British Israelism: As Adjudicated by a ‘Neutral’ Investigator 

It is insightful to learn how the teaching of British Israelism is perceived by an individual outside of the identity movement. Therefore, who better than the author of a Research Paper, which ‘examines how the white supremacist movement Christian Identity emerged from [the] non-extremist forerunner known as British Israelism.’ The paper was presented by J M Berger in April 2017, for the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague. Berger ‘is an Associate Fellow at ICCT. He is a researcher, analyst and consultant, with a special focus on extremist activities in the U.S. and use of social media.’

Though it is not my intention to include his summations on the Christian Identity movement, I will reproduce sections of the earlier part of his paper regarding British Israelism as well as a portion of the conclusion. The paper is entitled: Extremist Construction of Identity: How Escalating Demands for Legitimacy Shape and Define In-Group and Out-Group Dynamics – emphasis & bold mine throughout, except book and article titles. What I found interesting, is Berger relies heavily on the work by J H Allen, published in 1902, Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright. As I consider this the most definitive material on the subject, at least the author had a comprehensive and relatively objective expounding of the doctrine as his prime text.

“British Israelism was a historical theory originating in the late 19th century, which stipulated with varying degrees of specificity that the “Chosen People” of the Old Testament – known as the Israelites – were the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxon “race”. In its very earliest iteration, the theory held that many Europeans were (unknowingly) Jewish. But this swiftly gave way to an argument that Europeans were the descendants and heirs of the Chosen People of Israel, distinct from a Jewish identity.”

This distinction with the Jews, whether by design or accident, highlights the fact that the Jews and British are not one and the same. They are immediate cousins, stemming from the twin brothers Esau and Jacob [refer Chapter XXIX Esau and Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. British Israelism was more than ‘a historical theory’, it is also a biblical doctrine; albeit not of mainstream Christianity. It also has its roots considerably earlier than the ‘late 19th century’.

“British Israelism constructed an in-group identity with two primary and interrelated components: nation and race. Adherents believed Anglo-Saxons were a distinct race descended from the so-called “lost tribes” of the nation of Israel described in the Bible. “

The term Anglo-Saxon is misleading, for the Saxons were a body of people which comprised specific tribes, such as the Angles, Jutes and Frisians. Genetically, they were kin of the Celtic peoples of Britain and Ireland, as were the Vikings and Normans. Thus, a more accurate description would be the Celtic-Saxon-Vikings. Plus, there are broadly three original racial lines of humankind and these diverged into sixteen main lineages of descent [refer Chapter I Noah]. The ‘Anglo-Saxons’ therefore are not a race, but rather a unique ethnicity or ancestry group, as say Germans or the Jews.

“The fate of these tribes is unclear in canonical texts, although later apocryphal works and religious and historical theories offer a variety of clues or explanations for their disappearance. “

What Berger possibly does not realise, is that there is a large body of evidence to show the migratory path of the Israelites post captivity and their sojourning northwards, into both Southern [Parthia] and Central Asia [Scythia], as well as southeastern Europe [Cimmerians]; all leading to Western Europe [Gauls] and finally the British Isles. 

“British Israelists theorised that the lost tribes had migrated to Europe and seeded a race of white Europeans, who were the rightful beneficiaries of covenants with God that had been documented in the Christian Old Testament. British Israelism did not entirely exclude modern Jews from the racial and religious line of God’s “chosen people”, Rather, the theory initially sought to extend the biblical status of the “chosen” to the race of Anglo-Saxons and the nation of the British Empire (and later to the United States). As the movement solidified, the idea was fleshed out in a torrent of extremely dense, pseudo-academic studies.”

The promises to Abraham pertaining to his descendants including birthright tribes of a ‘great’ nation and a ‘company of nations’ or union of states has been accomplished through the nations of Canada and the United States of America [refer chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim – the Birthright Tribes]. The promise of a Royal tribe with a prominent monarchy like no other has been fulfilled in the nation of England [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin – the Regal Tribes]. One could say all research of a historical nature which does not fit the curriculum of orthodox, mainstream disciplines are ‘pseudo-academic studies’. This does not make them any less relevant or true. It invariably means the foundations of orthodox history require re-visiting and re-interpretation. Either that, or deliberate fraud is being perpetrated in the effort to conceal intellectual dishonesty or error.

Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, published in 1902 by J. H. Allen, represents a mature explanation of the ideology. The book also stands out as one of the more accessible and influential works in a field overstuffed with elaborate scriptural citations, biblical genealogies and the parsing of Hebrew names against other names and words with similar sounds. In Barkun’s words, British Israelists “mimick(ed) techniques of historical scholarship, so that conclusions might be advanced not merely as statements of faith but as intersubjectively testable knowledge”. 

In keeping with the general outline shared by most British Israelist theorists, Allen argues that thenation of Israel described in the Bible has been misunderstood by mainstream scholars as an exclusively Jewish state. He claims the lost tribes of Israel migrated to the British Isles and survive today as Anglo-Saxons, constituting a separate nation and a semi-distinct race from the tribe of Judah, whose descendants are modern-day Jews. 

In Allen’s iteration of British Israelist theory, scriptures are deployed to support a claim that Anglo-Saxons and Jews descend from a single bloodlinein antiquity that eventually separated into somewhat distinct races, relying on the extensive genealogies chronicled in the Old Testament. The importance of these familial distinctions relate to various Old Testament covenants that promised future greatness to the descendants of Abraham. 

Allen separates these covenants according to whom they were promised, resulting in a “birthright” line, destined to be the “father of many nations”, and a distinct “sceptre” line, which he interprets as the royal line of David, through the tribe of Judah, from which Jesus Christ would be born. A notable component of this genealogical history involves junctures in the biblical narrative in which the birthright takes unexpected turns. Allen relates several examples in which the birthright does not proceed to the firstborn son, either due to God’s expressed preferences or due to actions taken by the men involved (for instance, when God chooses Jacob, the younger son of Isaac, to receive his birthright, instead of the older son, Esau). 

In Allen’s view – which he defends with a mix of biblical citations, folklore and arcane symbology – the lost tribes are heirs to the nation of Israel, distinct from the Jewish people.”

This is especially more critical, once it is understood that the Jewish people are not the tribe of Judah or Benjamin, Simeon and Levi; but rather Jacob’s brother, Esau. Hence, they are a different line of descent which has been confused with the British and Irish peoples. It is interesting to note that Berger is broadly labelling all historical material on the subject as ‘folklore’ thus relegating its authority to the level of myth. One would suspect that if his view were truly neutral without bias or that if he had performed extensive research, he would not have used that particular word. The word legend would be acceptable – for it does not carry the connotation of being imaginary or false – if one could not bring themselves to use the word history. 

“The biblical sources are a mix of what Allen presents as literal history and interpreted prophecy. From folklore, Allen selects data points useful to his argument, such as legends surrounding the “Stone of Scone,” an artifact used in the coronation of English monarchs, said to have originally belonged to the biblical patriarch Jacob. In the realm of symbology, later in the text, Allen veers into increasingly fervid flights of imagination. For example, he finds meaningful parallels between a biblical reference to a “scarlet thread” linked to the “sceptre” bloodline and the British flag, which has literal scarlet threads woven into its fabric.”

If Berger had researched further into the typology of the colour red in the Bible – specifically with regard to Edom [which means ‘red’] and Judah – and in the countries of Northern Ireland and England, his view may not be so veered towards thinking it stems from passionate ‘imagination’ [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad].

“Taken together, Allen argues, all of these data points prove that Anglo-Saxons are the rightful heirs to God’s promises, specifically a promise that the descendants of the biblical figure Ephraim would father “many nations” or “a company of nations”, which Allen casts as a prefigurement of the British Empire. He further separates one of the lost tribes – linked to the biblical figure Manasseh – as antecedent to the United States, making Americans rightful heirs of a prophecy that Manasseh’s descendants would one day form “a great nation” in the singular. Allen does not stop with this elevation of Anglo-Saxon destiny, however. He takes it a step further and argues that the “sceptre”, or royal line, has passed from the Jews to Israel, meaning the Anglo-Saxon tribes.”

This gravely highlights the problem with ascribing an incorrect identity to England. The royal line was not passed from Judah to Israel, for England is the true tribe of Judah. 

The Jews have never had the Sceptre promises, for they are Edom and not Judah. Manasseh means ‘forgotten’ and it is the forgotten ‘great nation’, Canada – ‘in the singular.’ Whereas, the United States is the true country comprised of ‘many nations’ or states, all with their own governments and identities held together by a federal government – e pluribus unum [‘out of many, one’].

Judah’s Sceptre is heavily concerned with distinctions of race, but these are important primarily as it concerns the proper inheritance of God’s prophesied blessings. In a chapter titled “Race Versus Grace”, Allen mounts an argument that both race and grace (meaning religiously correct belief and action) are necessary for Israel to fulfil prophecy and establish the word of God on Earth.

This formulation frames British Israelism as an ethno-nationalist movement with some significant loopholes and exceptions for those who are willing to assimilate. 

One key exception applies to the Jews. Allen portrays the rift between the Israelites and the Jews as religious and historical in nature, rather than intrinsically racial, and he argues that Anglo-Saxon “Israel” will eventually be reunited with the Jews in accordance with prophecy. As Allen explains, “The brotherhood is still broken, but it shall be mended” (emphasis in original). For Allen, the shared racial heritage of Jews and Anglo-Saxons unites more than it divides.”

This is where it does become clouded and where this writer disagrees with Allen and all who subscribe to the Jews being Judah. Berger is right to note the racial disparity with, but equally over riding the historical or religious differences. The Jews, though related are a different ethnicity from the British and Irish descended peoples. True Judah did reunite with the other tribes in the British Isles, as England.

“Implicit but essential to this racial calculus is some manner of patronising superiority and ultimate sovereignty over the world’s other races. But despite the centrality of race to his argument, Allen neglects to mention – in the course of nearly 100,000 words – how people of African or Asian descent might be impacted by the ascendance of divinely ordained Anglo-Saxon hegemony, aside from a tangential note that the abolition of slavery in the West was morally correct and in accordance with prophecy.” 

It possibly suits Berger to think that Allen is advocating racial supremacy; for his whole intent in his paper is to show the roots of Christian Identity and of racist ideology. Anyone who is well acquainted with the biblical promises, prophecies and instructions from the Eternal, knows that ‘patronising superiority’ was not the intention, but rather humble service.

“Earlier iterations of the British Israelite theory were slightly more forthcoming on this point. The earliest formal statement of British Israelism as a distinct ideology was the 1876 tract, Lectures on Our Israelitish Origin. The book’s author, John Wilson, is described by Barkun as a key figure in institutionalising the ideology as a movement.”

I am not aware of who Barkun is, though as Berger quotes him more than once and as Barkun appears to be an opponent of British Israelism, I wonder how much Barkun has coloured – no pun intended – and influenced Berger’s view?

“In Lectures, Wilson presents a fairly typical theory of the time, describing three “major races” that branch off from the sons of Noah – Shem (white), Ham (black), and Japheth (Asian and indigenous people such as Native Americans) – accompanied by patronising descriptions of non-white characteristics. Few of these racial formulations were original to Wilson; some had existed for centuries as part of theological justifications for slavery. For instance, Wilson reiterates a well-known theological interpretation of the day, used by others to justify the enslavement of Africans based on a biblical story in which Ham’s son is cursed by God to be a slave.” 

It may be unsavoury and unpopular to admit, but the sad reality is that the Africans have been enslaved in prophetic fulfilment of Genesis chapter nine [refer Chapter XI Ham and Chapter XII Canaan]. It does not justify the Arab or European actions towards the sub-Saharan Africans, but it does explain them. It would seem that any description of other ‘races’ in contrast to a ‘white’ race would be perceived as ‘patronising’ by a great number of people. This does not make it true. Recent studies support that the peoples of the world do fall into three major subsets regarding lineal ancestry. Again, deny, deny, deny all one wants, but it does not make the fact disappear. 

“Wilson devotes more ink than Allen to a discussion of race and more visibly reflects the prevalent racist attitudes of his day, but these elements are also clearly tangential to his primary argument that Anglo-Saxons are the lineal inheritors of the nation of Israel. 

While early adherents of British Israelism waxed on at great length to assert and justify their elevated in-group status as the rightful heirs of prophecy and special status in the eyes of God, their writings rarely ventured into out-group dynamics in any meaningful way – even when discussing the most obvious potential challenge to their scriptural claims of legitimacy, the Jews. 

British Israelism patently disenfranchises the Jews of their biblical covenants with God and transfers the benefits of those covenants to Anglo-Saxons. But from the perspective of Wilson, Allen and other British Israelists, this wasn’t larceny, it was simply a lateral variation on the “normal” status quo.”

This is where there is an enormous abyss of ignorance which makes the whole subject of British Israelism complex and less credible. It is only in understanding that not only are the Jews not Judah and thus not the recipients of the royal sceptre blessings, but rather they are Edom – the brother who though not cursed per se, was not blessed. There was no ‘transfer’ or separation from ‘biblical covenants’ for the Jews, for they never had them in the first place. 

“British Israelists started from the assumption that the Jews had no covenants left to lose. Most mainstream Christian theologians of the day endorsed some form of “replacement theology” – a belief that Old Testament covenants were either superseded or fulfilled by the coming of Christ.  We know the British Israelists emerged from that tradition because they devoted many pages to detailed refutations of replacement theology, arguing that the old covenants had not been superseded or fulfilled, but were still valid and subject to a legitimate claim by Anglo-Saxons.”

An important distinction needs to be made here and it may be one that Berger is not fully conversant with. The Old Covenant as applying to the Mosaic Law surrounding the Sacrificial system and Levitical priesthood had been fulfilled with the Messiah’s sinless life, death and resurrection [refer article, The Legality of the law & The Sabbath Secrecy]. 

The covenantal promises made to the patriarch Abraham for his faith and obedience did not end and have been fulfilled in the remarkable blessings afforded the British and Irish descended peoples and nations. Is that racist? If so, that means the Being who created the races is racist. This is obviously an absurd statement. How can the Creator be racist over His own creation? Think about it.

“In other words, British Israelists did not emerge to contest the legitimacy of a Jewish claim to the benefits of the covenants.The very notion was so irrelevant to their thinking that they never even dignified it with their attention. Instead, they emerged to contest the contemporaneous Christian claim that the covenants had been replaced.” 

The first statement would carry great consequence if the Jews were truly of the tribe of Judah. As they are not, it is of little consequence. The second statement would carry weight if the promised blessings destined to Abraham’s descendants through Isaac and Jacob had somehow been reneged upon or superseded by a different covenant. But they were not, for the passing away of the Old Covenant did not have any bearing on the Abrahamic covenant. The Eternal promised to bless Abraham unconditionally [Genesis 17:1-19]. The only change if one wished to be precise about technicalities was the ceasing of circumcision as the necessary outward sign of the covenant by the time of Christ. Yet even so, this was in relation to Abraham’s obedience to the Law and a prefigurement of the Sinai Covenant and the Ten Commandments given to Moses and the congregation of Israel; whereby circumcision remained and the sign of the Sabbath was added.

“Thus, most early British Israelists did not frame Jews as an enemy out-group, treating them instead as an alienated segment of the Israelite in-group. For Wilson, Jews and Europeans alike are descendants of Shem and thus genetically superior to the other two major races. Wilson often uses Caucasian and Semitic interchangeably, although he specifies that Anglo-Saxons are the best exemplars of the race and further claims that the Jewish line has been polluted by race-mixing – a point that would be recalled by later writers and eventually take on much greater importance. 

This miscegenation, along with the rejection and execution of Christ, contributed to disqualifying modern Jews from participation in God’s covenants, Wilson argues, but he stipulates that the Jews can be re-assimilated into the nation of Israel by converting to Christianity. While he criticises the Jews for “unceasing hatred [of] not only Christ, the Head, but also His followers”, he is also very specific that they must not be excluded from the fulfilment of prophecy, explaining: 

Do we bring forward these historical truths to disparage the Jew? Far from it. Only to illustrate the truth regarding Israel.”

The Bible reveals that Esau not only married outside his close relative’s gene pool, but  considerably polluted his line with his choice of wives. It should then be no surprise that the Sephardim by degree and the Ashkenazim substantially, show the results of admixture for near on four millennia. The question of disqualification and re-assimilation are non-issues considering the Jews are not a lost, or separate tribe from Israel; nor are they prophesied a change of heart, or a conversion to Christianity. These are not accurate interpretations, due to the profound mis-identification of the Jewish people.

‘Allen, writing 27 years later, is far more careful to avoid disparaging Jews (or anyone else) on racial grounds, arguing that in the future, Anglo-Israel and the tribe of Judah “are again to be united, become one kingdom, and then remain so forever”. Other British Israelist authors generally followed the same template, expecting a future reunification and embracing a patronising and often freighted philo-Semitism. 

“Ephraim – the Anglo-Saxon – are reaching out the hand of love – of fraternal affection – to Judah, the Jews, inviting them to terms of fellowship, such as in the days of old when they came out of Egypt, and before the separation”, wrote E.P. Ingersoll in 1886’s Lost Israel Found in the Anglo-Saxon Race

“View the Jews, therefore, in any aspect you please, they at once arrest our attention, inspire our thoughts and command our admiration”, wrote William H. Poole in 1889’s AngloIsrael or the Saxon Race Proved to be the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel – before describing a stereotypically unpleasant Jewish “countenance” as a byproduct of their rejection of Christ. 

Despite all the qualifications and stipulations, the fraternal impulses of the British Israelists were fraught with underlying tensions, chiefly that their magnanimity toward the Jews was predicated on a firm expectation of eventual assimilation. Jews must eventually embrace Christianity in order for British Israelists’ prophetic expectations to be fulfilled. This underlying tension would grow sharper as British Israelism evolved into the mid-20th century, at the same time that a broader social strain of anti-Semitism was evolving from a religious construct into a racial one.’

There will never, ever be any kind of ‘reunification’ between ‘Anglo-Israel’ and the Edomite Jews. The unity of Judah and Israel has been in evidence and demonstrated since 1801 in the guise of the United Kingdom of Great Britain – and since 1922, including Northern Ireland. 

“British Israelites sought to enhance in-group legitimacy by making Anglo-Saxons the inheritors of biblical covenants and promises of greatness. This was accomplished in texts through a pseudo-scholarly approach, designed to woo potential recruits through deliberative arguments. 

Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright creates its constructs of identity by establishing elaborate conceptual linkages among a number of in-group concepts and knowledge assets.

Judah’s Sceptre is not a fully formed extremist interpretation of the world, in part because it emerges from a discriminatory worldview in which it is not necessary to disenfranchise Jews of what they do not possess. Furthermore, it does not critique Jewish practices or historical behaviour (or rather, it does not single Jews out for more criticism than Anglo-Saxons). Instead, its primary critique is intellectual in basis and directed at mainstream Christian theologians whose conclusions differ from Allen’s. 

Nevertheless, Allen provides seeds for the eventual development of an out-group dynamic, setting the stage for the next generation of British Israelists. These are derived from the in-group linkage that “God made covenants with the Israelites” and that “Anglo-Saxons are Israelites”. 

These two points are real in their premises. The Eternal did make covenants with the Hebrews, beginning with Abraham and lasting through to Moses some 430 years later. The body of material supporting that the Israelites have to have descendants in the modern world somewhere, is attributable, beyond question and any reasonable doubt to the Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of Britain and Ireland. In depth research would confirm this to any person who does not serve a religious or academic agenda. 

To then blame Allen and other writers for indirectly influencing the racist philosophies of white supremacy groups is unjustifiably harsh. People have an uncanny knack for turning anything good or true into a catalyst for evil or error.

“Allen could have marshaled the same sources to argue that Anglo-Saxons were simply included or co-equal with the Jews in the inheritance of covenants. The fact that he, and most other British Israelite authors, chose not to take this approach provided the opening for an increasingly virulent strain of anti-Semitism that would eventually subsume the original ideology’s particular and specific worldview.”

What Berger does not realise, is that even if one wanted to place the Jews and Anglo-Israel together on an equal footing, it would be historically, ethnically and genetically incorrect, a falsehood. The writers on the subject cannot be held culpable for a stance that though arrived at thorough error, still produced the correct conclusion. 

“Many of the concepts in the text are bundled (see chart…), particularly the key idea of heredity, which is a bundled collection of links between history, scripture, folklore and analysis. The crucial argument that “Anglo-Saxons are Israelites” is built on multiple bundles. Allen’s articulation of the ideology can be usefully diagrammed according to these linkages and bundled concepts. 

Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright uses these links and bundles to establish several benchmarks of in-group identity, including:  

Defining shared beliefs (religious) 

Defining shared history (scripture, heredity) 

Defining intrinsic, non-negotiable identity (heredity, Anglo-Israel nation)”


Linkages in the text of Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright. 

Green lines represent links defining the in-group; red lines pertain to out-groups. 

I presume because I am an advocate of the understanding that the Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples are the descendants of the sons of Jacob from biblical, secular and genetic [Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroup] evidence, I do not see anything inherently wrong or evil in the above ‘bundle’ chart. Apart from the fact that the United States is not Manasseh, England is not Ephraim and the Jews are not Judah, that is. I guess one would need to be an atheist, evolutionist or a rigid orthodox Christian to remain a sceptic when confronted with as much documentation as exists on the topic.  

“For the early British Israelists, the heavy lifting is found in the work of constructing an intrinsic identity (Anglo-Israel) through “historical” proofs, derived from the bundled concepts of scripture, history and folklore. These are not treated as entirely interchangeable. Scriptural genealogies and history are seen as identical constructs; folklore is relegated to providing secondary and supporting proofs.

This bundle of concepts is the linchpin that keeps the wheels from flying off. Without the genealogical argument, British Israelism falls apart. In contrast, the future fruits of heredity are presented in relatively modest fashion – blessings due to a “great nation” and a “company of nations”. When Allen invokes prophecy, he is most often pointing to prophecies he believes have already been fulfilled, which in turn are bundled into the historical and intrinsic constructs. Expectations for the future of the identity group remain vague. The movement, in its early stages, seeks its legitimacy in the past.”

To fully understand Bible prophecy, one would need to know the identities of the peoples being discussed in biblical passages. As identities have been inherently incorrect, accurate interpretations of future prophecy have remained allusive for all bible scholars and biblical historians, including the leading proponent of British Israelism, J H Allen. 

“British Israelism, Barkun writes, was often “philo-Semitic”, but it “operated in an environment rife with anti-Semitism” and “racial theorizing”. The movement also had implicit elements of anti-Semitism in its elevation of the Anglo-Saxon line over the Judaic line, as well as reflecting general white racial attitudes of the day, which were not especially enlightened and at times tended toward the conspiratorial.”

It is a very sensitively deduced line that dissects what is considered anti-Semitic or racist. Try to explain the doctrine of British Israelism as delineated in scripture – believed by many to be inspired writings – and one is suddenly anti-Semitic. Yet in irony, those who claim anti-semitism appear unaware that the word is a misapplication of its meaning; for a ‘Semite’ is one that speaks a particular language group and is not a definition of ethnicity or race. As far as ‘white racial attitudes’, it is factual history that the age of enlightenment was begun with the Europeans. Does this mean they have higher intelligence than the rest of the world, or that they are superior? No. They had the opportunity and desire to explore, travel and migrate. Is discussing the endeavours and achievements of Europeans, racist? Surely not. 

“For some early British Israelist writers, the movement actually allayed concerns about perceived Jewish influence by offering a prophesied path toward purification and reconciliation of the tribes of Israel. The religious basis for the out-group formulation offered an important escape clause, and one that could be safely postponed until prophetic conditions were met at some unspecified point in the future. 

British Israelism began by defining Anglo-Saxon identity primarily by a shared history derived from shared beliefs (both drawn from Christian scriptures). Early British Israelists were obsessed with the history plank of the identity platform. As more planks were added to the platform, the in-group’s demand for legitimacy increased.”

A by-product of historical research is that further documentation adds weight to the initial argument and its foundation, whether ‘demanded’ or not and whether ‘legitimacy’ is required or not. 

“Early adherents sought to establish their legitimacy by claiming that Great Britain and the United States had already fulfilled relevant prophecies. Therefore, initially, the movement was less concerned with the future. But two World Wars and the establishment of a Jewish Israel rocked the complacency of a movement originally content with being a “great nation” and a “company of nations”, leading to a growing obsession with not-yet-fulfilled prophecies of an apocalyptic conflict that adherents concluded Anglo-Israel was destined to win.”

The establishment of the Jewish State of Palestine can be clearly shown as a fulfilment of biblical prophecy for Edom and not Judah [refer Chapter XXIX Esau].

“The question of “who we are” also shifted. Initial British Israelist scholarship traced the “birthright and sceptre” of Israel through a series of decisions points involving God or the Israelites. The racial implications of inheritance became more and more important for subsequent generations, leading to the description and definition of intrinsic Anglo- Saxon racial qualities, while emphasising the racial impurity of those figures excluded from the Israelite line.”

If such were the case regarding ‘racial impurity’, then the fault lay with those expounding the teaching or perhaps with those reading it and their own interpretation. The fault does not lay with the doctrine itself. If it is condemned by some, then the Eternal who made humankind and predetermined their ethnicities and national boundaries is at fault. I certainly would not be desirous of being foolish enough in denouncing the Creator with an mis-allegation such as this one.  

“Nearly 70 years of prolific British Israelist output had produced a massive body of “scholarship”… creating an illusion of rigour [‘scrupulous accuracy’]. The “proofs” laboriously devised by… authors were carefully cited and catalogued… Early and middle-period British Israelist texts are extremely deliberative in focus. They are concerned with building the case for Anglo-Saxon identity, and they approach it using the trappings of scholarship. Evidence is marshal[l]ed, arguments are advanced, and counter-arguments are entertained. British Israelist authors did not require (or even conceive of) their audience as a force to be mobilised toward action [that is, the later Christian Identity movement]; they primarily sought validation, especially from theological and scientific authorities. The nature of this goal required deliberative arguments.”

Berger uses conflicting language, in that deliberate means: ‘carefully weighed or considered, cautious consideration, careful or slow in deciding, to weigh in the mind, to think carefully or attentively, to consult or confer formally.’ It seems to this writer that the word is appropriate in light of the material that has been presented by the leading exponents of British Israelism, such as J H Allen. Berger also conflicts in the phrase trappings of scholarship. Either investigated material is scholarship, or it is not. There is no middle ground or ‘fake’ scholarship. The word scholarship means: ‘learning, knowledge acquired by study, the academic attainments of a scholar.’ And, what is a scholar? ‘A learned or erudite person, especially one who has profound knowledge of a particular subject.’ 

It does not seem to occur to investigators like Berger, that possibly they are the ones who are not perceiving the clear truth laid before them in plain sight; or that the writers on the subject are not deluded or duplicitous. This ends my critique and necessary rebuttal to a review and evaluation that leaned not towards neutrality as hoped, but instead portrayed an unconcealed antagonistic bias. 

© Orion Gold 2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Dan: The Invisible Tribe

Chapter XXXIV

The final chapter, for the final identity and the final piece of the puzzle – the darkly enigmatic, tribe of Dan. Of all identity research on the tribes of Israel, none has drawn more interest, discussion and articles than Dan the fifth son of Jacob. With Ephraim and Manasseh, it has proven to be a very popular tribe for investigation. In part because its identity has been incorrectly perceived as easy. The perplexing irony is that its appeal lays in Dan’s proclivity to leave his name wherever he travelled as a marker that neatly leaves a path for the identity buff to follow. What is then baffling is the fact that the people of Dan can be traced to Ireland and Britain, with the serpentine trail suddenly going cold. 

We follow the snakelike twists and turns of its tail, to then find that its head is hidden and for the serpent of Dan to be concealed and laying undisclosed. Aside from Judah, Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin, Dan receives a fair amount of air time in the Bible. His role in end time events increasing as the latter days encroach. So who is Dan, where is Dan and why is Dan hidden? 

Dan is like some of the other identities of Israel in that it is rather unanimous amongst identity adherents regarding his modern identification. The major blind is the nation of Denmark and the popular teaching that they constitute one half of Dan, as in Dan’s mark. We have discussed the nation of Denmark in Chapter XXVII Abraham, as well as the Danes, as in the true Vikings in Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali. The modern Danes are in fact the tribe of Medan, descended from Abraham and his second wife, Keturah. 

The other half of Dan, though warmer is still cold and that is ascribing them to the modern nation of Ireland. As discussed in Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, the Irish are in fact the tribe of Gad. Some more enterprising researchers have attributed Dan to Northern Ireland and this to their credit is much warmer again, though still not correct, for Northern Ireland is the tribe of Reuben. The tribe of Dan, or Tuathe de Danaan entered Ireland and fully explored Alba Britain from top to bottom, leaving their name as Dun in Scotland, Don in England and Din in Wales. Scotland is Benjamin, Wales is Simeon and England is Judah, but who is Dan? And where is Dan? 

It is recommended that Chapter XXIX Esau be read prior to this chapter. It would also be useful to read Chapters XXX through to XXXIII. 

We first meet Dan in Genesis chapter thirty, though the name Dan first appears in Genesis chapter fourteen. His birth happens after a major family domestic in Jacob’s household; which had been simmering for a good length of time, while Leah was providing son after son and her younger sister Rachel remained barren. There was anger and frustration on both sides, between Jacob and Rachel. Jacob desired a son from his favourite wife and Rachel wanted to remain important in his eyes by giving him a son. Rachel also felt under pressure to her fertile sister. It must have been quite an unhappy house until Bilhah conceived and then finally Rachel did with Joseph, many years later. Dan was born in 1746 BCE, some twenty years before Jospeh in 1726 BCE. 

Genesis 30:1-8

English Standard Version

When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, she envied her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children, or I shall die!”Jacob’s anger was kindled against Rachel, and he said, “Am I in the place of God, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?” 3 Then she said, “Here is my servant Bilhah; go in to her, so that she may give birth on my behalf, that even I may have children through her.” 4 So she gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob went in to her. 5 And Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son. 6 Then Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son.” Therefore she called his name Dan [Judged]. 7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Dan, meaningJudge from the verb (din), to judge, govern, contend or plead

Dan is the name of a tribe of Israel, which descended from Dan, the son of Jacob and Bilhah, the maid of Rachel (Genesis 30:6). Dan’s only full brother is Naphtali. But prior to the existence of Dan the tribe, there was a town (or region) named Dan, mentioned in the War of Four against Five Kings (Genesis 14:14). In Judges 18:7 we learn about a town called Laish, near Beth-rehob, which is razed to the ground by a gang of (Danites). They rebuild the town and call it Dan, after their tribal founder. The Oxford Companion to the Bible, however, claims that this city Dan is the same as the one mentioned in Genesis 14:14, and called so in retrospect. 

The verb (din) means to judge or govern. It’s an old verb that mostly describes the authority of a naturally superior (because that person is wiser, stronger, older) in contrast to the governing done by a formal government (by politically favored and appointed officials). The noun (dayyan) describes one such a leader, and noun (din) describes anything pertaining to primitive governing: a judgment, plea, complaint, contention. Noun (madon) literally describes a “place or judging” and is synonymous with the contending that goes on in such a place. Noun (medina) described the jurisdiction of one judge, and became the word for province.

For a meaning of the name Dan, BDB Theological Dictionary and the NOBSE Study Bible Name List agree on Judge. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Judge, Judging.’

As we have studied Genesis chapter fourteen in length in Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer and in Chapter XXVII Abraham we will briefly mention the association between the city of Dan and the other cities in the plain of the Elioud giants. The city may well have had a retrospective naming to it. Either way, the coincidence remains that as the land of Canaan was infested with Nephilim offspring in Abraham’s day; it was the area some of Dan’s descendants chose to migrate to in the north – from their original southerly location – that was an historic hotbed of Nephilim activity after the flood. It was in the area of Bashan that Mount Hermon was located where the Watchers had originally descended in the antediluvian epoch. The other tie in is the fact that the tribe of Dan has a connection with the Amalekites and Horites of whom Esau married into. The very same Amalekites and Horites that were descendants of Nephilim and were alive in Abraham’s time as stated in Genesis chapter fourteen [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Genesis 14:14

English Standard Version

When Abram heard that his kinsman [Lot] had been taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, 318 of them, and went in pursuit [northwards] as far as Dan.

We next meet Dan in Genesis chapter thirty-seven, which we discussed in the preceding section, Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim. Joseph gave a ‘bad report’ about his bothers Dan, Naphtali, Asher and Gad – the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. The word bad can be read as evil. As we will progress, we learn that Dan was the ‘black sheep’ of the family and as a ‘bad boy’ it is very possible he was leading his three brothers astray as the eldest of the four. This incident reveals the dark side to Dan and the inference is that he is the ring leader of a plan that will have far ranging implications for the entirety of his family right until the return of the Son of Man. 

It appears that Dan and his three brothers, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, did not have a good relationship with Joseph; with this incident prefacing the subsequent plot against Joseph’s life that changed the course of history. Reuben and Judah, the most prominent individuals in the story of the brothers’ betrayal of Joseph are always cast as the villains in the piece, yet a close inspection of Genesis chapter thirty-seven reveals that these two brothers endeavoured to spare the life of Joseph. The real villains are the group of four headed by Dan, who were concocting their plan to murder Joseph. Hence Joseph’s concern and report to Jacob. This has repercussions for Joseph’s and Dans’ relationship later. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

… such a betrayal of Joseph by Dan cannot help but be seen as an ancient type of another far greater betrayal, that instigated by Judas Iscariot toward the Messiah Himself.  

Indeed, the parallels are fascinating and compelling, for as there were twelve apostles, so there were twelve tribes of Israel, one of which would betray… Jesus.  And it can be stated without hesitation that of all the sons of Jacob, none even come remotely close to typifying the coming Messiah, other than Joseph who, in fact, is arguably the most complete type of Christ in all the Scriptures! In fact, it is impossible not to associate the betrayal of Joseph with the later infamous betrayal of the Savior.’

There are three very small verses about Dan – as recorded in Jacob’s prophecy – that are monumental in their ramifications. We will address them one at a time scripturally and then include the research of others and how it may all fit together. For to be honest, there is much conjecture involved with Dan and the full answer may remain allusive until all things are one day, resolved. 

Many commentators and Bible translations refer to Genesis forty-nine as the blessings of Jacob, yet in verse one, Jacob says: ‘… which shall befall you in the last days.’ Rather than a blessing it is an unpleasant synopsis of what is to happen to the various tribes, one great, Joseph; some good, Judah, Asher, Naphtali; some okay, Simeon, Levi, Zebulun, Gad, Benjamin; others not so good, Reuben, Issachar; and then Dan’s. Some tribes have their challenges highlighted or are given dire predictions. It is only Dan that is singled out as embracing an inner heart of evil.

Genesis 49:16-18

English Standard Version

16 “Dan [H1835 – Dan: a judge] shall judge [H1777 – diyn] his people [H5971 – am] as one [H259 – ‘echad: each, every, any, alike] of the tribes [H7626 – shebet] of Israel. 

Other translations of verse sixteen include – 

CEV: Dan, you are the tribe that will bring justice to Israel.

GNT: “Dan will be a ruler for his people. They will be like the other tribes of Israel.

MSG: Dan will handle matters of justice for his people; he will hold his own just fine among the tribes of Israel.

NABRE: “Dan shall achieve justice for his people as one of the tribes of Israel.

WYC: Dan shall deem his people, as also another lineage in Israel.

We are alerted in the first few words, that Dan is like all the other tribes, yet he isn’t like them at all. It is certainly a riddle and a word play is used, as it says Dan shall judge, which could be written as Dan shall Dan, or Judge shall judge. The second Hebrew word for Dan is subtly different from the name Dan. It can be translated as ‘plead the cause, contend, execute, strife.’ It can mean ‘to act as judge, minister, requite, vindicate, strive, to be at strife, quarrel.’ 

By extension it can also mean to ‘sail direct’ or ‘a straight course.’ This is ironic as the tribe of Dan were formidable sailors but didn’t exactly travel in straight lines whether by sea or land. 

It is the same word as used in Genesis 6:3 KJV, where the Creator says: ‘My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.’ This is an interesting coincidence as this was the final one hundred and twenty years prior to the flood, designed to wipe out the Nephilim related peoples; the period that Noah had to preach a warning and the age that humankind was ultimately going to live as maximum after Abraham’s generation. Here, Dan is linked to the Nephilim, a reoccurring theme that we will discover is confirmed throughout the Bible and history.

The Hebrew word used for people can be translated as nations [17], folk [2] and men [1]. It refers to ‘members of one’s people, compatriots, country-men, kinsman’ and ‘kindred.’ One would assume it means fellow Danites, though other verses hint at a broader application that may mean all the sons of Jacob. The word of real interest is for tribe, shebet. This word can be translated as rod [34], sceptre [10] and staff [2]. It means ‘branch, offshoot, club, spear, dart, truncheon’ and ‘clan.’ A ‘mark of authority’ and rulership. 

All the tribes rule themselves, though by varying degree. The United States, Ireland and South Africa have become Republics and detached from the Monarchy of England or Judah. The descendants of Zebulun and Issachar in South Africa are small in number and have been subservient to the earlier preeminence of the Afrikaner and now the majority Black rule; they are still visible and possessing tangible territory. Canada, Australia and New Zealand are independent nations, yet still pledge allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II. The countries of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are still attached to the House of Judah and form a United Kingdom, a Kingdom of Judah with England. Reuben of Northern Ireland and Simeon of Wales, again though small in number have a tangible and visible presence. 

This is where the difference lays with Dan. If he is judging or governing like the other tribes with a sceptre of rulership, what is he ruling, who is he ruling? Verse sixteen leaves more questions than it answers. What may be extracted from the verse is that Dan may not be ostensibly identifiable like his brothers, though he none-the-less exerts influence of some kind. Which means he judges whether from a legal or political criterion, and a business or finance standpoint.

17 Dan shall be a serpent [H5175 – nachash: a snake, serpent] in the way [H1870 – derek], a viper [H8207 – shphiyphon: (horned) adder] by the path [H734 – ‘orach], that bites [H5391 = nashak] the horse’s [H5483 – cuwc] heels [H6119 – aqeb] so that his rider [H7392 – rakab] falls [H5307 – naphal] backward. 

Other translations of verse sixteen include:

ERV: Dan will be like a snake at the side of the road. He will be like a dangerous snake lying near the path. That snake bites a horse’s foot, and the rider falls to the ground.

MSG: Dan is only a small snake in the grass, a lethal serpent in ambush by the road When he strikes a horse in the heel, and brings its huge rider crashing down.

WYC: Dan be made a serpent in the way, and (a) cerastes, that is, an horned adder, in the path, and bite he the feet of an horse, that the rider of him fall backward

The Hebrew word for serpent signifies a ‘fleeing serpent’, that is, one that is moving and the second word describing this serpent is revealing. We learn that Dan may be small, but packs a big punch, typical of a snake that can terrify and bring down a much larger creature as in a horse with a human rider. Though Dan was given a small inheritance, they would become a leading tribe – shrewd, clever and predatory. The snake is associated with wisdom as we have discussed. Wisdom can mean evil, cunning and immersed in the dark arts and the occult; or, it can relate to godly wisdom in handing situations diplomatically and effectively. Such as the instruction given by the Son of Man, to the disciples when they would later as Apostles, travel and preach. 

Matthew 10:16

English Standard Version

“Behold, I am sending you out as sheep in the midst of wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.

Equating the serpent with Dan is associating him with Samael the great Adversary and a chief entity of wickedness and evil. From the opening scriptures in the Garden of Eden as the Serpent to the very concluding chapters of this age, as the Dragon, Satan looms over the vast plot that is the Bible. This prophecy regarding Dan is shocking for it pertains to his attitude and action toward his own family. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis mine:

‘Is Jacob stating or implying here that Dan will be as the Adversary in the affairs of Israel in the end-time?  Was Dan’s father given a revelation of future betrayal within his own clan?  If so, this is disturbing news for latter-day Israel, and could well provide enquiring minds today with an invaluable key as to what part the tribe of Dan is destined to play in world affairs. 

The Hebrew word for adder is shphiyphon, and is derived from the root term shuwph, which means to gape, to snap at, to overwhelm, and is rendered to break, bruise, and cover. 

Thus it is quite apparent that Jacob’s perception of his son in this instance is far from positive. Thus Dan is prophesied to be an impediment, an opponent, and negative force in the latter days.’

Some translations use the word adder to identify the serpent, which is not as accurate as viper. For instance, the United Kingdom has a small adder, though it is too small, not aggressive enough and its venom is non-lethal to be a satisfactory explanation, of say the horse representing England, or the United Kingdom. 

Superficially, the horned adder could be reference to the venomous snake from southwestern Africa. The WYC translation makes reference to the cerastes species. In the United States there is the sidewinder, Crotalus cerastes, also known as the horned rattlesnake and sidewinder rattlesnake. It is a venomous fit viper species belonging to the genus Crotalus, the rattlesnake and is found in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico; with three subspecies currently recognised. 

Crotalus cerastes in Mesquite Springs, California

What is the Don’t Tread on Me Flag, 2021 – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

You have probably seen this flag before: A bright yellow banner with the image of a hissing coiled rattlesnake standing over a patch of grass and the words “DON’T TREAD ON ME,” sometimes without an apostrophe. Variants of this flag’s iconic snake design and motto are a common sight among American gun owners. What does this flag represent, and why is it so popular?’

‘Although often referred to as the “Don’t Tread on Me” flag, the correct name is the Gadsden flag, named after its designer, Christopher Gadsden, an American Revolution-era politician. The Gadsden flag’s history begins in 1775, when Christopher Gadsden, a Continental Colonel from South Carolina, designed the flag and presented it to the Colonial Marines,  the American Colonies’ amphibious infantry force. The Colonial Marines adopted Gadsden’s flag alongside another design (the Moultrie Flag, a blue flag with a white crescent overlaid with the word “LIBERTY”). Both flags served as symbols of the Continental Marines until 1798, at which point the unit transitioned into the modern-day United States Marine Corps.’ 

Christopher Gadsden – notice Gad and Dan are in his name – was known as ‘the Sam Adams of the South.’ A soldier and a statesman, Gadsden was a founding member of South Carolina’s Sons of Liberty chapter. He served as a delegate to both the First and Second Continental Congresses, as well as commander of the 1st South Carolina Regiment of the Continental Army. Gadsden was elected to the position of governor for South Carolina, but declined the position due to his health. He died in 1805 and was buried in Charlestown. The Gadsden Purchase in Arizona was named for his grandson, who was a diplomat.

‘After the Revolutionary War ended and the United States declared independence, the Gadsden flag fell into disuse, only occasionally flown in Charleston, South Carolina, as a historical symbol, until the flag’s modern resurgence in the 1970s. The Gadsden flag originally featured a plain yellow field, a coiled timber rattlesnake facing to the left, and the words “DONT TREAD ON ME.” Although modern incarnations later included the apostrophe, the original flag featured none.

The timber rattlesnake (scientific name: Crotalus horridus) is a highly venomous species of pit viper native to the eastern regions of North America. This snake was well-known and feared in all 13 of the original American colonies and was one of the first recurring American animal symbols. The words “Don’t Tread on Me” are a motto and a battle cry intended to warn the British crown that the colonies will defend themselves if attacked.

