R1b-M269 that is dominant throughout western Europe, but the numerous clades associated with DF27. DF27 is of special interest as it is an ancient DNA strand. Also, some of the peoples associated with it have the highest levels of Rh-negative blood types in the world. Something we will study further in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon].
R1b clades that appeared regularly included DF81, which also stems from DF27. The sub-lineage associated with DF27, M167 was frequent in the form of SRY 2627.
As one person described on a forum: “SRY2627 is just one small subclade of hundreds of subclades in the R1b tree. With so many subclades there is going to be a limited amount of people that are positive for the mutation. For instance, R1b exists in about 60% of the Spanish population, DF27 exists in about 40% of the Spanish population, about half of DF27 is Z195, and even fewer are Z198, and even fewer are Z292, and even fewer are SRY2627.”
Even so, the fact that SRY 2627 was frequent in Mexicans, shows their link to Catalonia, more than the rest of Spain. This is significant, because the Catalonians are also viewed as different from the rest of Spain. Another frequent clade of DF27 was R1b-Z196, also strongly linked with Iberia and southwest France.
M65 is also an R1b clade associated with the Basque as is M153. Two clades that were very frequent in the Mexican’s sampled included R1b-Z278 and R-Z214. A comment online explains their relationship: “My paternal Haplogroup also changed from R-z278 to R-Z214. R-z278 is most common in Northern Spain (Including Catalonia and Galicia) the Basque Country and Gascony, but can also be found throughout Atlantic Europe and the British Isles. R-Z214 is much more specific to the Basque Country and Gascony. In fact, if you’re positive for R-Z214 then there’s a good chance that you are positive for R-M153 which is downstream from R-Z214. R-M153 is called the “Basque Marker” and is virtually nonexistent outside of the Basque Country or with non-Basques. 23andMe does not test for R-M153.”
Other Y-DNA Haplogroups that were frequent included J2 and J1 clades, particularly J1-M267 which has highest frequencies in the Middle East and North Africa and J1e-P58, which is also indicative of Arabs with the highest frequencies. I2a2 is also common and this is found particularly in southwestern Europe, the Basque Country and in the Balkans of southeastern Europe. Trace elements of E1b1a were found, though this would be from intermixing with Africans and two derivatives of E1b1b were common, E1b1b1b and E1b1b1b1, both tellingly associated with the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East. The areas that the Vandals and Alans either lived or the Arabs with whom they are related.
March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016, page 403-405:
‘It is estimated that over six million Europeans, mainly of Spanish or Italian origin, emigrated to Argentina after its establishment as an independent state [in 1816]. A genetic study… in 2009… concluded that Argentinian DNA is 78.6 percent European, 17.3 percent Amerind, and 4.2 percent African… in Bolivia… in 2006, whites made up 15 percent of the population, with the rest comprising Amerind or mixed-race elements… a 2006 genetic study by the University of Chile revealed that… 30 percent of Chileans had Caucasian-only ancestry… a 2006… study in Uruguay [showed] 82 percent of male chromosomes were of European origin, 8 percent Amerindian and 10 percent African. On the maternal side, 49 percent of chromosomes were pf European origin, 30 percent were Amerind, and 21 percent African.
Venezuela does not keep racial statistics of any sort… Costa Rica on the other hand, has one of the highest white populations of all the Central American countries.
Politically, these nations have swayed between totalitarian dictatorships and partial democracies, while socially, South America has become the source of some of the greatest disparities in the world. The end result of this tremendous mix of races in South America has been a continent of extremes: relatively well-off white enclaves surrounded by masses of desperately poor and ever growing numbers of nonwhites.’
The Y-DNA Haplogroups for the nations of the Caribbean, Central and South America with the limited data available. Notice the countries are not grouped geographically but with those they have a similar sequence.
Mexico: R1b [50%] – Q [ 16%] – J [10%] – E1b1b [10%] – G [4%] – I2a2 [4%] – R1a [4%]
Mexico: R1b – Q1a3a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2a2 – G2a – R1a
Belize: R1b/R1a – Q1a3a – I2 – J2/J1 – E1b1b – G2a
Peru: R1b/R1a – Q1a3a – J2/J1 – I2 – E1b1b – G2a
Guatemala: Q1a3a – R1b/R1a – I2 – J2/J1 – E1b1b – G2a
Ecuador: Q1a3a – R1b/R1a – E1b1b – J2/J1 – I2 – G2a
Bolivia: Q1a3a – R1b/R1a – E1b1b – J2/J1 – I2
Paraguay: Q1a3a – R1b/R1a – E1b1b – J2/J1
Panama: R1b/R1a – E1b1b – Q1a3a – J2/J1 – I2 – G2a
Honduras: R1b/R1a – E1b1b – I2 – J2/J1 – Q1a3a – G2a
Nicaragua: R1b/R1a – E1b1b – J2/J1 – I2 – Q1a3a – G2a
El Salvador: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – I2 – E1b1b – Q1a3a – G2a
Chile: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a – Q1a3a
Argentina: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a – Q1a3a
Costa Rica: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a
Uruguay: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a
Colombia: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a
Venezuela: R1b/R1a – J2/J1 – E1b1b – I2 – G2a
Dominican R: R1b/R1a – E1b1a/E1b1b – J2/J1 – I2 – G2a – B
Cuba: R1b/R1a – E1b1a/E1b1b – I2 – G2a – J2/J1 – T
Haplogroup Q reflects the percentage of indigenous Native Americans in a particular country. Haplogroups E1b1a and B show the increased percentage of Africans in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Though R1b, R1a and I are indicative of western and eastern Europeans, the levels of J, E1b1b and the inclusion of G are closer to nations from southern Europe.
Added with the lower percentage of R1b in Mexico and the R1b clades that thread back to Iberia and particularly the Basques, it shows the Latinos of the New World are distinct from the Latins of the Old. The assumption that the Latin American peoples are the same as the people in Spain, has only led to confusion for geneticists, ethnologists and historians alike. Mexico and Cuba have the greatest distance between them genetically, even though they are near neighbours and thus bookend the Latino nations.
E1b1b G J I R1a R1b Q
Egypt 44 6 28 0.5 2 6 0.3
Mexico 10 4 10 4 4 50 16
Spain 7 3 10 7 2 69
A comparison of Egypt [Pathros] and Mexico [Casluh & Caphtor] with Spain reveals that they are very different. Ostensibly, Spain and Mexico look similar. Living together for fifteen hundred years cannot be discounted. The marked difference in R1b levels shows there is yet a significant difference. It could be argued that intermixing with the Amerindian has reduced the R1b levels. Until detailed studies are implemented on the exact composition and descent of the R1b-M269 sub-Haplogroups in Latin America it will be up for debate.
The converse could also be a factor, in that Spain has increased levels of E1b1b and J because of the descendants of Casluh and Caphtor dwelling in the Iberian Peninsula for so many centuries. As we progress and more identities are discussed, the logic of the Philistine identity will fit smoothly into place as the only plausible answer. Just as there appears to be a wide genetic gap between the Arab and the Black African – though they are surely related – the same is true with the Arabs and the Latin Americans. The identities of Spain, Brazil and the United States of America will lend weight in evidencing the modern Philistine identity.
Don’t answer fools according to their folly, or you will become like them yourself. Answer fools according to their folly, or they will deem themselves wise.
Proverbs 26:4-5 Common English Bible
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