Crotalus horridus

Before the bald eagle became associated with the country’s most prominent symbols, such as the Great Seal, the Coat of Arms, and the Seal of the President, the timber rattlesnake was once one of the most frequently used animals to represent the United States.

In a well-known article, Benjamin Franklin suggested with sarcasm that the American colonists send rattlesnakes to England in exchange for the prisoners routinely transported from England to the Americas to protest against the British crown’s practices of penal transportation and forming penal colonies.

The Gadsden flag’s use of a snake to represent united colonies and their shared American identity is a call-back to the snake featured on the famous “ Join, or Die” illustration, said to have been drawn by Benjamin Franklin in 1754. Franklin’s version of the snake was depicted as dead and cut into segments, each named after a colony or a  region.’

By 1775, the rattlesnake was a very popular symbol of America. It could be found throughout the thirteen colonies on everything from buttons, badges, paper money and flags. No longer was the snake cut into pieces. It was now recognisably the American timber rattlesnake, coiled into an attack position with thirteen rattles on its tail. 

The flag took on a special historical significance at the Battle of Bunker Hill. This battle is still celebrated in Boston, where Colonel William Prescott famously gave the order not to fire “until you see the whites of their eyes.” 

Ships that carried marines had drummers and their drums featured the yellow of the Gadsden Flag with the now well known snake emblazoned on top. It included the words “Don’t Tread On Me” – now a famous motto that adorned the clothing and accessories of freedom fighters from coast to coast.

‘After the Gadsden flag’s adoption by the Colonial Marines, Franklin later noted in a 1775 issue of the Pennsylvania Journal that the snake “strongly resembles America,” favorably comparing the snake’s many traits with America, reasserting the snake’s significance as an American symbol.’

In December of 1775, ‘an Anonymous Guesser’ wrote a letter to the Pennsylvania Journal. Most scholars now agree that it was written by Benjamin Franklin. The letter suggested: “As I know it is the custom to have some device on the arms of every country, I supposed this may have been intended for the arms of America.” 

Franklin’s reasons included: a. The rattlesnake is only found in North America. b. The snake has ‘sharp eyes’ and ‘may therefore be esteemed an emblem of vigilance.’ c. The snake isn’t known for unprovoked attacks; though once it does attack, it doesn’t stop until it wins. d. Even before attacking, the rattlesnake gives ample warning in the form of its rattle. e. Franklin claimed in the letter that the snake’s tail had 13 rattles, none of which would work independently of one another.

‘The snake became a recurring element of many other American historical flags, most often used to represent the American identity and the union between the colonies (and later, the states)and as a symbol of defiance against British rule.’ 

The First Navy Jack, a United States Navy flag… features 13 horizontal stripes alternating between red and white, similar to the 13 stripes of the American flag, overlaid with a yellow-and-red timber rattlesnake and the words “DONT TREAD ON ME;” with no apostrophe. Although similar in layout, the background colors (red and white instead of yellow) and the snake’s position (slithering instead of coiled) make it easy to differentiate the naval jack from the Gadsden flag. The alternating red-and-white stripes are believed to be the first US Navy naval jack’s original design. The rattlesnake and motto were later added to the jack during the 19th century, calling back to the Gadsden flag.’

The snake could easily be perceived, as a symbol of the tribe of Dan. The real thirteenth tribe – rather than Manasseh as popularly expounded or Ephraim the literal fulfilment through birth – may actually be the tribe of Dan. The horse and its rider well might represent Ephraim, and Dan may have a role to play, in America’s downfall. A link between Dan and Ephraim is found in the Book of Jeremiah. It is a signifiant passage of scripture for in the past it describes Judah’s fall at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar II  and his Chaldean Empire with its capital in Babylon.

Jeremiah 4:5-15

English Standard Version

Declare in Judah, and proclaim in Jerusalem, and say, “Blow the trumpet through the land; cry aloud and say, ‘Assemble, and let us go into the fortified cities!’ 6 Raise a standard toward Zion, flee for safety, stay not, for I bring disaster from the north, and great destruction. 7 A lion has gone up from his thicket, a destroyer of nations [King of Babylon] has set out; he has gone out from his place to make your land a waste; your cities will be ruins without inhabitant… 9 “In that day, declares the Lord, courage shall fail both king and officials. The priests shall be appalled and the prophets astounded.” 10 Then I said, “Ah, Lord God, surely you have utterly deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, ‘It shall be well with you,’ whereas the sword has reached their very life.”

11 At that time it will be said to this people and to Jerusalem… 13 Behold, he comes up like clouds; his chariots like the whirlwind; his horses are swifter than eagles – woe to us, for we are ruined! 14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart from evil, that you may be saved. How long shall your wicked thoughts lodge within you?

15 For a voice [H6963 – qowl] declares [H5046 – nagad]from Dan [H1835 – middan] and proclaims [H8085 – shama] trouble [H205 – ‘aven]from Mount [H2022 – har: hill country, mountain, promote] Ephraim.

It is not clear if there is a voice from the city of Dan in the north and another in Ephraim in the south; or whether the voice is one from the tribe of Dan in Mount Ephraim. In fact, it may be a word play and so the verse could be read as ‘a voice declares judgement and proclaims affliction from Mount Ephraim.’ The expression Mount Ephraim, represents the political rulership and seat of power of Israel’s leading tribe. The word for voice is also translated as ‘proclamation’ and ‘thunderings.’ This is no normal voice, it obviously gains attention. 

The word declare is also translated as ‘expound, report’ or ‘messenger.’ It means ‘to be conspicuous, make known, announce, to inform of, to publish, confess, to front (stand boldly out), to expose, predict’ and ‘profess.’ 

A very public expression that gains possibly far reaching attention. If this prophecy were dual in nature, then it could be worldwide attention. The word proclaims is similar and can also be translated as ‘publish.’ Perhaps via the internet. It also means, ‘declare, to hear with attention or interest, give heed, to obey, to cause to hear, proclaim’ and ‘summon.’ There is no doubt that it is a major announcement. The Book of Hosea speaks of a prophet, a watchman of Ephraim which may be linked to this verse. 

Hosea 9:8

English Standard Version

The prophet is the watchman of Ephraim with my God; yet a fowler’s snare is on all his ways, and hatred in the house of his God.

The word trouble, can mean ‘affliction, wickedness, iniquity, vanity, unrighteous, evil, idol, idolatry, mourning, sorrow’ and ‘unjust.’ The word unjust is interesting in light of Dan meaning judge or justice. As the word mount in the Bible signifies a high place, hills or a mountain; it is also figurative for the government of a land. Hence today, Mount Ephraim is representative of the federal government of Capitol Hill in Washington DC. 

Other translations of Jeremiah 4:15

AMP: For a voice declares from Dan (far in the north), And proclaims evil from Mount Ephraim.

AMPC: For a voice declares from Dan (in the north) and proclaims evil from Mount Ephraim (the range dividing Israel from Judah).

CEV: before a message of disaster arrives from the hills of Ephraim and the town of Dan.

ERV: Listen! The voice of a messenger from the land of Dan is speaking. Someone is bringing bad news from the hill country of Ephraim:

MSG: What’s this? A messenger from Dan? Bad news from Ephraim’s hills! Make the report public…

NET: For messengers are coming, heralding disaster, from the city of Dan and from the hills of Ephraim.

VOICE: From the tribe of Dan in the north comes the first cry; news of disaster arrives from the hill country of Ephraim.

The voice from Dan and the proclamation from Mount Ephraim appear to be linked in purpose, regardless of the geographic relationship. Though ‘the north’ is not in the Hebrew, there must be a reason why three translations have chosen this expression. As both Asshur, Russia and Magog, China are described as being in the north, with Togarmah, Korea as the peripheral ‘far north’, it is feasible that Dan could well be associated with modern Mount Ephraim which is on a similar latitude with Beijing, China and Korea [Zephaniah 2:13, Ezekiel 38:6; 39:1]. Returning to Genesis forty-nine, verse seventeen. 

The word for in the way can be translated as ‘toward, journey’ and ‘manner.’ It means ‘road, path, direction, habit, custom’ and ‘passenger.’ It includes the connotation of a ‘course of life, of moral character’ a ‘mode of action.’ Path is similar and is translated as ‘highway, manner, race, traveller’ and ‘troops.’ It can mean ‘passing of life, way of living, wayfarer.’ It includes, ‘a well trodden road, a caravan.’ 

The word bite is enlightening for it is translated as bite [14] and as lend upon usury [2]. It means ‘to pay, give interest, lend for interest or usury.’ It includes ‘to strike with a sting (as a serpent’ strikes and bites with venom), ‘to press with interest on a loan.’ 

The mention of troops is significant as this hints at a military application in the course of the horse and rider. The addition of banking is not a surprise as war costs money. Also, part of bringing down any nation is successfully attacking its economy. Loans and debt being a primary method. 

The word for horse signifies a moving horse as ‘to skip (properly, for joy), a horse (as leaping), also a swallow (from its rapid flight).’ The word for heel is also revealing for it is translated as footsteps [3], horse hoofs [1], at the last [1] liers in wait [1]. It means ‘footprint, hinder part, rear of a troop’ as well as ‘the rear (of an army).’ The Hebrew word for rider means: ‘to mount and ride (on an animal or in a vehicle), to place upon, to despatch’ and ‘ride (in a chariot).’ 

The word fall is translated as ‘cast down’ [18], fall away [5], divide [5] and overthrow [5]. It means: ‘to fall (of violent death), to fall prostrate, to fall upon, attack, desert, fall into the hand of, to fall short, fail, waste away, be inferior to, apportion by lot, overwhelm, perish, rot, slay, throw down’ and ‘smite out.’ 

If the United States is the horse and rider, then its fall is spectacular. It’s fall, being its collapsed military strength. How would military power be undermined? Through economic, trade and monetary pressure. Banking, loans, debt and lack of confidence in the American currency, all spring to mind. Ephraim as we discussed in the previous chapter, one day seeks assistance from Assyria. At a certain point, the tables turn economically and Russia – with a German led European Union – gains the upper hand over the United States and by then, a probably solitary England. 

Many might find that difficult to believe in 2022. But a few decades from now, or centuries and the world could and would be, a very different place [refer article 2050]. 

Jeremiah has more to say regarding the downfall of Judah, Dan and the link with Ephraim.

Jeremiah 8:1-3, 6, 15-17, 19-22

English Standard Version

“At that time, declares the Lord, the bones of the kings of Judah, the bones of its officials, the bones of the priests, the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be brought out of their tombs. 2 And they shall be spread before the sun and the moon and all the host of heaven, which they have loved and served, which they have gone after, and which they have sought and worshiped. And they shall not be gathered or buried. They shall be as dung on the surface of the ground. 3 Death shall be preferred to life by all the remnant that remains of this evil family… 6… Everyone turns to his own course, like a horse plunging headlong into battle.

15 We looked for peace, but no good came; for a time of healing, but behold, terror. 16 “The snorting of their horses is heard from Dan; at the sound of the neighing of their stallions [H47 – ‘abbiyr] the whole land quakes [shakes, trembles]. They come and devour the land and all that fills it, the city and those who dwell in it.

The word of most interest is translated in the ESV as stallions and the King James version as ‘strong ones.’ It can also be translated as ‘bulls – which is interesting from an Ephraim perspective – mighty, stouthearted, valiant’ and significantly as ‘angels.’ It means ‘mighty’ and ‘valiant of men’ and ‘of angels.’ The link with the supernatural may not be coincidental. Does Dan form an alliance with the opponents of Ephraim? An inside job, perhaps.

17 For behold, I am sending among you serpents, adders [H6848 – tsepha]that cannot be charmed [H3908 – lachash], and they shall bite you,” declares the Lord.

This verse is remarkably similar to the verse we read in Genesis 49:17. The word for adder is different though and can be translated as cockatrice – a legendary monster that is a cross between a rooster and a snake – though still venomous. The word for charmed can be translated as ‘enchantment, orator’ and ‘prayer.’ It means ‘whispering, charming, amulets (worn by women), an incantation.’ These are serpents that cannot be reasoned with or changed and could be linked with the angelic ’strong ones’ of the preceding verse.

19… “Is the Lord not in Zion? Is her King not in her?” “Why have they provoked me to anger with their carved images and with their foreign idols?” [a proclivity of the tribe of Dan] 20 “The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved.” [like Dan waiting on salvation] 21 For the wound of the daughter of my people is my heart wounded; I mourn, and dismay has taken hold on me.

22 Is there no balm* in Gilead? [Canada] Is there no physician there? Why then has the health of the daughter of my people not been restored?

Before we look at verse eighteen in Genesis chapter forty-nine, it is worth noting that the snake or serpent could have more than a physical application and may include a spiritual application. The tie in would be the Seraphim that are literally, ‘fire-breathing flying serpents.’ Snakes with wings are dragons. The word serpent and dragon are one and the same and interchangeable. Satan is described as as a serpent and dragon in the Book of Revelation [12:9]. It was the Seraphim that produced Nephilim offspring and the tribe of Dan is heavily linked with the Nephilim and their children, the Elioud giants as we will discover. 

J R Church – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Those fallen angels who descended to Mount Hermon introduced the “seed of the serpent” into the human race [actually it was the Serpent with Eve Genesis 3:15]. Evidently, after the Flood, they consorted with members of the tribe of Dan, mixing the “seed of the serpent” into the human genome once again. The first time it happened, God judged the world with water. The next time, it will be by fire.’

In the Book of Isaiah there are prophecies regarding Babylon, Assyria and the Philistines. Three powers at the end of our age; all with an invested interest in the downfalls of England, Canada and especially America.

Isaiah 14:29-31

English Standard Version

29 Rejoice not, O Philistia [Mexico and Central, South America], all of you, that the rod [Assyria] that struck you is broken, for from the serpent’s root will come forth an adder [cockatrice], and its fruit [progeny, offspring] will be a flying [H5774 – owph: to cover, be dark, gloom] fiery serpent [H8314 – seraph: poisonous, burning, copper colour]. 30… I will kill your root with famine, and your remnant it will slay. 31 Wail, O gate; cry out, O city; melt in fear, O Philistia, all of you! For smoke comes out of the north [Russia, the United States or both], and there is no straggler in his ranks.

Here, the Philistines, principally the nation of Mexico have been attacked by the King of the North, Russia. The when Asshur has fallen, the Philistines are told not to rejoice as they too will be affected by the Day of the Lord. The smoke from the north could be a reference to their neighbour the United States, or a reference to Russia. The rest of the verse is eerily similar to what we have read in Genesis forty-nine and Jeremiah chapter eight. 

We will see shortly that as there is a root of Amalek in Ephraim, Ephraim is also described as a root that will ‘dry up’ and produce no more ‘fruit.’ And then, we have the Seraphim stated yet again. There can be little doubt now that the Seraphim are the angelic beings being discussed and not the animal that is called a snake. The inclusion of the King of the North [refer Chapter XX Asshur], added to what we will learn about the tribe of Dan, plus their connection with the United States has built a strong case for the supernatural involvement of dark angels at the time of the end and alarmingly, Dan’s alliance with them [refer Chapter XXI Nimrod]. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the serpent is representative of evil, of conniving, of worldly wisdom. It is first associated with the great deceiver, Satan the devil, who appeared in the Garden of Eden in the form of a serpent, and with subtlety beguiled Eve. Whether this creature was originally the precise description of what we know as a snake today is perhaps debatable, for the derivation of the Hebrew word nachash means to hiss, i.e. whisper a (magic) spell; to prognosticate; an enchantment or enchanter, and, as such, may be subject to more than one interpretation. 

… the serpent… is the sign of the Adversary, Satan the devil, and thus the spirit of the anti-Christ that will arise in the end-time. This is… stated… emphatically [in] the book of Revelation… “And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a GREAT RED DRAGON… And the great dragon was cast out, that old SERPENT, called the Devil, and Satan…”

The Greek word for dragon in verse 3 actually is defined as a fabulous kind of SERPENT, so called because of its keen power of sight (from the root ‘derke,’ signifying ‘to see’). It is used precisely 13 times in the Apocalypse to designate Satan the devil. Satan[’s]… chief servants… are also identified with the image of a serpent. Indeed we read in Revelation 9:15-19, that the power of the dreaded latter-day army that devastates one-third of the earth’s population is likened unto that of a serpent.

How interesting then that the first human being ever to be Scripturally identified with the serpent is none other than the fifth son of Israel… Dan himself, and this serpent connection to the tribe of Dan cannot be summarily dismissed as a casual use of this symbol. In fact, no other individual human beings are compared to the serpent in all the Scriptures save Dan and his descendants… 

It is also noteworthy that the biting of the horse’s heels is language eerily similar to what we read in the first great Messianic prophecy in Genesis 3:15, where Yahweh says to, of all creatures, the serpent: “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; it (Messiah – the ultimate seed of the woman) shall bruise your head, and you (the serpent) shall bruise his HEEL.”’

18 I wait [H6960 – qavah] for your salvation* [H3444 – yshuw’ah] , O Lord.

CEB: I long for your victory, Lord.

CEV: Our Lord, I am waiting for you to save us.

NET: I wait for your deliverance, O Lord.

NLV: I wait for Your saving power, O Lord.

The word wait can mean ‘look, wait for, gathered, look for, hope, expect, look eagerly for, lie in wait for, linger for, to collect, to be collected’ and ‘bind together.’ There is earnest expectation by Dan in the deliverance of the Eternal. The word salvation means ‘deliverance, health, saving, welfare, prosperity, victory’ and ‘aid.’ Dan for whatever reason has to wait for salvation or redemption from Christ. The big question, is why? 

We discussed Revelation chapter seven in the preceding chapter and the fact Joseph and Manasseh are stated as separate tribes both with 12,000 anointed and sealed saints at the time of the end. This is secondary to the glaring observation that Dan is not listed at all, even though verse four of revelation chapter seven says: ‘all the tribes.’ In fact, he is the only tribe omitted. The seriousness of not being counted as a tribe of Israel is elevated as this is a prophecy, yet to be fulfilled. This is not punishment for past actions of idolatry alone but ones committed at the time of the end. Much conjecture has been offered on the reasons why Dan is missing. 

An enduring belief is that the Antichrist – or the Beast and false Prophet as the Bible describes them as there is not one antichrist but many, as the Apostle John explains [1 John 2:18] – is from the tribe of Dan. This would not explain though why everyone from Dan is excluded. Another answer, is that the tribe of Dan had to wait for the Judge Samson. But, this also does not answer the question. We will study Samson shortly. 

Dan is not included due to the following three factors which are intertwined. First, the tribe of Dan is the one exception – apart from Levi – in not being an identifiable nation or territory. If this is the case, then Dan is a scattered tribe. 

The second factor is that the tribe of Dan is no longer considered Israelite. Meaning, no one from the tribe of Dan will be called, perfected, sealed or saved in the time of the end. The Danites will have to wait until the Gentiles are offered salvation [Genesis 49:18, Revelation 7:9]. 

Third, there is a sinister component that involves the whole bloodline of Dan having become contaminated and is therefore unacceptable before the Eternal [Genesis 3:14–15; 49:17, Jeremiah 8:17].

Numbers 2:25, 31

English Standard Version

25 “On the north side shall be the standard of the camp of Dan by their companies… 31… They shall set out last, standard by standard.”

EXB: … They will be the last to march out of camp, and they will travel under their own flag. 

TLB: … They brought up the rear whenever Israel traveled.

In the Camp of Israel, Dan was given two humbling positions that show he had been relegated to last of the sons of Jacob, though he was the fifth born. When the Israelites broke camp and travelled, the tribe of Dan was last to leave and ‘brought up the rear.’ The literal tail for the winding mass of people. When the Israelites stopped marching and set up Camp, the Tribe of Dan was in the north with Asher and Naphtali. This was the least favourable portion of the compass, as the north was the most exposed to the likelyhood of any potential attacks while trekking through the wilderness, as well as in Canaan when they eventually settled. In the Bible, from an Israelite perspective, evil and judgement descended from the north [Jeremiah 1:13-14; 10:22; Daniel 11:40, Ezekiel 38:15-16]. 

Regarding the Camp layout, Dan was one of the four principle tribes with Judah, Ephraim and Reuben. It is noteworthy that Dan is linked with these tribes, particularly Reuben and Ephraim. Bullinger refers to the Cherubim of the Eternal and their relationship with the camp formation of ancient Israel. The four square arrangement designed according to a pattern that is based on these celestial beings. The cherubim had four faces, a lion, an ox, or bull – and or a Unicorn – a man and an eagle. These four personalities became the signs of the four standard bearing tribes of Israel. The Lion for Judah, the Bull for Ephraim, a Man for Reuben and the Eagle for Dan. 

Similarly, the twelve constellations of the Zodiac are divided into four groups of three signs each with the signs representing the four principal tribes spearheading them. Thus Leo for Judah, Taurus for Ephraim, Aquarius for Reuben and Scorpio for Dan. We will investigate the dual nature of Dan’s symbols, the Eagle and the Snake and the third animal, the Scorpion that is the primary symbol for Scorpio. One commentator adds: ‘… just as each of the four Israelite standard-bearing tribes had a designated leader, so each of the four major constellations of the Zodiac has a star of the first magnitude associated with that sector of the heavens – [Regulus from Leo, Aldebaran from Taurus, Antares from Scorpio and Fomalhaut from Aquarius].’ 

The tribe of Dan forfeited Israelite status because they chose to side with the sons of Jacob’s enemies: the Philistines, Asshur, Edom and yes, Satan. In so doing they have been on the wrong side of the Genesis 3:15 prophecy and have contributed heavily to the enmity between the woman’s seed and the Serpent’s seed. In an ironic dual manner, the very rebellion of Dan will be used as a disciplinary hand that punishes his brothers for their evil ways and rebellion towards the Creator, during the tribulation. The Eternal sees fit to allow Satan to use the tribe of Dan with Edom and Asshur, to afflict the Celtic-Saxon-Viking descendants living in the British, Irish and New World nations. 

Dan’s link with the United States is interesting in view of the root of Amalek also in Ephraim as revealed in the Book of Judges. In fact, Ephraim itself is described as a root in Hosea 9:16, NIV: ‘Ephraim is blighted, their root is withered, they yield no fruit…’ The fact that Amalekites have Nephilim ancestry and that Dan is associated with the Nephilim blood line may be the powerful, yet simple reason why no one from that tribe is called or set apart at the end time. Hence, all from that tribe wait on their salvation, as in they are last to receive it or in the worst case scenario, the contamination is so severe, none receive salvation.

Deuteronomy 33:22

English Standard Version

And of Dan he said, “Dan is a lion’s cub [H1482 – guwr: whelp, young one] that leaps [H2187 – zanaq] from Bashan.”

In Moses’s prophecy every single one of the eleven sons receives positive comments and blessings from the Eternal even though most of the Israelites were never really faithful. The standout exception is the tribe of Dan. A single, short sentence – no blessing, nothing positive. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The reference to Dan being a lion’s whelp should have a familiar ring to it, for in the previously referenced passage in Genesis 49, Jacob used the identical expression to describe the tribe of Judah (Genesis 49:9). The root word for whelp in the Hebrew means to turn aside, to gather for hostile purposes. If the promised Messiah was predicted to come through the line of Judah, and He is the true Lion (Revelation 5:5), then what are we to make of Dan in this regard? If the true lion does not descend through Dan, then what lion does?  The answer may be found in the simple, well-known passage that reads:

“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the DEVIL, as a roaring LION, walks about, seeking whom he may devour” (I Peter 5:8).

‘It appears that the tribe of Dan was particularly despised and highly criticized by the tribe of Judah, and that enmity between these two people began early on in their history… Indeed, Moses’ words concerning Dan may contain in them a veiled hint that something dreadful would be associated with this tribe in the future.’

The word leap means ‘ to spring forward’ as in ‘to draw together the feet (as an animal about to dart upon its prey).’ In the same chapter, Gad is described as a lion that ‘crouches.’ In Genesis it speaks of a troop in Gad which Gad nips at the heels of the retreating invader. Both the lion and troop references are similar to Dan’s references we have just studied. For Gad, they refer to English troops and occupation, lending support that the horse and rider are a military-political regime that is toppled. In Genesis 49:9, Judah is also described as a ‘lion’s cub’ who also ‘crouches’ down. 

Researchers have focused on the ‘serpent by the way’ as the physical travels of the tribe of Dan and the leaving of their name as a sign post or marker on their route through Europe; rather than its application as a threat to Ephraim or its even wider implication that the tribe of Dan has been infiltrated by Nephilim. Similarly with their leap from Bashan, the focus has been on fleeing the land when the Assyrians encroached. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

Bashan is a fairly well-known word to most Bible students. It is a place name that is somewhat indirectly referred to in the 14th chapter of Genesis. This is where the famous account of Abram’s sensational rescue of Lot is recorded, but the key point with regard to our study is found in the earlier portion of the passage. As you will recall, there was war waged between the armies of the Siddim Vale, led by Bera king of Sodom, and a huge invading force of Babylonians under the leadership of Amraphel king of Shinar… The eastern hordes proved too strong for the southern Canaanites, and they were subjugated for some 12 years. In the 13th year they rebelled, and in the 14th year, a second, even more massive invasion from the east occurred, precipitating a great slaughter [refer Chapter XIX Chedorlaomer].  We read in Genesis 14:5-7:

“And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in ASHTEROTH KARNAIM, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, and the Horites in their Mount Seir, unto El-paran, which is by the wilderness.  And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelled in Hazezon-tamar.”

‘While these ancient geographical names may have little relevance for most people today, they do provide us with some pertinent information concerning the area known as Bashan. The reference to Ashteroth Kernaim in verse 5 pinpoints the residence of the feared Rephaim class of giants.Even though they were defeated by the massive eastern forces (reportedly almost 1,000,000 strong) in this particular battle, they were by no means destroyed, and indeed they continued to populate this same locale for hundreds of years to come, for we read in the book of Joshua with respect to the Israelite victories:

“Now these are the kings of the land, which the children of Israel smote… Sihon, king of the Amorites… and the coast of Og king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, that dwelled at Ashtaroth and at Edrei, and reigned in Mount Hermon, and in Salcah, and in all Bashan” (Joshua 12:1-2, 4-5).

‘Bashan comprised the territory from Gilead in the south to Mount Hermon in the north, with the Jordan River as its western boundary and Salchah on its eastern extremity. This was not a part of the inheritance originally granted to the tribe of Dan. In order for the prophecy of Moses to be fulfilled, it was necessary that the Danites at some point extend their influence north into Bashan, and that event is recorded for us in a most intriguing passage in Judges 17-18.’

We have already touched upon the fact that the Tribe of Dan or Tauthe de Dannan migrated to Ulster in Northern Ireland. As Northern Ireland is Reuben today – and Ireland is Gad – and the original land of Bashan was on the east side of the river Jordan where Reuben and Gad dwelt, the modern equivalent of Bashan is Ireland, particularly the northeast of the Isle. We have discussed the Elioud giants, the Fomorian that lived in Northern Ireland [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad] and their vanquishing by the Tuatha de Dannan. This means the tribe of Dan have leapt from Bashan. If so, where did they leap? As Bashan was the original home of the Watchers on Mount Hermon and later, the home of the giants, such as King Og, and then again, the home of the tribe of Dan, a spiritual component should be considered. 

Other translations of Deuteronomy 33:22

CEV: Tribe of Dan, you are like a lion cub, startled by a snake.

DRA: To Dan also he said: Dan is a young lion, he shall flow plentifully from Basan.

WYC: Also he said to Dan, Dan, a whelp of a lion, shall flow largely from Bashan.

These translations are insightful as they reveal an outpouring of people from Northern Ireland. Again, to where? We will look at the physical migrations of people linked with Ulster as well as the Nephilim tie in and what this means in-depth.

Judges 5:17

English Standard Version

… and Dan, why did he stay [remain, dwell, linger] with the ships?

When the Judge Deborah fought the Canaanites, certain tribes were keen to be involved, others were not. Half were not, as the war did not affect their lands directly. Other tribes were more keenly impacted and they gave their support. Dan did not, in fact he was unique in that a large proportion of their people were not even on land. Dan has a tradition of ocean going sailing. 

He is linked with the Grecian Isles in their early settlement by Shem’s descendants and as one of the first peoples of the son’s of Jacob to migrate to Ireland and Britain. Unger Bible Handbook, page 273: ‘Dan was the last of the tribes to receive his portion, which was the smallest of the twelve. It had… a line of seacoast…’

Ezekiel 27:19

King James Version

Dan [H2051 – Vdan] also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs [wares, trade]: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.

The word for Dan is different to any other meaning and translates as ‘and Dan’ or ‘even Dan.’ Strong’s says that it is a place or site uncertain. The Dan in question is associated in trade and economically with Javan, the Island nations from East and Southeast Asia. Some researchers postulate that it could be a reference to Dedanites of Dedan or the Dodanim of Dodan descended from Japheth. Though, these are different Hebrew words from Dan and should not be confused. 

The Hebrew Danites as the Greek Danaans, John R. Salverda – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Greeks say that the Danaans came to the city of Argos and demanded their portion of royalty there. They claimed to be descendants of Io and therefore members of the royal family… To accomplish this emigration, they are said to have invented the keeled ship, which enabled them to sail over the deep seas, and make their escape to Argos. The Greek claim that theDanaans invented the keeled ship, fits nicely with the Biblical claim that the Danites lived in ships, they were after all in possession of the seaport Joppa, where by all indications shipbuilding was a major industry. 

… in accordance with Greek mythology, the sons of [Jacob] also went to Argolis, following after the delinquent Danaans, to bring them back and punish them for their treachery. But it took them a bit longer to get there, leapfrogging from port to port along the coasts, in their less seaworthy unkeeled barges. By the time the sons of [Jacob] arrived at Argos, the Danaans were already established, with a degree of royal power, and the Argolian army was ready to defend them. Now, the sons of [Jacob], a mere posse in the face of an army, could not enforce a return upon the Danaans, and because they were told not to return empty handedly, they decided to quit their homeland back in Israel, and resolved to remain in Argos. The sons of [Jacob] sued for their portion of the royalty at Argolis on the same basis that the Danaans did, and they were recognized as well. 

Those Jacobites who made up the coalition of the willing in the struggle against Canaan (Sisera), were able to win the war through the efforts of a very brave woman named Jael. Jael was not a Jacobite instead she belonged to a race, known as the Kenites, who were, at that time, also at peace with the Canaanites. 

However, the Kenites were on friendly terms with the sons of Jacob as well, in fact, Zipporah, the wife of Moses was a Kenite (also called Midianite and Ethiopian), and the apostate Danite priesthood were her descendants. Jael herself was a relative who could not have been too far removed from the Danite priesthood, for it is noted right in the Scriptural account of the war, that her family was descended from the house of Hobab, who is therein called the father ­in ­law of Moses [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. It may have been this Kenite relationship to the Danite priesthood, combined with Danite treaty obligations mentioned earlier as necessitated by the close proximity of the Danite stronghold at Laish to Hazor the chief city of the northern Canaanites, that gave the Canaanite General Sisera the false sense of security that he must have had in order for him to take a nap in the tent of Jael. 

Jael deluded the weary Sisera completely and when he had fallen asleep, she took a pin and ran him through so that he died. Now, how many stories are there in which a man is beguiled into falling asleep by, and in the presence of, the woman who intends to murder him, and then while the man is sleeping the treacherous woman runs him through with a pin and kills him? I can think of only two, one is the Scriptural account of Jael and Sisera, and the other is the Greek myth that is known as “The Danaids.” Furthermore, it is not only this very particular story that coincides between the Scriptures and the myth, but also the placement sequentially of each tale. Just as the story of Jael and Sisera comes at the end of the war that saw a falling ­out between the Jacobites and their brothers the Danites, who “dwelt in ships,” so to, the Greek myth of the Danaids is the story of the subsequent reconciliation between the progeny of Danaus, who fled in ships from their brothers the sons of Aegyptus at the time of their quarrel. 

… the original waves of immigration to Argolis in Greece, the forefathers of the Mycenaean civilization, were the sons of Anak [the Anakim: a Nephilim descended race of Elioud giants], closely followed by the Danites and the Jacobites, but of these, predominantly the Danites, so much so, that throughout the writings of Homer, he usually refers to the Peloponnesian Greeks, by the general term “Danaans.”‘ 

Book of Jubilees 34:20

… and the name of Dan’s wife, ‘Egla…

Book of Jasher 45:7-8

7… and Dan went to the land of Moab and took for a wife Aphlaleth, the daughter of Chamudan the Moabite, and he brought her to the land of Canaan. 8 And Aphlaleth was barren, she had no offspring, and Yahweh afterward remembered Aphlaleth the wife of Dan, and she conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Chushim.

Genesis 46:23

English Standard Version

The son of Dan: Hushim.

In Genesis forty-six, the grandsons of Jacob are listed. All his sons have at least three sons or more. It is curious therefore that Dan is not only listed next to last, but is the only son to have less than three sons. In fact only one son is recorded [Numbers 26:42].  

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Additionally, only a single line is devoted to this tribe in the account. Indeed, rather than enumerate the actual children of Dan by their individual names, as is done with each of the other sons, he is given short shrift with only the general tribal name of Hushim given. In fact, in the Genesis 46 passage, you will note that the very last two sons listed are Dan and his brother Naphtali, even though they were much higher in the literal birth order. To put an even finer point on things, we read in verse 25 the following editorial notation: “These are the SONS OF BILHAH, which Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bare unto Jacob.” Notice carefully that the two sons of Bilhah, the 5th and 6th born of Jacob’s children, are listed dead last, even after the sons of Zilpah, Leah’s handmaiden.  Whether this was a comment originally made by Moses himself or a later insertion by Ezra, there absolutely has to be a strong reason for this kind of arrangement.  It is not haphazard, accidental, or even coincidental whatsoever.  Virtually the same thing can be seen in the second census recorded in Numbers 26. So it is abundantly clear that the children of Bilhah were the least favored in the family of Israel, and of those two tribes, Dan was at the bottom of the pile!’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Hushim meaning: ‘Hasters, Easily Moved Ones’ from the verb (hush), to hurry or hasten.

The name Hushim is assigned to two men and one woman in the Bible: The first male Hushim we read about is a son of Dan who apparently is also called Shuham (Numbers 26:42). The other male Hushim is mentioned as a son of Aher of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 7:12). The only female Hushim is one of three wives of Shaharaim; the other two being Baara and Hodesh. This Hushim’s sons are called Abitub and Elpaal (1 Chronicles 8:8).

The verb (hashash) means to hurry, or rather to be light-footed and hence quickly moved. Noun (hashash) describes chaff, which proverbially is so light that a breath of wind carries it off swiftly. Likewise, verb (hush) means to hurry or hasten. Adverb (hish) means quickly. This verb (hush) may also be used to mean to be agitated, worried or enjoyed.

The name Hushim is a plural form of a noun that has to do with hurrying, or being easily moved. That a name for a singular person would express a plurality is curious but not beyond understandable. The related name Thahash has probably to do with some water-dwelling creature, andperhaps thehushim were also some kind of creature or phenomenon that could be experienced as a single entity.Think of our words herd and swarm, or even the name Elohim, which also is a plural used singular.

For a meaning of the name Hushim, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Hasters. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names… reads Those Who Hasten The Birth, i.e. children prematurely born.’

The name of Hushim referring to being ‘light-footed’ and ‘moving quickly’ is interesting, in light of Dan’s proclivity to continually press forward or westwards in migration. As is their movement like a snake. Snakes for short distances – like a cat can travel exceptionally fast when threatened or provoked. It may also be a reference to Dan having a temper or being impulsive. Abarim Publications highlight the fact that Hushim is called Shuham in the Book of Numbers. Disturbingly, no descendants of Dan are listed in 1 Chronicles as there are for all the other tribes. In fact, very few people are listed in the Bible as descending from Dan, apart from his son or sons Hushim and Shuham and some 640 years after Dan’s birth, the most famous so-called Danite Samson, who was born circa in 1106 BCE. 

In the Book of Numbers there is a listing of fearsome warriors from each tribe, including Dan.

Numbers 1:12

English Standard Version

… from Dan, Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai [Numbers 10:25]…

Numbers 34:22

English Standard Version

Of the tribe of the people of Dan a chief, Bukki the son of Jogli.

Exodus 35:30-35

English Standard Version

30 Then Moses said to the people of Israel, “See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; 31 and he has filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, with intelligence, with knowledge, and with all craftsmanship, 32 to devise artistic designs, to work in gold and silver and bronze, 33 in cutting stones for setting, and in carving wood, for work in every skilled craft. 34 And he has inspired him to teach, both him and Oholiab the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan. 35 He has filled them with skill [wisdom of heart] to do every sort of work done by an engraver [gem cutter] or by a designer or by an embroiderer in blue and purple and scarlet yarns and fine twined linen, or by a weaver – by any sort of workman or skilled designer [Exodus 31:6; 38:23].

2 Chronicles 2:13-14

English Standard Version

13 “Now I have sent a skilled [cunning] man, who has understanding [expertise, master metalworker], Huram-abi, 14 the son of a woman of the daughters [a curious expression, emphasising a maternal lineage] of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre [Phoenician – refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. He is trained to work in gold, silver, bronze, iron, stone, and wood, and in purple, blue, and crimson fabrics and fine linen, and to do all sorts of engraving and execute any design that may be assigned him [an inventor], with your craftsmen [skilled artisans], the craftsmen of my lord, David your father.

The tribe of Dan produced at least two skilled artisans. Oholiab who assisted Bezalel from the tribe of Judah in the construction of the Tabernacle – the forerunner of the Temple, while the Israelites were sojourning for forty years. Huram-abi is reminiscent of the Kenites and their metallurgist skills as goldsmiths, including silver, bronze as well as gems. Notice Oholiab from Dan was filled with skill, but not with the Holy Spirit as Bezalel from Judah was.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Shuham meaning: ‘Depression’ From the verb (shuah), to be low or humbled.

The name Shuman occurs only once in the Bible. In Numbers 26:42 he is mentioned as the patriarch of the extensive Danite sub-clan of the Shuhamites. This Shuham may be the same as Hushim, the son of Dan… The name Shuman appears to be an intensive form derived from the verb (shuah), meaning to sink low… The verb (shahah) means to bow down or be bowed down, crouched or humbled. Adjective (shah) means low or lowly. Verb (shuah) means to sink, or to be bowed down or humbled. Nouns (shuha) and (shiha) mean pit. 

For a meaning of the name Shuham, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Depression. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names appears to go with the derived noun (shuha), meaning pit, and reads Pit-digger. BDB Theological Dictionary does not offer an interpretation of this name but does list it under the verb (shuah), meaning to sink down.’

With the difference in meaning for the names Hushim and Shuham, it is hard to credit they are the same person. Though no indication is given that they are two different sons or lineages. If Hushim is Shuham, then it shows a degradation and deterioration within Hushim and the line of Dan early in their history. We already have reason to believe that Dan had gone astray, when Joseph reported him and his half-brothers to his father. The tribe of Dan were renowned for their idolatrous demon worship; displaying out right rebellion in going contrary to the Eternal. This situation mirrors Esau’s decision to rebelliously and flagrantly flout the Eternal’s ethical, moral and legal code; in stark contrast to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

1 Kings 12:28-30

English Standard Version

28 So the king [Jeroboam] took counsel and made two calves of gold. And he said to the people, “You have gone up to Jerusalem long enough. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.” 29 Andhe set one in Bethel [meaning: ’House of God’ – city located in Ephraim], and the other he put inDan. 30 Then this thing became a sin, for the people went as far as Dan to be before one.

Even the coming Day of the Lord mentions the false religion promulgated by the descendants of Dan.

Amos 8:4-5, 7, 11-12, 14

English Standard Version

4 Hear this, you who trample on the needy and bring the poor of the land to an end, 5 saying, “When will the new moon be over, that we may sell grain? And the Sabbath, that we may offer wheat for sale, that we may make the ephah small and the shekel great and deal deceitfully with false balances… The Lord has sworn by the pride of Jacob…

11 “Behold, the days are coming,” declares the Lord God, “when I will send a famine on the land – not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord. 12 They shall wander from sea to sea, and from north to east; they shall run to and fro, to seek the word of the Lord, but they shall not find it.

14 Those who swear by the Guilt of Samaria [Ephraim], and say, ‘As your god lives, O Dan,’ and, ‘As the Way of Beersheba lives,’ they shall fall, and never rise again.”

The people of Dan became well known for their proclivity to name or rename every habitation after their progenitor. They also lost their original territory in the land of Canaan. It is another coincidence then, that the Tuathe de Dannan eventually vacated their territory in Northern Ireland.

Joshua 19:40-48

English Standard Version

40 The seventh lot came out for the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans. 41 And the territory of its inheritance included Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir-shemesh, 42 Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, 43 Elon, Timnah, Ekron [Philistine city], 44 Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, 45 Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon [Philistine city], 46 and Me-jarkon and Rakkon with the territory over against Joppa. 47 When the territory of the people of Dan was lost to them [or too little or small for them], the people of Dan went up and fought against Leshem, and after capturing it and striking it with the sword they took possession of it and settled in it, calling Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor. 48 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans – these cities with their villages.

Dan’s position in the family had worsened by this time. Their portion was too little or narrow for them and they received it last, even though they are the fifth born son. They were one of the larger tribes in population according to the census, yet received the smallest territory. This becomes a theme with Dan being listed last, near last or omitted from the record completely. For example, in the book of I Chronicles, the first nine chapters list family trees from Adam to Abraham, then the descendants of Ishmael, Keturah, Abraham’s second wife and Esau. From chapter two and going all the way through to chapter nine, the lineages of the sons of Jacob are recorded. Name after name of the Israelite descendants from all the sons, beginning with Judah and finally concluding with the family of Benjamin. Not one single word concerning the tribe of Dan is written. They are completely missing from the genealogical lists. This is a telling omission. In chapter six all of the Levitical cities throughout the land are named. Dan again, is left out. As though a deliberate effort to expunge Dan from the Biblical record. 

In the Book of Judges we are introduced to the men and women who became a Judge of Israel. Unlike most of the Kings of Judah and all of the Kings of Israel who were evil in the sight of the Eternal, the Judges were known for their spirituality and relationship with the Creator. Samson is a great example – like David or Jacob – of a powerful man of God who was also a flawed individual. This does not diminish his spirituality or his relationship with the Eternal. God does not judge the flaws in a person if they have a heart that seeks righteousness. This type of person has the Holy Spirit and doesn’t just do nice things for others. A converted person grows in thinking like God and becoming motivated like God. An inexplicable transformation that is difficult to quantify unless one undergoes the experience in their own life.

Judges 13:1-25

English Standard Version

And the people of Israel again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, so the Lord gave them into the hand of the Philistines for forty years [1086 – 1046 BCE].

These forty years began at the birth of Samson and ended with his death. The last twenty years coincided with the judgeship of Samson from age twenty to forty. The Philistines descend from Mizra and today include the Hispanic-Latino peoples of Central and South America; with the foremost nation being Mexico [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor].  

There was a certain man of Zorah, of the tribe of the Danites, whose name was Manoah. And his wife was barren and had no children. 3 And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman and said to her, “Behold, you are barren and have not borne children, but you shall conceive and bear a son. 4 Therefore be careful and drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, 5 for behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. No razor shall come upon his head, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb, and he shall begin to save Israel from the hand of the Philistines.” 

These verses reveal that Manoah was from the tribe of Dan and by inference that his wife was too, though this is not stated, nor is her name given. Many postulate that  Manoah’s wife was actually from the tribe of Judah. This is to subscribe a dual lineage  to Samson and equate his supposed future descendant, the Antichrist as an apostate version of Christ, also with a Lion of Judah credential. Yair Davidy of Brit-Am Israel makes the claim that Samson’s lineage also includes the Messianic tribe of Judah.

Brit-Am Israel Newsletter, 1999 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson the superman hero came from the Tribe of Dan but his mother was from Judah. Samson, in some respects, was considered a forerunner of the [still future] Messiah who will come from Judah but his mother, according to the Midrash will be of the Tribe of Dan.’

Samson may well have a dual lineage, though not the one that most people might think. The Bible makes clear that the true Messiah has already been [Matthew 16:16] and Christ’s biological mother Mary, was descended from Judah; not the tribe of Dan [Luke 3:33].

6 Then the woman came and told her husband, “A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of the angel of God, very awesome. I did not ask him where he was from, and he did not tell me his name, 7 but he said to me, ‘Behold, you shall conceive and bear a son. So then drink no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean, for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.’”

8 Then Manoah prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord, please let the man of God whom you sent come again to us and teach us what we are to do with the child who will be born.” 

9 And God listened to the voice of Manoah, and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field. But Manoah her husband was not with her. 10 So the woman ran quickly and told her husband, “Behold, the man who came to me the other day has appeared to me.” 11 And Manoah arose and went after his wife and came to the man and said to him, “Are you the man who spoke to this woman?” And he said, “I am.” 12 And Manoah said, “Now when your words come true, what is to be the child’s manner of life, and what is his mission?” 13 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “Of all that I said to the woman let her be careful. 14 She may not eat of anything that comes from the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, or eat any unclean thing. All that I commanded her let her observe.”

It is curious that the angel of the Lord had met with Manoah’s wife privately and, twice. Reading between the lines, had the Eternal’s Messenger played a role in healing her womb for a miraculous conception. The Son of Man, John the Baptist and Jeremiah all had the blessing of the Creator’s Holy Spirit working with them prior to their births, while yet still inside their mothers [Jeremiah 1:5, Luke 1:15, 41, Matthew 1:20]. 

Was a wondrous working performed for Samson’s mother? If so, it casts doubt on Manoah being Samson’s biological father. A similar scenario as that of Christ and his adoptive father, Joseph [Matthew 1:16].

15 Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “Please let us detain you and prepare a young goat for you.” 16 And the angel of the Lord said to Manoah, “If you detain me, I will not eat of your food. But if you prepare a burnt offering, then offer it to the Lord.” (For Manoah did not know that he was the angel of the Lord.) 17 And Manoah said to the angel of the Lord, “What is your name, so that, when your words come true, we may honor you?” 18 And the angel of the Lord said to him, “Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?” 19 So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering, and offered it on the rock to the Lord, to the one who works wonders, and Manoah and his wife were watching. 20 And when the flame went up toward heaven from the altar, the angel of the Lord went up in the flame of the altar. Now Manoah and his wife were watching, and they fell on their faces to the ground.

21 The angel of the Lord appeared no more to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of the Lord. 22 And Manoah said to his wife, “We shall surely die, for we have seen God.” 23 But his wife said to him, “If the Lord had meant to kill us, he would not have accepted a burnt offering and a grain offering at our hands, or shown us all these things, or now announced to us such things as these.” 24 And the woman bore a son and called his name Samson [H8123 – Shimshown: ‘like the Sun’].And the young man grew, and the Lord blessed him. 25 And the Spirit of the Lord began to stir him in Mahaneh-dan, between Zorah and Eshtaol [cities of Dan].

It is clear that Samson grew up in Manoah’s household as a son and that Manoah’s wife physically gave birth to Samson. What is not categorically stated is whether Manoah is Samson’s father or what family line Samson’s mother actually was. She may not have even been from a tribe of Israel. Regardless, Samson’s mother not descending from the tribe of Dan is supported by the prophecy in Revelation 7:4-8 of no-one in the time of the end being saved from Dan. Though it is not complete proof, for there may well have been converted Danites between the eponymous Dan and the future sealing of the 144,000 saints. Yet, placing all the scriptures regarding Dan and his tribe together, it paints the possibly remarkable picture of a. no Danite, has ever been called and b. Samson with only one biological parent – as the Messiah – was not from the tribe of Dan. 

Judges 14:1-20

English Standard Version

Samson went down to Timnah, and at Timnah he saw one of the daughters of the Philistines. 2 Then he came up and told his father and mother, “I saw one of the daughters of the Philistines at Timnah. Now get her for me as my wife.” 3 But his father and mother said to him, “Is there not a woman among the daughters of your relatives, or among all our people, that you must go to take a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines?” But Samson said to his father, “Get her for me, for she is right in my eyes.”

4 His father and mother did not know that it was from the Lord, for he was seeking an opportunity against the Philistines. At that time the Philistines ruled over Israel. 5 Then Samson went down with his father and mother to Timnah, and they came to the vineyards of Timnah. And behold, a young lion [symbol of Dan & Judah] came toward him roaring. 

Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and although he had nothing in his hand, he tore the lion in pieces as one tears a young goat. But he did not tell his father or his mother what he had done. 7 Then he went down and talked with the woman, and she was right in Samson’s eyes.

8 After some days he returned to take her. And he turned aside to see the carcass of the lion, and behold, there was a swarm of bees in the body of the lion, and honey. 9 He scraped it out into his hands and went on, eating as he went. And he came to his father and mother and gave some to them, and they ate. But he did not tell them that he had scraped the honey from the carcass of the lion.

10 His father went down to the woman, and Samson prepared a feast there, for so the young men used to do. 11 As soon as the people saw him, they brought thirty companions to be with him. 12 And Samson said to them, “Let me now put a riddle to you. If you can tell me what it is, within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes, 13 but if you cannot tell me what it is, then you shall give me thirty linen garments and thirty changes of clothes.” And they said to him, “Put your riddle, that we may hear it.” 14 And he said to them,

“Out of the eater [meat] came something to eat [honey]. Out of the strong [lion] came something sweet.”

And in three days they could not solve the riddle.

One commentator says regarding Samson’s riddle – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Samson’s riddle tells us how to interpret Jacob’s blessing upon Judah. Judah was to bring forth the King-Messiah, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, who would die and be raised from the dead. That was Judah’s calling, and Jesus was indeed born of the tribe of Judah… Samson’s riddle may also be a prophecy that the descendants of the tribe of Dan will one day try to destroy the tribe of Judah [or Ephraim] in jealous revenge for God’s judgment on their idolatry. 

From the carcass of the young lion [Judah] the tribe of Dan (typified by the bees) will attempt to produce their own golden age (symbolized by honey) and confer immortality on mankind through occult enlightenment. The conspiracy of the tribe of Dan, aka the Synagogue of Satan, [is] to steal the messianic birthright from the tribe of Judah and establish a false messianic kingdom in Israel… 

It is through the agency of Jewish Kabbalists such as the Sephardim and the Lubavitch Movement that the Gentiles will be judged by a restored Sanhedrin that enforces the genocidal Noahide Laws worldwide.’

We will return to the symbolism of the Bees and the link with Dan. We have touched upon the Noahide Laws previously [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. The alarming aspect is that most people do not know what these laws are, nor do they realise that they will become law for everyone in the European or Western world in the future and that when that happens, all Christians – whether of the true church of God and body of Christ or of the myriad false branches that constitute the many denominations of Christianity – are in very big trouble. 

Zionism Exposed, The Noahide Laws – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Few Christians have heard of the Noahide Laws or know that they were signed into US law on March 20, 1991 by George H W Bush.   

The Noahide Laws are from the Babylonian Talmud and according to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, “They declared that the following six commandments were enjoined upon Adam: (1) not to worship idols; (2)not to blaspheme the name of God; (3) to establish courts of justice; (4) not to kill; (5) not to commit adultery; and (6) not to rob… A seventh commandment was added after the Flood-not to eat flesh that had been cut from a living animal.

These Noahide Laws are universal and binding upon Gentiles only [as opposed to the obligatory 613 covenant commandments required of Jews]. According to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, “The Talmud frequently speaks of ‘the seven laws of the sons of Noah,’ which were regarded as obligatory upon all mankind, in contradistinction to those that were binding upon Israelites only. (Tosef., ‘Ab. Zarah, ix. 4; Sanh. 56a). Note: The original Jewish Encyclopedia link has been removed since the publication of this website. 

The Penalty for Transgression of any Noahide Law is Decapitation – Christians will all be Decapitated. [A Handmaid’s Tale… anyone?] “With but a few exceptions, the punishment meted out to a Noachid for the transgression of any of the seven laws is decapitation.” (1906 Encyclopedia)

What few Christians know and what isn’t explicitly stated within the US legislation, is that the first and second Noahide laws, which prohibit idolatry and blasphemy, would be transgressed by [ALL] Christians. This is because the worship of Jesus Christ is considered idolatry and the name of Jesus is blasphemy according to the Talmud.’ 

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them:and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.” (Revelation 20:4) 

‘Courts will be established everywhere to issue warnings and to exact justice [the Judgement of Dan] for violations of the Noahide Laws. Some of these courts and even prisons will exist within churches. Few Christians are aware of the inordinate number of church elders today who have police/military backgrounds with some churches even having their own police force. 

“The Noachidæ (those who the Noahide Laws are binding upon) are required to establish courts of justice in every city and province; and these courts are to judge the people with regard to the six laws and to warn them against the transgression of any of them.” (1906 Jewish Encyclopedia)’

15 On the fourth day they said to Samson’s wife, “Entice your husband to tell us what the riddle is, lest we burn you and your father’s house with fire. Have you invited us here to impoverish us?” 16 And Samson’s wife wept over him and said, “You only hate me; you do not love me. You have put a riddle to my people, and you have not told me what it is.” And he said to her, “Behold, I have not told my father nor my mother, and shall I tell you?” 17 She wept before him the seven days that their feast lasted, and on the seventh day he told her, because she pressed him hard. Then she told the riddle to her people. 18 And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down,

“What is sweeter than honey? What is stronger than a lion?”

And he said to them, “If you had not plowed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle.”

Samson assumes these men have slept with his wife.

19 And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon and struck down [H5221 – nakah: ‘slew, slayed’] thirty men of the town and took their spoil and gave the garments to those who had told the riddle. In hot anger he went back to his father’s house. 20 And Samson’s wife was given to his companion, who had been his best man.

A very short marriage. Rightly or wrongly we obtain an impression of a man spoiled by his parents. Knowing your son is set apart by the Eternal for a special calling appears to have been inflated in Samson’s parent’s and in Samson’s own eyes. It was probably drilled into him from a young age. He displays a level of immaturity, impetuousness, and vanity in his, ‘get me that woman now’ attitude. Samson had brothers, though maybe he was the eldest and all hopes were pinned on him. 

Samson’s riddle to the Philistines was cocky and condescending, knowing they would never work it out. The threat of burning by fire was a typical Philistine response. His wife deserves an award for acting and perseverance and, yet Samson either displays weakness of character or a perverseness to reveal the answer, when he had held out nearly seven days. Why reveal the answer then? It is at odds that Samson would murder thirty men in cold blood, when the Spirit from the Lord had come upon him.

Judges 15:1-20

English Standard Version

After some days, at the time of wheat harvest [Feast of Tabernacles], Samson went to visit his wife with a young goat. And he said, “I will go in to my wife in the chamber.” But her father would not allow him to go in. 2 And her father said, “I really thought that you utterly hated her, so I gave her to your companion. Is not her younger sister more beautiful than she? Please take her instead.”

 3 And Samson said to them, “This time I shall be innocent in regard to the Philistines, when I do them harm.” 4 So Samson went and caught 300 foxes and took torches. And he turned them tail to tail and put a torch between each pair of tails. 5 And when he had set fire to the torches, he let the foxes go into the standing grain of the Philistines and set fire to the stacked grain and the standing grain, as well as the olive orchards. 6 Then the Philistines said, “Who has done this?” And they said, “Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because he has taken his wife and given her to his companion.” And the Philistines came up and burned her and her father with fire. 

7 And Samson said to them, “If this is what you do, I swear I will be avenged on you, and after that I will quit.” 8 And he struck them hip and thigh with a great blow, and he went down and stayed in the cleft of the rock of Etam.

Then the Philistines came up and encamped in Judah and made a raid on Lehi. 10 And the men of Judah said, “Why have you come up against us?” They said, “We have come up to bind Samson, to do to him as he did to us.” 11 Then 3,000 men of Judah went down to the cleft of the rock of Etam, and said to Samson,Do you not know that the Philistines are rulers over us? What then is this that you have done to us?” 

And he said to them, “As they did to me, so have I done to them.” 12 And they said to him, “We have come down to bind you, that we may give you into the hands of the Philistines.” And Samson said to them, “Swear to me that you will not attack me yourselves.” 13 They said to him, “No; we will only bind you and give you into their hands. We will surely not kill you.” So they bound him with two new ropes and brought him up from the rock.

14 When he came to Lehi, the Philistines came shouting to meet him. Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and the ropes that were on his arms became as flax that has caught fire, and his bonds melted off his hands. 15 And he found a fresh jawbone of a donkey, and put out his hand and took it, and with it he struck 1,000 men. 16 And Samson said,

“With the jawbone of a donkey, heaps upon heaps, with the jawbone of a donkey have I struck down a thousand men.” 

17 As soon as he had finished speaking, he threw away the jawbone out of his hand. And that place was called Ramath-lehi. 18 And he was very thirsty, and he called upon the Lord and said, “You have granted this great salvation by the hand of your servant, and shall I now die of thirst and fall into the hands of the uncircumcised?” 19 And God split open the hollow place [a well] that is at Lehi, and water came out from it. And when he drank, his spirit returned, and he revived. Therefore the name of it was called En-hakkore; it is at Lehi to this day. 20 And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines twenty years. 

Three thousand men is an astonishing number of men to apprehend just one strong man. This shows that Samson’s strength was not natural but supernatural. Some will say that Samson killing a thousand men must be an exaggeration. But this kind of awesome strength would be difficult to counter in hand to hand combat. 

A terminator in hyper drive so-to-speak. Again though, the Spirit descends upon Samson in acts of violence and death. I bet Samson was thirsty after fighting a thousand men. Again, his manner is haughty with the Eternal. So far, there is not much to like about Samson. Though the stand out point in this chapter, is the fact the Philistines went straight to the territory of Judah, deliberately bypassing the tribe of Dan. Why would they do that, if Samson was a Danite? Was Samson’s mother from the tribe of Judah after all?

Judges 16:1-31

English Standard Version

Samson went to Gaza, and there he saw a prostitute, and he went in to her. 2 The Gazites were told, “Samson has come here.” And they surrounded the place and set an ambush for him all night at the gate of the city. They kept quiet all night, saying, “Let us wait till the light of the morning; then we will kill him.” 3 But Samson lay till midnight, and at midnight he arose and took hold of the doors of the gate of the city and the two posts, and pulled them up, bar and all, and put them on his shoulders and carried them to the top of the hill that is in front of Hebron.

The immense weight of the doors, posts and crossbar was carried by Samson for an incredible forty miles. It does not say that the Spirit descended on Samson, though it is assumed that this must have been a supernatural feat? The visit to a prostitute is casually understated, as it was centuries earlier when Judah inadvertently lay with his daughter-in-law. One wonders if the seventh commandment applies in these instances, or only if one is married. Again, was Samson actually a descendant of Judah?

After this he loved a woman in the Valley of Sorek, whose name was Delilah [H1807 – Dliylah: ‘feeble, languishing]. 5 And the lords of the Philistines came up to her and said to her, “Seduce him, and see where his great strength lies, and by what means we may overpower him, that we may bind him to humble him. And we will each give you 1,100 pieces of silver.” 6 So Delilah said to Samson, “Please tell me where your great strength lies, and how you might be bound, that one could subdue you.”

There were five principal cities of the Philistines and so maybe five Lords, meant possibly 5,500 pieces of silver – or more likely, each Lord contributed 220 pieces each. This would have been winning the lottery. We learn that Delilah’s love of Samson was dwarfed by a huge prize fund and she was willingly corrupted. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Delilah looks like it comes from the verb (dalal), meaning to be low or hang down… Noun (dalla) denotes a drooping bundle of hair or threads of warp hanging in loom. Whoever made up the name Delilah must have tinkered quite a bit with the root. The question is: why? The author could have called her a Low Life and named her Dalah, Dallah or Dalalah, and be done with it. 

Whatever the reason (or intended meaning), the name Delilah as it is written looks like it contains the word (layela), meaning night, and that evokes an association with the name of the fabulous night creature Lilith.’

Abarim Publications drawing attention to Delilah’s association with Lilith, is a detail we will look into further. 

7 Samson said to her, “If they bind me with seven fresh bowstrings that have not been dried, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 8 Then the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven fresh bowstrings that had not been dried, and she bound him with them. 9 Now she had men lying in ambush in an inner chamber. And she said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he snapped the bowstrings, as a thread of flax snaps when it touches the fire. So the secret of his strength was not known.

Samson uses his inventive sense of humour, to test Delilah and she happily fails his test – with all eyes on her massive payload. Saying that, Samson’s relationship with Delilah, was a complex, toxic love story. Central to it, is a sexual theme of a Dominatrix who grew frustrated at playing a pretend role of dominance to Samson’s fake submissive role and so wore him down to reveal his secret, so she could truly bind his supernatural strength. 

10 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Behold, you have mocked me and told me lies. Please tell me how you might be bound.” 11 And he said to her, “If they bind me with new ropes that have not been used, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 12 So Delilah took new ropes and bound him with them and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And the men lying in ambush were in an inner chamber. But he snapped the ropes off his arms like a thread.

13 Then Delilah said to Samson, “Until now you have mocked me and told me lies. Tell me how you might be bound.” And he said to her, “If you weave the seven locks of my head with the web and fasten it tight with the pin, then I shall become weak and be like any other man.” 14 So while he slept, Delilah took the seven locks of his head and wove them into the web. And she made them tight with the pin and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he awoke from his sleep and pulled away the pin, the loom, and the web.

15 And she said to him, “How can you say, ‘I love you,’ when your heart is not with me? You have mocked me these three times, and you have not told me where your great strength lies.” 16 And when she pressed him hard with her words day after day, and urged him, his soul was vexed[grieved, annoyed]to death. 17 And he told her all his heart, and said to her, “A razor has never come upon my head, for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother’s womb. If my head is shaved, then my strength will leave me, and I shall become weak and be like any other man.”

18 When Delilah saw that he had told her all his heart, she sent and called the lords of the Philistines, saying, “Come up again, for he has told me all his heart.” Then the lords of the Philistines came up to her and brought the money in their hands. 

19 She made him sleep on her knees. And she called a man and had him shave off the seven locks [braid, plait] of his head [for his hair had not been cut from birth]. 

Many have pondered what the length of Samson’s hair and his strength may have in common. Related to this is the connection between electricity and hair. Most people have felt or seen static electricity in hair. For instance when walking by analogue television sets in the past. A series of articles discuss the relevance of long hair and also its conductivity not just of physical electricity but the ramifications of being a spiritual conduit as well. 

The Spiritual Nature of Hair, Deva Kaur Khalsa – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Consider the possibility that the hair on your head is there to do more than just look good… Left uncut, your hair will grow to a particular length and then stop all by itself at the correct length for you… hair is an amazing gift of nature… which increases vitality, intuition, and tranquility.

… Often, when people were conquered or enslaved, their hair was cut as a recognized sign of slavery. It was also understood that this would serve as punishment and decrease the power of those enslaved. The bones in the forehead are porous and function to transmit light to the pineal gland, which affects brain activity, as well as thyroid and sexual hormones. Cutting bangs which cover the forehead impedes this process… Yogi Bhajan…’

“When the hair on your head is allowed to attain its full, mature length, then phosphorous, calcium, and vitamin D are all produced, and enter the lymphatic fluid, and eventually the spinal fluid through the two ducts on the top of the brain. This ionic change creates more efficient memory and leads to greater physical energy, improved stamina, and patience.”

‘Yogi Bhajan explained that if you choose to cut your hair, you not only lose this extra energy and nourishment, but your body must then provide a great amount of vital energy and nutrients to continually re-grow the missing hair.

In addition, hairs are the antennas that gather and channel the sun energy or prana to the frontal lobes, the part of the brain you use for meditation and visualization. These antennas act as conduits to bring you greater quantities of subtle, cosmic energy. It takes approximately three years from the last time your hair was cut for new antennas to form at the tips of the hair.

In India, a Rishi is known as a wise one who coils his or her hair up on the crown of the head during the day to energize the brain cells, and then combs it down at night. A ‘rishi knot’ energizes your magnetic field (aura) and stimulates the pineal gland in the center of your brain.’

“This activation of your pineal results in a secretion that is central to the development of higher intellectual functioning, as well as higher spiritual perception.” – Yogi Bhajan

‘… If you are finding some silver strands in your hair, be aware that the silver or white color increases the vitamins and energy flow to compensate for aging… you will find grace and calmness in a person with uncut hair from birth, if it is kept well. The Creator has a definite reason for giving you hair.’

The Truth About Hair and Why Indians Would Keep Their Hair Long, C Young – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This information about hair has been hidden from the public since the Viet Nam War… In the early nineties, Sally… was married to a licensed psychologist who worked at a VA Medical hospital. Sally said, “I remember clearly an evening when my husband came back to our apartment on Doctor’s Circle carrying a thick official looking folder in his hands. Inside were hundreds of pages of… studies commissioned by the government. He was in shock from the contents. What he read in those documents completely changed his life. From that moment on my conservative middle of the road husband grew his hair and beard and never cut them again…”

As I read the documents, I learned why. It seems that during the Vietnam War special forces in the war department had sent undercover experts to comb American Indian Reservations looking for talented scouts, for tough young men trained to move stealthily through rough terrain. They were especially looking for men with outstanding, almost supernatural, tracking abilities. Before being approached, these carefully selected men were extensively documented as experts in tracking and survival… Once enlisted, an amazing thing happened. Whatever talents and skills they had possessed on the reservation seemed to mysteriously disappear, as recruit after recruit failed to perform as expected in the field.

Serious causalities and failures of performance led the government to contract expensive testing of these recruits, and this is what was found. When questioned about their failure to perform as expected, the older recruits replied consistently that when they received their required military haircuts, they could no longer ‘sense’ the enemy, they could no longer access a ‘sixth sense’, their ‘intuition’ no longer was reliable, they couldn’t ‘read’ subtle signs as well or access subtle extrasensory information.

So the testing institute recruited more Indian trackers, let them keep their long hair, and tested them in multiple areas. Then they would pair two men together who had received the same scores on all the tests. They would let one man in the pair keep his hair long, and gave the other man a military haircut. Then the two men retook the tests. Time after time the man with long hair kept making high scores. Time after time, the man with the short hair failed the tests in which he had previously scored high scores. So the document recommended that all Indian trackers be exempt from military haircuts. 

In fact, it required that trackers keep their hair long.

Hair is an extension of the nervous system, it can be correctly seen as exteriorized nerves, a type of highly evolved ‘feelers’ or ‘antennae’ that transmit vast amounts of important information to the brain stem, the limbic system, and the neocortex. Not only does hair in people, including facial hair in men, provide an information highway reaching the brain, hair also emits energy, the electromagnetic energy emitted by the brain into the outer environment. This has been seen in Kirlian photography when a person is photographed with long hair and then rephotographed after the hair is cut. When hair is cut, receiving and sending transmissions to and from the environment are greatly hampered. This results in numbing-out. Cutting of hair is a contributing factor to unawareness of environmental distress in local ecosystems. It is also a contributing factor to insensitivity in relationships of all kinds. It contributes to sexual frustration.

In searching for solutions for the distress in our world, it may be time for us to consider that many of our most basic assumptions about reality are in error. It may be that a major part of the solution is looking at us in the face each morning when we see ourselves in the mirror. The story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible has a lot of encoded truth to tell us. When Delilah cut Samson’s hair, the once undefeatable Samson was defeated.’

Human Hair – A Biological Necessity, Dr Birendra Kaur:

‘Nature put every hair on your body for a reason. The hair of the legs regulates the glandular system and stabilizes a person’s electromagnetic field. The hair under the armpits protects the very sensitive area where the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems come together; this affects the brain and your energy level. Eyebrows protect the eyes from sun and sweat… The hair on top of the head is very long, while the hair on the body is short. If it were only for warmth, the hair on the body would be long also. We only have long hair right over the brain… Hair is your antenna to receive a picture of the subtle world around you, to tell when people are lying, to feel things before they happen…

It has been proven scientifically that people who have long hair tend to be less tired, more energetic and less likely to become depressed. People who have long hair also conserve energy and don’t feel the cold of winter the same as people with short hair. A person who has short hair wastes his body’s energy. A person who cuts his hair over his lifetime forces the body to grow 22 meters of replacement hair. A person who keeps his hair only produces 1.5 meters of hair over his lifetime.

Think of the story of Samson and Delilah in the Bible! He lost his strength when she cut his hair! … Hair is a conductor of the body’s electromagnetic energy. Ever see how the antenna wire in an AM radio is coiled in a circle? That’s because of something called induction. Induction causes any conductor of electromagnetic energy to induce a current in adjacent conductors. This means that when you coil a conductor, the signal becomes much stronger. Hairs on top of the head act as antennae. They conduct energy into the body. Also, wearing the hair on top of the head protects the top of the head from sun and exposure, as well as channeling solar energy and improving vitamin D absorption.’ 

Hair, Our Antenna to the Subtle Realms, Paolo Da Floresta, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Your bones, your blood, your skin and your hair are all made of “mini-magnets”… your entire brain is made of magnets that interact with each other. You can even think of your hair as being magnetic flux lines exiting your body. Your hair plays many important roles for your body. The least known role is that of antenna. Your hair is capable of sending/receiving information to and from your body exactly like a radio antenna, and exactly like the antenna described in biology.

Just look at cats whiskers for an obvious example of how sensitive hairs are. Human hair can be found mainly around the most important parts of the body… This gives our body abilities we wouldn’t normally have… eye lashes… are designed to sense objects in close proximity, and to warn the eye of incoming threats. Ear and nose hairs are designed to detect objects as well, to help keep those places safe, and probably assist in hearing and smelling.

… women with long hair are sometimes more sensitive emotionally then women with short hair… men with long hair are more feminine then men with short hair. This is not always true, but I found it is more true than false… I found that when I let my facial hair grow, and I let the hair on the top of my brain grow, I can more easily put myself in other peoples perspective and get a good idea of what they are thinking at the time. I can sense their emotions and feelings as well. I also find it more easy to spot bad actors, or liars. I find that I am more in tune with the people in my surroundings. 

I also believe that hair type, and color, have a great effect on the abilities of the hair. For instance, there is a difference between dark haired people, and light haired people, and even people with fake hair colors. When changing the color of your hair, you change the available frequency range that your hair can send/receive. I also think that thick hair compared to thin hair have noticeable differences too. Also, curly hair, and straight hair effect the ability of the hair. When going bald, or getting gray hairs, this could be a sign of losing sensitivity, or gaining sensitivity (wisdom) of some sort, and no longer needing hair and relying on the mind alone. There is also other theories I can develop from this.

… many ancient [beliefs were] regarded as myth, mambo jumbo or hocus pocus by the west if it cannot be scientifically proven. Fortunately now, quantum physics in the last decade has [given] support [to] some of these myths. Crystals have the power to receive and transmit energy waves. The earliest radios used quartz crystals and were called “crystal sets.” The main composition of quartz crystal is silicon. Silicon is also a key mineral found in the hair, and undoubtedly contributes to its antenna ability. It is no accident that silicon is also the most essential component of computers; silicon enables computers to have mind-like properties including “memory.” 

Silicon is also an important mineral found in the brain, which is the seat of the mind. Silicon is what gives an iridescent sheen to some fruit such as strawberries and cucumbers. It is also found in whole barley and oats.’

The reader can consider this information, though it would strongly appear that there is truth in these summations. It is quite obvious to me that women are far more intuitive than men. If long hair produces deeper intuition among male soldiers who have grown their hair, then it could be an important component rather than just women being intuitive or psychic per se, because of their hormone levels or other feminine factors. In the case of Samson, who appeared to be almost washed in Spirit, his having very long hair may be a significant aspect of a heightened transmission and receiving ability. 

Then she began to torment [H6031 – anah: ‘be humiliated, looking down or browbeating’] him, and his strength [H3581 – koach: ‘power, force, might, of angels, chameleon, a large lizard’], left him. 20 And she said, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And he awoke from his sleep and said, “I will go out as at other times and shake myself free.” But he did not know that the Lord had left him. 21 And the Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes and brought him down to Gaza and bound him with bronze shackles. And he ground at the mill in the prison. 22 But the hair of his head began to grow again after it had been shaved.

If Samson’s first wife deserved an award, then Delilah deserved the whole acting academy. She wore Samson down to exhaustion. Samson, for a man with such incredible physical strength, could he really be a man of limited mental resolve? He had a fondness for the wrong women, yet neither the strength to stand up to them. It is curious that Samson’s strength can be described as the ‘power, force’ or ‘might of angels.’ It could be argued that he was merely supernaturally strong, like an angel. The possibilities broaden when this word also means ‘chameleon’ and of all things, ‘a large lizard.’ There is a school of thought that Samson was actually a Nephil. In fact, some even propose that Delilah was Nephilim.

23 Now the lords of the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to Dagon their god and to rejoice… 24 And when the people saw [Samson], they praised their god. For they said, “Our god has given our enemy into our hand, the ravager of our country, who has killed many of us.” 25 And when their hearts were merry, they said, “Call Samson, that he may entertain us.” So they called Samson out of the prison, and he entertained them. They made him stand between the pillars. 26 And Samson said to the young man who held him by the hand, “Let me feel the pillars on which the house rests, that I may lean against them.” 27 Now the house was full of men and women. All the lords of the Philistines were there, and on the roof there were about 3,000 men and women, who looked on while Samson entertained.

The Philistines return the favour and cruelly mock Samson.

28 Then Samson called to the Lord and said, “O Lord God, please remember me and please strengthen me only this once, O God, that I may be avenged on the Philistines for my two eyes.” 29 And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and he leaned his weight against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other. 30 And Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines.” Then he bowed with all his strength, and the house fell upon the lords and upon all the people who were in it. 

So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he had killed during his life. 31 Then his brothers and all his family came down and took him and brought him up and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the tomb of Manoah his father. He had judged Israel twenty years.

Samson seeks revenge for his eyes and not for any altruistic reasons. He may have been given a special mission by the Eternal and he may have been a Judge of Israel. Though in irony to his being supposedly from the tribe of Judgement, the tribe of Dan, he appears the least likely of all Israel’s judges to have been deemed a wholesome or beneficial leader. Though Samson seemed to be ironically blind spiritually – yet while he  was given liberal doses of Holy Spirit – during his life, and then losing his literal eyesight; he did see his mission through to its desired end result, albeit in a roundabout way. His crusade of liberating Israel from the Philistine’s dominion was achieved through his killing of the five lords and the three thousand influential people from their royalty, aristocracy and wealthy merchant and commercial leaders.

Flying Serpents and Dragons, R A Boulay, 1990, Page 146 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The famous Samson was probably also a Rephaim. While the Old Testament [elucidates] on his fabulous accomplishments, his size is not given. In the Haggadah, however, he is called a Rephaim. Born near Beth-Shemesh in Lebanon [?], he is named after the Sun God Shamash. His mother was reportedly impregnated by “Yahweh’s envoy,” presumably one of the demi-gods. Samson refused to marry one of the Hebrew women and instead chose a Philistine woman, presumably because she was one of the Rephaim. Judges 14 describes one of his exploits which sounds very much like the parties of the Rephaim at Ugarit. When he was at Timnah, a town near Beth-Shamash, it is said that “Samson staged there a party for seven days because that is what the elite fighters used to do.” Samson’s home was just a few miles from Baalbek… the sacred place where the Mespotamian gods met and feasted… ‘

Boulay raises pertinent points. Some addressed by the Bible, others are not. It does not say what Samson looked like. Was he tall, or stocky or just a regular man and not remarkable in any way. Judges thirteen says Manoah was the husband of Samson’s mother. No where does it say that Manoah is Samson’s father. Did the Angel of the Lord impregnate her as we have surmised? The Spirit of the Lord began working with Samson when he was in the womb and when he was young, saying the Lord ‘blessed’ Samson. This sounds like a converted person and not the offspring of a dark Angel as the Haggadah may suggest. For at the end of the day, Samson is recounted by the author of the Book of Hebrews as a man of faith.

Hebrews 11:32-34

English Standard Version

32 And what more shall I say? For time would fail me to tell of… Samson… 33 who through faith conquered kingdoms, enforced justice, obtained promises… 34… escaped the edge of the sword, [was] made strong out of weakness, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight.

We know that Samson married a Philistine on purpose so that he could infiltrate their territory. Are there more question marks over Delilah? Abarim linked her to Lilith, of whom we have studied in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega and touched upon in Chapter XXI Nimrod. Though Delilah would not be Lilith, could it be a hint that Delilah was more than human or used black magic, casting a spell on Samson. Is this how she wore Samson down so that he wanted to die, rather than keep his secret. For surely he realised that telling Delilah would be the end of him. 

It does raise the possibility that he had been enchanted or as the Bible hints at, enfeebled… which means ‘to weaken.’ Did Delilah use sorcery to weaken Samson’s mental control. 

Delilah was an Israelite not a Philistine, Jared Mithrandir, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Traditionally it is assumed that Delilah was another Pagan Philistine woman… In fact The Bible never says that. Samson had two earlier relationships with Philistine women, the one he married early on, and the harlot in Gaza… Neither of them are named… I don’t think any male Philistine characters are named at any-point in the Samson narrative… But Delilah has a name. Critics of The Bible starting with the assumption that [we are] supposed to think of Delilah as a Philistine like to point out that her name isn’t a Philistine name. 

It seems… to be [derived] from the Hebrew word for night Layil ([Strongs] number 3915, the same root as Lilith interestingly) and/or Dalah ([Strongs] number 1809) meaning to fail, to bring low or to empty, from which… Strongs interprets the name Delilah to mean “languishing”.  It’s similar to [Strongs] number 1808 Daliah which means branch.

She’s from a valley (not a city) called Sorek. This location is never mentioned (not by the same name at least) again in Scripture. In the movies Delilah is always sent to seduce Samson from the start. In The Bible it’s not like that, the Philistines come to her after they’ve been involved for awhile. The amount of Silver paid is debated. Is it really 1100 pieces from each lord as the KJV translation leads us to assume?  Or is that the total they all [pooled] together? It’s interesting that again we see betrayal linked with being paid in Silver, just like Judas with Jesus and Judah with Joseph.

I mentioned in an earlier post how there is disagreement… if Judges 17-18 actually follows 16. Now I believe they do follow 16. Judges 17 begins with a story involving Micah’s mother having 1100 shekels of Silver, the exact same amount Delilah was paid (either once or multiple times).  I don’t think that’s a coincidence, I think this is Delilah.

Others who’ve noticed that possible connection then assume Samson is Micah’s father…  Judges tends to note when a key character it’s following is conceived out of wedlock, and Samson and Delilah were never married. Also, if Samson was his father Micah* would be a Danite, and in chapter 18 Micah doesn’t think of the Danites as his kin… [though] maybe… he is the son of Samson. 

[Or Delilah] married someone afterwards, or perhaps she was a widow when she and Samson began their relationship. Which leads back to… [the] common [assumption], that Samson’s relationship with Delilah was bad to begin with.  The text of Judges doesn’t… seem to say that, Evil enters the relationship when The Philistines bribed Delilah.’

There is merit in the argument that Delilah was not a Philistine. Though the inference is that she is, but as we have learnt with Samson, if it doesn’t categorically state the fact, then serious doubt is cast. The familial link between Deliah and Micah is highly plausible. The author picks up on the discrepancy between Micah not being a Danite and Samson being his father. Yet, if Samson was not a Danite, this disappears and Samson may well be Micah’s father; with both being the tribe of Ephraim. 

Samson, Marc Zvi Brettler – emphasis & bold mine:

““Judges” is a poor translation of the Hebrew word shoftim, which in this context refers to local military leaders. They are presented in order of best to worst, culminating with Samson. Biblical leaders do not always present positive examples to emulate, and Samson certainly falls in this category. Born with supernatural strength and an obligation to God and his people, Samson spends most of his short life carousing and inciting violence.

The first woman associated with him, not surprisingly, was his mother, who like many biblical female figures is unnamed. After much difficulty having children, an angel comes to give her the good news that she will bear a son. Reading between the lines, the text suggests that this angel is in fact his real father; a colloquial translation of Judges 13:6 is: “The man of God came on to me, and he looked like an angel of God, super-awesome!” His father’s divinity is one of the story’s explanations of Samson’s great strength, a theme that runs throughout the chapter. In fact, the name Samson, in Hebrew Shimson, derives from shemesh, “sun,” suggesting an original connection between Samson and the sun god.

The theme that God works in most unexpected ways is carried throughout the Samson stories – as is the theme of his appetite for sex and violence. For two chapters (14 and 15), Samson gets into various misadventures that ultimately involve killing Philistines – the more the merrier, and the more absurd the method, the more amusing. He is strong in these stories only when “the spirit of the Lord alight(s) upon him.” And God even performs miracles for him, splitting open a rock and creating a fountain when he is about to die of thirst after smiting one thousand Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey. That latter episode ends with the notice, “He led Israel in the days of the Philistines for twenty years,” suggesting that the story once ended there.

But more legends circulated about Samson, and some of these found their way into Judges. The next, very brief one tells how Samson was ambushed while visiting another woman – an unnamed prostitute in Gaza – and escaped by carrying off the city gates (16:1–3). Here he does not need to wait until “the spirit of the Lord alight[s] upon him,” but is naturally super-strong. 

This brings us to the last story – about Samson’s fourth woman, who is finally named, Delilah, a word that may be etymologically related to the word for “hair.” 

What are we to make of Samson? Some readers may see similarities to the Greek Heracles/Hercules… The Philistines, like the Greeks, came from the Aegean… instead of celebrating a Greek demi-god, they mock the Greek-related Philistines. It is hard to put together the different images of Samson, especially concerning the source of his strength: from his divine father, from his hair, or from the spirit of the Lord? 

The rabbis, who emphasized learning and religious observance over might, were quite ambivalent about Samson. While they praise his unselfish nature and exaggerate even more his heroic killing of Philistines, they also condemn his wandering eyes, which got him entangled with the women who led to his downfall. Invoking one of their favorite principles, measure for measure, they note: “Samson followed** his eyes, and that is why the Philistines blinded him.”’

In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

Judges 17:6; 21:25 English Standard Version

Where there is no vision, the people perish…

Proverbs 29:18 King James Version

“Here’s what I want you to do… buy medicine for your eyes from me so you can see, really see.”

Revelation 3:18 The Message

Judges 17:1-13

English Standard Version

There was a man of the hill country of Ephraim [Mount Ephraim], whose name was Micah. 2 And he said to his mother, “The 1,100 pieces of silver that were taken from you, about which you uttered a curse, and also spoke it in my ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it.” And his mother said, “Blessed be my son by the Lord.” 3 And he restored the 1,100 pieces of silver to his mother. And his mother said, “I dedicate the silver to the Lord from my hand for my son, to make a carved image and a metal image. Now therefore I will restore it to you.” 

Micah is described as coming from the ‘hill country of Ephraim’ or Mount Ephraim. Recall we have discussed the link between this area and Dan. 

Judges 1:34-35

English Standard Version

34 The Amorites pressed the people of Dan back into the hill country, for they did not allow them to come down to the plain. 35 The Amorites persisted in dwelling in Mount Heres, in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim, but the hand of the house of Joseph rested heavily on them, and they became subject to forced labor.

It cannot be ruled out that Micah was either a Danite from Mount Ephraim; or from the tribe of Ephraim. His mother possessing a similar amount of silver, may be Delilah and so Micah’s father may well be Samson. Credence to Micah being a Danite is the silversmith or metallurgist involved in the story, yet the creation of idols was an unfortunate proclivity of the tribe of Ephraim as well. Micah and his mother have strayed grievously into the worship of demons rather than obeying the Eternal Creator.

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Not only do we encounter the issue of idolatry in this chapter, we also should take note that it is connected in this case with Mount Ephraim and the area in the northern part of the land of Canaan.  Of course, this early period was long before the division of the United Monarchy, but Mount Ephraim would eventually be the ruling center of the northern kingdom of Samaria, and even at such an ancient date it is already associated with the sin of idolatry, something for which it would become notorious, leading ultimately to its destruction.’

4 So when he restored the money to his mother, his mother took 200 pieces of silver and gave it to the silversmith, who made it into a carved image and a metal image. And it was in the house of Micah. 5 And the man Micah had a shrine [house of gods], and he made an ephod and household gods [Teraphim], and ordained one of his sons, who became his priest.In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.**

7 Now there was a young man of Bethlehem in Judah, of the family of Judah, who was a Levite, and he sojourned there. 8 And the man departed from the town of Bethlehem in Judah to sojourn where he could find a place. And as he journeyed, he came to the hill country of Ephraim to the house of Micah. 9 And Micah said to him, “Where do you come from?” And he said to him, “I am a Levite of Bethlehem in Judah, and I am going to sojourn where I may find a place.” 10 And Micah said to him, “Stay with me, and be to me a father and a priest, and I will give you ten pieces of silver a year and a suit of clothes and your living.” And the Levite went in. 11 And the Levite was content to dwell with the man, and the young man became to him like one of his sons. 12 And Micah ordained the Levite, and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah. 13 Then Micah said, “Now I know that the Lord will prosper me, because I have a Levite as priest [Micah’s motive is selfish**].”

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… a certain young man, a Levite from Bethlehem-Judah… is on a journey… for a place where he can settle down and serve in his Levitical capacity. Immediately we sense something is rotten, because it was not the customary procedure in Israel for Levites to just wander around the countryside looking for work. In addition, Bethlehem-Judah was not one of the designated Levitical cities according to the [Levitical] commands. There were 48 of them throughout the land, giving the entire population relatively easy access to their services. 

It is even questionable as to whether or not this man, whose name was Jonathan, was a legitimate Levite at all, since his lineage, given in Judges 18:30, appears to come through the tribe of Manasseh, rather than Levi: “And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan.” 

Since Manasseh was not of the priestly line, this could be a mistranslation, as some have suggested, and perhaps was originally intended to state that Jonathan was descended from Moses, a Levite, since only a slight addition to the Hebrew is required to alter the name to Manasseh.’ 

Though he may have been a Levite, as the article highlights he was from a non-Levitical city which hints at the fact that he was not of the priestly line at all and if he descended from Gershom, the son of Moses then he definitely had no legitimacy in becoming a priest. Moses’s family was not included with the Levite Priests descending from his brother Aaron. The passage shows that though Micah was older than Jonathan, he had asked him to be a ‘father’ to him. This is in a spiritual sense and parallels the use and meaning of the word father as used by the Roman Catholic church. The Bible is emphatically clear that a true believer is not to call a priest or minster, a father[1 Peter 1:17].

Matthew 23:9

English Standard Version

And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven.

Judges 18:1-31

English Standard Version

In those days there was no king in Israel. And in those days the tribe of the people of Dan was seeking for itself an inheritance to dwell in, for until then no inheritance among the tribes of Israel had fallen to them. 2 So the people of Dan sent five able men from the whole number of their tribe, from Zorah and from Eshtaol, to spy out the land and to explore it. And they said to them, “Go and explore the land.” And they came to the hill country of Ephraim, to the house of Micah, and lodged there. 3 When they were by the house of Micah, they recognized the voice of the young Levite. And they turned aside and said to him, “Who brought you here? What are you doing in this place? What is your business here?” 

4 And he said to them, “This is how Micah dealt with me: he has hired me, and I have become his priest.” 5 And they said to him, “Inquire of God, please, that we may know whether the journey on which we are setting out will succeed.” 6 And the priest said to them, “Go in peace. The journey on which you go is under the eye** of the Lord [like the All-Seeing Eye on the Great Seal – refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim].”

7 Then the five men departed and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, how they lived in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and unsuspecting, lacking nothing that is in the earth and possessing wealth, and how they were far from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anyone. 8 And when they came to their brothers at Zorah and Eshtaol, their brothers said to them, “What do you report?” 

9 They said, “Arise, and let us go up against them, for we have seen the land, and behold, it is very good. And will you do nothing? Do not be slow to go, to enter in and possess the land. 10 As soon as you go, you will come to an unsuspecting people. The land is spacious, for God has given it into your hands, a place where there is no lack of anything that is in the earth [like the United States].”

11 So 600 men of the tribe of Dan, armed with weapons of war, set out from Zorah and Eshtaol, 12 and went up and encamped at Kiriath-jearim in Judah. On this account that place is called Mahaneh-dan to this day; behold, it is west of Kiriath-jearim. 13 And they passed on from there to the hill country of Ephraim, and came to the house of Micah.

14 Then the five men who had gone to scout out the country of Laish said to their brothers, “Do you know that in these houses there are an ephod, household gods, a carved image, and a metal image? Now therefore consider what you will do.” 15 And they turned aside there and came to the house of the young Levite, at the home of Micah, and asked him about his welfare. 16 Now the 600 men of the Danites, armed with their weapons of war, stood by the entrance of the gate. 17 And the five men who had gone to scout out the land went up and entered and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, while the priest stood by the entrance of the gate with the 600 men armed with weapons of war. 18 And when these went into Micah’s house and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, the priest said to them, “What are you doing?” 

19 And they said to him, “Keep quiet; put your hand on your mouth and come with us and be to us a father and a priest. Is it better for you to be priest to the house of one man, or to be priest to a tribe and clan in Israel?” [1 Kings 12:28-32] 20 And the priest’s heart was glad. He took the ephod and the household gods and the carved image and went along with the people.

21 So they turned and departed, putting the little ones and the livestock and the goods in front of them. 22 When they had gone a distance from the home of Micah, the men who were in the houses near Micah’s house were called out, and they overtook the people of Dan. 23 And they shouted to the people of Dan, who turned around and said to Micah, “What is the matter with you, that you come with such a company?” 24 And he said, “You take my gods that I made and the priest, and go away, and what have I left? How then do you ask me, ‘What is the matter with you?’” 

25 And the people of Dan said to him, “Do not let your voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows fall upon you, and you lose your life with the lives of your household.” 26 Then the people of Dan went their way. And when Micah saw that they were too strong for him, he turned and went back to his home.

Yair Davidiy:

‘The migrating warriors of Dan described themselves as “angry fellows” … implying that they were highly dangerous. The expression translated as “angry fellows” in Hebrew is “mari-nefesh” meaning literally “bitter of soul”. 

The “berserker” or crazed inspired warrior of Scandinavian tradition reflects an aspect of Dan. Samson also exhibited qualities of the berserker. The personality of Dan includes an element of manic depression, resentment, and hidden anger.’

27 But the people of Dan took what Micah had made, and the priest who belonged to him, and they came to Laish, to a people quiet and unsuspecting, and struck them with the edge of the sword and burned the city with fire. 28 And there was no deliverer because it was far from Sidon, and they had no dealings with anyone. It was in the valley that belongs to Beth-rehob. Then they rebuilt the city and lived in it. 29 And they named the city Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor, who was born to Israel; but the name of the city was Laish at the first. 30 And the people of Dan set up the carved image for themselves, and Jonathan the son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land. 31 So they set up Micah’s carved image that he made, as long as the house of God was at Shiloh.

The Hebrew Danites as the Greek Danaans, John R. Salverda – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Danites were a band of rovers, they were not satisfied with the size of the allotment which the official coalition of the Jacobites had afforded them, around Zorah and Eshtaol, so they defied the priesthood of Phinehas, appointed a Levitical priesthood of their own, (directly descended from Moses, not Aaron) and set out to found new lands. First they went up north, and, with the apparent approval, or at least the acquiescence of the Sidonians and the Upper Manassehites [half tribe of East Manasseh], they took the city of Laish, (This city, while the Scriptures, at Judges 18:7, say that it was “far from Sidon” itself, was very close to the Sidonian capitol at the time, a place called Hazor) killed all the Laishites, moved in, and called the place Dan, after their own tribal patriarch. They also held the seaport of Joppa, and it must have been their friendly relations with the seafaring Sidonians that allowed them to build a fleet of ships there.’ 

In summary, a Levite descended from Moses – and therefore not of the priestly line – living in Judah came upon the house of Micah who may have been either an Ephraimite or a Danite dwelling in Mount Ephraim. Micah’s mother may have been Delilah and by extension, his father might have been the dead Samson. Micah has an impressive shrine with important religious artefacts and items of worship. He is wealthy and offers the Levite a position in his household as a Priest. 

Later a party of Danite explorer-warriors looking for a new home – as they were wedged in a narrow strip of land with the burdens of a large population, Philistines and Canaanites pressing on them – happen upon Micah’s home as well. It must have been an impressive house as well as being near the main through road of Ephraim. 

The Bible says, they recognised the voice of the Levite, but we are not told of the past relationship. With the same selfish motives as Micah, but a higher wage and benefits on offer they make the greedy Jonathan an offer he can’t refuse. 

So the Levite Jonathan joins the renegade Danites. The Danites have taken every last vestige of items from Micah’s impressive and no doubt expensive shrine. Micah learns of the theft and chases the Danite party down and confronts them. The larger number of Danites threaten Micah with death if he persists in his foolish notion of wanting his things back. 

The Danites continue on their trek, exhibiting the perchance for violence by ambushing the defenceless and peaceful city of Laish, renaming it Dan. And so ends any substantial dialogue on Dan forever. It is interesting that this episode follows Samson and that 1,100 pieces of silver is mentioned. Strongly inferring that Micah, is Delilah’s son. And whether the plot relating to idolatry hints at Micah being a Danite or from Ephraim; with Danites visiting his home, the association between Dan and Mount Ephraim remains integral – appearing to be much more, than a coincidence of happenstance. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation their, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The city of Laish… was located in the extreme upper Jordan Valley, north of the Sea of Galilee. The residue of the tribe of Dan settled along the various tributaries that fed into the Jordan River at the base of Mt. Hermon. This area marked the northernmost point in all of Israel, and the expression “from Dan to Beersheba” (Judges 20:1…) became a common saying among the Israelites… indicating the boundaries of the land from north to south. 

… the tribe of Dan embraced idolatry and false worship more readily than any of the other children of Israel… Dan, in essence, became the facilitator of paganism for the children of Israel, and as such, the main polluter of God’s way among the people.

The choice of territory in which the Danites ultimately settled is, in itself, quite strategic… it put them as far away as possible from the rest of the nation, and especially from Shiloh, where the center of [true] worship in Israel was situated at this time in their history. In positioning themselves in this fashion, they were subjected to great temptation by the heathen societies to the north and west. Inevitably, given their location, they came under the influence of… the Edomite[s].

Esau vowed to kill his brother to whom he had sold the birthright, and to regain what he had lost through the treachery of Jacob. From this early conflict stems the great struggle between the descendants of these two individuals.  

Not only did the false worship center established in northern Israel by the Danites for hundreds of years vie directly with Shiloh for the spiritual allegiance of the people, there is evidence that this evil system may have had a direct connection with the crucifixion of [Jesus], for we read in [the] famous Messianic passage of Psalms 22 [1, 11-13]: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?… Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help. Many bulls have compassed me: strong BULLS OF BASHAN have beset me round. They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion”.

… the 22nd Psalm is unquestionably about the dying Messiah. Note it is said that “strong bulls of Bashan” were present at the crucifixion, and that they uttered slurs at Christ as He hung suffering and dying on the cross.  Bashan, the area to which Dan migrated, was famous for its strong bulls, and in this instance, they are used as a symbol for the enemies of Messiah, indeed, the very ones perhaps most responsible for His death. This statement may have far greater implications and repercussions than are normally attached to it.’ 

We shall now look at research on the migrations of Dan, comments on his identity and the role of Dan in the latter days. We will also look at a few options on who Dan is today – who and where his people might be. Be aware constant reader, a definitive answer on the tribe of Dan is not necessarily the outcome as Dan continually produces more questions than answers. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950: 

‘Dan was originally divided into two parts, one about Joppa, a seaport, and the other in the north of Palestine. Dan refused to fight along side the other tribes against the Gentiles (Judges 5:17). Dan would judge, or stand up to rule, his own people as one of the separate tribes of Israel indicating he would gain self-government in the following manner: “Dan shall be a serpent in the way, a horned snake in the part, that biteth the horse’s heels, so that his rider falleth, backward.” Ireland has done just that to England. In fact, the symbol of the illegal Irish Republican Army was the coiled snake! 

Dan would also be like a young lion leaping forth, an apt description of Denmark, which acquired the Virgin Islands, Greenland, Iceland and other islands in her heyday. Especially unique is the fact that of all the tribes Northern Dan still preserves their father’s name the Danes!’ 

As of time of writing, I have yet to locate a snake in any of the symbols of the Irish Republican Army. We have studied the Irish and the Danes. Though similar as cousins, they do not share Haplogroups reminiscent of brothers and are identifiable as Gad and Medan respectively. Although Dan was identifiable in two geographic locations in the past, there are no clues in the Bible that this would be a modern or repeated scenario. 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation their, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… a segment of the tribe of Dan may have been the first of the Israelites to migrate beyond the confines of the early boundaries. So early, in fact, that their initial departure can be traced all the way back to the time of the Exodus itself, and perhaps even before that. 

Looking back into the annals of ancient history, we come upon the testimony of the Egyptian chronicler Hecataeus of Abdera.  Writing during the reign of Ptolemy I, Hecataeus records a remarkable story that is nothing less than that of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. The following is a most significant excerpt from his account:

“Once, when a PESTILENCE had broken out in Egypt, the cause of the visitation was generally ascribed to the ANGER OF THE GODS. As MANY STRANGERS dwelled in Egypt, and observed DIFFERENT CUSTOMS in religion and sacrifice, it came to pass that the hereditary worship of the gods was being given up in Egypt. The Egyptians, therefore, were of opinion that they would obtain no alleviation of the evil unless they REMOVED THE PEOPLE OF FOREIGN EXTRACTION. When they were driven out, the noblest and bravest part of them, as some say, under noble and renowned leaders, DANAUS and Cadmus, came to HELLES (GREECE) [by sea]; but the great bulk of them migrated into the land, not far removed from Egypt, which is now called JUDEA. These emigrants were led by Moses, who was most distinguished among them for wisdom and bravery” (Dr. Max Duncker, The History of Antiquity, I:456-466).

‘Another well-respected early historian is Diodorus of Sicily. He composed a 40-volume history of [the] world, and includes the following very similar information regarding the tribe of Dan:

“They say also that those who set forth with DANAUS, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country (Egypt); and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to circumcise their male children… the custom having been brought over from Egypt.  Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in Egypt” (History of the World, Book. I, section 28, pages 1-5).

‘… an element of the tribe of Dan migrated by sea to Greece, during the general time-frame of the Israelite exodus from Egypt, perhaps even somewhat earlier, as certain ancient testimony, especially that of Petavius in his History of the World, actually puts their departure as occurring within only a few years after the death of Joseph [1616 BCE]. This presumably would have been at a juncture when the Israelites were not yet slaves in Egypt, and might well have had the freedom to leave on their own volition.’ 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, Dan – The Serpents Trail, J H Allen, 1902 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The territory into and through which the ten tribes made their escape was just north of the Caucasus, which in ancient geography, as may be seen by consulting ancient maps, was known as the territory of the Sarmatians, while the pass, or gate, was sometimes called “The Sarmatian Gate.” 

Not a few have shown, and upon good grounds, that the name of Sarmatia was derived from Samaria, the earlier home of these wandering people, whose general name among themselves was Scoloti, but whom the Greeks called Scythians, or Nomades. From that word Scoloti we have the more modern name Scoti, and the still more modern Scots, which, of course, mean the same as the Greek, Scythia and Nomades, i.e., wanderers. 

But this is only one of the many names by which these wanderers, or Scots, may be traced, for in their western march across the European continent, which was necessarily slow, Ephraim did obey the prophetic injunction, “Set thee up waymarks,” (Jeremiah 31:21). And just here we must keep in mind the fact that in the ancient Hebrew there are no written vowels, and that in the word Dan there are only two letters used which are equivalent to the English D and N. Hence it makes no difference if the word is Dan, Don, Dun, Din or Den, it is equal to the Hebrew D-n, in which the speaker sounds the vowel according to characteristics of his own dialect. 

On the west side of the Black Sea, there is, according to ancient geography, a region which was called “Moesia,” signifying the land of the Moses-ites, and the people of which were called Moesi, or Mosesites. These people had such great reverence for a person whom they called Zal-moxis… T. R. Howlett says, “Zalmoxis, whom Herodotus supposed them to worship as a god, is without doubt Moses; Zal signifying “chief,” or “leader,” while Moxis and Aloses are but the Greek for the Hebrew Mosie, which is also rendered Moses in our tongue.”

Moesia was bounded on the south by Mace-Don-ia and the Dar-DAN-ells, and on the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia, which in some maps is Scythia, in others Gomer, there are the rivers D-n-iper, D-n-ister, and the DON. The fact that the Dnieper and the Dniester are written without a vowel between the D and the N is quite as significant as the fact that the Don has one. 

Professor Totten says: “There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of Europe mark their resting-places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names (Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream, Jor-dan – river of rest – from whose banks, so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its tribal proclivity for naming everything it captured (Judges 18:1-12-29) after their father, or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to trace these wanderers like a trail.”

… Jacob does not say, as many seem to think, that Dan in the last days shall become the ruler of the other tribes of Israel; for the Eternal One has said, “Judah is my law giver.” But what Jacob does say is, that Dan as one of the tribes of Israel shall render a verdict, or judge his people Israel. It may be that the word Israel, as used in the prophecy above, is used in its broadest sense, and includes both the house of Israel and the house of Judah.

It is now more than two hundred and fifty years since a Danish peasant, who, with his daughter, was following their plow in their native country. when the daughter’s plow turned up a bright and glittering something, which upon examination proved to be a golden trumpet. It was taken to the authorities, and, beyond all doubt, identified as one of the SEVEN Golden Trumpets used in the altar service of the temple at Jerusalem. 

This trumpet, which is now in the National Museum at Copenhagen, is ornamented with a lily and pomegranate the lily being the national flower of Egypt, and the pomegranate that of Palestine…

Just before Moses died… of Dan he said: “Dan is a lion’s whelp; he shall leap from Bashan.” Bashan was on Palestinean territory, hence Dan is to leap from that country, but it is left for history to tell where that leap landed him. That Dan’s leap landed him in Ireland is evident, for in that island we find to this day Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay and Don-e-gal City, with Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry just north of them. But there is also Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means “More Dan’s.” And, really, there are so many more that we have no space for them, except to mention Dangan Castle [Meath], where the Duke of Wellington was born, and to say that Dunn in the Irish language means just what Dan means in the Hebrew, i.e., a judge. 

It is remarkable that there is not only a river Don in Scotland, but also a river Doon, and that there is also a river Don in England. Also that these countries are as full of Dans, Dons and Duns as Ireland, for in them are not only such names as Dundee, Dunkirk, Danbar, Dunraven, and many others, but the name of DAN, the son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham, lies buried in the name of their capital cities… E-DAN-burgh and Lon-don. Surely Dan hath Dan-ed, or judged among his people, and thus fulfilled the sure word of prophecy.’

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘One additional piece of evidence of the substantial role of the Israelite tribes in the ancient world will be examined. Ezekiel 27 lists many ancient nations which traded in Tyre’s marketplace… [including] the tribe of Dan as having an identity separate and distinct from Israel and Judah. 

This fact was hinted at earlier in the reference to Judges 5:17 that “Dan remain(ed) in ships.” This passage indicates that the tribe of Dan… had a nautical identity. If a portion of the Danites had an identity separate from Israel and Judah, secular records should bear witness to that fact… and they do! 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica records that the Greeks listed the “Danaans,” or “Danuana” as a distinct, seafaring people who were present in the eastern Mediterranean Sea as early as 1230­ – 1190 B.C. This is the same time frame that Judges 5:17 ascribes a nautical identity to the Danites. Bibles which affix dates to chapter headings typically show a date around 1200 B.C. for Judges 5:17. Therefore, the biblical and secular accounts agree on the dating of the tribe of Dan’s separate, maritime identity.

These “Danaans” were part of a seafaring alliance of peoples known as the Sea Peoples who raided and settled Mediterranean coastlands at that time. The connection between the tribe of Dan and the Sea Peoples has also been noted in Biblical Archaeology Review, in an article which cites the work of Israeli archaeologist, Yigael Yadin, in the following comment: 

“…The Danites were originally not members of the Israelite confederation… They seem, rather, to have been connected with a group of the Sea Peoples called Danuna or Denyen in Egyptian sources, and known to the Greeks as the Danoi.”

‘Dan’s apparent independence from the other tribes occurred at a time when the Israelite tribes were loosely ruled by a series of Judges who predated the Israelite monarchical period. During that time, the Israelite tribes had no strong central government, and the tribes were free to pursue more independent paths. The fact that the “Danaans” were located in the eastern Mediterranean region also supports their being the tribe of Dan as that is precisely where one would expect the tribe of Dan to be present. It is also recorded that the “Danaans” furnished some of the earliest settlers of ancient Ireland. This account not only further supports a strong nautical tradition for the ancient tribe of Dan, but their presence in ancient Ireland also indicates that several of the Israelite tribes had roles in the early colonization of the British Isles. 

If Dan, one of the lesser tribes of Israel, was itself sufficiently numerous that the Greeks preserved its prominent, independent identity approximately two centuries prior to the reigns of Kings David and Solomon, it is easier to understand how great the entire Israelite nation could become when all twelve tribes were finally united under a strong ruler. 

As a maritime tribe, it would be especially easy for many Danites to sail away from Israel in their ships. Much of the tribe of Dan apparently sailed as far as Hibernia (modern Ireland) in their effort to quit the area. Their arrival in considerable force in Hibernia as the Tuatha De Danaans is recorded in the early histories of Ireland. The battles of the Danaans to establish a new homeland in Ireland have even been recorded in the annals of ancient Irish history. In her book, Ireland, Emily Lawless cited these ancient historical records that the Danaans fought a three ­day battle against the Firboigs which centered around a hill called Ben­levi, after which they built many stone forts. 

“Ben­levi” is of obvious Hebrew origin as it includes the name of the Israelite tribe of Levi. J.H. Allen’s, Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright, records that “the greatest influx of the Tuatha de Danaan to Ireland” occurred around 720 B.C., just after the fall of Samaria .

The Irish islands called the Arans still have remains of old forts bearing the name of the tribe of Dan. Two forts on the Arans are called Dun Aonghasa and Dun Chonchuir. Ancient Hebrew did not write vowels so the vowels “u” in these words was added later. It is the consonants D­N which preserve the name of “Dan.” These forts have an antiquity “certainly predating Christ,” and “had been crumbling for long centuries before the Arans entered recorded history.” They have been attributed to the Firboigs at the time of “the legendary early invasions of Ireland,” although the name D­N attached to the castles indicates they may have been constructed (or conquered) by the Danaans, the tribe of Dan. Since the tribe of Dan had a habit of renaming existing geographic features after their tribal name when they came into an area (Judges 19:47), it is possible these forts were, indeed, built by the Firboigs [the tribe of Reuben – refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad], and renamed after the Danites conquered them. History has no record that the Danaans ever moved again after their arrival in Ireland.’ 

Recall, the Fir Bolgs were the tribe of Reuben. We will pick up on Collin’s comment on the tribe of Dan not moving. If this were true, then the Danaans would be in Northern  Ireland and not in the southern portion of Ireland as commonly taught by nearly all Israelite identity adherents. The Tuatha de Danaan, lived in and ruled from, Ulster and not anywhere near the southern part of Ireland. 

‘As an interesting digression, it is clear that the Irish have not forgotten their Danaan roots as a 1980s Irish band in Minneapolis named itself “De Danaan.” There was also an intriguing account in U.S. News and World Report Magazine which, noting the presence of then New York Mayor Ed Koch (a prominent American Jew) in the 1987 St. Patrick’s Day parade, added that Mayor Koch: 

“explained his presence at the head of the grand parade thusly: ‘It’s part of my roots. The 10 lost tribes of Israel we believe ended up in Ireland.’ ” 

Website 1Ephraimite provides an amplification on the derivation of ‘Tuatha Dedannan’ and includes the Encyclopaedia Britannica’s definition – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

“Firstly Tuatha Dedannan’s MODERN translation is “People of the Goddess Danu”, but which under the Old Irish spelling of Tuath Dedanaan translates as “Tribes of the God whose Mother is Anu”. The “D” is a 10th Century prosthetic addition because Christian scribes believed Anu was related to the continental Goddess Danu. But who are often referred to as the Tuatha De and referred to as the “Children of Don” within Britain. Reflecting in the fact that Tuatha, (meaning “Tribes”) is the plural of Tuath (meaning “tribe”) 

In Old Irish, tuatha means: ‘family’ or ‘clan’ and de Danaan means: ‘of Danu.’

‘Notice what’s said in the online Encyclopædia Britannica –

Tuatha Dé Danann, (Gaelic: “People of the Goddess Danu”), in Celtic mythology, a race inhabiting Ireland before the arrival of the Milesians (the ancestors of the modern Irish). They were said to have been skilled in magic, and the earliest reference to them relates that, after they were banished from heaven because of their knowledge, they descended on Ireland in a cloud of mist. They were thought to have disappeared into the hills when overcome by the Milesians. The Leabhar Gabhála (Book of Invasions), a fictitious history of Ireland from the earliest times, treats them as actual people, and they were so regarded by native historians up to the 17th century. In popular legend they have become associated with the numerous fairies still supposed to inhabit the Irish landscape.’

Fictitious because it contains, myth, legends and the fantastical. This doesn’t mean the contents are all fairy tales. Embellished maybe and allegorical. Anything that links the tribe of Dan with Nephilim, giants, angels and magic, which would include fairies, cannot be dismissed out of hand without investigation. Fairies are just another form of ‘little people.’ In the same category as leprechauns, Gnomes, Gremlins, Grey aliens and every other form of mythical or supernatural diminutive entity. 

According to Parker’s Astrology, the Eighth Astrological House is from October 24 to November 22 and Scorpio happens to be the eighth astrological sign. Now according to J R Church: ‘To Dan was given the symbol of Scorpio, which, in the ancient Egyptian zodiac was a snake.’ [Guardians of the Grail, page 117]. ‘And perhaps there is significance in the fact that the Eighth House of astrology rules the mysteries of sex, death and rebirth – and the occult.’ [Picknett and Prince, page 204] 

Legend records that the Tuathe de Danaan came to Ireland under the leadership of Nuada, a son of Danu. Among the Danaans were the leaders Dagda, Oghma, Goibhniu and Bres.* It is said they won the First Battle of Moytura, Magh Tuiredh against the Fir Bolgs because of their ‘technologically superior weapons and magic.’ The Fomorian giants had been the Danaan’s ally before their arrival in Ireland, but after some time, they became their deadly enemy. Under the leadership of Lugh, the Danaans defeated the Formorians in the Second Battle of Moytura. 

While the Tuatha De Danaan were at peace with the Fomorians, an alliance was agreed with no objections to the Danites settling in Ireland. The fact that the Fomorian giants were willing to share territory with humans is suspicious. It isn’t though, if the Danites already had a history of intermingling with the Elioud. In sealing the alliance, Balor gave his daughter Ethlinn or Eithne, in marriage to the Danaan Cian, the son of Dian Cecht or Connacht. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 151 – emphasis & bold mine:

… ancient Irish and Welsh legends articulate a remarkable history of giants… which included Fingall and his son Ossian… The Tuatha Denaan were fairy folk that settled Ireland sometime after 3000 BCE. Tuatha Denaan were the divine children of the matriarchal goddess [Dana and the god Dagda], thus making them also a Nephilim race. They were a magical race of gods with human personalities; they argued, killed, got drunk, committed adultery, and acted jealous. Tuatha Denaan reigned until they were driven to the otherworld by the Millesians… the Tuatha Denaan descendants [drove] out the Formorians, who were… giants… a race of monsters… hairy (a Nephilim trait), had one eye… similar to the Greek Cyclops.’

‘The Tuatha De Danaan arrived in a cloud of mist’ – though the 12th century Book of Invasions states that they wafted in through the air as a host of spirits – with the Fir Bolgs discovering they were in Connacht; having arrived from the west and the Atlantic Ocean about May 1. 

According to the Cath Maige Tuired, this mist was actually smoke from their burning ships. The Tuatha de Danaan had made the decision not to flee to their ships if they were defeated. Eochaid Mac Eirc was king of Ireland and the Fir Bolgs. The Danites were more advanced than the Fir Bolgs of Reuben. The respective emissaries looked each other over, with different clothes and the superior Danite weapons. For instance, their spears were razor sharp and well crafted compared to the Fir Bolg spears with blunt points. Recall, the Danite ability at metal working. They exchanged weapons and departed in peace. The Fir Bolgs decided to renege on dividing their portion of Ireland with the Tuathe de Danaan and declared war. The Fir Bolgs supposedly lost one hundred thousand warriors; including their King, Eochaid Mac Eirc. 

Though the Danite King Nuada did not die, he lost his right hand or arm, in the battle when he fought the Fir Bolg champion, Sreng. For the Danaan, losing any body part, resulted in losing the right to remain king. The Tuatha de Danaan choose a new king, choosing Bres.* A peace treaty was drawn up, with the Reuben Fir Bolgs receiving the province Connacht as their land; while the Danaan won the right to rule Ireland, while living in the northern province of Ulster. 

The Tuathe de Danaan of the ‘northern isles’ were reputed to have originated from four magical, otherworldly cities, each one ruled by a Druid – a Wizard or Bard. The cities were called Falias, Gorias, Findias and Murias. The Druids names were, in respective order: Morfesa, Esras, Uiscias and Semias. In each city there was a treasure or a talisman. The Danaan were adept in a variety of skills including arts and crafts, philosophy, medicine, music, warfare, science, and tellingly, the occult and magic. They were talented scholars, bards, druids, craftsmen and warriors and their descendants are described as having otherworldly powers.** 

From Manannan, much like Mahaneh-dan, a subsequent king, Lugh, possessed gifts of the Tuatha de Danaan. These magical gifts had come from the four great otherworldly cities. From Falias, the Danaan received the ‘talking stone of truth’ – for it would reveal the rightful king of Ireland – called Lia Fail. It was also known as the ‘Stone of Destiny.’ [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin] The second treasure was from the city Findias and it was a great magical sword, called Freagarthach, the Answerer, that Lugh and Nuada before him had wielded. Lugh also gave the ‘invincible spear’ which he had obtained from Gorias. The final treasure was from Murias and was the Cauldron of Dagda which could miraculously feed everyone without emptying. These gifts were from the goddess Danu and were to aid the Tuathe de Danaan in defeating the Fomorian giants. 

When the Milesians in turn, defeated the Danaans – who had sent the goddess Eriu against them – they either retreated to Tir na n-Og, the Land of Youth, led by The Dagda or continued to live on the land with the Milesians, but their underground homes, ‘subterranean palaces’, were hidden by magic from the eyes of mortals.’ 

As the Milesians had defeated Eriu, they purportedly named the Island Erin, the native form of her name. Notice the suffix Og and the link with the Nephil-Elioud giant of Bashan, King Og. The Tuatha de Danaan became known as the Daoine Sidhe. Their homes were known as the Sidhe mounds, or the Otherworld. The Tuatha de Danaan were also called the Aes Sidhe or the ‘People of the Sidhe.’ The term sidhe now means faery in the Irish language. In the Theosophy the Tuatha de Danaan are known as Davana. 

In the Otherworld, the Danaan remained young and seemingly immortal; as in, they could live a very long life and appear to remain young, but they could be killed and destroyed just like any mortal human. When they intervened in human wars, they were armed with invisibility, flaming lances and magical white shields. In the Ulster Cycle, the Tuatha de Danann were believed to be Celtic deities. Contrastingly, in the Fenian Cycle, the Danaans ‘had degenerated into nothing more than fey people’, literally the faery folk. The Tuathe de Danann became frequently associated with faeries – or little people.** 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 667 – emphasis mine:

The Tuatha Denaan were regarded… as the world’s most noble race… [their] mythologies are memories of opalescent fallen angels and the Shining Nephilim offspring they produced… pronounced shee (shay). The Irish called them the Sidhe Race; the Scots called the Fair(y) Folk the Sith Race; the Welsh called them the Tyleth Teg; the Cornish… the Fees; and the English… as the Still Folk, Fair Folk and the Fair Family… the Tuatha Denaan excelled over all other peoples of the earth in the proficiency of every art. Postdiluvian Tuatha hailed from Scythia and were also known as Royal Scyths… The Tuatha… traversed the Danube River, settling in Germany before migration onwards to Norway and Ireland.’

Yair Davidiy – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine: 

“Dana” is another way of pronouncing the Hebrew word [Dan]. It has been claimed that in Ancient Ireland, Dana was a goddess… It was not unknown for ancient peoples to personify themselves with the figure of a goddess. Even now Britain is sometimes represented by a feminine form in the name “Britannia”. Dan… once had widely spread posts throughout the Middle East… Dan had conquered Cyprus and Crete… [with] bases in Cilicia (northwest Syria and southeast Turkey), the north Galilee, and… the port of Jaffa in the land of Israel. An offshoot from the tribe of Dan at an early stage participated in a conquest of Greece that gave rise to Mycenean civilization. 

In Irish accounts the Tribe of Dana came from Greece and arrived via islands in the north which assumedly meant Scandinavia. One of these islands was given the name ASSAL which is also the appellation of a Middle Eastern principality in the region of Gozan on the Khabur River whereto part of the Northern Israelites had been exiled. An alternative Irish version says that the Dana came from the city of Dan at the foot of mount Libanus (Lebanon) in what was once the area of northern Israel. 

Even the account which says that the Dana came from or via Greece says that they had fought repeatedly (in Greece) against the Philistines. The Philistines had adjoined the territory of Dan in southeast Israel. The Tribe of Dan in Israel, as seen in the story of their hero Samson (Judges chapters 13-16), was constantly at altercations with the Philistine people. In the Land of Israel the original portion of Dan (in the south) had adjoined the Philistines and partly been taken over by them. Samson was a prototype for the Greek idol Hercules.’ 

We have established the link between a. Ephraim and the Philistines, b. between Ephraim and Dan and by extension – recall the roots of Ephraim and the Philistines with serpent-cockatrices for Dan and the Philistines – c. between Dan and Philistia. We will discuss what this may all mean later.

‘An Irish Historian, Thomas Moore, stated that the Tuatha de Danaan (i.e. Tribe of Dana), “after sojourning for some time in Greece… proceeded from thence to Denmark and Norway”. Geoffrey Keating (circa 1570 1646) understood from traditional Irish sources that, the Danaans were a people of great learning and wealth; they left Greece after a battle with the Assyrians, and went to Ireland; and also to Denmark, and called it “DAN-mares”,  “Dan’s country”. [1866 Edition, Volume 1, pages 195-199]

In Irish tradition THE TRIBE OF DANA were described as fair in complexion, wise, culturally advanced, and scientifically proficient. This description and the activities ascribed to the Dana fits the Civilization of Scandinavia during the so-called “Bronze Age”. This civilization was advanced and had contacts with Egypt, Cyprus, Greece, and the Middle East in general. 

Raymond F. McNair makes the following observation… “It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means “Judge,” just as Dan does in Hebrew!” It is also worth mentioning that many of the policemen, lawyers, and judges in the U.S.A. today are of Irish [tribe of Gad] descent. 

In Welsh sources the Tribe of Dana is paralleled by the People of DON. The Welsh spoke of the goddess Don and her consort Bile the god of the dead. Britain was nicknamed “the Honey Isle of Bile”. The name “Wales” derives from a permutation of the name “Bile”! BILE is the equivalent of Bel meaning the Canaanite Baal whom the Romans in Syria identified with Saturn [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The Romans considered Britain to be the domain of Saturn. They also equated the god Saturn with Israel. Another form of the name “Bile” is “Beli”. Hecateus of Abdera (300s BCE) said: “The most distinguished of the expelled foreigners followed Danaus and Cadmus from Egypt; but the greater number were led by Moses into Judaea.” 

The Welsh collection of legends (called Mabinogion) speaks of Beli son of Manogan king of Britain. Beli is thought to be a derivation of Belinus or Bile. Beli is named as the ancestor of Welsh royal houses and is apparently considered (in Welsh tradition) a member of the House of David. 

The Tudor monarchs of England had Royal Welsh origins: “… there is reason to believe that the Tudors* were descended from the old British kings who ruled at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions”.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 564-566 – emphasis & bold mine:

The first British Pendragon was Cymbeline from the House of Camelot, dating from 10 CE. The last British Pendragon was Cadwaldr of Gwynedd. He died 664 CE when Britain fell to the… Anglo Saxons. This was the Arthurian* Welsh dynasty, whereby Arthur, the great Celtic chief, led his people against the Saxons and the Romans. Before their downfall, the Royal House of Celtic Britain was known as the famous Red Dragon dynasty of Wales… The Dragon has been incorporated into the ensign of the Prince of Wales and appears on the Welsh flag [first sported by the Welsh king Vortigen in 410 CE following the Roman with drawl].”

‘The Prophet Joel condemned the major Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon for having sold Judaeans to the Greeks: “Yea, and what have you to do with me, Tyre, and Sidon, and all the coasts of Palestine?… “Because you have taken my silver and gold… The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have you sold unto the Greeks, that you might remove them far from your border” (Joel 3:4-6). 

Even so, revenge was destined to be taken: “When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Greece, and made you as the sword of a mighty man” (Zechariah 9:13). What exact events the above verses are referring to is unclear. 

Nevertheless, the Irish sources do state that a portion of their ancestors had been captives in Greece and had freed themselves. They also refer to possible Judean origins, in part. 

Judah through Tamar begat Pharez and Zerah. One of the sons of Zerah was Calcol (1 Chronicles 2:6). Calcol had been one of those whose name was remembered for their great wisdom (1 Kings 5:11). Calcol was also counted amongst the ancestors of the Irish. Camden (1551-1623) stated that Calcol of Judah sailed from Egypt to Spain (where the city of Zaragossa was named after Zerah), and then on to Ireland where he founded Ulladh. (”Ulladh” i.e. Ulster has actually a name similar in some types of Hebrew pronunciation to that of ELADAH of Ephraim (1 Chronicles 7:20). Zerah and Pharez were brothers born to Judah (son of Israel) from Tamar. In Southwest Britain Ptolemy recorded the Tamarus River. There was also a Tamarus River in northwest Spain where the Gaels had sojourned before moving to Ireland…

The red hand has been interpreted to represent Zarah of Judah father of Calcol… Bennett states that, “the ancient and traditional emblem of Ulster was and still is a Red Hand circled by a Scarlet Cord”. “Three of Ulster’s six counties, as well as the towns of Bangor and Dungannon, have the Red Hand as part of their official emblems” .’

From Ireland, the Scots migrated to Scotland, and the Red Hand, says Bennett: “appears in the Arms of several of the old families and in those of at least fourteen of the Clan Chiefs: Davidson, MacBain, MacNeil, MacNaughton, MacPherson, MacGillivray, MacDonald of Sleat, Clanranald, and Shaw of Rothiemurchus”. The Red Hand of Ulster …is a symbol used in heraldry to denote the Irish province of Ulster. It is less commonly known as the Red Hand of O’Neill and the Red Hand of Ireland. Its origins are said to be attributed to the mythical Irish figure… Labraid of the Red Hand… The symbol is strongly rooted in Irish Gaelic culture and is particularly associated with the Ui Neill clan of Ulster. The Red Hand symbol is believed to have been used by the Ui Neill clan during its Nine Years’ War (1594-1603) against the spread of English control. The war cry … “Red Hand to victory!” … was also associated with the Ui Neill. 

After Walter de Burgh became Earl of Ulster in 1243 the de Burgh cross was combined with the Red Hand to create the modern Flag of Ulster. The Red Hand was later included in the Northern Ireland flag and on the shields of counties Cavan, Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim and Monaghan.’ 

Ulster Independence Flag

The Red Hand has been interpreted by Identity experts as belonging to the descendants of Zarah, the son of Judah and in the main rightly so, as red is associated with Judah. We learned in Chapter XXIX Esau, that red is also strongly associated with Esau. It is interesting that the colour red stands out in Ulster symbolism, where the tribe of Dan dwelt for centuries. 

We addressed that where Esau is and in particular the Amalekite branch of the Jews –  primarily in the United States – there is also the Nephilim bloodline. We are discovering that the same applies with Dan. Dan as the black sheep and bad boy of Jacob’s sons has an identical motive and mission as Esau. Why exactly, is a mystery to unravel. Thus a trail of red may not just be a sign of Judah and Esau, but Dan too, because the colour red is associated with the secret mysteries that certain bloodlines are all tied. 

The tribe of Dan have left place name evidence of their sojourn through Asia Minor, Greece and the isles of the Aegean Sea, not to mention extensively throughout Europe and the British Isles. The records of the Tuathe de Danaan living underground are pervasive and should not be overlooked. There are thousands of miles of tunnel networks all over the world that are dated to ancient civilisations. Even today, under every big city there are masses of tunnel networks. Underground facilities are common and not just a modern invention. For instance, in the area formally known as Cappadocia in northeastern Turkey, thirty-six underground cities have been discovered so far, ‘with some going down eight levels. Some of these cities can hold a population of thousands. 

The ventilation system[s] are so efficient that even eight floors down the air is still fresh. Thirty vast underground cities and tunnel complexes have also been found near Derinkuya in Turkey.’ 

The tribe of Dan were not just described as serpentine but also worshipped Seraphs and allied themselves with their Nephilim brood. 

A researcher on the subject states – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The name Danaans derived from their serpent Moon goddess, Dana or Diana. The Danaans made the headquarters of their serpent worshipping culture on the island of Rhodes, a name that originates from a Syrian word for serpent. Rhodes was the home of the Danaan brotherhood of initiates and magicians known as the Telchines. The Greek historian, Diodorus, said these initiates had the ability to heal, change the weather, and ‘shape-shift’ into any form… The Danaans also settled on Cyprus and in ancient times it was known as Ia-Dan or the “Isle of Dan”… [the Danaan] traveled… to Britian where they became known as Tuatha de Danaan or the “People of the Sea”.’

The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom, Mark Amaru Pinkham:

‘The essence of Danaan science stems from music – the controlled manipulation of sound waves – and this becomes recorded in legend as the “music of the spheres.”’

The Telchines were regarded as Wizards and Magicians, even though to many they were merely Merchants and Warriors. They have been given mythical non-human status as spirits or demons, similar to the Tuathe De Danaan. They were excellent metallurgists, being skilled metal workers in brass and iron [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. A reminder of the Kenites and Danites; a further association between Esau and Dan.

The name Rhodes, which is connect[ed] to the German “Rot”, meaning red, as with Rothschild (Red-Shield) became a code name for the bloodlines. Malta, too, was an important center in 3500 B.C. and the home of a major Mystery School. Under Malta is a vast network of tunnels and megalithic temples where secret rituals took place and still do today. Malta’s original name was Lato, named after Mother Lato, the serpent goddess.  

The Knights Templar [precursor to the Freemasons] secret societywas formed in the late 11th century to protect the… ‘Le Serpent rouge’ the red^ serpent or serpent blood [bloodlines],together with their associated order, the highly secretive Priory of Sion. The goals of the Knights Templar and the Illuminati were then and are today to place these serpent bloodlines in all positions of power worldwide and thus form a… centrally controlled one world government.’

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 664-665 – emphasis & bold mine:

… bloodlines of the Tuatha [Danaan] were (and are to this day) considered sacred and divine; the bloodlines of Nephilim… Celts believed deities were their ancestors and not their creators, tracing their genealogies back through Celtes, Scythes, Albion, and Gog giants. These were the blond or red-haired, blue or green-eyed, fair-skinned descendants of the noble elven Celts. Celtic kings were always ceremoniously wed with mother goddesses. The Druids then kept these genealogies of Irish kings stretching back into the mists of time. This, then, accounts for the originating bloodline of the Irish as being fairy blood from Tuatha Denaan. Irish descendants of Tuatha later interbred with the migrated… Celts, who interbred with the descendants from the lost tribes of Israel… as well as the Scythians, who then interbred with the alleged descendants of Jesus in England [the true tribe of Judah [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]… They, in turn, interbred with… Benjamin royal blood [Wayne is referring to the French Merovingian Kings, as Benjamin is Scotland]… united into the Arthurian bloodline [of Wales, Simeon]… [culminating] in the Unicorn House of StuartThese genealogies [all contain] Fairy blood [Nephilim] and Dragon blood [line of Cain].’ 

The tribe of Dan’s emblems include the Lion, scorpion, Eagle and Serpent, but overriding these three and in a real sense an amalgamation of them all is its true symbol, the Dragon.  The people of Dan turned to the idolatry and worship of demons – Nephilim in discarnate form – and Baal worship, for they bred with Nephilim and Elioud. Dan threw his lot in with Esau and together they will instigate the events that bring on the great tribulation, the time of Jacob’s Trouble and the great Day of the Lord [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. Together they will rule the world to its terrifying crescendo. 

Thus preparing the way for the Beast – the One awaited for eons – and the false Prophet through a centralised world governance with a policy feasting on war, bloodshed and sacrifice. 

Dan’s astrological sign of scorpio symbolises the two paths of the Eagle and the Serpent – or scorpion – with the first representing a spiritual path upwards the second creature a carnal path going downwards. Like the claws of a scorpion, the Danites and Edomites are two pincers working together. The Jews through the Kabbalah, the descendant Freemasonry networks of the tribe of Dan and the overseeing Illuminati. 

Unger Bible Handbook, page 273: 

‘Dan’s position in the journey was on the North of the Tabernacle, with Asher and Naphtali. The standard of the tribe was of white and red^ and the crest upon it an eagle… Jacob had compared Dan to a serpent. Ahiezer substituted the eagle, the destroyer of serpents, as he shrank from carrying an adder upon his flag.’

Note the colours of red and white… colours typically associated with England, Northern Ireland and Wales – the full-blood brothers of Judah, Reuben and Simeon.

“… (priests) after the Order of Melchizedek… were the immortals to whom the term ‘phoenix’ was applied and their symbol was the mysterious two-headed bird now called an eagle, a familiar and little understood Masonic emblem.” (Hall, page 108) 

“… the two-headed eagle… is usually depicted in two colors of great mystical significance: red^ and white.” (Cirlot, page 93) 

Esau is an inheritor of the line and Way of Cain, through his spiritual rebellion against the Eternal and vengeful plans of destruction for his twin brother Jacob’s descendants; primarily the United States, England and Canada, as well as physically with his intermarriages with the Horites, the Amalekites and the Kenites. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 670-672 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It would seem, then, that Amalek and his descendants ruled over Seir, while the descendants of Esau reigned over Edom/Idumea… Edomites, unlike the descendants of Amalek in Sier, ran off the Horites and all other Nephilim from the land of Edom, warring with them with the help of God… Theosophists believe the descendants of Esau, and in particular the grandsons of Bashemath… were granted the right to reign as Owl queens and Dragon kings for eternity, in the same spurious spirit and legacy of Lilith… [pointing] to Isaiah 34:10-17, which links screech owls [Barn Owl] and Edom… screech owls were… an unclean bird associated with desolation, a night creature that hops much like a goat… a nocturnal spectre… a night demon… night monster… All is reminiscent of Lilith, the female Oupres, night witch… night vampire… the Hebrew word lilit… the original spelling for the screech owl [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

It was from the Edomite marriage (Eliphaz and Timna) into the lords of Edom that the Tuatha D’Anu Fairy kings (in part) emerged.’

So too, is Dan an inheritor of the antediluvian worship of the fallen dark Angels and their progeny the Nephilim. J R Church states: ‘… The Danites relocated to the northern reaches of the Promised Land. They settled at the foot of Mount Hermon in the territory of Bashan, and adopted the idolatrous Canaanite religion of Baal and Ashtaroth*.’ An older name for Mount Hermon is Mount Ba’al-Hermon. 

Song of Solomon 4:8

English Standard Version

Come with me from Lebanon, my bride; come with me from Lebanon. Depart from the peak of Amana, from the peak of Senir and Hermon, from the dens of lions [of Dan], from the mountains of leopards.

Psalm 29:5-6

King James Version

5 The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars; yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. 6 He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion [Hermon – Deuteronomy 3:8-9] like a young unicorn.

Psalm 22:12-13, 21

English Standard Version

12 Many bulls encompass me; strong bulls of Bashan surround me; 13 they open wide their mouths at me, like a ravening and roaring lion… [the Devil – 1 Peter 5:8]21 Save me from the mouth of the lion! You have rescued me from the horns of the wild oxen [unicorns]!

These verses do not draw attention to the heraldry symbols of the Lion of England and the Unicorn of Scotland, but the symbolism of the lion with Dan and the Bull and calf of Baal worship. It is not a coincidence that the lions of Bashan or Dan are linked to the Bull and Unicorn, symbols of Joseph. We have discussed in length in Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega, Asherah and her role as consort and Mother to Baal, as well as Lilith, her daughter. 

A quote by an author, Johnson, page 315 is intriguing – emphasis & bold mine: 

Fortunately, a stone image of Asherah has survived… found in ruins of Dan, where the golden calf was worshipped in what is now northern Israel, (which) dates from the eighth century B.C.E. The Goddess strongly resembles her neighboring deities Anet, Astarte, Ashtaroth.*’

The rebellious Angels descended upon Mount Hermon and it was their headquarters. Located at the 33rd degree parallel latitude and longitude from the Paris meridian. Quote from unknown source: ‘“Prior to the adoption in 1884 of Greenwich as the international Zero Meridian, each country made use of its own. The French Zero Meridian… is still used on the official maps produced by the Institut Geographique National… (Giovanni Domenico) Cassini’s meridian arc is still marked upon French maps as the Paris Zero.” Note: Using the Greenwich Zero Meridian, the northern territory of Dan lies at 35.5 degrees longitude. However, if the Paris Zero Meridian is used, having a 2.5 difference from Greenwich, Dan is found to lie at the 33rd degree longitude and latitude.’ 

A comment online – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the sons of Lamech [Tubal-Cain (Tu-Baal Cain)] and descendants of Cain, as well as Hiram Abiff the architect (a different person than King Hiram of Tyre), are all greatly honored and celebrated in the Masonic rituals. King Solomon, a follower of El (Jehovah), cooperated with King Hiram, the Phoenician king of Tyre, in building the Temple at Jerusalem. King Hiram’s father was Abi-baal, and Hiram was succeeded as king of Tyre by his son Baal-Eser I

Here, in the cooperation between the Baal king of Tyre and the El king Solomon may be the beginning of “strange gods” insinuating themselves into the court of King Solomon. “For when Solomon was old his wives turned away his heart after other gods…” (1 Kings 11:4) Solomon by then “built a high place (mound)” for Chemosh and for Baal-Molech.) 1 Kings 11:7)’

It is no coincidence that Freemasonry has 33 levels of initiation into their secrets. The biggest secret once you have scaled all 33 degrees and beyond is that the Lord of Light they truly worship is not the Eternal One but his arch nemesis Samael. Freemasons are deceptively oblivious to the real god their highest hierarchy worships. Ancient texts reveal that the spiritual hierarchy of Samael is comprised of thirty-three gods and it is  this that forms the ultimate basis for the esoteric significance of this specific number. The number thirty-three may have a connection with the world prior to the great flood. The area of Babylon is situated on the 33rd degree north parallel. There is reason to believe that it was here that Cain travelled when he went to the Land of Nod. If this area had pre-flood significance, as it certainly did after the flood during the reign of Nimrod, then the ancient occult significance of the number thirty-three, is firmly established. 

The ancient tribe of Dan has influenced the course of Freemasonry from its Knight Templar and Merovingian dynasty roots. The symbols of the tribe of Dan are common to the Merovingians and the Royal House of Stewart. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 542-543, 545, 567 – emphasis & bold mine:

The standard superficial symbol for Rosicrucianism is the rose cross, similar to that of the Templars, who wore it as their emblem, and of the Fisher Kings, who bore it as a birthmark – the Mark of Cain… rosi and crux… Latin words… Ros signifies dew, which to alchemists is the solvent of gold or an elixir. Crux… equivalent to light… from which Lux is derived… the root for… “light” and “Lucifer”… crux is the chemical hieroglyph for light… the authentic elixir of immortality… the five petal rose… is a symbol for reincarnation because it can fruit without being pollinated… it can die but be born again identical to itself… the oldest of the rose genera… the Rosa Rugosa, had five petals that modelled pentagonal/pentagram symmetry, like the guiding star of Venus… the orbit of Venus, when placed against a backdrop of the zodiac, forms a five-pointed star… the Rosi Crucis, is more accurately described as a dragon incurved to circle a red^ cross, known as the Mark of Cain. The Rosi Crucis was a lucid sign known to the ancient Egyptians as Ourobous… The formal Dragon Court remained… active in the English kingship through William the Conqueror and the Stuart kingship via Robert the Bruce. The Dragon Court was toppled in England after the fall of the Stuart dynasty, which was replaced by the Hanoverian dynasty of Germany that reigns to this dayin Britain, the Draconian order known as the Rosicrucian Anglicae has maintained the [Ordo Draconis] tradition to this day in secrecy… as well as in other mystic organisations of Great Britain.’

The number three in the Bible means ‘finality’ or ‘a decision.’ This is quite appropriate considering the momentous decision two hundred angels made with their leader Samyaza. The number thirty-three in numerology and the occult signifies a master number. Eleven through to ninety-nine are all powerful numbers. In numerology, the number thirty-three signifies ‘service.’ Again this is highly applicable to the dark Angels and their mission with Samyaza, who in turn was serving the aims of Samael the Serpent [Genesis 3:15]. 

In the occult, thirty-three is connected with opening the Third Eye and ‘attaining the highest spiritual consciousness attainable’ by a human being, with mastery over the self. The number 333 represents the transformation from the physical dimensions to the spiritual plane ‘through death, resurrection and ascension.’ The number 333 doubled, is also a veiled and hidden symbol of the more sinister 666. Numbers are extremely important to occultists, they are extremely important in the Bible and they are the foundation of every scientific endeavour, for all DNA and coding of life is a mathematical formula. All computer programs are binary numbers. Numbers are the base of everything that is alive, exists or is created. Much could be said on many significant numbers, not just the number thirty-three. So much in fact, that we will look into this subject in a separate article. For now, the two most famous 33’s in the Bible are the age of the Messiah when he was sacrificed and the number of Angels that followed Satan into rebellion, a third or 33.3% recurring. 

Cutting Edge – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Since the reign of Sir Francis Bacon and Queen Elizabeth I (1590 – 1603), Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry have ruled England and Europe with an increasingly iron hand. Once Adam Weishaupt established the Masters of the Illuminati on May 1, 1776, Freemasonry has been gradually moving the entire world into the Kingdom of Antichrist –[the] New World Order. This is the society where the ultimate goal is that from “The Christ” on downward, all the peoples of the world still living after the “Cleansing Cycle” will so spiritually evolve… that they will attain immortality on earth. The numeric symbol of this high degree of spiritual attainment will be ’33’, and the physical symbol will be the Third Eye that will open up physically between the eyes.

This is the ultimate goal; unfortunately, to achieve it, a lot of people are going to have to die… [a] tremendous amount of Witchcraft.. will be required to achieve this utopian state, for only a select few are truly “worthy” to pass through the cleansing cycle to live in this “New Heaven and New Earth” over which The Masonic Christ will rule. 

Throughout history, Freemasons, Rosicrucians, and occultists of the day have planned events that they planned, in order to move the world ever closer to the final ideal, keeping in mind the occult premise stated at the beginning of this article by Day Williams. Let us review it again:

“If a life is taken close to the northern 33rd Parallel, this fits with the Masons’ demonic mythology in which they demonstrate their worldly power by spilling human blood at a predetermined locale.” 

This terrible concept is completely fulfilled by the bloody “I Witch” symbol, where human blood^ has been planned to be shed in huge torrents so that, at the right moment, The Christ may appear. Remember the Guiding Spirit vision of Albert Pike, January, 1870, in which the demon revealed that three world wars would have to be fought to establish the New World Order and its reigning monarch, Antichrist. Both world wars in the 20th Century have been fought to establish the One World Government, Economy, and Religion of Antichrist. This Third World War seems to be right ahead of us, and out of the smoke, debris, and blood of this war Antichrist will come striding.’

The French Merovingian dynasty of kings are interesting as they are not descended from the tribe of Benjamin as proposed by a number of authors. If they are not descended from Lot [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon], then there could be cause to consider Dan, as we shall see. It may just be a coincidence but all the Merovingian kings wore their hair long as opposed to the Franks who cut their hair short. In fact the Merovingians forbade anyone who was not Merovingian from having long hair. The Merovingian kings ‘were called… long-haired kings as they never used to cut their hair, believing that there was power in long hair. 

For them, the cutting of the hair of the king was considered a symbolic loss of power [and authority]. A King who had his hair cut would be forced to step down.’

Author, Springmeier, page 80: 

Be Wise As Serpents revealed. . . how all the heads (presidents) of the LDS… [Mormons] have been descendants of the Merovingian dynasty, and they and the Masons have both used the Merovingian symbol the bee.’

Recall the bees of Samson’s riddle and the probability of the bees symbolising Dan. There is a belief that the modern descendants of the Merovingian line plan to rule the world from their future throne in Jerusalem and that their claim to be of the tribe of Judah descended from the children born to Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene is legitimate. However, the weight of evidence indicates that they are more likely to be descended from the tribe of Dan. 

There are people on earth today who are related to Christ, since they descend from Christ’s half brothers and sisters. There is no evidence that this writer is aware of, that the Messiah would or could sire children. His mission was to be an intercessor for humankind and a mediator between man and God. Getting married and having children was not part of the plan and would have been an unnecessary distraction, nor would it have been fair on a wife or children to lose their father so early [Romans 8:34; 1 Timothy 2:5].  

Many theologians and Biblical scholars support the idea that the Antichrist – though it is not explained whether they intend the Beast or false Prophet to fulfil the role – as being from the tribe of Dan. 

Mount Hermon: Gate of the Fallen Angels, J R Church, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Jacob prophesied that Dan would be “a serpent by the way, an adder in the path” (Genesis 49:17), and Moses prophesied, “Dan is a lion’s whelp: he shall leap from Bashan” (Deuteronomy 33:22). These two prophecies are remarkable, in that they connect Dan with the “seed of the serpent,” from which the Antichrist will emerge to claim the title “lion of Judah.”’

We have discussed at length in Chapter XXI Nimrod and Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega regarding the connection between Asshur, Nimrod, Azazel – also known as Abaddon & Apollyon – and Lilith. I do not subscribe to the Antichrist being from the tribe of Dan, though Dan is without a doubt part of the global conspiracy to enslave humankind and thereby transforming humanity into something they should not be – via the Mark of the Beast – and thus usher in the Antichrist rule of the Beast and false Prophet.

Hippolytus influenced thought on the origin of the Antichrist. The verses used clearly reveal Dan’s involvement and treachery; they are not obscure prophecies that the Beast or false prophet derive from the tribe:

‘For it is certain that he is destined to spring from the tribe of Dan, and to range himself in opposition like a princely tyrant, a terrible judge and accuser, as the prophet testifies when he says, “Dan shall judge his people, as one tribe in Israel”. But some one may say that this was meant of Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged his people for twenty years. That, however, was only partially made good in the case of Samson; but this shall be fulfilled completely in the case of Antichrist. For Jeremiah, too, speaks in this manner: “From Dan we shall hear the sound of the sharpness of his horses; at the sound of the neighing of his horses the whole land trembled.” And again, Moses says: “Dan is a lion’s cub, and he shall leap from Bashan.” And that no one may fall into the mistake of thinking that this is spoken of the Saviour, let him attend to this. “Dan”, says he, “is a lion’s cub” [A Discourse on the End of the World, and on the Antichrist, and on the Second Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, XVIII, XIX, XX]; ‘and by thus naming the tribe of Dan as the one whence the accuser is destined to spring, he made the matter in hand quite clear. For as Christ is born of the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist shall be born of the tribe of Dan. And as our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was spoken of in prophecy as a lion on account or His royalty and glory, in the same manner also has the Scripture prophetically described the accuser as a lion, on account of his tyranny and violence.’ (Kilde) 

His mentor Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon, unsurprisingly held the same view, as did other early church writers. Similar to the cherished belief that Germany is Assyria, The United States is Manasseh or that the Jews are Judah, so too is the promulgated belief that the Antichrist is from the tribe of Dan, thus precluding any other thought on the subject and its continuance in error. 

Against Heresies Volume 30, 1-2:  

‘Moreover, another danger, by no means trifling, shall overtake those who falsely presume that they know the name of Antichrist. For if these men assume one [number], when this [Antichrist] shall come having another, they will be easily led away by him, as supposing him not to be the expected one, who must be guarded against… This, too, the apostle affirms: ‘When they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden destruction shall come upon them.’ And Jeremiah does not merely point out his sudden coming, but he even indicates the tribe from which he shall come, where he says, ‘We shall hear the voice of his swift horses from Dan; the whole earth shall be moved by the voice of the neighing of his galloping horses: he shall also come and devour the earth, and the fulness thereof, the city also, and they that dwell therein.’ This, too, is the reason that this tribe is not reckoned in the Apocalypse along with those which are saved.’

On the Last Times, the Antichrist, and the End of the World, Ephraem the Syrian, 373 CE:

“At the end of the world at the final consummation… suddenly the gates of the north shall be opened… They will destroy the earth, and there will be none able to stand before them.  After one week of that sore affliction (tribulation), they will all be destroyed in the plain of Joppa… Then will the son of perdition appear, of the seed and of the tribe of Dan… He will go into Jerusalem and will sit upon a throne in the Temple saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and he will be borne aloft by legions of devils like a king and a lawgiver, naming himself God”

Dan: A Type of the Antichrist, St. Methodius of Olympus, 250-311 CE – bold mine:

“When the son of perdition appears, he will be of the tribe of Dan, according to the prophecy of Jacob. This enemy of religion will use a diabolic art to produce many false miracles, such as causing the blind to see, the lame to walk, and the deaf to hear.  Those possessed with demons will be exorcised. He will deceive many and, if he could, as our Lord has said, even the faithful elect. Even the Antichrist will enter Jerusalem, where he will enthrone himself in the temple as a god (even though he will be an ordinary man of the tribe of Dan to which Judas Iscariot** also belonged)”.

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… [there is a] very interesting pattern of similarity between Dan within the 12 tribes of Israel and Judas among 12 apostles… The most likely etymology for Judas’ surname, Iscariot, is man of Karioth. We read in Joshua 15:60 of a place in Judah named Kirjath-Jearim, also rendered Kiriath-Jearim. Due to the false worship associated with this area, it became known as Kiriath-Baal.  

“And there went from thence of the family of the Danites, out of Zorah and out of Eshtaol, six hundred men appointed with weapons of war. And they went up, and pitched in Kiriath-Jearim, in Judah. Wherefore they called that place Mananeh-Dan unto this day: behold, it is behind Kiriath-Jearim” (Judges 18:11-12).

The city of Kiriath-Jearim was apparently a border town, in close proximity to, if not on the very boundary itself, between the territory allotted to Judah and Dan. The Danites pitched their camp just to the west of Kiriath-Jearim, and, as they were wont to do, named the place after their father, calling it Mahaneh-Dan. So what we have here is the city of Kiriath-Jearim in Judah situated directly across the border from Mahaneh-Dan. Although named after the patriarch Dan by the Danites themselves, the area of Mahaneh-Dan actually came to be considered as the Dan sector of Kiriath-Jearim.  In other words, by the time of the first century A.D., there were really two Kiriaths, one in Dan, and the other just across the line in Judah. Interestingly, the plural for Kiriath is Kirioth. In effect, therefore, the name Judas Iscariot actually can be translated Judas of the two Kirioths. The usage of the plural in the case of Judas** indicates that he was most likely from the Danite Kiriath,otherwise the singular would have been employed, as was normally done, since the Jewish Kiriath was the more prominent of the two settlements.

In many respects, just as the end-time descendants of Dan, or a portion thereof, can be seen with reference to the predicted Anti-Christ, so can Judas Iscariot. Remember that there are only two individuals in all of Scripture that are called the son of perdition, an especially denigrating term, and they are Judas himself and the Anti-Christ [false Prophet] (John 17:12 & II Thessalonians 2:3).’

The following article begins with Dan and then spends time on Edom and the Jews. Though lengthy – as Edom and Dan go hand-in-hand – it is of value and an excellent expose of the ruling elite’s agenda. 

Merovingian Bloodline and the Black Nobility, Fritz Springmeier, 2000 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Gerald Massey’s A Book of the Beginning (1974)… goes in and shows in detail how the inhabitants of the British Isles came originally from Egypt. This is Important because the Druidism of the British Isles was simply a derivative from the Egyptian Satanic witchcraft/magic of Ancient Egypt. The Egyptian word Makhaut (clan or family) became the Irish Maccu and the Maccu of the Donalds (clan of Donalds) now reflected in the name [Mac-Don-ald]. 

The tribe of Dan was prophesied to be the black sheep of the nation of Israel which would bite the other tribes of Israel. The tribe of Dan had the snake and the eagle as its two logos. The tribe of Dan left its calling card all over Europe as it migrated west in the names of many places. 

Great Britain is the mother country of Satanism. Scotland has long been an occult center. The national symbol of Scotland is the dragon (the snake), and for years the chief of Scotland was called the dragon. The Gaelic language is an important language for Satanism, although English and French are also use[d] extensively by the Illuminati. The planning sessions for world takeover that some ex-Satanists experienced were held in French. The British Royal Family have long been involved with the occult. 

For more information on this there is a detailed examination of the Royal family and the occult in the book The Prince and the Paranormal – The Psychic Bloodline of the Royal Family by John Dale (1987). They have also been actively involved with Freemasonry. British MI6 has been a major vehicle for the Satanic hierarchy working behind the secret veil of Freemasonry to control world events. British MI6 is the most secret intelligence organization in the world.(It is properly known as British Secret Service not to be confused with the U.S. agency by that name but performing a different function entirely.) The British Royalty have served as important figureheads to British Freemasonry lending credibility and respectability. British Freemasonry has managed to keep itself free of much of the criticism that the other national Masonic groups have brought on themselves. However, much of the credibility of British Freemasonry is undeserved. 

True, British Freemasonry is what it portrays itself to the public for the lower levels. But, the lower level Masons by their dues and activities are unwittingly supporting an organization that is led by Satanists at the top. 

An example of the subterfuge constantly exercised on the public by Freemasonry is a book purportedly written by a non-Mason entitled The Unlocked Secret Freemasonry Examined. The book portrays itself as an unbiased and complete expose of Freemasonry. The book states unequivocally that the Masonic order called Societas Rosicrucian in Anglia is only open to Christians and is a “Christian Order”. 

However, Edith Star Miller reprints copies of a number of letters from the chief of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia which show that the English Grand Masonic Lodge, the SRIA, the OTO, and the German Illuminati are all working together. It identifies the true authors of Nazi philosophy whom British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli described as, “the hidden hand behind government”. 

And looking at the natural, over ninety percent of those “who say they are Jews”, are not. They lie because they have no kinship to Abraham, Isaac, and/or Jacob by blood. (Check Encyclopedias Judaica and Britannica, Jewish and Universal Jewish Encyclopedias.) And certainly not by faith. True Israelites who are Hebrews call them Ashkenazim or Khazars. These people earned the title of “Black” Nobility from their ruthless lack of scruple. They employed murder, rape, kidnapping, assassination, robbery, and all manner of deceit on a grand scale, brooking no opposition to attaining their objectives. These all have immense wealth. And money is power. 

The most powerful of the Black Nobility families are located in Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Britain, Holland and Greece in that order. Their roots may be traced back to the Venetian oligarchs who are of Khazar extraction. They married into these royal houses in the early part of the twelfth century. Many of these royal families no longer have kingdoms, and not all Black Nobility are royal houses. According to author John Coleman, a “Committee of 300” from this untouchable ruling class includes Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of Holland [now King Willem Alexander, crowned 2013], the Queen of Denmark [Margrethe II] and the royal families of Europe. 

Socialist politician and financial adviser to the Rothschilds, Walter Rathenau, writing in the Wiener Press (24 December, 1921) said, “Only 300 men, each of whom knows all others govern the fate of Europe. They select their successors from their own entourage. These men have the means in their hands of putting an end to the form of State which they find unreasonable.” Exactly six months after publication, Rathenau was assassinated. 

The Masonic-controlled Swiss banks owe their existence to these families. In 1815 the Jesuits and their Freemason allies among the crowned heads of Europe held the Congress of Vienna, whereby Swiss neutrality (already sanctioned by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648) was forever guaranteed; and no matter how many wars are provoked in which the common man has to do the fighting, the money of the Nobility in Switzerland should always be free from plunder. 

Nathan Rothschild’s financing of Britain resulted in the defeat of Rome’s enemy Napoleon, (as well as being the source of his wealth and influence). Since Gregory XVI conferred a Papal decoration on Kalman Rothschild for loaning the Vatican five million pounds in a period of difficulty, the Rothschilds have been the fiscal agents of the Vatican. 

According to William Cooper’s book “Behold A Pale Horse”, which I am coming more and more to appreciate, all nations have agreed to relinquish sovereignty to the Pope and submit future problems to the Vatican for solution once the NWO is established. This I have been unable to confirm but in general, this is what will happen. 

“All nations” can only refer to the Black Nobility who have agreed to relinquish sovereignty to Rome in return for the restoration of royal power under a NWO. This was foretold in Daniel 7:20 and Revelation 17:12-13, “The ten horns which you saw are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.” These ten horns were ten kings, represented in Daniel 2 by the ten toes of the image King Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream. They are the royal houses into which the old Roman Empire was divided after the fall of the last emperor Romulus Augustus, in AD 476. They were Alemani (Germany), Franks (France), the Burgundians (Switzerland), the Suevi (Portugal), the Anglo-Saxons (Britain), the Visigoths (Spain), the Lombards (Italy)…

It is imperative that we realize that privately, the Black Nobility refuse to ever recognize any government other than their own inherited and divine right to rule. They believe the United States still belongs to England. And work diligently behind the scenes to cause conditions whereby they might regain their crowns. Every royal and so-called noble dynasty past and present of Europe have seats on the “Committee of 300”, most often by nominees. There are just too many of these “royal” families for them each to have representatives on the “Committee of 300”. Precedence is determined by rank: first royal family members, then dukes, earls, marquises and lords, then finally “commoners”, who usually get the title of “Sir”. (Conspirator’s Hierarchy: The “Committee of 300”, Dr. John Coleman.) 

On September 30, 1931, British Prime Minister and Fabian Socialist Ramsay MacDonald, took Britain off the gold standard in obedience to the “Committee of 300”. In 1933, as one of his first presidential acts, FDR declared a banking holiday and ordered all US citizens to turn in all gold in their possession to the Treasury. Roosevelt handed over the gold supply of the USA to the privately-owned tax-exempt Federal Reserve, as the Seal of Solomon was attached to the Shield of Britannia, and the Judaistic symbol of the Serpent was placed around her Trident. 

In 1933 the U.S. owned 40% of the gold in the world. The debt of the US in 1963, was $1.25 trillion, and gold, subject to call by foreign nations, exceeded by $16 billions, the amount on hand at Fort Knox. By 1963, it was said that the Rothschilds had withdrawn all the gold from England [Judah] and the United States [Joseph] to their coffers in France [Moab & Ammon], Belgium [Sheba & Dedan], Switzerland [Haran]and Holland [Midian]. Remember that name. 

Michael S. Heiser, examines many of the intriguing details and nuances coincident to Mount Hermon: charam, khaw-ram’; a primitive root; to seclude; specifically (by a ban) to devote to religious uses (especially destruction)… to be blunt as to the nose: – make accursed, consecrate, (utterly) destroy, devote, forfeit, have a flat nose, utterly (slay, make away). The consonants that make up “hermon” are (in Hebrew) ch-r-m (the final “n” is a noun ending typically suffixed to geographic locations). 

The noun cherem means “devoted to destruction” (the imagery is of a holocaust offering)… a doomed object… extermination: (ac-) curse (-d, -d thing), dedicated thing, things which should have been utterly destroyed, (appointed to) utter destruction, devoted (thing), net. 

Mount Hermon was, according to 1 Enoch 6:1-6, the mountain to which the Watchers, the sons of God, descended when they came to earth and cohabited with human women. This connection with the incident described in Genesis 6:1-4 is consistent in view of the connections between the terms Rephaim, Anakim, and Nephilim… the broader area of which Mount Hermon was part was Bashan, a place of special cosmic-geographical significance… Mount Hermon was also associated with Baal worship and evil serpentine cults. The cult center Baal-Hermon is mentioned several times in the Old Testament (e.g., Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5:23). 

That the Israelites and the biblical writers considered the spirits of the dead giant warrior-kings to be demonic is evident from the fearful aura attached to the geographical location of Bashan. As noted above, Bashan is the region of the cities Ashtaroth and Edrei, which both the Bible and the Ugaritic texts mention as abodes of the Rephaim. What’s even more fascinating is that in the Ugaritic language, this region was known not as Bashan, but Bathan – the Semitic people of Ugarit pronounced the Hebrew “sh” as “th” in their dialect. Why is that of interest? Because “Bathan” is a common word across all the Semitic languages, biblical Hebrew included, for “serpent.” The region of Bashan was known as “the place of the serpent.” It was ground zero for the Rephaim giant clan and, spiritually speaking, the gateway to the abode of the infernal deified Rephaim spirits…’

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – capitalisation theirs, emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Dan’s relocation to the extreme north of Israel… placed it in close proximity to snow-capped Mount Hermon, the highest point in the land.  This area has a long and mysterious history. Ancient records, stories, legends, and myths abound with regard to the unusual and even sacred nature of this region… this area, which became the extreme northern boundary of Israel, attained almost mythical proportions in ancient times. Hittite, as well as Biblical, records confirm that Mount Hermon was considered anciently as a dwelling place of the gods. Names such as Baal-hermon, Baal-gad, and even Hermes (Mercury of Roman mythology. Hermes is derived from the name Hermon), emanate from this area. The mountain became a major center of pagan religious activity, including the worship of Pan. The region was even known as Paneas. Indeed, the Cave of Pan, which still today dominates the foot of Mount Hermon, was known as the passageway to Hades.

Later, in the days of Jeroboam, the northern ten tribes rebelled against the House of David and separated themselves from the southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The almost immediate result of this division is succinctly recorded for us in I Kings 12, where we read: ‘… And Jeroboam… took counsel, and made two calves of gold… And he set one in Bethel, and the other he put in DAN.  And this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one, even unto DAN.’ 

Note carefully the strategic part the area of Dan plays in this rebellion against God. The golden calf placed in Dan was situated at Mount Hermon, the historic site of pagan Canaanite worship, and the even more ancient locale of unspeakably evil pre-Flood activity that resulted in the destruction of the human race! Dan, in fact, became the center of… Baal-worship among the nations of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. 

I strongly suspect that Mount Hermon… is the original model of the fabled mountain of the gods. Virtually all ancient pagan civilizations had a sacred mountain, almost always located in the north, that was deemed to be the home of the gods. By far the most famous of these is Mount Olympus in Greece, but there are numerous others in different locales and historical eras. Mount Hermon is undoubtedly the oldest of these very hallowed places, and perhaps the most significant as well. The concept of the sacred mountain is that it constitutes the center of the world, the gateway to revelation, and the stairway to heaven. 

Where there was no mountain, the people constructed one. The Babylonian ziggurat, such as the infamous Tower of Babel, or the Egyptian pyramids on the Giza Plateau are prime examples of such human efforts. In fact, after the Tower of Babel debacle, the area of Mount Hermon once again assumed its sacred pre-Flood significance. Indeed,the Amorite word for this mountain was Senir (Deuteronomy 3:8-9), a variant of the name Shinar, thus evoking the location of Nimrod and the notorious incident at Babel.

This was then and had for centuries been a center for the worship of the god Pan. There was an impressive temple built in his honor at the base of Mount Hermon. Pan was the god of nature, noted for his voracious sexual appetite. He was the lusty god, known also as PallasHe was characterized as half-goat, and thus was a satyr, indeed the chief satyr, of which there were many in the ancient mythologies. The constellation Capricorn the goat-man was associated with him… The unicorn also became connected with Pan and his cult at Mount Hermon. 

Sirion, we are told in Deuteronomy 3:9, was the Sidonian name for Mount Hermon. With respect to the alternative name Pallas… the root words comprising the term Palestine are Pallas and Heth. Pallas we already know was another name for the god Pan, whereas Heth was the son of Canaan, and the father of the Hittites. The original word was Palesheth.  According to the Encyclopedia of Religion, the worship of Hermes and his son Pan at Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia was done under the name of Phales, which is derived from the word phallos, which gives us the term phallus or phallic. 

The name Hermon itself has a reference to a heap of stones, a landmark, a pyramid. Mount Hermon became popularly known as The Forbidden Place. It marked the northern limit of Israelite conquest in the days of Moses and Joshua.  In other words, it was the sign designating the place where Moses was to stop and go no farther. Hermon and beyond were considered outside the influence and protection of the true God. The stone heaps so often utilized in the worship system of the mystery religions were actually phallic symbols [including obelisks, menhirs and church steeples]. 

In reality, the renaming of the Promised Land by the term Palestine constitutes a brash, outright statement that this was the land of phallic-worship, part of the very ancient pre-Flood system instigated by the Nephilim, and reinstated through the descendants of Ham and Canaan after the Flood. 

Pan is also closely associated with music, and the pipe and flute most especially.  Although a rather obscure reference, we find in II Samuel 24:6[-7] a possible reference to Pan-worship being connected to the tribe of Dan. Note the following: “Then they came to Gilead, and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; and they came to DAN-JAAN, and about to Sidon, and come to the stronghold of Tyre”. The place-name Dan-jaan… is intriguing. Most sources render it in one of two ways, either Dan of the woodland or forest, or Dan played a pipe (Merrill C. Tenney, Zondervan Pictorial Dictionary of the Bible, page 199). Both of these definitions can be viewed as having a relationship to Pan, since he was the god of nature, and thus of the forest and woodlands, and he has always been very closely associated with the musical instrument called a pipe or flute. In fact, the pan-flute is quite well known. Pan-worship was transported from Mount Hermon by a segment of Danites to Arcadia in Greece. 

The mythological origin of the Merovingian race is traced back to a water-beast known as the Quinotaur, which took the form of a sea-goat. This ancient story is derived from lore associated with the god Pan, who was, in fact, a sea-goat. The source of this mystical beginning to the Merovingians can be traced directly to the influence of the Danites who took Pan-worship to Arcadia and throughout Greece. Capricorn, the astrological sign connected to Pan, eventually became Baphomet and the Goat of Mendes, both of which are symbols of Satan, and were worshiped by the Knights Templar, the military wing of the Priory of Sion, established at the time of the First Crusade for the express purpose of aiding the re-establishment of the deposed Merovingian royal line over Europe. 

With respect to the subject of Freemasonry, the term Sion is strongly associated with the symbolism attached to this ancient evil craft. Note that this word is Sion, not Zion.  There is a difference, for in Deuteronomy 4, we read: “And this is the law which Moses set before the children of Israel… in the land of Sihon (one of the giants) king of the Amorites, who dwelled at Heshbon… and the land of Og (another giant) king of Bashan… From Aroer, which is by the banks of the river Arnon, even unto MOUNT ZION, which is HERMON” (Deuteronomy 4:44-48).

Notice that the King James Version of the Scriptures renders the name of Mount Hermon as Mount Zion. A check of the Hebrew used in this instance, however, reveals a mistranslation. Zion in Hebrew is Tsiyown, and is the name of the famous mountain of Jerusalem.  It is used often throughout the Old Testament, both in a heavenly, as well as an earthly, sense.  The key word in Deuteronomy 4:48, however, is not Tsiyown at all, but an entirely different term, Siyon, and indeed is the correct alternate name of Mount Hermon.  The term Sion is connected directly to the pagan idolatry centered around Mount Hermon, and its inclusion in Freemasonry is not coincidental, since this assumed fraternal organization has been for centuries the promulgator of the ancient mystery religion, and at its upper echelons is integrally involved in the age-old, on-going attempt to control the world. In this regard, Mount Hermon, Sion, Esau [the Jews – false Judah], Dan, Baal, Freemasonry… in the north, stand in total opposition to Jerusalem, Zion, Judah [England – true Judah], Yahweh, Messiah, and [the Law] in the south.

As an aside to this aspect of our study, it is instructive to know that in Celtic the word Sion means Mount of Stones or a Fortress. The Druids would build huge fires in the midst of their great stone circles or Sions, and the high priest would conduct worship services standing in the midst of the fiery stones. The central stone was called the Stone of the Covenant, and in Ireland, where there was much Danite migration and influence, it was known as Bethel – The House of God

… the Priory of Sion, a highly secret society connected with the Knights Templar… has been, since at least the time of the first Crusade (1099 A.D.), totally dedicated to the restoration of a particular royal house, the Merovingians… Even in our own day, the current European Council of Princes, ostensibly the advisory body to the European Union, consists of exactly 33 participating members, divided into the Council of Nine, and the Council of Twenty-Four

Every distinguished member of this assembly is of Merovingian lineage. The Merovingian dynasty is the royal bloodline that preceded Charlemagne and the Carolingian usurpers to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, a bloodline that claims divine descent, but as we shall soon come to see derives instead from the apostate Israelite tribe of Dan! This conclave is destined to become the occult hierarchy of Europe. The present head of the European Council of Princes is HRM Prince Michael James Alexander Stewart, 7th Count of Albany (Scotland), succeeding the Hapsburgs of Austria who had held the seat since 1946.  

It should also be of interest that the headwaters of the Jordan River emanate from Mount Hermon[and the Cave of Pan]. The name Jordan, as you can easily see, contains the word dan. It is derived from the Hebrew root word meaning to descend, and can be defined as the descent or the going down of Dan, and has always been associated with death. The Jordan River… winds its way like the serpent of Dan… Down, down, down, the river of Dan descends until it reaches the lowest land region on the face of the earth, the appropriately named Dead Sea, where forward motion finally ceases… Remember that Naaman the Syrian at first refused to bathe seven times in the Jordan, exclaiming that there were far better rivers in his own land. Perhaps this is why the Messiah agreed for John to baptize Him in the Jordan River, since it has such a connotation as the place of death!’          

Samael and the Tribe of Dan, Sons of Samael, Glorian – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The angel Samael is related with the sign of Aries, the sign that rules the head. Samael also rules the sign of Scorpio, which is in Yesod, the sexual organs (root of the Tree of Knowledge…). Since we are talking about the advent of Samael, we have to understand that we are talking about the advent of the power of God, about how the creative energy… above (the head, Aries) comes down to the sexual organs (Scorpio) in order for creation to exist… Samael relates to the Ox… [and] the Ox or the winged Bull [or winged Unicorn] relates to the vision of Ezekiel. Ezekiel says that the feet of the creature that he sees in his vision has legs and feet of a calf and [it] has six wings; these relate to the creatures that are around the Ancient of Days… the winged bull relates to the… Holy Spirit, thus this bull is the creative force… 

In the book of Genesis, when Jacob is blessing his children (the twelve tribes) he addresses Dan… Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent (Nachash) by the way, a viper (a Sephaphim, which another way to say fiery serpent in Hebrew) in the path [a Seraph in the path], that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward… the blessing to the tribe of Dan, the child of Jacob, is pointing directly to the serpent… The tribe of Dan is an archetype related with the serpent… Dan is the force of the serpent… 

This is an alchemical transformation of the animal forces related with the Ox [or Unicorn] from that vision of the creatures of Ezekiel: And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the color of burnished brass. – Ezekiel 1: 7. The calf’s foot is Kabbalistically pointing at… the physical body. This is why the devil is always symbolized with hooves, because the devil with calf’s feet symbolizes the sexual potency, the sexual energy in us. Sexual force is represented by the symbol of the cloven foot of the devil.

The Ox [or Unicorn]… is transformed when it descends… and thus becomes the devil’s foot, it becomes the serpent. How does the force of the Ox… of Samael… and the tribe of Dan, become a serpent? It is transformed into a serpent because it is energy, it is not a person. 

It is an energy that descends… and that we gather… from the atmosphere… through… the liver and through… spleen… the blood is created thanks to the liver and to the spleen; this is the blood that relates to the kingdom of Edom… which is the kingdom of the blood. Dom is blood in Hebrew which circulates in the body, the whole body. The creative force of God that descends… and as blood circulates in the body, and in the end expresses itself through the sexual organ which in this case is the devil’s foot that we have to tame, the devil that we have to conquer.

It is the devil that tempts us. This is the mystery of Baphomet, the sexual transmutation that is cryptically written in different parts of the Bible and that we have to understand. 

The heel of our horse (physical body) is the sexual force. Remember that when Jacob was born he was holding the heel of Esau. This is the meaning, the wisdom of Esau’s heel. The heel represents the sexual force, “so that his rider shall fall backward…”

And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. – Revelation 9: 1-3, 5, 6, 11. The angel of the bottomless pit is Abaddon, in Hebrew, and in Greek Apollyon. Since we are talking in Hebrew mythology, let us just take Abaddon. What does Abba mean? Abba means “father” in Hebrew. And what does Dan mean in Hebrew? It means “judge.” Abaddon is “the judge, the father.” Others say it is called “destruction.” Yes, it is also called destruction… Abaddon is Abba-Dan, the judgment of the father, which is symbolized as the Elder of Days in the vision of Ezekiel.’

This article shows the connection between the Bull veneration that has been a recurring theme in a number of chapters and Samael. We understand that Samael is a Seraph, yet the question remains, did he start as a Cherub. Did Satan transform from a Bull or Cherub to a Serpent or Seraph? [refer chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. If the heel is a symbol of sexual force then we also have another tie in between Dan and the Seraph created Nephilim. If as in the Days of Noah, there is another irruption of the Nephilim, then the tainting of humanities bloodlines and in particular affecting Ephraim will be to a much larger extent than imagined. 

The association between Edom and Dan is highly relevant, in remembering Jacob grasped Esau’s heel; while Dan as a serpent, will bite the horse’s heels [Genesis 25:26; 49:17]. 

We have fully investigated Azazel, the fallen dark Angel who is now in a place of restraint. He will be released and Abaddon is a title or description of him, as Satan – as an adversary, nemesis – is of Samael, or Christ who is appointed, is of Immanuel. The added interpretation of the word Abaddon to the destroyer – as ‘the Father’s judge – is fascinating in light of his role as the Beast and Antichrist fulfilment. 

Dan seems so out of character to his brothers that during my research I have considered that he was not Jacob’s son with Bilhah but rather an adopted son. His mother still being Bilhah, but rather Dan’s father actually being Reuben. Recall in Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, the account of the incest between Reuben and his stepmother Bilhah. It is possible that Jacob took Dan as his own to save face for himself, Bilhah and Reuben. In support of this scenario are three points to consider. 

Remember, a similar scenario was enacted [refer Chapter XI Ham] when Ham committed incest with Arphaxad’s wife, Rasuaya. The resulting child was Canaan and he was raised in Arphaxad’s house. It is not entirely implausible for Jacob to have been similarly magnanimous and adopted Dan. Note, the chronology for Reuben’s and Dan’s births would need to be reconsidered to follow this line of reasoning. Secondly, is that reading between the lines, Reuben had a high sex drive to put it politely. His giving the aphrodisiac mandrakes to Leah is a curious story and hints at more that is not said.  Especially when the forced act of incest by Reuben occurs later. Thirdly, the modern day nation of Reuben is Northern Ireland, the modern day fulfilment of Bashan. It is an interesting coincidence then, that Reuben though removed from the original Bashan to the south, beneath Gad and East Manasseh was still connected by being on the eastern side of the River Jor-dan

We have seen the connection with Elioud giants in Ulster as there were anciently in Bashan. Dan and Reuben are linked geographically in Ulster more than once as we shall discover when studying Dan’s ‘leap from Bashan.’ Though Reuben dwells in Northern Ireland today, the tribe of Dan chose to nestle – coiled as a serpent – in Ulster more than any other area of ancient Erin or the neighbouring isle and the region of Alba. Though Dan fully travelled the length of Britain from Cale-don-ia in the far north of Scotland, to Lon-don and Devon, Dum-nonia in the southeast and southwest of England respectively and Dun-oding in the west of Wales; it is Northern Ireland that has been Dan’s principal home. Has it been a connection with his real father Reuben that has kept him close? 

As Dan appears to lose his status as a son of Jacob, it would be reasonable to explain why Joseph’s inheritance was split into two through his sons. Meaning, eleven tribes were restored to twelve – as twelve is a powerful number in a foundational, advisory and ruling capacity. For instance, the twelve Apostles and the two times twelve Council of twenty-four Elders [Revelation 4:4]. 

Though the use of ‘the thirteenth tribe’ by author Koestler, was attention grabbing in describing Jacob’s brother; Esau is still not a son or, a tribe of Israel. Though the describing of Manasseh by identity researchers as the thirteenth tribe to support the use of the number thirteen in America’s founding documents and symbols is imaginative, the literal thirteenth tribe by birth is Ephraim – to whom the number thirteen more accurately applies, as Ephraim numerically dominates the United States. 

These three aside, the real thirteenth tribe by virtue of his excommunication from the family because of his betrayal towards Joseph and his not just straying into idolatry, but rushing headlong into wilful disobedience and into rebellion against the Creator, as Esau had done before him… is Dan. It is ironic that the very person Dan hated, is the one that replaced him with two sons, receiving a double portion of blessings in response. The irony extends even further to the fact that the majority of Dan’s descendants now live in Joseph’s territory. Yet, there is no better mechanism to bring down your enemy than from within. 

We have yet to identify a reason for Dan’s black sheep character traits, even though a motive for his hatred towards his brothers – with the exception of Reuben – appears to be traced back to Joseph and the ‘bad report.’ 

The Apostate Tribe of Dan, Cornerstone Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The predictable merging of the descendants of two patriarchs shouldn’t really be all that surprising, especially if we consider some of the numerous similarities between the two houses. The most obvious is that they shared a close family relationship, since Esau was Dan’s uncle. From the beginning, they both were considered lower in God’s eyes, as well as those of the rest of the peoples. They were, in effect, both rejects! They were also very much alike in character, as both exhibited the traits of craftiness, secrecy, deception, and violence, not to mention, of course, a strong penchant for the most despicable sort of religious practices imaginable!’

Even if Dan is Jacob’s son, the circumstances of his birth were after the serious domestic upset over Rachel’s barrenness and in contrast, Leah’s fertility fulsomeness. Thus, Dan was either born out of wedlock via Reuben or was the first son born out of the wedlock of Jacob’s first wives Leah and Rachel. While this may not appear at first to be of any real significance it did set Dan apart in particular from the first four of Jacob’s sons – Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah – then with Naphtali, Gad and Asher, being of lesser status in Jacob’s family. 

When Dan was born, what Rachel uttered about judgement, could be taken as the result of a bastard child that was not really her own through Jacob… Then Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son…” [Genesis 30:6, ESV]. 

Our next segment is a concerted effort of this writer to discover the truth. In following the tribe of Dan’s path, conjecture is required before conclusions can be gleaned; therefore, no offence or slight is intended to any peoples or groups discussed. As with the Jewish people, though there may be an evil element within the hierarchies that manipulate the nations of the world via ownership of big banks and major corporations, this is certainly not a reflection on everyone that is Jewish. And so similarly with anyone of Danite descent. 

Following the winding serpentine trail of Dan from Egypt, Canaan and Greece through Europe leads to the British Isles. After many years of researching going round in investigative circles – following a tail with seemingly no head – I realised that though there is evidence of Dan in both Ireland and England; there is stronger evidence of Dan in Scotland and Wales, with the strongest evidence of all of his location being in Ulster. 

We have already begun a case for Dan’s relationship with his possible progenitor Reuben. This also points to Northern Ireland. The Bible does not say Dan is scattered, though it does not reveal a permanent home of their own either. Similarly, in the Bible, the relationship between Dan and Judah is strong; Dan’s relationship with Ephraim is stronger. 

An important clue is the ‘leaping from Bashan.’ As evert time somewhere is recorded in the ancient past in the Bible, there is a modern equivalent. The leaping from Bashan is not from the Middle East to Britain, for other tribes have done that, but rather from where Bashan is today; that is, Ulster to Britain and back again. There are only one people that could fulfil this prophecy and they are the Scots-Irish. Let it be clear, this is not a blanket indictment on the Scots-Irish as an ethnic, ancestry group. The constant reader will know that suspicion is raised only towards the hierarchies within the tribe of Dan; of which, there is good cause to believe they are heavily involved in secret or not so secret, societies which are working against ‘the greater good.’ 

Discover Ulster-Scots, Who are the Ulster-Scots:

‘Despite the assertion that Scotch applies only to whisky and not to the people of Scotland, many Scotch-Irish in America are fiercely proud of this title and defend its use unfailingly, citing evidence from the period to substantiate their claim.’ 

In a letter dated April 14, 1573, the term is first used in reference to descendants of ‘gallowglass’ – Galloway, Scotland – mercenaries from Scotland who had settled in northeastern Ireland, by Elizabeth I of England, who wrote: “We are given to understand that a nobleman named Sorley Boy MacDonnell and others, who be of the Scotch-Irish race…’ 

For the purpose of this chapter, the term Ulster-Scots will be used for those peoples who live in Northern Ireland descending from Lowland Scots and Northern English. The term Scots-Irish will refer to those peoples that have emigrated from Northern Ireland to the nations of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and beyond. The term Scotch-Irish from Scotch-Airisch, will be the term to describe all those that have similarly emigrated, though in this instance, singularly to North America and principally the United States. ‘The earliest known American reference appeared in a Maryland affidavit in 1689-90′ though did not gain common usage until after 1850. 

The Scotch-Irish were one of the principal groups of settlers to the Southern United States whose influence is still widely felt in the South. Very interestingly, the Scots-Irish have ‘been called a people without a name’ and as a culture in America, ‘the invisible  people.’ The Scotch-Irish are those people whose ancestors had lived in Northern Ireland, some for several generations before emigrating to the United States. Historian David Hackett Fischer in Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, called them Borderers. This term encompasses the original Scots who first settled in Ulster from the borderlands of southern Scotland and northern England. He also says: 

‘Many scholars call these people Scotch-Irish. That expression is an Americanism, rarely used in Britain and much resented by the people to whom it was attached. “We’re no Eerish bot Scoatch,” one of them was heard to say in Pennsylvania.’

Principally from Galloway, Dumfries, Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Ayrshire, Argyllshire, the Lothians, Scottish Borders, Berwickshire, Northumberland, Cumbria and Yorkshire; there were also minorities that originated from Wales, the Isle of Man, the southeast of England, Flanders, the German Palatinate and France, which included the Huguenot ancestors of Davy Crockett. The Borderers were different from the Highlanders in that they didn’t wear kilts, belong to clans or speak Gaelic and who were robust, adventurous and rebellious. ‘Once in America, they formed a more-or-less cohesive unit, if that can be said of a people who nurtured a proud and sometimes argumentative spirit, and a disdain for authority’ according to Katharine Garstka, The Scots-Irish in the Southern United States, 2009.

The Scots-Irish: The Thirteenth Tribe, Raymond Campbell Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Many of the descendants of the original Scots-Irish settlers would happily wear kilts and tartan on commemorative days, though this would have been a shock to their ancestors, who took particular trouble to distance themselves from all things Celtic and Gaelic.’ 

These early immigrants tended to settle in large kinship groups – often due to lack of money – sharing the same last name – recall Dan has only one son recorded in the Bible – this made record keeping difficult at the time and also for genealogists today. This was so widespread that marrying someone of the same last name did not mean they were closely related as cousins, just that they originated in the same kinship group. 

Not only that, but it was customary to give a child the first name of the paternal grandfather or grandmother. Popular last names included: Campbell, McDonald and Galloway – remember that one – and first names of Robert, Richard, Andrew, Patrick, David, Archibald, Ronald, Wallace, Bruce, Percy and Howard for boys and Mary, Elizabeth, Anne, Catherine, Margaret, Janet and Marion for girls. 

The first trickle of Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland in the sixteenth century came from a Scottish culture of poverty prior to 1600 working small farms and living at subsistence level on over-farmed land. As the population of Scotland grew, they migrated the handful of miles across the water to the northern part of Ireland that was sparsely populated with large, bountiful tenant farms. The Nine Years War ended in March 1603 – the same month James came to the throne – when the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, chiefs Hugh O’Neill and Hugh O’Donnell, the leading families and founding clans of the ancient province of Ulster, surrendered to the English. 

In 1606 there was an independent Scottish settlement in east Down and Antrim; led by adventurers James Hamilton – a university don and spy – and Sir Hugh Montgomery, an Ayrshire laird. Montgomery was granted half of Conn O’Neil’s land – the King of Tír Eógain, anglicised as Tyrone – the largest and most powerful Gaelic lordship in Ireland, as a reward for helping Conn O’Neill to escape from English captivity. 

Hamilton forced himself in on the deal when he learned of it and the final settlement after a three year haggle, gave Hamilton and Montgomery a third of the land each. 

Paterson states – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In granting Hamilton the territory of Upper Clandeboy and Great Ardes, James emphasised the intention “… of inhabiting the same, being now depopulated and wasted, with English and Scottish men; and the carrying of men, cattle, corn and all other commodities from England and Scotland into the said territories. Also, to have liberty to alien (grant) to any English or Scottish men, or of English and Scottish name and blood, and not to have the mere Irish.” 

Ireland was formally an English possession, so it was important to emphasise English as well as Scottish settlement, though for reasons of geography and temperament, the new plantation was almost exclusively Scottish, as James himself clearly recognised it would be: ‘The Scots are a middle temper, between the English tender breeding and the Irish rude breeding and are a great deal more likely to adventure to plant Ulster than the English.’ 

An organised colonisation of the land began after the confiscation of huge tracts of land – in the south and west of Ulster – from Gaelic Irish nobility, known as the Flight of the Earls in 1607. King James I of England and Ireland [James VI of Scotland] initiated the process of pacification with the Plantation of Ulster Act in 1609. The motive was to solve the Catholic Irish restlessness and rebellion by encouraging Protestant, English speaking Scots and English. 

From the Irish Rebellion in 1641 until 1691 the end of the Catholic Jacobite War, Ulster was unstable with governance shifting between Irish Gentry and the English, including the Irish Confederate wars with Scotland and the wars of the Three Kingdoms with Cromwell. Due to a famine in Scotland, some fifty thousand people arrived in Ulster between 1690 and 1700. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine :

‘Ireland remained a dangerous frontier. Native Irish chieftains, deeply resentful of their changing circumstances, took to the wilds as outlaws, and as ‘woodkernes’ represented a real threat to the more isolated settlers, many of whom were wiped out in midnight raids. The descendants of the Scots migrants were later to face a similar threat on the American frontier. While the Irish raiders were tough, the Scots were even tougher. Many of the early migrants came from the Scottish borders, men with names like Armstrong, Bell and Elliot, where they had been hardened in an age-old struggle with the English.’ 

The irony is that as the English government encouraged immigration to Northern Ireland, they then in turn created an untenable environment that caused these Ulster-Scots to migrate again. 

Queen Anne’s 1703 Test Act required all crown officials, which broadened to include the military, civil service, educational institutions and municipal corporations to be of the Anglian Church of England. Those that did not vow allegiance to the Anglican faith were known as dissenters and could not vote or bear arms. The Ulster-Scots were staunchly Presbyterian. They were subsequently excluded from any power with even the Presbyterian clergy unable to perform marriages, baptisms or burials. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘As well as new modes of farming the Scots brought a strict Calvinist doctrine, which by the late 1630s was taking a firmly Presbyterian shape, as opposed to the episcopacy favoured by the king. Later in the century an Anglican opponent of the puritans detailed the impact of Scottish Presbyterianism on Ulster: 

“Hereupon followed the plantation of Ulster, first undertaken by the city of London, who fortified Coleraine and built Londonderry, and purchased many thousand acres of land in the parts adjoining. But it was carried on more vigorously, as most unfortunately withal, by some adventurers of the Scottish nation who poured themselves into this country as the richer soil; and, though they were sufficiently industrious in improving their own fortunes there, and setting up preaching in all churches whosesoever they fixed, yet whether it happened for the better or the worse, the event hath showed. 

For they brought with them hither such a stock of Puritanism, such as contempt of bishops, such a neglect of the public liturgy, and other divine offices of this church, that there was nothing less to be found amongst them than the government and forms of worship established in the church of England.” 

‘By 1707, the year that the Scottish parliament merged with its English cousin, the Protestant colony of Ulster was a hundred years old. The differences that had existed between the original settlers, whither Scots or English, had largely ceased to exist. It is now possible to discover a distinct Protestant Ulster identity, recognisably unique and distinct from the sources of origin. With the absence of outmoded feudalism, still present in Scotland, looser kinship ties, and a freer labour market the Ulster Protestants began to develop in an unanticipated direction. If anything religion provided the common bond, rather than race, uniting dissenters of differing faiths, though it is also true to say that the Scots settlers had acquired a cultural domination over their English counterparts. Though loyal to the crown, they were a people who, through decades of adversity, had become self reliant, and never quite lost the feeling that they were surrounded by a hostile world: ‘They learned from hard experience’, one commentator noted ‘that one must fight for what he has; that turning the other cheek does not guarantee property rights; in short, that might is right, at least in the matter of life and land ownership.’ 

Trade laws favoured English exporters over Irish and exorbitant rent increases when a lease expired, often the terms broken early, bankrupted many famers. Coupled with drought, sheep diseases and small pox which took its toll on the citizens of Northern Ireland, one thousand people in April 1717, made the eventful decision to make the arduous journey to Boston on the ship The Friends’ Goodwill; setting sail from Larne, County Antrim. Between 1717 and 1775 known as the ‘Great Migration’ that included five waves, it is estimated some two hundred and fifty thousand Ulster-Scots sailed to America, particularly from Counties Antrim, Down and Derry or Londonderry. About this time, the British took control of New France which allowed many Ulster-Scots to migrate to Canada, who were known as the Scotch-Irish Canadians.

The difference between the tribe of Dan who left Northern Ireland and the tribe of Reuben who remained is unwittingly highlighted by Paterson:

The contemporary image of the Ulster Protestant is most commonly that of the Orangeman, with all of his exaggerated loyalty to Britain and the Crown [tribe of Judah]. For the dispossessed of the 1770s the opposite was true: they had lost everything, and came to America with an intense hostility towards all things British [rather, English].’ 

The earliest immigrants to America arrived in New England, later heading to Pennsylvania. They were valued for their fighting prowess, protestant dogma, honesty, independence of spirit, work ethic which helped settle and secure the frontier. Many of the first permanent Scotch-Irish settlements were in Maine and New Hampshire. 

As further settlers arrived they followed the Great Wagon Road – thus avoiding areas settled by the English, Germans and Quakers – that traversed six hundred miles to Georgia, with many settling along the path. The numbers were such that Charleston, South Carolina became the second biggest arrival point after New York for ships from Ireland. 

The Scotch-Irish by 1730, had moved south to the lush Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and ‘always on the move’ the Scotch-Irish travelled ‘to the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky’ including Alabama and Texas; as ‘the restless’ Scotch-Irish with their ‘intrinsic wanderlust’ led the way westwards behind such ‘trailblazers as Daniel Boone.’ The Scotch-Irish were nomadic and they adopted the Scandinavian housing of log cabins, though still based on a standard Ulster house floor plan. They didn’t have many culinary skills and ate mostly mutton, lamb, and oats. Their music, unlike the Highlanders with their bagpipes, was played on fiddles and dulcimers. They also brought to America their traditions of storytelling, dancing and making ‘moonshine’ or illicit whiskey. 

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

‘For the original Quaker and Puritan settlers of the thirteen colonies, largely English in origin, the emigrants of Ulster, an increasingly common sight, were usually described as ‘Irish.’ To counter this misconception the newcomers adopted the older description of ‘Scots’. It was in this semantic exchange that a new breed took shape: they were the ‘Scots-Irish.’ For many years these people had lived on a frontier in Ireland, and it seemed natural for them to push on to a new frontier, where land was both plentiful and cheap, introducing a new urgency and dynamism into a rather complacent colonial society. Before long these ‘backwoodsmen’, distrustful of all authority and government, had established a hold on the western wilderness, fighting Indians and wolves in much the same way that they had once fought wolves and woodkern. In Pennsylvania the Scots-Irish established an almost complete domination of the outer reaches of the old Quaker colony. It was a dangerous life, but one which has established a lasting image in American history and folklore…’

The Scotch-Irish gravitated to the American frontier of settlement – as Danites before them had been at the forefront of exploration across Europe – and they were adept as middlemen between the Native American tribes and the colonial government in handling trade negotiations. After carving out a new life in Northern Ireland with the rewards short-lived and the untenable government oppression and living conditions, it was different in the United States, for they were unwilling to endure more tyranny in their new home and ‘they weren’t about to start over a third time.’ Recall, the Danites hard-pressed with too little land and neighbouring Philistines and Canaanites in their original allotment of land, striking out for the north. Also, the Tuathe de Danaan who burnt their ships off the coast of Connaught rather than admit defeat when starting a new life.

Garstka states – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Scots-Irish played a large role in the settlement of America, particularly in the southern United States. Their experiences in settling new lands in Ireland, and then again in the American colonies, helped to develop a hard-working, fearless, and sometimes brash, spirit. Occasionally lawless and violent, the Scots-Irish nevertheless had a big influence on the history of the United States; their descendants populated many frontier areas, and aspects of their culture, customs, and speech are still visible in parts of the south today.’ 

One of America’s biggest root problems: Scots-Irish culture, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

Article excerpt: The Scots-Irish Vote

Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen, psychology professors at the University of Michigan and University of Illinois, conducted an in-depth study in the 1990s examining what they dubbed the “Culture of Honor” prevalent in the South.

Nisbett argues that many of the cultural traits of the modern South can be traced back to the heritage of the population’s descendants. “The Scots-Irish were a herding people, while people from the north (of the U.S.) were English, German and Dutch farmers. Herding people are tough guys all over the world, and they are that because they have to establish that you can’t trifle with them, and if you don’t do that then you feel like you’re at risk for losing your entire wealth, which is your herd. This creates a culture of honor, and the Scots-Irish are very much a culture of honor, and they carried that with them from the Deep South to the Mountain South, and then out through the western plains.”

According to Nisbett, the Scots-Irish were a warlike people distrustful of a powerful central government, a result of the herder mentality as well as centuries of fighting, first against the English and Irish, then against Native Americans, then against the Yankees. As he points out, “The Scots-Irish are very much overrepresented in the military… and you find them there because they’re a fighting people.”’

‘It is said that no Scotch-Irish family felt comfortable until it had moved at least twice.’ As the Scotch-Irish moved inland and away from the Presbyterian influence, many became methodists or Baptists and some abandoned their faith altogether. Even so, the Scotch-Irish did not go to America to escape the strict rules of their Presbyterian faith. In fact, the customs of that religion formed the basis of the American government, with early officials influenced by the religion’s system of courts when building the American system. 

Thus the main legacy Scotch-Irish left behind for future generations was their religion. In each settlement they built a church in which to practice their Presbyterian faith. Economically, the Scotch-Irish had an impact because they practiced self-reliance: ‘God helps those who help themselves.’ Vann [2007] shows the Scotch-Irish played a major role in defining the Bible Belt in the Upper South during the eighteenth century. The Lower South being indicative of the half tribe of West Manasseh [refer Chapter XXXIII Manasseh & Ephraim]. 

The image of a gun in one hand and a Bible in the other reminds of the Danites who plundered Laish with the sword in one hand and Micah’s stolen idols in the other. The other notable legacy was the origin of Country and Western music which derived extensively from Ulster-Scots folk music. In 1746, the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians created the College of New Jersey, later renamed Princeton University, one of the most prestigious Universities in the world, let alone America. 

Author and United States Senator Jim Webb puts forward in his book Born Fighting, 2004: ‘that the character traits he ascribes to the Scotch-Irish such as loyalty to kin, extreme mistrust of governmental authority and legal strictures, and a propensity to bear arms and to use them, helped shape the American identity.’ 

It is interesting to note that as the Danites were skilled metallurgists, the Scotch-Irish were responsible for the iron and steel industry developing rapidly after 1830 which became one of the dominant industries in America by the 1860s. In its most important centre Pittsburgh, as well as other cities. The leadership of the iron and steel industry nationwide was predominantly Scotch-Irish. New immigrants after 1800 made Pittsburgh a major Scotch-Irish stronghold. 

Thomas Mellon left Ulster in 1823 and became the founder of the famous Mellon clan, playing a central role in banking and the aluminum and oil industries. Their large numbers – at least one out of every fifteen Americans was Scotch-Irish and almost without exception supported America’s freedom fight, in contrast to the Scottish Highlanders – helping to ingrain their convictions into those of America’s. Many Scotch-Irish were to be found on the rolls of Revolutionary War patriots for valour. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia: 

‘A British major general testified to the House of Commons that “half the rebel Continental Army were from [Northern] Ireland”. Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, with its large Scotch-Irish population, was to make the first declaration for independence from Britain in the Mecklenburg Declaration of 1775.

The Scotch-Irish “Overmountain Men” of Virginia and North Carolina formed a militia which won the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780, resulting in the British abandonment of a southern campaign, and for some historians “marked the turning point of the American Revolution”.’

Paterson – emphasis & bold mine:

With the outbreak of the Revolution in 1775 the Scots-Irish, in interesting contrast to many of their Scottish cousins, were among the most determined adherents of the rebel cause. Their frontier skills were particularly useful in destroying Burgoyne’s army in the Saratoga campaign; and George Washington was even moved to say that if the cause was lost everywhere else he would take a last stand among the Scots-Irish of his native Virginia.’ 

Many of Washington’s generals were of Scotch-Irish stock including General Harry Know, General Dan Morgan and at least seven more. 

‘Serving in the British Army, Captain Johann Henricks, one of the much despised ‘Hessians’, wrote in frustration ‘Call it not an American rebellion, it is nothing more than an Irish-Scotch Presbyterian Rebellion.’ It was their toughness, virility and sense of divine mission that was to help give shape to a new nation, supplying it with such diverse heroes as Davy Crocket [scout, soldier, politician] and Andrew Jackson [seventh President]. They were indeed God’s frontiersmen, the real historical embodiment of the lost tribe of Israel.’ 

General Robert E. Lee was once asked this question: ‘What race of people do you believe make the best soldiers?’ His reply: ‘The Scots who came to this country by way of Ireland.’

The Ulster-Scots and the Southern Confederacy, Alex Greer – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When the first southern states… pulled out of the union early in 1861, the Ulster-Scots were apparently divided over secession. South Carolina was the first to secede, but it was the Low Country gentry which had initiated that state’s secession. 

The Up Country Ulster-Scots had had reservations… In Virginia, the Ulster-Scots in some of the western counties refused to acknowledge secession, which had been pushed for by the tidewater gentlemen. Thus a new state, West Virginia, was formed. The factor, which caused many Ulster-Scots to eventually support, and fight, for the Confederacy, was the coercive policy of President Abe Lincoln. When Arkansas, a state with a large Scots-Irish population, was asked by Lincoln to contribute troops to force the seceding states back into line, Arkansas joined the Confederacy. Tennessee, the largely Ulster-Scots ‘Volunteer state’, also rejected Lincoln’s call to arms in the spring of 1861, and thus became the last state to join the Confederate States of America. Whatever their differences with the tidewater English the back country Ulster-Scots closed ranks as fellow Southerners to defend their new independence, even if it meant fighting their kinfolk from the northern states. Also, it would appear that the Ulster-Scots gave the Confederacy one of its enduring symbols, the star-charged-blue satire on white and red background. This flag is based on St. Andrew’s Cross.’  

‘Having joined the Confederacy the Ulster-Scots were more than ready to fight. The most notable southern Ulster-Scots personality was Lieut.-General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. Jackson was very conscious of his roots as his biographer and chaplain R.L. Dabney pointed out in an 1867 biography. Sadly, Jackson was shot to death by one of his own men who mistook his patrol for a Union patrol at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia, on 10 May 1863. Jackson, along with the English-descended General Robert E. Lee (who had paid tribute to the Ulster-Scots), was a respected example of a Christian gentleman for future generations of Southerners. There were many units of the Confederate States Army which had a distinctly Ulster-Scots reputation, such as the 33rd and 42nd Virginia Infantry Regiments…Colonel Hamilton Jones, the Commanding Officer of the 57th North Carolina Infantry Regiment, wrote years after the war that “the high-spirited Scotch-Irish of North Carolina were unsurpassed in the qualities that go to make good soldiers. They do their duty well and valorously,and in fighting, in common with their comrades, they have fixed a standard for the American soldier below which it is hoped he will never fail.”’ 

Texas is a good example of the influence the tribe of Dan has had in shaping America.  Its location adjacent to Mexico and its struggle for independence is reminiscent of the original allotment for the tribe of Dan next to the Philistines [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor]. 

Texas also possesses a coast, though unlike the original small piece of land, Texas is the second biggest state after Alaska and thus the biggest continental State, with the second highest population of 30,097,526 people, behind California. Though it does not have the highest percentage of Scotch-Irish [1.1%], the state does contain the highest number with 287,393 people [2000 Census]. Scotch-Irish staked their claims in Texas and made their stand at the Alamo in 1838. Sam Houston, the man responsible for wresting Texas from Mexican control, was the grandson of an Ulster Presbyterian, as was the frontiersman and later Congressman, Davy Crockett. 

Other American regions today with significant Scotch-Irish descended populations, according to the 2000 Census: California 247,530, [0.7%]; North Carolina 274,149, [2.9%]; Florida 170,880, [0.9%]; Pennsylvania 163,836, [1.3%]; South Carolina, [2.4%] and Maine [1.7%]. Historically, Appalachia, the Ozarks and northern New England were heavily settled. 

The name Texas comes from the word Tejas, which means ‘hello friends’ in the Caddo [Hasnai] Indian language. Also, there is an apt motto for the state, which is ‘friendship.’ ‘The friendly spirit runs through every Texan soul. There are many fascinating aspects about the history of Texas, which has made it what it is today. One among them is the reason behind its nickname and the state flag’s history.’  

Flag of the Republic of Texas 1836-1839

Texas was once a province of Mexico and was called Coahuila y Tejas. Texas fought for independence during 1835 and 1836. The nickname originated because of only one star present on the 1836 flag of the Republic of Texas. The Republic of Texas was an independent country before becoming a part of the Union on December 29, 1845. The lone star also signifies Texans’ wish to be a different or unique state; as well as a reminder of how Texas was the only brave state to demand its own rights from Mexico.

The current flag of Texas was approved in 1839. On the Texas flag, the blue stripe on the left stands for loyalty, the white star is the ‘Lone Star’ and the colour red represents courage. The star has five points, one point for each letter of the state name, Texas.  

The Bonnie Blue flag was a banner associated at various times with the Republic of Texas, the short lived Republic of West Florida, and the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861. It consists of a single, five-pointed white star on a blue field. 

Its first known use was in 1810, when it was used to represent the Republic of West Florida. Later referred to as the Burnet flag, it was adopted by the Congress of the Republic of Texas in December, 1836. This version consisted of an azure background with a large golden star, inspired by the 1810 West Florida flag. The Bonnie Blue flag was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It was flying above the Confederate batteries that first opened fire on Fort Sumter, beginning the Civil War.

West Florida Flag 1810

Many of the founding fathers, including John Hancock and Charles Thomson, were of Scotch-Irish heritage. Twenty of the forty-six United States presidents, or forty-three percent boast Scotch-Irish bloodlines. Most notable or recent include: Ulysses S Grant, 18th, 1869-1877; Theodore Roosevelt, 26th, 1901-1909; Woodrow Wilson, 28th, 1913-1921; Harry S Truman, 33rd, 1945-1953; Lyndon B Johnson, 36th, 1963-1969; Richard Nixon, 37th, 1969-1974; Jimmy Carter, 39th, 1977-1981; George H W Bush, 41st, 1989-1993; Bill Clinton, 42nd, 1993-2001; George W Bush, 43rd, 2001-2009; Barack Obama, 44th, 2009-2017 and Vice President Al Gore, 45th, 1993-2001.

Notable Scotch-Irish Americans include:

Kim Basinger Actress

Brad Pitt Actor

Mel Gibson Actor

Burt Lancaster Actor

Steve Martin Actor

John Wayne Actor

David Lynch Director

Johnny Cash Musician

Hank Williams Musician

Elvis Presley Musician & Actor

Stephen King Author

John Steinbeck Author

Edgar Allen Poe Author

Mark Twain Author

Jack Dempsey Boxer

Arnold Palmer Golfer

Neil Armstrong Astronaut

Wyatt Earp Gunslinger

Billy the Kid Gunslinger

Bill Gates Microsoft Founder

J Paul Getty Industrialist

John D Rockefeller Oil Magnate

A recommended book on the Scotch-Irish is God’s Frontiersmen by Rory Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick says of the American Old West – emphasis & bold mine:

… the Scots-Irish people provided most of its pioneers… On each succeeding frontier to the Rocky Mountains, the Scots-Irish were prominent either as groups or as individuals. 

They spearheaded the thrusts through the Appalachians into Western Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Tennessee… In both Australia and New Zealand educated Ulster Scots were providing a remarkable proportion of the professional people – doctors, lawyers, engineers – on which the new colonial societies were built… (they were) a distinct racial group… A people who in many ways were the epitome of mobility and change.’

This is a remarkable description of the Danite qualities of exploration and a pioneering spirit. Further quotes supporting this aspect…

“… they were the most successful settlers… they could cope better… with frontier conditions… The English settlers who had come earlier had, after their initial thrust, been unenterprising, clinging for over a century to the Atlantic coastlines and river estuaries. The Ulster people, on the other hand, penetrated far and fast into the wilderness, having little fear of the unknown.” 

Their style was fearless, quick and effective – more rapid than any other immigrant group.’

‘Another characteristic was their “abiding hatred for totalitarian power”, as well as unfairness, inequity, bullying and abuse.’ 

The Ulster-Scots Agency contains the following articles that show the characteristics of Dan reflected in the Scotch-Irish: 

‘Ulster-Scots and Washington’s Generals – How men with Ulster connections helped
shape America through battle’

‘Ulster-Scots and United States Presidents – Presidents with Ulster connections who
helped shape America’

‘Ulster-Scots and the Presbyterian Church – How Ulster-Scots defined church life in

‘From Folk to Country – How the Ulster-Scots influenced music in America’

‘The Ulster-Scots Legacy – Famous Americans with Ulster-Scots backgrounds’

‘The Declaration of Independence – The Ulster-Scots and America’s proudest
moment – the signing of the Declaration of Independence…’

The Scotch-Irish have had a lasting influence on American society. 

Lord Rosebery: 

“I love Highlanders, and I love Lowlanders, but when I come to that branch of our race that has been grafted on to the Ulster stem I take off my hat in veneration and awe”

The Scotch-Irish intermarried extensively and the reason that so many Americans can trace their roots to this group. Yet there are not Scots-Irish parades or ethnic neighbourhoods as these people became fully American.

Scotch-Irish ancestry by County 2013

In the 2000 United States Census, 4.3 million Americans [1.5% of the population] claimed Scotch-Irish ancestry. In 2019 the figure was 3,011,165 people [0.9%].  Author and former United States Senator Jim Webb suggests that the true number of people with some Scots-Irish heritage in the United States is more likely to be over twenty-seven million people, some 9.2% in 2004. This is because contemporary Americans with some Scotch-Irish heritage may regard themselves as either Irish, Scottish, or simply Amercian instead. We encountered this in the previous chapter with those Americans of a long line of English descent, now simply identifying as American.

Irish ancestry by contrast is predominantly in the northern States showing that they are not Gad, but rather Ephraim.

The numbers of people identifying as Scots-Irish or Dan in Ireland are approximately 24,500 people and in Ulster 345,101* people. In 1790, the population of America was 3,929,326 people of which some 400,000 were of Irish extraction and half of these were from the Province of Ulster.

The Ulster Diaspora between 1607 and 1680, accounted for 2,000 people from Northern Ireland going to the Americas – including the Caribbean and South America – with 2,000 people also going to Britain and 16,500 to Europe. Estimates for the period 1680 to 1750 range from 70,000 to 250,000 for Ulster-American emigration, with 4,000 people heading to Britain and 16,500 more to Europe. The Ulster Diaspora between 1750 and 1820 was approximately 150,000 people to North America, 20,000 to Britain, 5,000 to the British colonies and 2,000 people to Europe. The Ulster Diaspora from 1820 to 1890 included a scale of emigration between Ulster and North America little short of astounding. In the three phases 1820 to 45, 1845 to 51 and 1851 to 90, the total estimate for Ulster migration to North America was 1,317,000 people. 

The Ulster Diaspora between 1890 and 1960 saw a shift in where the Northern Irish migrated. The estimated total for Ulster emigration to North America in the period  of 1890 to 1960 was 363,000 people, to Britain 240,000 people and the British colonies, 30,000 people. Between 1890 and 1930 about eighty-five per cent of Ulster emigrants went to North America. After 1930 this distribution altered dramatically and swiftly. Between 1930 and 1960, close to seventy-five per cent of those leaving from Ulster counties went to Britain, whilst only twenty per cent crossed the Atlantic. 

How Scots-Irish (or Irish-Scot) are You? Scottish Origenes – emphasis & bold mine: 

Up to 30%* of Protestants in Northern Ireland (descendants of Lowlander Scots who settled in Ulster in Ireland from 1610 AD onwards) carry the R-M222 genetic marker. In addition about 12% of Catholic males on the island of Ireland and about 5% of all Scottish males also carry the R-M222 genetic marker.’ 

The population of Northern Ireland is 1,924,873 people. The Protestant component is forty-eight percent of the total which equals 923,939 people; whereas forty-five percent are Catholic, or number 866,192 people. These latter people have an affinity with those of the Republic to the south and could be in large part an extension of the tribe of Gad [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. Recall, Gad shall ‘enlarge’ his territory.

Deuteronomy 33:20-21

English Standard Version

20 And of Gad he said, “Blessed be he who enlarges Gad… 21 He chose the best of the land for himself, for there a commander’s [lawgiver’s or ruler’s] portion was reserved…

Those who claim Scots-Irish ancestry in Northern Ireland include approximately 346,477 people and this equates to 38% of the Protestant population – or 18% of the total population – and may represent the tribe of Dan. This leaves 564,979 people or thirty percent of the total population and these Protestant people equate to the tribe of Reuben. Recall that Reuben’s numbers would ‘be few.’

Deuteronomy 33:6

English Standard Version

“Let Reuben live, and not die, but let his men be few.” 

‘The R-M222 Y-DNA genetic marker first appeared in a single male who lived on, or near, the Inishowen peninsula in the far northwest of Ireland approximately 1,500 years ago (+/-300 years)

Clues as to why these R-M222 carriers began colonising throughout Ireland and Scotland can be found in their origin; Donegal (Dún nan Gall meaning ‘base or fort of the Foreigner’) and their descriptive surnames which they took with them like Gallagher (Ó Gallchobhair meaning ‘Foreign helper’) who upon settling along the west coast of Ireland acquired new surnames like Higgins (O’hUigin meaning ‘Viking’) and Halloran (O’hAllmhurain meaning ‘Pirate or Stranger from overseas’).

Some of the R-M222males who settled in Southeast Ulster took part in the subsequent Norse-Gael Conquest and colonisation of Southwest Scotland which was led by the King of Norway ‘Magnus Barelegs’ in about 1100AD. 

The land they conquered became ‘Galloway’ meaning ‘land of the foreign Gael’ a term used by the surrounding ‘Scots’ to describe the Gaels from Ireland who settled there. The Inishowen Gaels took with them to Galloway their genetic markers (like R-M222), their Gaelic language…

What’s particularly interesting is that Conquering Gaels and Vikings appear to have split Southwest Scotland between them, with the Gaelic-Irish (denoted by their ‘Mac’ surnames) colonising the area west of Dumfries town, while the Vikings (with surnames typically ending in ‘-son’) colonising the area to the east. 

While in Galloway in Southwest Scotland, the descendants of the Irish Gaels gradually adopted the English language (Gaelic was extinct as a language in Galloway by 1760 AD.) 

They adopted the Protestant faith, and approximately 500 years after their ancestors had first arrived in Galloway, many would return as English speaking Protestant Lowland Scots during the Plantation of Ulster that began in the early 17th Century.’ 

In northwest Ireland, particularly Sligo and northernmost Donegal, 21.5% of the population carry the R1b1b2e genetic fingerprint or R-M222, which is from the R1b-L21 sub-clade. The predominant R1b in Ireland is R-M269, with R-M222 being scarce in the Republic of Ireland. 

How Scots-Irish (or Irish-Scot) are You? Scottish Origenes – emphasis & bold mine: 

The I-M223 genetic marker appears to be much older than R-M222. While R-M222+ve males are  descended from the Celtic tribes that began arriving in Britain and Ireland from Central Europe from about 800BC onwards, I-M223+ve males appear to be the descendants of the pre-historic inhabitants of Southwest Scotland and Northeast Ireland. The close relationship between I-M223+ve Irish and Scots is reflected in the fact that it has proven impossible to determine whether the mutation that gave rise to I-M223 first appeared in a male who lived in Southeast Ulster in Ireland or within Southwest Scotland (21 miles separates both locations).’ 

 ‘All we know is that today, the I-M223 marker is prevalent among both the Pre-Plantation Gaelic Irish inhabitants of Southeast Ulster (County Down) and the Scottish male population of the far Southwest of Scotland (Wigtownshire and Southern Ayrshire). Notable Gaelic Clans that carry the I-M223 paternal genetic marker include the famous McGuinness Clan of Southeast Ulster (the Clan that gave you Arthur Guinness and Guinness Stout), and the Scottish Fergusons, MacWhirthers and MacCrackens who dominated Southwest Scotland. 

Interestingly, the I-M223 marker occurs in individuals named Hannah or Hanna; surnames which are associated exclusively with either Southeast Ulster in Ireland and Southwest Scotland. Given the inability to distinguish its Irish or Scottish origin, one must conclude that the ‘I-M223’ mutation is the ‘quintessential Scots-Irish’ paternal DNA marker.’ 

The tribe of Dan has truly leapt from Bashan, not once or twice but thrice. From Ulster to Scotland, from Scotland to Northern Ireland and from Northern Ireland to the United States and beyond. 

Deuteronomy 33:22

Expanded Bible

“Dan is like a lion’s cub, who jumps out of [and] leaps forth from Bashan.”

One of the puzzles of modern DNA studies has been a lack of DNA evidence for the Irish colonization of the Western Isles of Scotland, which historically gave rise to the Kingdom of Dalriada. It may simply be that there has been so much human movement back and forth between the Western Isles of Scotland and Northeast Ireland that the two populations are (at present) indistinguishable from one another! Given its proximity to Scotland, the descendants of Medieval Antrim in Northeast Ireland (which lies closest to Scotland) are ‘genetically’ more Scots than Irish (12 miles separate Antrim from Scotland). The descendants of even the Gaelic Irish in Northern Ireland (who are today overwhelmingly Catholic) tend to have earlier detectable links in their commercial DNA test results with Scotland (that includes the most notable O’Neill Clan). In fact, the Medieval surnames and prominent Clans of North Antrim are dominated by notable Scottish surnames that originated from the Western Isles, see attached image. BUT! over time, and as more and more people participate in commercial ancestral Y-DNA testing, it may become possible to dissect out each wave of migration between Scotland and Ireland and identify some new Dalriadan DNA markers.’

Recall the Rh- factor discussed in chapter XVI Moab & Ammon: ‘Of interest, is the high percentage of Rh- people in Ireland and Scotland. Particularly, the peoples of northwest Ireland, the Highland Scots and the western Islanders of Norway, who all have between 16 and 25% Rh negatives. The Norwegians are accounted by those Scots, who were transported to Norway as slaves. Scotland is a country where there is a strong variation of blood type frequencies based on location. Between 20 and a little bit over 30 percent of Rh- can be expected in most of the extreme northern and western regions. In the west coast region of Inverness, where the Rh negative percentage has been measured at 30.44%, the percentage of blood type O has also been noted as substantially high. Ireland is purported to have around 25% Rh negatives in several reports while others demonstrate a percentage nearer 15-16%. However studies have indicated that Northern Ireland has a high percentage of approximately 27%.’ 

All this information combined is significant as it points towards the revealing of the tribe of Dan as the Scots-Irish nestled particularly in Northern Ireland and to a lesser degree in Scotland. Dan’s strong association with Reuben in Ulster not being unexpected; nor its mass migration onto its full inheritance within Ephraim in the United States. 

All this after two waves of the Tuatha de Danaan travelled to Northern Ireland, with the first between circa 1600 and 1200 BCE, while the sons of Jacob were either in Egypt, or sojourning across the Sinai Peninsula and then again around the time of the Kingdom of Israel’s fall at the hands of the Assyrians during 721 to 718 BCE. 

The Haplogroups R1b and I1 with I2a1 are the main Y-DNA Haplogroups for all the sons of Jacob and are indicative of the Scots, Irish and the peoples of Ulster and Northern Ireland. If a residue of the tribe of Dan is nestled within these half brother nations, then they will exhibit unique clades of both. It appears that R-M222 and I-M223 are those markers. The descendants of Dan, the true thirteenth tribe of Israel; like a highly elusive serpent… have been found.

But the Spirit explicitly and unmistakably declares that in later times some will turn away from the faith, paying attention instead to deceitful and seductive spirits and doctrines of demons, misled by the hypocrisy of liars whose consciences are seared as with a branding iron…

1 Timothy 4:1-2 Amplified Bible

Thine hope that many, could well receive;

     alas ‘twas vanity, thy seeker’s mind did conceive.

Ye scattered, thy hand doth write, an urgent plea to thine precious few;

     strike a chord, thee with sight, a gift immeasurable and true.

Orion Gold

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Manasseh & Ephraim – the Birthright Tribes

Chapter XXXIII

The identities of Asshur, Edom, Judah and Dan have been investigated, discussed and written about more than all the other Biblical identities put together, many times over. Anyone with more than a passing interest in the Bible and conversant in the scriptures, will recognise that these four peoples feature significantly in the end time prophecies. We have investigated three of the four and deduced their correct identities as all three so far have been inaccurate, in some instances for hundreds of years. All having major repercussions in interpreting Bible prophecy of future world events. 

The prevalent view has been that Asshur as ‘the instrument of God’s wrath’ in bringing Israel to its knees in repentance is the nation of Germany. Yet, geography, history, migration, with mt-DNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups have shown that the Germans are in fact Ishmael [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael]. As the dominant nation of the descendants of Peleg – from Eber, from Arphaxad and from Shem in Western Europe – the Germans are also the leading nation of Joktan’s descendants also from Eber, in Eastern Europe. A German led European Union will ally itself with the Assyrians [Numbers 24:24]. Our studies have revealed it is in fact Russia who is Asshur and modern day Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. They are the King of the North and the instrument of God’s wrath against Israel and Judah [Zephaniah 2:13, Isaiah 10:5]. 

Coupled with this, is the extraordinary switch of identities between Esau and Judah, where the Jews are not Judah but rather Edom and the tribe of Judah is not the Jewish people but actually the nation of England [refer Chapter XXIX Esau & Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. It is against this panorama of mistaken identities and incorrect interpretation of Biblical prophecy that we now arrive to the most written about and most sought after tribal identity, Joseph. The son of Jacob chosen to be the recipient of the Birthright blessings usually given to the firstborn son. Jacob’s eldest sons, Reuben, Simeon and Levi all disqualified themselves. Even so, Levi was chosen to be the Priestly tribe and even after his own personal misdemeanours, Judah was selected to receive the blessings of the throne, orb and sceptre of Royal rulership. 

Though Joseph was the eleventh of twelve sons, he was still a firstborn son of Jacob and his wife Rachel. We will learn that the blessing prophecy to Joseph and his sons Manasseh and Ephraim are specific enough to quickly identity these peoples in our modern world. It is thus beyond all belief and comprehension, that for nearly five centuries the identification of Jacob’s grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim has been, quite simply… wrong. 

When we first meet Joseph, Rachel was feeling the pressure as Leah was seven nil ahead when it came to children, or nine to two if the hand maiden’s sons are included. 

Genesis 30:22-24

English Standard Version

Then God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.” 24 And she called his name Joseph, saying, “May the Lord add to me another son!”

Abarim Publications – emphasis & Bold mine: 

‘The name Joseph meaning: ‘Increaser, May He Add’ from the verb (yasap), to add, increase, repeat or do again.

The name Joseph means Increaser, Repeater or Doubler, and even the fulfillment of his name is dual: Benjamin becomes Joseph’s younger brother, and Joseph himself becomes father of two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh (see Ezekiel 47:13).

For a meaning of the name Joseph, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads two meanings: (1) May He (Yahweh) Add (assuming that the “He” of our name is YHWH), and (2) Increaser. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads He Shall Add. And BDB Theological Dictionary has He Adds, Increases. Spiros Zodhiates (The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament) translates the name Joseph with May God Add, but note that the “God” part is implied and not actually incorporated in the name Joseph.’

From Genesis chapter thirty-seven through to chapter fifty, the narrative is dominated by Joseph’s life. Of which twelve chapters representing twenty-four percent of Genesis are devoted to Joseph. Slightly less than for Abraham from chapter twelve through to twenty-five, with twenty-six percent. Even Adam and Noah only have three chapters devoted to each of them, or six percent each of the Genesis story. Jacob on the other hand, ostensibly the most flawed of all the Patriarchs has eight chapters, or sixteen percent devoted to him and he also figures, though less than Joseph, prominently in the final thirteen chapters of Genesis; with over forty percent of the Book of Genesis devoted to Jacob’s life.  

We have discussed in previous sections regarding the brother’s betrayal of Joseph and selling him to the Ishmaelite traders at the behest of Judah. The early part of Genesis chapter thirty-seven is of interest as it provides the factors that led to his brothers hatred.

Genesis 37:2-11

English Standard Version

Joseph, being seventeen years old, was pasturing the flock with his brothers. He was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. And Joseph brought a bad [H7451 – ra] report of them to their father. 

We learn that Joseph was with certain ones of his brothers. Specifically: Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher. We also learn that Jacob married Rachel and Leah’s handmaids, for they were not concubines of Jacob [Genesis 29:24, 29]. For whatever reason not divulged these four brothers were up to no good and Joseph told on them. At first reading, one would easily assume that Joseph was a tattle tale and acting like a spoilt brat, belying his youthful age. 

Though two reasons suggest otherwise. First, the Bible does not label him as such. If the charge of youthful foolishness were considered, it would have to be quickly dropped for when Joseph was harshly rejected by his brothers and while he served Potiphar in Egypt, Joseph for a young man was focused, efficient and honourable. Far from a spoilt brat. In fact, he accepted his brutal injustices with immeasurable maturity. 

Second, the bad report Joseph made of his brothers was not merely a superficial thing, it was a very serious matter. The Hebrew word ra is translated by the KJV as evil [442], wickedness [59], mischief [21], affliction [6], adversity [4] and harm [3]. It includes a wide range of negative meanings: ‘misery, distress, calamity, malignant’ and ‘grievous.’ 

As we have yet to discuss Jacob’s son Dan, more detail will be investigated in the next chapter. Though it can be stated that Dan is the bad boy or black sheep of the family and if he was involved, he may well have been leading the other three bothers down a dark path that Joseph had no choice but to divulge [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Support for Joseph being honourable in this incident is revealed by the fact that Joseph is rather unique in the scriptures and part of a very select band of people who do not have one word writ against them. Of all the prominent people in the Bible, not including peripheral characters, it is only Daniel and Christ whom have nothing negative recorded and for prominent women, only Ruth, Esther and Mary are included in this exceptional group. Recall that Daniel is also one of the three men described as most righteous in the Bible with Noah and Job. This may have some bearing on why the Eternal revealed the most profound and biggest impacting prophecies of all the prophets to Daniel; for the prophecies of the Book of Revelation through John are in may cases, amplifications of those originating in Daniel. 

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was the son of his old age. And he made him a robe of many colors. 4 But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peacefully to him.

With what we have just learned about Jospeh and the view the Creator had of him, it is clear that Jospeh didn’t act like the favoured son, it was Jacob who created the issue as verse four says. As Jacob is guilty of innumerable unwise decisions this should not come as a surprise; yet one would have thought that growing up in a family with a pronounced and marked divide between parents and sons as Jacob and Esau had with Isaac and Rebecca, that Jacob would have shied away from repeating this tragic scenario. 

As touched upon, for the want of a better explanation, the understanding that Joseph’s coat was tartan or plaid is interesting. Particularly, when we consider the two nation’s that have upheld this pattern more than any other, are Scotland – the tribe of Benjamin – and the United States.

Now Joseph had a dream, and when he told it to his brothers they hated him even more. 6 He said to them, “Hear this dream that I have dreamed: 7 Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and stood upright. And behold, your sheaves gathered around it and bowed down to my sheaf.” 8 His brothers said to him, “Are you indeed to reign over us? Or are you indeed to rule over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

One would have to assume with what we know of Joseph’s character that he was being matter of fact and not boasting. Of course, what the brothers were not to know, is that the dream foretold of Joseph being their servant in saving his brothers from starvation in a few short years hence. Though regarding the distant future into our present time, Joseph as the preeminent brother, serves as the protector for all his brothers. 

A component of this story not readily touched upon, is that Joseph had the Holy Spirit and was one converted to the truth. His brothers were not and so could not understand spiritual matters the same way. This would have put considerable distance between himself and his brothers. It also explains why Jacob favoured Joseph over Judah, the son actually most like himself in character, for the son who was like himself spiritually. Recall that the Eternal had a different view from Jacob, in that though the Bible reveals Joseph’s people are special to the Creator, it is in fact Judah that He loves [Psalm 78:68]. In His mind, giving the royal sceptre of rulership for the very throne that His Son will return to sit in, was the greater blessing of favour. 

9 Then he dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. Behold, the sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 10 But when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow ourselves to the ground before you?” 11 And his brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the saying in mind.

Jacob did not like hearing this from Joseph, yet considered the matter and deduced that it was of future importance with a positive outcome.

Genesis 39:1-10, 21-23

English Standard Version

Now Joseph had been brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, had bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him down there. 2 The Lord was with Joseph, and he became a successful man, and he was in the house of his Egyptian master. 3 His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord caused all that he did to succeed in his hands. 4 So Joseph found favor in his sight and attended him, and he made him overseer of his house and put him in charge of all that he had. 5 From the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had, in house and field. 6 So he left all that he had in Joseph’s charge, and because of him he had no concern about anything but the food he ate.

This is an incredible occurrence and shows it was more to do with the Eternal’s intervention on Joseph’s behalf, though of course, the Eternal was only able to bless Joseph and Potiphar’s household because Joesph was not only capable but obedient to the Creator. This enhances the case we have built regarding Joseph’s spirituality. To be clear, it is not that Jospeh was perfect, for all sin, but rather some people are more blameless than others and Joseph was such an individual. Potiphar was the captain of the Pharaoh’s personal retinue of soldier’s and thus a high ranking official who had a palatial residence adjacent to the actual palace of the Pharaoh. Joseph was merely seventeen when he arrived in Egypt in 1709 BCE.

Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance. 7 And after a time his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and said, “Lie with me.” 8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, because of me my master has no concern about anything in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge. 9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” 10 And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he would not listen to her, to lie beside her or to be with her.

The Hebrew words here say that Joseph was not just handsome but also had a good physique. Notice his spiritual mindset; Joseph say’s it would be sinning against God to sleep with Potiphar’s wife, not just that he would be betraying his employer. It is a simple case of sexual harassment committed by Potiphar’s wife. Though Joseph could not divulge the reason, could Joseph have requested a transfer or found a way to move? When the opportunity arose and the house was empty, she made her move, grabbing his outer garment. Joseph flees, leaving it behind. 

Potiphar’s wife then frames Joseph for an indecent proposition and Potiphar in understandable anger sends Joseph to the prison reserved for the Pharaoh’s enemies circa 1702 BCE at the age of twenty-four. Though Satan had tried to tempt Joseph and thwart the Creator’s plan, it was not to be.

21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him steadfast love and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison put Joseph in charge of all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever was done there, he was the one who did it. 23 The keeper of the prison paid no attention to anything that was in Joseph’s charge, because the Lord was with him. And whatever he did, the Lord made it succeed.

In Genesis chapter forty we read of the Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker who are put into Joseph’s prison for misdemeanours circa 1698 BCE, when Joseph was twenty-eight. They both have dreams of which Joseph interprets them. He requests that the cupbearer who’s dream is favourable, remembers him to the Pharaoh, though he does not and Joseph remains in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh has a dream. None of his wise men or magicians can interpret it. Pharaoh’s cupbearer, then recalls his encounter with Joseph and finally remembers him to Pharaoh.

Genesis 41:14-16, 25-32, 37-57

English Standard Version

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the pit. And when he had shaved himself and changed his clothes [after six years in prison], he came in before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 16 Joseph answered Pharaoh, “It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer.” 

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 The seven lean and ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty ears blighted by the east wind are also seven years of famine. 28 … God has shown to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 There will come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt, 30 but after them there will arise seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will consume the land, 31 and the plenty will be unknown in the land by reason of the famine that will follow, for it will be very severe. 32 And the doubling of Pharaoh’s dream means that the thing is fixed by God, and God will shortly bring it about. 

Joseph then suggests Pharaoh appoints a wise and discerning person to oversee the storing of twenty percent of grain for each year of plenty and its division during the seven years of famine so that Egypt did not perish.

37 This proposal pleased Pharaoh and all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?” 39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has shown you all this, there is none so discerning and wise as you are. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall order themselves as you command. Only as regards the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck. 43 And he made him ride in his second chariot. And they called out before him, “Bow the knee!” Thus he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Moreover, Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no one shall lift up hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah. And he gave him in marriage Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On. So Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

From this account we can appreciate that the Eternal moved Pharaoh further beyond just appointing an overseer but actually elevating Joseph to Vizier of all his kingdom; while recognising that God’s spirit was working in Joseph. It was a wise decision on Pharaoh’s part and showed a level of humility in his character. Aside from Joseph having the Creator blessing him and Joseph being mature as well as good looking, it becomes apparent that Joseph must have been very personable and charismatic. The jealousy exhibited by his brothers makes more sense now we have a clearer picture of Joseph. It is Joseph’s integrity that makes him a good candidate as saviour of Egypt and thus a type of the Messiah himself, and so it is at the same age as Christ when he began his ministry at thirty, that Joseph embarks on his own ministry of service [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

Psalm 105:16-21

English Standard Version

16 When he summoned a famine on the land and broke all supply of bread, 17 he had sent a man ahead of them, Joseph, who was sold as a slave. 18 His feet were hurt with fetters; his neck was put in a collar of iron; 19 until what he had said came to pass, the word of the Lord tested him. 20 The king sent and released him; the ruler of the peoples set him free; 21 he made him lord of his house and ruler of all his possessions…

Joseph received a new Egyptian name, thus looking for the name Joseph in Egyptian records would be fruitless. There is considerable debate on what the name Zaphenath-paneah means. Of all the definitions I have found, the two that resonate the most are: ‘the man to whom secrets are revealed’ or ‘the Nourisher of the Two Lands, the Living One.’ Either way, it was through Joseph’s God and His revelation that life in Egypt was preserved. 

Joseph’s wife Asenath is unlikely to be an Egyptian as descended from Ham’s son Mizra [refer Chapter XXIV Mizra] but rather the Egyptian ruling elite. The Priest of On may have had a link with the same order as Moses’s father-in-law Jethro, the Priest of Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham] and the one true God. 

The city of On, known as Heliopolis – the City of the Sun – was a centre of worship of the sun god Ra. The priests of On were considered the most intelligent, cultured and learned people in Egypt. The High Priest of On held the title, Greatest of Seers. When Joseph married into this family, he joined a social class befitting a national leader. Implied is that the marriage was selected by Pharaoh because of his confidence that Joseph too, was a seer or prophet of the highest calibre. If this was the case, then Asenath must have embraced her husband’s faith in the God of Israel as nothing negative is mentioned of the marriage in the Bible. This high profile marriage ordained by Pharaoh, also removed any doubt about the shocking story circulating throughout Egypt, of a former prisoner legitimately rising to second in command of the whole of Egypt. 

The question remains, who was this unusually accommodating, good-hearted Pharaoh? In exact antithesis to the later hard-hearted Pharaoh of the Exodus. According to an unconventional chronology, not only are the Egyptian king lists misinterpreted by conventional chronology – as exposed by the revised chronology of David Rohl; in that dynasties can be hundreds of years out of alignment with the correct time frame – various Egyptian dynasties have been misunderstood as chronologically falling one after the other and not recognised as being concurrent. 

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep, and Amenemhet IV as Pharaoh of the Exodus, Anne Habermehl, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘From previous discussion it is clear that if the plagues and the Exodus caused the collapse of the concurrent 6th and 12th Dynasties, we need to look for our Exodus pharaoh at the end of one of these dynasties. The 12th Dynasty, ruling Lower Egypt in the north, is the one which would produce our Exodus pharaoh because the Children of Israel lived in the Delta there (the 6th Dynasty would have ruled Upper Egypt in the south). 

We suggest that Dynasties 3 to 12 cannot have reigned one after the other in the order that Manetho listed them. Dynasties 5 & 6 may have run concurrently with Dynasties 11 & 12. The First Intermediate Period (at the end of the 6th Dynasty) and Second Intermediate Period (at the end of the 12th Dynasty), both times of great disorder in Egypt, appear to be the same period, as mentioned earlier.Dynasties 7, 8, 9 and 10 would therefore have reigned after the Exodus at the same time as Dynasties 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Versions of this scheme have been offered by various revisionists (e.g., Courville, 1971, volume 1, page 101; Ashton & Down, 2006, page 206). This alone could potentially remove close to 500 of the 675 years by which we wish to shorten the secular timeline.’ 

I agree with the author’s proposal, in that the end of the twelfth dynasty matches the time of Moses, though I would differ on the Pharaoh of the Exodus as one that was in the thirteenth dynasty instead. This means the Pharaoh of Joseph’s dream interpretation is a king from the third dynasty. The first king of the third dynasty was Pharaoh Djoser or Netjerikhet. Records are unclear to his length of reign, from either 19 years according to Manetho; 28 or 29 years according to the royal annals; and 37 or 38 years according to other lists and historians. Lists for the dynasty have a variance of the number of kings, with either four, five or eight kings. I propose the middle number for the reign and the lower for the number of kings – which fits the chronology of Pharaohs until the time of Moses – and a date of reign for Joseph’s pharaoh circa 1700 to 1672/71 BCE. The Saqqara Tablet is viewed by this writer as the most accurate as it lists Djoser as the first of four kings and was found in a tomb near the Djoser Pyramid in Saqqara.

Duplication, short reigns and doubt leave two realistic rulers of either Djoser or the final dynastic ruler of Huni or Qahedjet, who ruled for 24 years as the Pharaoh in question, as both had Viziers. The other three, six or most probably two rulers sandwiched between these two Pharaohs are not realistic candidates. As there was a turbulent transition from Huni to Amenemhet I, not matching the peaceful reign of Joseph, Huni is ruled out. Djoser was the son of the last 2nd Dynasty king, Pharaoh Khasekhemwy from 1718 to 1700 BCE, and his wife, Queen Nimaathap or Nimaethap, “Mother of the King of the Two Lands.” 

Djoser is derived from the Djed symbol for stability and is also associated with the god Osiris and appears on numerous monuments built during his reign. Though it was common for Pharaohs to have a Queen and lesser wives, Djoser only had one wife, who was his half-sister, Hetephernebti. They had a daughter called, Inetkawes. 

His passion was building projects, something he continued non-stop as soon as he assumed the throne. Cities had begun to grow in Egypt during the 1st Dynasty, though under Djoser they became widespread throughout Egypt, with architecture becoming more ornate. During his reign, the borders of Egypt were made secure and expansion into the Sinai was achieved through military expeditions. This led to lucrative turquoise and copper mining in the Peninsula, which created great wealth for Egypt. 

Djoser also defeated the Libyans or Phut [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut] and annexed parts of their lands. Overall, his reign was marked by great technological innovation and whereby, agriculture, the arts, trade and Egypt’s civil administration all flourished. 


There were a number of Viziers in Egyptian history, though it can be no coincidence that the first known Vizier as well as the most famous one was Imhotep, Vizier to Djoser. Not only chancellor to the Pharaoh, Imhotep was reputed to be an architect, engineer, physician as well as possibly a high priest at Heliopolis. Imhotep is credited to be the designer of the Step or otherwise named, Djoser Pyramid at Saqqara. This pyramid contains a large vertical shaft under it and the complex has many similar structures that appear to have been used to store grain. The name or title, Imhotep means: ‘he that comes in peace.’ Imhotep was a renowned scholar, contributing greatly to Egyptian society. Apart from Amenhotep, he is the only other Egyptian to be deified.  

Joseph, son of Jacob (Israel), was Imhotep, of Egyptian History, Nigel Hawkins, 2012 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Although Abraham did visit Egypt, it seems more likely that this practice was introduced by Joseph-Imhotep in the third dynasty.Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. 

Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit .

Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph’s bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom).’ 


46 Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plentiful years the earth produced abundantly, 48 and he gathered up all the food of these seven years, which occurred in the land of Egypt, and put the food in the cities. He put in every city the food from the fields around it. 49 And Joseph stored up grain in great abundance, like the sand of the sea, until he ceased to measure it, for it could not be measured.

50 Before the year of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph. Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore them to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh. “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my hardship andall my father’s house.” 52 The name of the second he called Ephraim, “For God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.” 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Manasseh meaning: ‘Forgetting, Evaporating’ from the verb (nasha), to forget.

The name Manasseh is generally seen as derived from the verb… to forget but forgetting due to “evaporation” of a memory the way water evaporates due to solar heat, or the way a principle evaporates due to interest… [describing] an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it. This verb occurs very often and can usually be translated with (1) to lift or lift up, (2) to bear or carry, and (3) to take or take away. An identical verb (or rather the same one used in a specialized way) means to loan on interest. The practice of loaning on interest causes the principal sum to slowly but surely evaporate and was prohibited under Mosaic law. A third identical verb (or again the same one) means to deceive or beguile.

The name Manasseh is probably due to a grammatical form in Hebrew that is comparable to the English present continuous. It fixes the letter (mem) to the root. That would give the name Manasseh the meaning of Forgetting. Another reason why a mem may occur in front of a root is when it comes from a particle that means “from”. Hence the name Manasseh may also mean From A Debt. This is significant because Manasseh’s brother is named Ephraim, a name with a distinctly bitter secondary meaning. Perhaps Joseph named his son From A Debt, because he figured that besides his gratitude for being rescued, he felt that either God or his family owed him a debt for tearing him away from his father.

For a meaning of the name Manasseh, Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Forgetting, Forgetfulness. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Making To Forget.

The name Ephraim meaning: ‘Two-fold Increase, Doubly Fruitful, Exhausted, Ashes’ from the verb (para), to be fruitful. From the verb (‘pr), to be depleted.

We would expect the people from Ephraim to be called (Ephraimites), but that word does not occur in the Bible. Instead, the Bible mostly speaks of sons of Ephraim (Numbers 1:32, Joshua 16:5, 1 Chronicles 9:3). But on occasion, the Ephraimites are referred to as (Ephrathites), for instance in Judges 12:5, where the men of Gilead capture strongholds opposite Ephraim arrest fugitives of Ephraim and asks them if they are Ephrathites. 

The meaning of the name Ephraim is somewhat debated: Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names and NOBSE Study Bible Name List go after Genesis 41:52, “…For […] God has made me fruitful..”. and take the name from the Hebrew verb (para), meaning to bear fruit or be fruitful:

The verb (parar) means to split, divide and usually make more, expand or multiply. This root belongs to an extended family that also contains (paras,) to break (through), (paras and parash), to spread out or declare, (paras), to break in two or divide, and (pa’ar) means to branch out or to glorify.

Noun (par) means young bull and (para) means young heifer. Note that the first letter (aleph) is believed to denote an ox-head, while its name derives from the verb, to learn or to produce thousands. The second letter, (beth) is also the word for house (or temple or stable). The familiar word “alphabet,” therefore literally means “stable of bulls” or “house of divisions” or “temple of fruitful learning”.

It’s not clear what the unused verb (‘apar) might have meant but it’s clearly not very positive and possibly has to do with being exhausted or depleted of inner strength and inherent merit. Noun (‘eper) means ashes, which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel. Noun (‘aper) means covering or bandage, which is what is applied over a limb when its inherent strength is broken.

Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Two-fold Increase. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Doubly Fruitful. Taking the aleph from the Qual imperfect first person singular would yield a meaning of I Am Twice Fruitful.

It’s true that the aleph is quite a weak letter which is applied often without essentially changing the meaning of a word. But it’s perfectly conceivable, and perhaps even preferred, that father Joseph casts a wry word play in the naming of his sons.

He names his first born Manasseh (Making To Forget), because, “God has made me forget all my toil and all of my father’s house”. When his father’s house finally shows up, it becomes clear that Joseph had a hard time forgetting them and was in fact happy to see them. His second son he names Ephraim, a name with a strong connection to the word fruitfulness but equally so to the word for ashes, the symbol of worthlessness and grief. 

Perhaps Joseph was not at all happy for having been made to forget his father’s house, and deemed ‘fruitfulness in the land of affliction,’ the golden bars of a still dismal cage. Perhaps the duality of the name Ephraim does not denote a double portion of the same, but rather as a reminder that thecoin of his wealth and status had two sides.

53 The seven years of plenty that occurred in the land of Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. What he says to you, do.”

56 So when the famine had spread over all the land, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth.

Jospeh’s son Manasseh was born circa 1691 and Ephraim 1690 BCE. The seven years of plenty ran from 1696 to 1689 BCE, with the following years of famine during 1689 to 1682 BCE. Fourteen years of Joseph’s life from age thirty to forty-four years of age. This was no ordinary famine but a disaster of very serious consequence. The Famine Stela or Stele is an inscription in hieroglyphs, located on Sehel Island in the Nile River, which is near Aswan, Egypt. It records this very disaster and tells of a seven year period of drought and famine during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty. 

The stele is inscribed into a natural granite block with forty-two columns. There are three Egyptian deities on the top with Djoser facing them, with offerings in his outstretched arms. The account is set in the eighteenth year of 1682 BCE of Djoser’s reign, in the seventh year of the famine that had gripped Egypt and testifying of Djoser’s deep concern as the suffering and desperation of the people had grown to breaking point. 

This, in light of Joseph’s forward planning. What if none or little grain had been stored? It is at the end of seven years that the drought finally breaks and the river Nile begins to flow again.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – italicisation theirs: 

‘The Famine Stela is one of only three known inscriptions that connect the cartouche name Djeser (“lordly”) with the serekh name Netjerikhet (“divine body”) of king Djoser in one word. Therefore, it provides useful evidence for Egyptologists and historians who are involved in reconstructing the royal chronology of the Old kingdom of Egypt.’

The stress that Djoser would have felt would make sense if after seven years, Egypt had been selling grain worldwide and not just locally. Even though Joseph had stored a consecutive yearly twenty percent of the vast abundance during the seven years of plenty, the demand in the next seven years may have meant it was a close run thing regarding dwindling grain supplies as the seventh year of famine ran its course. An extension of this period into an eighth year would then have been catastrophic and would support Djoser’s alarm as evidenced on the Famine Stela. 

The World Famine Verified, Lujack Skylark – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Shang Dynasty emperor Cheng Tang [of which] some Chinese historians stated his reign began in 1747 B.C. There are others who believe his reign began in 1675 B.C. Chinese emperor Cheng Tang [1st king of the dynasty]… very early in the dynasty recorded a 7 year famine verifying Joseph’s account of the 7 year global famine in Egypt [1689-1682 BCE]. (Genesis 41:57) 

Grant Jeffery wrote a book called “Signature of God” where he said the Yemen marble tablet inscription [reputed to be written at the time of the famine] about people living in a Yemenite castle during the seven years of plenty and the seven years of famine confirm[s] the Genesis account. 

He also wrote about the Yemen stone found in a rich woman’s tomb where this woman sends her [servants] to meet Joseph [who is apparently mentioned by name]!

The pygmy Woolly Mammoths on Wrangel island die out [circa] 1700 B.C…’

“Wrangel island is north of Russia… The migrations of people’s during the worldwide famine is fascinating. Some archaeologist have given the migrations of these people’s from 1700-1500 B.C. window. The migrations at 1700 B.C. makes sense since people were migrating in search of food.”

‘The Kushite kingdom in eastern Africa arises [circa] 1700 B.C. as Africans fleeing famine come together living in close knit community along the Nile river south of Egypt. Some Black tribes migrate from central Africa and settle in southern Africa fleeing from famine. Archaeologist dated their artifacts to [circa] 1700 B.C. Nordic Bronze culture in northern Europe becomes established [circa] 1700 B.C. where bronze weapons are produced used in hunting wild game. Starving Indo-Europeans from western Russia migrate to central Europe and produce bronze weapons to hunt wild game [circa] 1700 B.C. Starving Indo-European tribes invade Dravidan dominated India [circa] 1700 B.C… [and] destroy the Dravidan Mohenjo-Daro civilization… Olmecs migrate into the Yucatan Peninsula [circa] 1700 B.C. Archaeologist[s] state the Olmecs invented plumbing and the Olmecs were interested in water conservation at this time in world history.’

As the famine was worldwide it impacted Jacob and his family in Canaan. He sent all his sons, except Benjamin to Egypt to purchase grain. We have discussed Genesis forty-two to forty-six and the highly charged meetings between Joseph and his estranged brothers of twenty-two years and then seeing his father Jacob, when studying Jacob, Judah, Reuben, Simeon and Benjamin [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. For the year now is 1687 BCE, two years into the famine. One cannot forget the bitter-sweet first meeting with his little brother Benjamin and the poignant  jolt of a reminder, that Joseph would never see his mother Rachel again. 

The one resounding point that beams very bright is that even though Joseph toys with his brother’s and father’s emotions; making them sweat a lot – of which the Creator does not condemn, for does He not put us through our paces when we are in the wrong? – none was done from bitterness, revenge or hatred. There is a hint of a sense of humour on Joseph’s part for dragging out the eventual reunion and the suspense created in so doing. No, what leaps out is Joseph’s profoundly all consuming emotion of ecstatic joy at finally being reunited with his family. He harboured only love and forgiveness towards his brothers who did not really know him. Here was truly a converted man, filled with the spirit of God. Joseph was a worthy type of the future deliverer and Saviour of all humankind. With his grandfather Isaac and his distant cousin Moses, he is in a select group of people to have been given a saviour’s role in imitation of the true Saviour.

In Genesis forty-five, Joseph finally reveals himself. It says in verse three, that his brothers ‘could not answer him.’ The understatement of the Book of Genesis and perhaps the whole Bible. The word dumbstruck comes to mind. It also says the brothers were ‘dismayed at his presence.’ I bet they were. Here was a ghost that had risen before them. A man who should have either been dead, at the bottom of some hideous mine or looking like skin and bone of a man twice his age, as part of a tortuous slave gang. Yet here he was; here was their long lost brother Joseph. Brother Joseph who just won’t go away. As a youngster following them, albeit at their father’s behest and here he was again, a shadow from if not the grave, a shadow from the past following them still. A phantom who was second in power and authority of at least Lower Egypt, if not all the land. 

It is testament to Joseph that he didn’t try to punch or slap any of them, considering the looks on their faces at that moment. Joseph instead alerts them to the five years remaining of famine and invites them to live in the land of Goshen in the Nile delta, where he can provide for them and nurture their flocks and wealth. Pharaoh learns of Joseph’s brothers and provides gifts and provisions for their return journey. Joseph’s sense of humour is exhibited in verse twenty-four, when his last words to his departing brothers are: “Do not quarrel on the way.” He knew them all too well. Jacob in verse twenty-six believing Joseph to be dead, understandably became numb and fainted from the shock of what his sons told him. 

Did Jacob ever find out what his sons had done to Joseph? Did the sons of Jacob dare  to divulge their crime and did Joseph’s honour mean he would not hurt his father in such a way, nor exact any kind of revenge on his brothers. It must have always been that slight bit awkward for the brothers when in Joseph’s presence and therefore, punishment enough. Until such time* that it did come to light…

On the journey down to Egypt, the Creator speaks to Jacob reassuring him, for Jacob must have known what had been said to his grandfather Abraham [Genesis 15:13].

Genesis 46:2-4

English Standard Version

2 And God spoke to Israel in visions of the night and said, “Jacob, Jacob.” And he said, “Here I am.” 3 Then he said, “I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you into a great nation. 4 I myself will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up again, and Joseph’s hand shall close your eyes.”

In Genesis forty-seven, Pharaoh Djoser meets five of Joseph’s brothers and Jacob. It is interesting to learn of Jacob’s view of his own life.

Genesis 47:9-10

English Standard Version

9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my sojourning are 130 years. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their sojourning.” 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from the presence of Pharaoh [as one king to another].

It was an important observation to Jacob that his life in comparison with his father Isaac of 180 years and his grandfather Abraham of 175 years had been shorter and more difficult. Jacob does live longer, though he dies younger at age 147. The difficulties in his life had in large part been caused by himself and here he does seem to be in contrast again, with his family. 

We also learn that the famine was so severe that when Egyptians ran out of money, they then had to purchase grain with their livestock and when that ran out, they then sold their lands to Pharaoh. After that, they were tenant farmers as Jospeh gave them seed to plant with the agreement they would give twenty percent of their harvests to Pharaoh. Skipping to the final chapter of Genesis, we learn of the respect towards Joseph and Jacob and their status as rulers and kings shown to them from the lands of Egypt and Canaan. 

Genesis 50:1-3, 7-11, 15-26

English Standard Version

Then Joseph fell on his father’s face and wept over him and kissed him. 2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 Forty days were required for it, for that is how many are required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days.

7 So Joseph went up to bury his father. With him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 as well as all the household of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s household. Only their children, their flocks, and their herds were left in the land of Goshen. 9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen. It was a very great company. 

10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, they lamented there with a very great and grievous lamentation, and he made a mourning for his father seven days. 11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.”

Joseph’s brothers ask for his forgiveness, concerned for their own safety after Jacob dies.

15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “It may be that Joseph will hate us and pay us back for all the evil that we did to him.” 16 So they sent a message to Joseph, saying, “Your father gave this command before he died: 17 ‘Say to Joseph, “Please forgive the transgression* of your brothers and their sin, because they did evil to you.”’ And now, please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.” Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18 His brothers also came and fell down before him and said, “Behold, we are your servants.” 19 But Joseph said to them, “Do not fear, for am I in the place of God? 20 As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today. 21 So do not fear; I will provide for you and your little ones.” Thus he comforted them and spoke kindly to them.

The New Egyptian Chronology – A revised Egyptian chronology results in startling new archeological discoveries which authenticate Old Testament histories, David Reagan – emphasis & bold mine:

Perhaps the most amazing revelation to be found in Rohl’s book relates to Joseph. The excavations at Tel ed-Daba (Avaris in Bible times) have revealed a large Egyptian-style palace dating from the early 13th Dynasty… Rohl concludes that this must have been the retirement palace of Joseph, built in the midst of his people. In 1987 the excavators began to uncover a large pyramid-style tomb adjacent to the palace. They discovered that the tomb had been carefully emptied in antiquity. There was no evidence of the ransacking that characterizes the work of grave robbers. Further, they discovered the head of a very large statue of the man who had been buried in the tomb. The head is most unusual in that it displays very un-Egyptian type features like a mushroom shaped coiffure or wig. The figure is also clean shaven. Most remarkably, this person is wrapped in a coat of many colors! Rohl concludes that this is a statue of Joseph…’

22 So Joseph remained in Egypt, he and his father’s house. Joseph lived 110** years. 23 And Joseph saw Ephraim’s children of the third generation. The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were counted as Joseph’s own. 24 And Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die, but God will visit you and bring you up out of this land to the land that he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.” 25 Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones from here.” 26 So Joseph died, being 110 years old. They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

Joseph died in 1616 BCE. Most of his brothers had already died shortly before him, beginning with Simeon in 1630 BCE; with only three remaining brothers who died not long after Joseph, namely Naphtali, Benjamin and lastly, Levi in 1611 BCE.

Exodus 13:18-19

English Standard Version

18 But God led the people around by the way of the wilderness toward the Red Sea. And the people of Israel went up out of the land of Egypt equipped for battle. 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the sons of Israel solemnly swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you shall carry up my bones with you from here.”

There is an interesting parallel between Joseph and his descendant born exactly one hundred and fifty years later, Joshua from the tribe of Ephraim, the successor to Moses.

Numbers 13:8

English Standard Version

… from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea [Joshua] the son of Nun;

Joshua 24:29-32

English Standard Version

29 After these things Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being 110** years old. 30 And they buried him in his own inheritance at Timnath-serah, which is in the hill country of Ephraim, north of the mountain of Gaash. 31 Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua and had known all the work that the Lord did for Israel.

32 As for the bones of Joseph, which the people of Israel brought up from Egypt, they buried them at Shechem, in the piece of land that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of money. It became an inheritance of the descendants of Joseph [located in Samaria of the tribe of Ephraim].

Jacob and Joseph are included in the faith chapter of the Bible. The importance of Jacob’s blessing for Joseph’s sons was the beginning and fulfilment of the special birthright blessing of great national prosperity and preeminence for Abraham’s descendants that was filtered to his son Isaac, over Ishmael, then Jacob over Esau, then Joseph instead of Reuben and Simeon and split between his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Destiny did not decree for the peoples of Germany, the Jews, Northern Ireland or Wales to be the recipients of the principal birthright blessing. 

Hebrews 11:21-22

English Standard Version

21 By faith Jacob, when dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, bowing in worship over the head of his staff. 22 By faith Joseph, at the end of his life, made mention of the exodus of the Israelites and gave directions concerning his bones.

Prior to Jacob’s death, Jacob blessed his grandsons. Jacob blesses Joseph, yet the specifics are not given to him, but rather his two grandsons; undoubtedly due to the Eternal’s inspiration. Manasseh and Ephraim are youngsters according to the account. In fact it would appear that not long after Jacob’s arrival in Egypt in 1687 BCE, he blessed the lads, so that their ages^ appear to be about five or six for Manasseh and four or five for Ephraim. 

Genesis 48:2-20

English Standard Version

2… it was told to Jacob, “Your son Joseph has come to you.” Then Israel summoned his strength and sat up in bed. 3 And Jacob said to Joseph, “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, 4 and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a company [multitude] of peoples…’ 5 And now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt [circa 1691/1690 BCE] before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, as Reuben and Simeon are.

The destinies of Reuben and Simeon were radically altered when they forfeited their right to the birthright blessings through transgressions. The small nations of Northern Ireland and Wales are testimony of their alternative, yet actual histories and what might have been.

8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons, he said, “Who are these?” 9 Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me here [in Egypt].” And he said, “Bring them to me, please, that I may bless them.” 10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. So Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them. 11 And Israel said to Joseph, “I never expected to see your face; and behold, God has let me see your offspring also.” 12 Then Joseph removed them from his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth. 13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near him. 14 And Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands (for Manasseh was the firstborn). 

Different translations state that the lads were either between Joseph’s knees or on his lap. Others, that they were on Jacob’s knees. The one point in common is that they were very young, as in infants or very small boys^ of pre-school age. Due to the understandable order that Joseph presented them as eldest and youngest to Jacob, Jacob had to cross his hands like a saltire – of which the significance and symbolism will be apparent as we progress – as Jacob understood, as had happened repeatedly in his family’s line, that the youngest was being elevated to eldest.

15 And he blessed Joseph and said, “The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day, 16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the boys; and in them let my name [Israel] be carried on, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude [H7230 – rob; abundance, great number, numerous, many] in the midst [H7130 – qereb] of the earth.”

We arrive at a small word with massive ramifications. A major clue to the location of Joseph’s descendants has been there all along. Even so, it has remained hidden. Its clarification is an important step in identifying Manasseh and Ephraim. Yet identity researchers and experts have been so distracted by the teaching that England – and  by extension, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, [Scotland] – is Ephraim, it has not been given second consideration or thought. 

The Hebrew word for midst can be translated as ‘among, within’ and ‘inwards.’ Its meaning includes, ‘inner part, middle, the centre’ whether in a literal, geographic sense or in a figurative sense as in the ‘heart’ and core. The significance of this is revealed, when an atlas of the world is looked upon and instead of a European or Asia centric photo, drawing or rendition as is most common, an Americas centric map is viewed.  

For there, between the continents of Europe to the east and Asia to the west sit the continents of North and South America ‘in the midst of the earth.’ Sitting astride this vast land mass are the descendants of Joseph in the nations of Canada and the United States of America. 

Not only do these nations occupy a geographic centre on the globe, they exert an influence on the world that figuratively is the heart or centre of our global civilisation. As Joseph was separated from his brothers, so to have the descendants of Jospeh been separated from their brother nations [Genesis 49:26].

17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him,and he took his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, “Not this way, my father; since this one is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head.” 

19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know.[Manasseh] also shall become a people [a nation], and he also shall be great [H1431 – gadal]. 

The Hebrew word used for great is different from the Hebrew word used for great in connection with Ishmael.

Genesis 17:20

English Standard Version

As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful [H6509 – parah: bear fruit, grow] and multiply [H7235 – rabah: become great, numerous, increase greatly, enlarge] him greatly [to a great degree]. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great [H1419 – gadowl: older, mighty, important, proud, insolent] nation.

It is noteworthy that Ishmael was to become a great people like Isaac’s descendants. The subtle difference is that Ishmael was to act like a firstborn, of which he was literally entitled, though he had a tendency to lean towards a self-importance that was proud and selfish. The German nation, thanks to their leaders and not always a reflection of themselves have displayed this negative edge to their inherited greatness during their history [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael].

The Hebrew word great used for Manasseh, doe not carry this slight negative edge. It is translated as ‘magnify, grow, nourish up and grow up.’ Interestingly, it has the connotation of becoming ‘great or important, make powerful, do great things, to grow up.’ We touched upon in the previous chapter how two nations of the sons of Jacob could experience an influx of immigration way beyond their current populations. One was New Zealand, which could easily accommodate millions more people. The other nation is Canada; which could receive tens of millions more people. It may well still be growing into its greatness. If Germany as a prophesied ‘great’ nation has a population of some eighty million people, then it is conceivable that Canada may grow to a population well beyond fifty million people and upwards towards one hundred million people.

Nevertheless, his younger brother shall be greater [H1431 – gadal] than he, and his offspring [descendants, seed] shall become a multitude [H4393 – mlo] of nations.” 

The Hebrew word for multitude can be translated as ‘fulness, all that is therein, handful(s).’ It means ‘that which fills, mass, entire contents, full length.’ It is speaking of many more people than that of Manasseh. A population say, more in line with the United States of America. 

20 So he blessed them that day, saying, “By you Israel will pronounce blessings, saying, ‘God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh.’” Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.

There are two vital points or keys that need to be remembered and discussed in depth regarding Manasseh and Ephraim. The first is a little unique and I have not seen it discussed anywhere else in books, papers or on the internet. It is the fact that as Joseph’s inheritance was divided into two between his sons; the tribe of Manasseh also divided into two, as we have discussed in part already. As Manasseh’s name means forgotten, it is an irony that Biblical identity researchers have forgotten this salient point.

In the original allotment of land in Canaan, the half tribe of East Manasseh chose to live on the east side of the river Jordan with Gad and Reuben. The remaining half tribe of West Manasseh chose to dwell with Ephraim. We will look at this in detail and the scriptures supporting Manasseh receiving two inheritances. This part of the puzzle may have helped identity researchers realise more quickly than they are doing, that equating Ephraim with England and Manasseh with the United States, doesn’t just go contrary to their both being together in the midst of the earth; or that Manasseh is suddenly more powerful than Ephraim but that, who and where on earth, are the missing half tribe of West Manasseh? 

The second point is to do with the phrasing ‘a multitude of nations.’ The Israelite identity movement, driven by its biggest following, British Israel have been so taken with the height of the British Empire some one hundred plus years ago – when the movement was at its most active – and its descendant Commonwealth of nations, they have not seen the devolvement of England’s power and stature before their very eyes and the evolving of the United states’s power. They have only ever seen an England of many colonial parts and a United States, though enormous, powerful, prosperous beyond measure and a great nation, still only as one giant singular nation. The former colonies of England are extensions that now give it no power. Comparing England and the United States highlights that something is very wrong with saying England is mighty Ephraim and the United States is the lesser birthright recipient. For the scripture says in verse twenty: ‘Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.’ The United States was founded on the saying on their great seal: E pluribus unum – Latin for “Out of many, one.” 

Before we study the prophecies and blessings given to Joseph’s descendants by Jacob, Moses and Deborah, we will now look at the meaning of a multitude of nations more closely and the predominant view that it refers to the British Empire as well as the radical view – as deemed by the conservative status quo of the Israelite identity community – that maybe the fifty individual and distinct law making and self-governing states of America are in fact the Biblical fulfilment of an astounding prophecy given 3,500 years before they began to dramatically unfold. 

Showdown at Big Sandy, Greg Doudna 1989, 2006 pages 176, 183 & 185 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The argument that the United States is Israel basically consists of the following four points. 

First, some of the… prophecies of physical blessings and greatness to Abraham’s descendants… were not completely fulfilled by Israel anciently

Second, the house of Israel and the house of Judah were separate and never reunited. 

Third, prophecies concerning the house of Israel in the end-time show them to be in captivity, which means they must exist in our time as an identifiable people (and distinct from the Jews). 

And fourth… the greatest nation on earth in our time would not be ignored in Bible prophecy.’

Though I disagree with the second point as discussed in Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin, the other three are real and vital proofs of an Israelite identity for nations today and not that the tribes are scattered amongst the nations forever as non-entities. As we learned in Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech, a gigantic nation like China cannot be dismissed or ignored from any Biblical investigation or identification. Similarly, the greatest nation in humanity’s history cannot be ignored or dismissed from a rigorous Biblical examination or explanation. For if we can not correctly identity these two nations, then one may as well close one’s Bible and never read it again. Yet, that has very nearly happened as the identity of the United States has not been understood until very recently.

‘… Jacob was promised his progeny would become “a nation and a company (qahal) of nations”… Ephraim… would become “a fullness (melo) of nations”… the word qahal, “company”… is used of armies or assemblies and refers to a single political unit. The plural goiim, “nations”… does not mean multiple political states (as in “British Commonwealth of Nations”). Rather goiim means peoples or tribes or ethnic groups… Ephraim would become one political entity… consisting of multiple ethnic groups… better rendered “company of peoples”… [or a union of states]… “United States” means in English, literally, a “company of political states,” and “state” is, of course, used synonymously in English for “nation.” Therefore “United States” is, by a pun, “company of nations” in its very name… the fifty states in the United States are not independent, but then neither were the goiim or “nations” in the earlier fulfilment of “company of nations,” the ancient house of Israel. This I saw as the point missed by Anglo-Israelites.’ 

I strongly concur with Greg Doudna and his insightfulness. The United States is the prophesied company of peoples. Out of many, one. This phrase very much applies to the United States of America and its population genesis and continued evolving demographic. It is not indicative of the nation of England in any shape or form. It was shockingly, nearly fifty years ago that Doudna impressively recognised the truth regarding Ephraim, if not Manasseh. Yet today, very few people attach the identity of the United States with Ephraim. Why? 

The United States in Prophecy: The Case for Identifying the United States with Ephraim (not Manasseh), Greg Doudna, 1974: 

‘If Ephraim really has become many separate and sovereign peoples, then Ephraim = Great Britain, Ephraim = Canada, Ephraim = Australia, Ephraim = New Zealand, and Ephraim = other English settlers in British colonies worldwide… then Australia for example, is as much Ephraim as is Great Britain. Then when Hosea and other prophets speak of “Ephraim” doing this or doing that, just who is meant – will Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand simultaneously “call to Egypt” and “go to Assyria” (Hosea 7:11), to cite but one of many similar scriptures? 

Those who support the traditional view must deal with the inconsistency of holding that Ephraim is the Britsh Commonwealth and then applying prophecies concerning Ephraim toward only one of that “company of nations” instead of all of them… The other settlements of Britain are Manassite… The fact Britain has colonies in no way proves she is a company of nations. Britain is a single nation in the same way that other Israelite nations with colonies are still single nations. 

Which land is a land of “coasts”… the United States… has one of the longest usable coastlines of any nation in the world… The… Hebrew word yam is translated “sea” and “west.” The “isles of the sea” or “coasts of the sea”… can easily be translated “coasts of the west.”’

Though the author rightly highlights the inconsistency, untenableness and nonsensicalness of equating four different nations all as Ephraim, he then forgets – pun intended – that Manasseh splitting into four or more nations is not scripturally supported either. This highlights the wider error as we have discussed in the previous three chapters of mis-identifying nations not descended from Jacob as Israelite and then apportioning the remaining English speaking nations as all descended from Joseph. Rather than the correct understanding that all the English speaking nations are the individual Israelite tribes today.

Genesis 49:22-26

Evangelical Heritage Version

22 Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a spring. His branches run over the wall. 

The image of a vine’s branches spreading like tentacles is like the small trickle of English colonists that eventually became a torrent of people arriving in conquest of the American continent, with the inexorable march westwards after the first English settlement of the Virginia Colony Jamestown, in 1607 and the Pilgrims of the Plymouth Colony in 1620. It also refers to the blessings of America, extending outwards and overflowing to other nations such as the rebuilding of Germany and Japan after World War II.

23 The archers have fiercely attacked him. They shot at him and harassed him, 24 but his bow remained steady. His arms and hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, by the name of the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel…

The fledgling and vulnerable colonies were able to navigate the conflicts on American soil and win those crucial in their survival, including the American Revolution from 1775 to 1783, the Indian Wars of 1775 to 1890, the French War from 1798 to 1800, the Great Britain War of 1812 to 1815, the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848, the Spanish-American War in 1898 and the most potentially devastating conflict of all, the American Civil War during 1861 to 1865. 

This war had more at stake than historians realise, for there was more than the question of the survival of the Federal United States and its splitting into two, with a Confederate South. For the people of the South are the half tribe of West Manasseh and the North, Ephraim. It was a fight for sibling supremacy and the fulfilment of prophecy. This marked divide is understood when one appreciates the United States is in fact one and a half tribes. This is why the Bible calls these peoples either Ephraim – after the dominant tribe – or Joseph, as the United States comprise two peoples from two tribes. Canada is technically half a tribe and called Manasseh, Gilead or Machir in the Bible, while its French component was explained in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon. 

Therefore, the half tribe of East Manasseh is the nation of Canada and the tribe of Ephraim with the half tribe of West Manasseh, is the nation of the United States of America.

25 by the God of your father, who will help you, by the Almighty, who will bless you with blessings from heaven [H8064 – shamayim: the abode of God] above [H5920 – al: on high, the most High, God], blessings from the deep that lies below, blessings from the breasts and from the womb. 

Jacob is predicting the physical blessing of many progeny and also spiritual prosperity. This is a verse that is overlooked or ignored when studying the American psyche. Explanations are sought for America’s religiosity – especially the American South – yet the simple answer is that Americans are a more believing peoples by nature and through the Creator’s design.

United States one of the most religious countries, Diane Swanbrow – emphasis & bold mine: 

The United States remains among the most religious nations in the world, according to a worldwide study by the University [of Michigan]. 

About 46 percent of American adults attend church at least once a week, not counting weddings, funerals and christenings, compared with 14 percent of adults in Great Britain, 8 percent in France, 7 percent in Sweden and 4 percent in Japan. Moreover, 58 percent of Americans say they often think about the meaning and purpose of life, compared with 25 percent of British, 26 percent of Japanese and 31 percent of… Germans, the study says.’

Sixty percent of Americans say that religion is ‘very important’ to them; whereas only  twenty-one percent of Western Europeans think the same and more than eighty percent of ‘American adults call themselves Christians’ with more than a third of adult Americans claiming to be ‘born-again.’

“While traditional religious belief and participation in organized religion have steadily declined in most advanced industrial nations, especially in Western Europe, this is not the case in the United States,” says Ronald Inglehart, a researcher at the Institute for Social Research (ISR) and director of the ISR World Values Surveys, which were conducted in more than 80 nations between 1981 and 2001.

Some possible reasons cited for the results: Religious refugees set the tone long ago in America; religious people tend to have more children than non-religious groups; and the United States has a less comprehensive social welfare system, prompting people to look to religion for help.

Inglehart and [Pippa] Norris, a political scientist at Harvard University, also examined the reasons the United States remains an “outlier” in religiosity among postindustrial nations. “The U.S. was founded by religious refugees who attached so much importance to religion that they were willing to risk their lives in a dangerous new environment in order to practice their religion, and to some extent this outlook has been successfully transmitted to succeeding waves of immigrants.”

Their conclusion is that the more ‘self-perceived vulnerability, the greater the importance of religion.’ Though ‘America seems an anomaly: a rich society in which people worship, pray, and believe, as if they lived in a poverty-stricken nation.’ 

‘The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation’s average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.’ 

The more religious mindset of the United States should come as no surprise, for it was founded with a tolerance for freedom to worship unlike any other nation. The aim was to also eliminate any dominant denomination of Christianity from becoming an official or national religion.  

The U.S. was founded as a Christian nation – here’s more proof, Bryan Fischer, 2014 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘At the time of the founding, 99.8% of the population of the fledgling country identified themselves, to one degree of sincerity or another, as followers of Jesus Christ. And 98.4% identified themselves as Protestants. Catholics represented 1.4% of the population, and the other 0.2% were followers of Judaism. Virtually 100% of those living in America at the time of its founding were adherents of the Judeo-Christian tradition. 

This truth is reflected in our First Amendment, which… was designed specifically to protect the free exercise of the Christian faith in the new nation, and to prevent competition among the various Christian denominations. It did this by prohibiting Congress from picking one Christian denomination and making it the official church of the United States. [Individual]States, on the other hand, were free to establish Christian denominations in their individual states, and somewhere between six and ten of the original 13 states did so. 

As [Joseph] Story writes, “The real object of the First Amendment was not to countenance much less to advance Mohammedanism, or Judaism, or infidelity by prostrating Christianity, but to exclude all rivalry among Christian sects and to prevent any national ecclesiastical patronage of the national government.” 

… Maryland’s first state constitution, enacted in 1776, specifically granted religious freedom to every denomination of Protestants and Catholics, i.e., to followers of the Christian faith. Article 33 of that first Constitution read this way: 

“That, as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to him; all persons, professing the Christian religion, are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty… wherefore no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate on account of his religious persuasion or profession, or for his religious practice… yet the Legislature may, in their discretion, lay a general and equal tax for the support of the Christian religion.” 

Article 55 laid down the following requirement for anyone who wanted to serve in public office in the newly established state: 

“That every person, appointed to any office… shall… take the following oath: I… do swear, that I do not hold myself bound in allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and that I will be faithful, and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland; and shall also subscribe a declaration of his belief in the Christian religion.” 

In other words, no one but Christians were allowed to hold public office. Now Maryland’s constitution has undergone subsequent revisions, but still to this day it requires “a declaration of belief in the existence of GOD” as a qualification for holding elected office.’ 

26 The blessings of your father are greater than the blessings of my parents, greater than the treasures of the ancient hills. They will rest on the head of Joseph, on the forehead of him who is elevated above [set apart from] his brothers.

Jacob is telling Joseph that the blessing he has passed to Joseph is considerably greater than that which was given to him by his father Isaac and that the proof is in the difference between his inheritance and that of his brothers. 

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Far from being an isolated depository of utterly alien dictums, Israel was the melting pot and refinery of the greatest traditions the world had come up with (Psalm 12:6). Israel was never intended to be anything other than a phenomenon from which every family mentioned in Genesis 10 would actively derive blessings, right away and from the “family-level” up (Genesis 12:3). Long before it was formally established, Israel was an international project; a USA of its days, with myriads of cultural and economic tributaries…’

Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States: 

“We find ourselves in the peaceful possession of the fairest portion of the Earth, as regards fertility of soil, extent of territory, and salubrity of climate… We … find ourselves the legal inheritors of these fundamental blessings. We toiled not in the acquirement or the establishment of them.”  

The United States’ economy is the largest in the world as measured by nominal Gross Domestic Product – and has been since 1890. Its 2019 GDP was $21.43 trillion, being some 24% share of the global economy. The biggest contributor to its GDP is the economy’s service sector which includes finance, real estate, insurance, professional and business services and healthcare. The United States has an open economy, ‘facilitating flexible business investment and foreign direct investment in the country. It is the world’s dominant geopolitical power and is able to maintain a large external national debt as the producer of the world’s primary reserve currency.’ Although America’s population is only 4.2% of the world’s total, the United States holds 29.4% of the total wealth of the world, the largest share held by any country. The United States ranks first in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020. 

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in American global shipments during 2021.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$239.8 billion 
  2. Machinery including computers: $209.3 billion
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $185.4 billion 
  4. Vehicles: $122.2 billion 
  5. Optical, technical, medical apparatus: $91.7 billion 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $89.1 billion 
  7. Gems, precious metals: $82.3 billion 
  8. Pharmaceuticals: $78 billion 
  9. Plastics, plastic articles: $74.3 billion 
  10. Organic chemicals: $42.9 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 58.6% since 2020. In second place for improving export sales were pharmaceuticals via a 45% gain. America’s shipments of gems and precious metals posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 37.5% year over year, propelled by higher international sales of silver, gold and platinum.’

Canada had $1.74 trillion in GDP in 2019, rounding out the top ten economies in the world at number ten. ‘Canada has a well developed energy extraction sector, with the world’s third largest proven oil reserves. Canada also has impressive manufacturing and services sectors, based mostly in urban areas near the U.S. border.’ Canada’s free trade relationship with the United States means that three-quarters of all its exports head to the United States market each year. Canada’s close economic ties to the United States  means it has grown largely in parallel to the world’s most powerful economy.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Canadian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$119.9 billion 
  2. Vehicles: $45.8 billion 
  3. Machinery including computers: $33 billion 
  4. Gems, precious metals: $24.3 billion 
  5. Wood: $22.6 billion
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $16.9 billion 
  7. Ores, slag, ash: $13.3 billion 
  8. Electrical machinery, equipment: $12.6 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $12.2 billion 
  10. Aircraft, spacecraft: $10.5 billion 

Mineral fuels including oil was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 74.1% since 2019. In second place for improving export sales was wood which was up by 68.1%. Canada’s shipments of aluminum posted the third-fastest gain in value thanks to a 46.1% increase year over year.’ 

Canadian Flag 1868 – 1921

The blessings afforded to the sons of Jacob, not just Joseph, are evident by the statistics of the world’s wealthiest nations. For instance – based on 2018 figures and – according to market research company New World Wealth, the world had accumulated $215 trillion in private wealth in 2018, a 12% increase over the previous year. ‘Incredibly, the vast majority of this wealth – about 73.5% – is held by just 10 countries.’ Of those ten nations, four of them are descendants of Jacob and three more of the remaining six are descended from Abraham in Germany and his two brothers Haran in France and Nahor with Italy. 

Canadian Flag 1922 – 1957

The United States was the number one wealthiest country in the world with $62.584 trillion, the United Kingdom was at fourth with $9.919 trillion, Canada at number eight with $6.393 trillion and Australia at nine with $6.142 trillion. Adding New Zealand’s net wealth of $1.5 trillion, the Celtic-Saxon-Viking nations possessed a combined wealth of $86.538 trillion, which equated to 40.25% share of the entire world’s wealth for only six percent of the world population. An economic influence and prosperity well beyond their relative population size. 

Moses confirmed the spectacular prosperity as foretold by Jacob in his prophecy for Joseph. 

Deuteronomy 33:13-17

Evangelical Heritage Version

13 Concerning Joseph he said: His land is blessed by the Lord: blessed with the best gifts from the heavens, blessed with dew and with the deep waters hidden below, 14 blessed with the best gifts produced by the sun, blessed with the best gifts yielded by the seasons, 15 blessed with the best crops from the ancient mountains, blessed with the best gifts from the everlasting hills, 16 blessed with the best gifts of the earth and its fullness, blessed with the favor of the one who was dwelling in the burning bush. May all these come on the head of Joseph, on the forehead of the one set apart from his brothers.  

Both Canada and the United States are breadbasket nations providing massive food surpluses. Canada, is the fourth most important food provider in the world. The Canadian Prairies, comprised of the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan are vital to the world for their grain production. The region’s mainstay is agriculture and industries process the agricultural produce. Main crops cultivated include durum wheat, canola, barley, oats, lentils, brassica and assorted horticultural products, with also the farming of sheep, cattle and poultry. 

The United States is the second most important food provider in the world. The state of California is a massive contributor to the total agricultural produce of the United States  and accounts for 12.8% of the country’s agricultural yield. Most of this produce comes from the San Joaquin Valley. For instance, the county is the single biggest producer of almonds worldwide, with production constituting 70% of the total global almond yield and supply.

In the top ten nations with the most Natural Resources, the United States ranks seventh. Mining is an integral industry in the United States. In 2015, total metal and coal reserves in the country were estimated to be worth $109.6 billion. The United States has been the leading producer of coal for decades and it accounts for just over 30% of global coal reserves. Total natural resources for the United States are an astounding estimated $45 trillion, almost 90% of which comprises timber and coal. Other major resources include substantial reserves of copper, gold, oil and natural gas deposits. 

Canada is third in the world. The vast territory of Canada has an estimated $33.2 trillion worth of commodities, is a major exporter of energy, with the third largest oil deposits – 13% global share – after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. Deposits include industrial minerals, such as gypsum, limestone, rock salt, and potash, as well as energy minerals, such as coal and uranium. Metals include copper, lead, nickel, zinc, cobalt, cadmium and precious metals like gold, platinum and silver. Canada is the leading supplier of natural gas and phosphate in the world and is the third largest exporter of timber.  

Canada and the United States rank in the top ten technologically advanced or driven economies in the world. Canada at number eight has a highly efficient technology sector and continues to strongly encourage science and research. The country is responsible for creating resourceful interactive machines and chip less credit and debit cards. 

The United States is second in the world, being a significant contributor in terms of technology and development. Aviation, nuclear energy, pharmaceuticals, defence systems and telecommunications have all been inventions by the world’s only hyper power. It has produced the world’s biggest technology companies like Google, Facebook, Apple, Intel, IBM, Microsoft and Amazon; completely transforming modern society and the way we live. The United States ranked third in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, after Switzerland and Sweden. 

The United States tops the top ten countries with the largest gold reserves holdings, with 8,133.5 tonnes – nearly as much as the second to fifth placed nations of Germany, Italy, France and Russia combined  – amounting to 77.5% of foreign reserves, the third highest allocation. The majority of United States gold is held at Fort Knox in Kentucky, with the remainder held at the Philadelphia Mint, the Denver Mint, the San Francisco Assay Office and the West Point Bullion Depository. ‘Which state loves gold the most? Well, the state of Texas went so far as to create its very own Texas Bullion Depositoryto safeguard investors’ gold.’

17Like a firstborn bull, he has majesty, and his horns are the horns of a wild ox [H7214 – r’em: great auroch, unicorn]. With them he will gore the peoples, all the peoples, to the ends of the earth. Such are the ten thousands of Ephraim. Such are the thousands of Manasseh.

No one does razzamatazz or pomp and ceremony like America does. It exudes a pride and power like no other nation on earth. This is why Moses likens Joseph to the extinct giant auroch bull or the otherwise mythical, or possibly only extinct, unicorn. The United States of America’s growth from a new born nation only two hundred and forty-six years ago to fully fledged nation only just approaching middle age has been spectacular and a phenomena never before seen; standing as a clear witness to the truth of the words anciently promised to Abraham and his seed through Joseph. 

Mark Lane says: ‘The reference [by] Moses to the wild ox has caused some observers to associate the star sign Taurus with the [west] side of the Israelite camp [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. The constellation Taurus prominently features two giant horns as if thrusting upward in attack. The constellation is almost completely above the ecliptic, indicating it is a righteous person or nation. The sign does not reveal the rest of the bull’s body. Could this mean the nation never ‘sees their tail’? In other words, its days are shortened? Or, its days as a righteous nation are shortened? Or both?’ 

America uses the symbol of the Bull – Wall Street has a symbol of a large Bull.  

The United States possesses the most powerful and technologically advanced military capability, that is typically, approximately ten or more years ahead of any other country’s development. Annually, America spends more on its military than the next seven highest ranking countries in military spending combined. Making up more than a third of global military spending, it is the foremost military power in the world and internationally the leading political, cultural and scientific force. 

This power has allowed America to use its horns so-to-speak in getting its way diplomatically and politically, since the First World War.  

United States economic power is demonstrated by the fact that its GDP is more than the other developed G7 nations of Japan, Italy, France, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom, combined. 

Moses speaks of the physical number dominance of Ephraim over Manasseh. Those who subscribe to England being Ephraim and America being Manasseh have yet to successfully and rationally explain this verse. 

The population of the United states is 334,862,755 people and Canada has 38,398,1521 people. If we include the American South – the half tribe of West Manasseh – with the people in Canada of British and Irish heritage, the half tribe of East Manasseh, they are still outnumbered by the peoples of Ephraim descended from British and Irish stock through the numerical superiority of the eastern, northern and western States of America. 

According to World Population Live: ‘Unlike China and India, the United States population is expected to continue to grow throughout the century with no foreseeable decline. By 2067, the U.S. population is expected to surpass 400 million people.’ It is worth under scoring the point earlier regarding Canada’s potential population explosion. WPL – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The population is growing at a steady pace and, based on current projections will surpass 50 million by 2070. Canada has one of the fastest growth rates of any G7 nation, growing faster than many other industrialized countries. 

Canada’s growth rate has been anywhere between 0.8% and 1.2% for the past ten years. While Canada’s fertility rate is 1.53 births per woman, below the population replacement rate, the population continues to grow as migration plays an increasing role in the population. Canada’s net migration rate is 6.375 per 1,000 people, the eighth-highest in the world. Unlike many other countries, Canada is “underpopulated” and celebrates a growing population. There are many job vacancies to be filled and more people means more economic growth and prosperity for Canada.’

Judges 5:7, 13-14

English Standard Version

7 The villagers ceased in Israel; they ceased to be until I arose; I, Deborah, arose as a mother in Israel…13 Then down marched the remnant of the noble; the people of the Lord marched down for me against the mighty. 14 From Ephraim their root [H3828 – sheresh:  bottom, deep, heel] they marched down into the valleyfrom Machir marched [descended] down the commanders [H2710 – chaqaq – governor, law giver]…

As discussed in previous chapters, certain tribes joined the Judge Deborah in the fight against the Canaanites more readily than others depending on how directly it impinged on their territories. Deborah’s headquarters were located in Ephraim, so it would have been unlikely for them not to have given support. Manasseh had one son Machir, a name which can also be used in describing the descendants of Manasseh from Gilead, the half tribe of East Manasseh. 

Grand Union flag of 1775 with the Union Jack – union of Jacob’s sons – of Judah in the canton. 

The verse containing Ephraim includes Amalek. As we have discussed Amalek in depth [refer Chapter XXIX Esau], but not specifically this verse, it is worth comparing it in different translations as the English Standard version decided to completely miss the word Amalek out from its translation. 

Judges 5:14

American Standard Version

Out of Ephraim came down they whose root is in Amalek…

New International Reader’s Version

Some came from the part of Ephraim where some Amalekites lived…

Young’s Literal Translation

Out of Ephraim their root [is] against Amalek…

New English Translation

They came from Ephraim, who uprooted Amalek…

New Century Version

They came from Ephraim in the mountains of Amalek.

The tribe of Ephraim included territory lived in by a residue of Amalek. A people who existed before Esau’s grandson with the same name and are related to the Horites. In fact, the Amalekites are traceable to the antediluvian ruler Lamech. Not Lamech, the father of Noah, but evil Lamech, descended from Cain. The Amalekites were Nephilim related and a line of Elioud giants. Esau’s posterity intermarried with Amalek and descendants exist to this day.  

The Betsy Ross flag of 1776 with a circle of stars on a blue background in the canton, very similar to the current European Union flag. 

Certain scattered Jews have this ancestry and the Bible is indicating that they have a presence in Ephraim. There are a significant number of Jews in the United States, with approximately six to seven million people, particularly in the northeast, where the old family wealth and political leverage is located that wields the real power and control  in America.

Numbers 26:28, 35-37, 29-34

English Standard Version

28 The sons of Joseph according to their clans: Manasseh and Ephraim. 

35 These are the sons of Ephraim according to their clans: of Shuthelah [noise of breaking], the clan of the Shuthelahites; of Becher [young camel], the clan of the Becherites; of Tahan [camp], the clan of the Tahanites. 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran [watcher], the clan of the Eranites. 

37 These are the clans of the sons of Ephraim as they were listed, 32,500.

29 The sons of Manasseh: of Machir [H4353 – Makiyr: sold], the clan of the Machirites; and Machir was the father of Gilead [H1568 – Gil’ad: rocky region]; of Gilead, the clan of the Gileadites. 

1 Chronicles 7:14-17

English Standard Version

14… Manasseh… his Aramean concubine bore… Machir the father of Gilead… 16 And Maacah the wife of Machir bore a son, and she called his name Peresh; and the name of his brother was Sheresh; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem. 17 The son of Ulam: Bedan.

30 These are the sons of Gilead: of Iezer [no help], the clan of the Iezerites; of Helek [portion], the clan of the Helekites; 31 and of Asriel [I shall be prince of God], the clan of the Asrielites; and of Shechem [back, sholuder], the clan of the Shechemites; 32 and of Shemida [wise], the clan of the Shemidaites; and of Hepher [a well], the clan of the Hepherites. 33 Now Zelophehad [H6765 – Tslophchad: first born]the son of Hepher had no sons, but daughters. And the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah

34 These are the clans of Manasseh, and those listed were 52,700.

1 Chronicles 5:23-26

English Standard Version

23 The members of the half-tribe of Manasseh lived in the land. They were very numerous from Bashan to Baal-hermon, Senir, and Mount Hermon. 

24 These were the heads of their fathers’ houses: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty warriors, famous men, heads of their fathers’ houses. 25 But they broke faith with the God of their fathers, and whored after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them. 26 So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day. 

Part of the puzzle in understanding why Manasseh split into two is the fact that the tribe of Judah and Manasseh intermarried early in Israel’s history. Something that is easily missed or glossed over. It explains why the half tribe of East Manasseh today as Canada, is such a resolutely patriotic, supporter and defender of the English throne and Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. For many Canadians will have more English – the tribe of Judah and Pharez – heritage and blood than they realise. 

This injection of Judah’s line has created a marked distinction between American Southerners and Canadians. Many future Canadians fled the United States and crossed the northern border on grounds of differences in political ideology. 

They espoused loyalism to the Crown rather than the rebellion of a Republic. In fact, after the American Civil War, many Confederate generals fled to Canada as did their President, Jefferson Davis of Welsh and Scottish forebears. Canadians have a different sense of humour, more in keeping with the English than that of Americans.

The flags of the Canadian provinces and territories. Notice the preponderance of British [Judah & Benjamin] symbols, the four Union Jacks, the three English St George’s Cross flags, the two English Passant Lions, the Scottish Rampant Lion and the Scottish Saltire.

1 Chronicles 2:4-5, 21-23

4 [Judah’s] daughter-in-law Tamar also bore him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.

5 The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.

21 Afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was sixty years old, andshe bore him Segub.22 And Segub fathered Jair, who had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead. 23 But Geshur and Aram took from them Havvoth-jair, Kenath, and its villages, sixty towns. All these were descendants of Machir, the father of Gilead.

1 Chronicles 12:16-22

English Standard Version

16 And some of the men of Benjamin and Judah came to the stronghold to David [descendant of Hezron]. 17 David went out to meet them and said to them, “If you have come to me in friendship to help me, my heart will be joined to you… 

18… Amasai, chief of the thirty… said, “We are yours, O David, and with you, O son of Jesse! Peace, peace to you, and peace to your helpers! For your God helps you.” Then David received them and made them officers of his troops.

19 Some of the men of Manasseh deserted to David when he came with the Philistines for the battle against Saul. (Yet he did not help them, for the rulers of the Philistines took counsel and sent him away, saying, “At peril to our heads he will desert to his master Saul.”) 

20 As he went to Ziklag, these men of Manasseh deserted to him: Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, chiefs of thousands in Manasseh. 21 They helped David against the band of raiders, for they were all mighty men of valor and were commanders in the army. 22 For from day to day men came to David to help him, until there was a great army, like an army of God.

Joshua 13:29-31

English Standard Version

29 And Moses gave an inheritance to the half-tribe of Manasseh. It was allotted to the half-tribe of the people of Manasseh according to their clans. 30 Their region extended from Mahanaim, through all Bashan, the whole kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, sixty cities, 31 and half Gilead, and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. These were allotted to the people of Machir the son of Manasseh for the half of the people of Machir according to their clans.

Joshua 17:1-18

English Standard Version

Then allotment was made to the people of Manasseh, for he was the firstborn of Joseph. To Machir the firstborn of Manasseh, the father of Gilead, were allotted Gilead and Bashan, because he was a man of war. 2 And allotments were made to the rest of the people of Manasseh by their clans, Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, and Shemida. These were the male descendants of Manasseh the son of Joseph, by their clans.

3 Now Zelophehad the son of Hepher, son of Gilead, son of Machir, son of Manasseh, had no sons, but only daughters, and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 4 They approached Eleazar the [high] priest and Joshua the son of Nun and the leaders and said, “The Lord commanded Moses to give us an inheritance along with our brothers.” So according to the mouth of the Lord he gave them an inheritance among the brothers of their father. 

Thus there fell to Manasseh ten portions [half tribe of West Manasseh], besides the land of Gilead and Bashan, which is on the other side of the Jordan, because the daughters of Manasseh received an inheritance along with his sons [next to the land of Ephraim]. The land of Gilead was allotted to the rest of the people of Manasseh [the half tribe of East Manasseh].

The five daughters of Zelophehad had raised the matter previously with Moses and so it was reconfirmed in front of Joshua. The only stipulation was that the daughters had to marry within the tribe of Manasseh so that the inheritance would remain in Manasseh and not be lost to another tribe.

Numbers 27:1-7

English Standard Version

Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad… 2 And they stood before Moses… saying, 3 “Our father died in the wilderness. He was not among the company of those who gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korah… And he had no sons. 4 Why should the name of our father be taken away from his clan because he had no son? Give to us a possession among our father’s brothers.” 5 Moses brought their case before the Lord. 6 And the Lord said to Moses, “The daughters of Zelophehad are right. You shall give them possession of an inheritance among their father’s brothers and transfer the inheritance of their father to them.

Numbers 36:10-12

English Standard Version

10 The daughters of Zelophehad did as the Lord commanded Moses, 11 for Mahlah, Tirzah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Noah, the daughters of Zelophehad, were married to sons of their father’s brothers [cousins]. 12 They were married into the clans of the people of Manasseh the son of Joseph, and their inheritance remained in the tribe of their father’s clan.

The five daughters of Zelophehad received ten portions of land that comprised the half tribe of West Manasseh in the land of Ephraim. This was in addition to the land of Gilead and Bashan which the half tribe of East Manasseh received. As East Manasseh today is Canada, so West Manasseh is the American South. It is an interesting similarity that the core eleven states of the South, roughly equate to the ten portions given to West Manasseh. Though if the Carolinas were added together as one; it would be an exact ten. Two states that joined the confederacy, though did not secede from the Union and would make thirteen, were Missouri and lastly Kentucky. The first seven to become states during February and March in 1861 and joined the Confederation permanently are listed first as they were ratified between March and April 1861. The  following four states are listed in the order they were admitted between May and December of 1861.

Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, South Carolina and Florida then Virginia, Arkansas, [North Carolina] and Tennessee.

7 The territory of Manasseh reached from Asher to Michmethath, which is east of Shechem. Then the boundary goes along southward to the inhabitants of En-tappuah. 8 The land of Tappuah belonged to Manasseh, but the town of Tappuah on the boundary of Manasseh belonged to the people of Ephraim. 

9 Then the boundary went down to the brook Kanah. These cities, to the south of the  brook, among the cities of Manasseh, belong to Ephraim. 

Then the boundary of Manasseh goes on the north side of the brook and ends at the sea, 10 the land to the south being Ephraim’s and that to the north being Manasseh’s [in geographic reversal to today], with the sea forming its boundary…12 Yet the people of Manasseh could not take possession of those cities, but the Canaanites persisted in dwelling in that land. 13 Now when the people of Israel grew strong, they put the Canaanites to forced labor, but did not utterly drive them out.

14Then the people of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying, “Why have you given me but one lot and one portion as an inheritance, although I am a numerous people, since all along the Lord has blessed me?” 15 And Joshua said to them, “If you are a numerous people, go up by yourselves to the forest, and there clear ground for yourselves in the land of the Perizzites and the Rephaim, since the hill country of Ephraim is too narrow for you.” 

16 The people of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us. Yet all the Canaanites who dwell in the plain have chariots of iron, both those in Beth-shean and its villages and those in the Valley of Jezreel.” 17 Then Joshua said to the house of Joseph, to Ephraim and Manasseh,“You are a numerous people and have great power. You shall not have one allotment only, 18 but the hill country shall be yours, for though it is a forest, you shall clear it and possess it to its farthest borders. For you shall drive out the Canaanites, though they have chariots of iron, and though they are strong.”

Joshua 16.8-9

English Standard Version

8… Such is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Ephraim by their clans, 9 together with the towns that were set apart for the people of Ephraim within the inheritance of the Manassites, all those towns with their villages.  

The people were grumbling, yet the tribe of Ephraim, as ‘the possessor of the primogeniture of Joseph’ had been given a superb region of Canaan, in the very centre of the land which reached from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean and bordered Benjamin and Dan in the south and Manasseh in the north. It was a rich and beautiful hill country, well watered and richly wooded, abounding in corn fields and orchards, and secure from attacks by foreigners. This allotment, which included the greater part of the region afterwards called Samaria, contained numerous important towns and cities, of which Shiloh – where the ark and the tabernacle were homed for several hundred years – was the religious centre of the nation during the period of the Judges and the early monarchy. 

There was the city of Shechem between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerezim, once occupied by the ancient Hittites and later venerated as the burial place of Jacob; and the city of Samaria, which throughout the history of the separate Kingdom of Israel was the capital of the northern kingdom. Shiloh and Samaria are both cited often in the scriptures and today would represent first, the heart and soul of the nation, New York and second its capital, Washington DC.

Isaiah 7:5-17

English Standard Version

5 Because Syria, with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, has devised evil against you, saying, 6 “Let us go up against Judah and terrify it, and let us conquer it for ourselves, and set up the son of Tabeel as king in the midst of it,” 7 thus says the Lord God: “‘It shall not stand, and it shall not come to pass.

8 For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin. And within sixty-five years Ephraim will be shattered from being a people.9 And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is the son of Remaliah. If you are not firm in faith, you will not be firm at all.’” 17 The Lord will bring upon you and upon your people and upon your father’s house such days as have not come since the day that Ephraim departed from Judah – the king of Assyria!

A plot by Ephraim to conquer Judah was not permitted to unfurl. Instead, Ephraim was to be conquered by Assyria. As this prophecy is dual, the King of the North will one day defeat modern day Ephraim – as unlikely as that may seem today, it will not seem so in the future, when Russia’s economy and military strength overtakes the United States.

Jeremiah 50:19

English Standard Version

I will restore Israel to his pasture, and he shall feed on Carmel [Ephraim] and in Bashan [Gilead], and his desire shall be satisfied on the hills of Ephraim [and half tribe of West Manasseh] and in Gilead [half tribe of East Manasseh].

The territory of Joseph was in the west and comprised Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh to its north, equating to the United States today in reverse and Gilead or Bashan was in the east and comprised the half tribe of East Manasseh, equating to Canada today.

Psalm 60:6-8; [108:7-9]

English Standard Version

6 God has spoken in his holiness: “With exultation I will divide up Shechem and portion out the Vale of Succoth. 7 Gilead is mine; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim is my helmet; Judah is my scepter. 8 Moab is my washbasin; upon Edom I cast my shoe; over Philistia I shout in triumph.”

The flags of the American States. Notice the preponderance of the colour red in the Southern States as well as stars and saltires. The crossing over of Jacob’s hands as symbolised on Scotland’s [tribe of Benjamin, Joseph’s brother] flag. The American Declaration of Independence also echoes the Scottish Independence Declaration of Arbroath. The states in the south with obvious saltires include Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and states with an alluding of saltires includes Arkansas, with Texas, Tennessee, Georgia and North Carolina exhibiting stars and the predominant colour red.

Gilead is Manasseh, and Manasseh is also an identity linked with Ephraim. Though Gilead is not Ephraim. The Handmaid’s Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood and was published in 1985. It is set in a near future New England, with a strong patriarchal and totalitarian ‘theonomic state’ known as the Republic of Gilead, which has overthrown the legitimate United States government. There are a number of interesting correlations. First, Atwood is Canadian and technically, Canada is modern day Gilead, though she has chosen to call the United States Gilead in her story. Atwood also uses the term Commanders for the key administrators of the Republic of Gilead. Again, this is a term in the Bible used for military leaders of Machir or Gilead.

Judges 5:14

English Standard Version

14… from Machir marched down the commanders…

Flag of Hawaii – the eight stripes represent its islands and like the Cambridge or Grand Union flag, contains a Union Jack in it canton

The main plot line is that women are having difficulty in conceiving children. Handmaids are used by the ruling families in producing children for the barren wives of commanders. The apostasy in Gilead is stated in the Book of Hosea, though most of Hosea is a warning to Ephraim. Pregnancy is discussed in the Book of Amos and eerily connects Gilead and Canada with the Ammonites of French Quebec [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. 

Hosea 12:11

English Standard Version

If there is iniquity in Gilead, they shall surely come to nothing: in Gilgal they sacrifice bulls; their altars also are like stone heaps on the furrows of the field.

Amos 1:13-14

English Standard Version

13 Thus says the Lord: “For three transgressions of the Ammonites, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they have ripped open pregnant women in Gilead, that they might enlarge their border. 14 So I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah [Quebec, Quebec], and it shall devour her strongholds, with shouting on the day of battle, with a tempest in the day of the whirlwind…

A chilling future prophecy indictment on Ephraim, reminiscent of Atwood’s Republic of Gilead is stated in Hosea. 

Hosea 9:1-17

English Standard Version

3 They shall not remain in the land of the Lord, but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and they shall eat unclean food in Assyria. 8 The prophet is the watchman of Ephraim with my God; yet a fowler’s snare is on all his ways, and hatred in the house of his God… 11 Ephraim’s glory shall fly away like a bird – no birth, no pregnancy, no conception! 12 Even if they bring up children, I will bereave them till none is left. Woe to them when I depart from them! 13 Ephraim, as I have seen, was like a young palm planted in a meadow; but Ephraim must lead his children out to slaughter. 14 Give them, O Lord – what will you give? Give them a miscarrying womb and dry breasts. 16 Ephraim is stricken; their root is dried up; they shall bear no fruit. Even though they give birth, I will put their beloved children to death.

Hosea 5:3, 5, 9-14

English Standard Version

3 I know Ephraim, and Israel is not hidden from me; for now, O Ephraim, you have played the whore; Israel is defiled… 5… Israel and Ephraim shall stumble in his guilt; Judah also shall stumble with them.Ephraim shall become a desolation in the day of punishment; among the tribes of Israel I make known what is sure. 10 The princes of Judah have become like those who move the landmark; upon them I will pour out my wrath like water. 11 Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in judgment, because he was determined to go after filth. 12 But I am like a moth to Ephraim, and like dry rot to the house of Judah. 13 When Ephraim saw his sickness, and Judah his wound, then Ephraim went to Assyria, and sent to the great king. But he is not able to cure you or heal your wound. 14 For I will be like a lion to Ephraim, and like a young lion to the house of Judah. I, even I, will tear and go away; I will carry off, and no one shall rescue.

Hosea 6:4, 8 -10

English Standard Version

4 What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah? Your love is like a morning cloud, like the dew that goes early away… 8 Gilead is a city of evildoers, tracked with blood. 9 As robbers lie in wait for a man, so the priests band together; they murder on the way to Shechem; they commit villainy. 10 In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing; Ephraim’s whoredom is there; Israel is defiled.

Hosea 7:1, 8-9, 11–13

English Standard Version

1… the iniquity of Ephraim is revealed, and the evil deeds of Samaria, for they deal falsely… 8 Ephraim mixes himself with the peoples; Ephraim is a cake not turned. Strangers devour his strength, and he knows it not; gray hairs are sprinkled upon him, and he knows it not… 

11 Ephraim is like a dove, silly and without sense, calling to Egypt [the Arab world], going to Assyria [Russia]. 12 As they go, I will spread over them my net; I will bring them down like birds of the heavens; I will discipline them according to the report made to their congregation. 13 Woe to them, for they have strayed from me! Destruction to them, for they have rebelled against me! I would redeem them, but they speak lies against me.

Hosea 8:5-6, 8-9, 11, 14

English Standard Version

5 I have spurned your calf, O Samaria… 6… The calf of Samaria shall be broken to pieces. 8 Israel is swallowed up; already they are among the nations as a useless vessel. 9 For they have gone up to Assyria, a wild donkey wandering alone; Ephraim has hired lovers… 11  Because Ephraim has multiplied altars for sinning, they have become to him altars for sinning… 14 For Israel has forgotten his Maker and built palaces, and Judah has multiplied fortified cities; so I will send a fire upon his cities, and it shall devour her strongholds.

Judah’s Sceptre, & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The first thing recorded of Jeroboam, as [first] king of Israel, is that he built the city of Shechem, in Mount Ephraim, and dwelt there. This city was the first capital of that kingdom. From there the king of Israel went out and built the city of Penuel, and seemed to prosper for a short season. But Jeroboam fell to thinking that, if his subjects were allowed to continue going to Jerusalem to sacrifice unto the Lord, their hearts would turn again to Rehoboam, whose capital city it was, and they would then kill him, and go again to the kingdom of Judah. 

Therefore he made two calves of gold, and said unto the people, “It is too much (trouble) for you to go to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And he set one in Bethel [Tribe of Benjamin on border with Ephraim in the south], and one in Dan [Tribe of Dan in the north]. And this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one (in Bethel), and even unto Dan. And he made a house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi. 

“And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month [October/November], on the fifteenth day [sabbath] of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, sacrificing unto the calves that he had made: and he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made. So he offered upon the altar which he had made in Bethel, on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, even in the month which he had devised in his own heart; and ordained a feast unto the Children of Israel, and he offered upon the altar and burnt incense,” I Kings 12:28-33. 

This was the great sin which was such a curse to the people. But we want you to note just how the Lord speaks of it. After the prophet whom he had sent out of Judah had proclaimed the doom of Jeroboam, he further adds: 

“The Lord shall smite Israel, as a reed is shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of his good land, which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the river, because they have made their groves, provoking the Lord to anger. And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who did sin, and who made Israel to sin,” I Kings 14:15, 16.’ 

What is fascinating is that Jeroboam instituted a new feast or Holy day holiday one month after the Feast of Tabernacles of the seventh month of Tishri in September/October of each year. This mirrors and foreshadows the Americans millennia later instituting their own celebration also one month after the Feast of Tabernacles. That is, Thanksgiving weekend in November, also one month later during the eighth month according to the lunar sacred calendar and according to Parker’s Astrology, it is the Eighth Astrological House of October 24 to November 22. Scorpio is the eighth astrological sign and is linked with the Tribe of Dan. The significance of this will become apparent in the next and final chapter.  

Hosea 11:2-6, 8-10

English Standard Version

2 The more they were called, the more they went away; they kept sacrificing to the Baals and burning offerings to idols. 3 Yet it was I who taught Ephraim to walk; I took them up by their arms, but they did not know that I healed them. They shall not return to the land of Egypt, but Assyria shall be their king, because they have refused to return to me. 6 The sword shall rage against their cities, consume the bars of their gates, and devour them because of their own counsels. 8 How can I give you up, O Ephraim? How can I hand you over, O Israel? How can I make you like Admah? How can I treat you like Zeboiim? [Genesis 14:2]. 

I will not execute my burning anger; I will not again destroy Ephraim; for I am God and not a man, the Holy One in your midst, and I will not come in wrath. 10 They shall go after the Lord; he will roar like a lion; when he roars, his children shall come trembling from the west; 11 they shall come trembling like birds from Egypt, and like doves from the land of Assyria, and I will return them to their homes, declares the Lord. 12 Ephraim has surrounded me with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit, but Judah still walks with God and is faithful to the Holy One [until the time of their punishment and captivity over one hundred years later] .

Hosea 12:1, 8, 14 

English Standard Version

Ephraim feeds on the wind and pursues the east wind [the Orient, East Asia, China and Japan] all day long; they multiply falsehood and violence; they make a covenant with Assyria, and oil is carried to Egypt… Ephraim has said, “Ah, but I am rich; I have found wealth for myself; in all my labors they cannot find in me iniquity or sin.” Ephraim has given bitter provocation; so his Lord will leave his bloodguilt on him and will repay him for his disgraceful deeds.

Abraham Lincoln’s proclamation on April 30, 1863, for a nation-wide day of fasting and prayer: 

“It is the duty of nations, as well as of men, to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God… and to recognize the sublime truth, announced in the Holy Scriptures and proven by all history, that those nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord… We have been the recipients of the choicest blessings of heaven. We have been preserved, these many years, in peace and prosperity. We have grown in numbers, wealth and power as no other nation ever has grown; but we have forgotten God! We have forgotten the gracious Hand which preserved us in peace, and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts, that these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving grace, too proud to pray to the God that made us. It behooves us, then, to humble ourselves before the offended Power, to confess our national sins, and to pray for clemency and forgiveness.”

The last good man?

Isaiah 17:3-4

English Standard Version

The fortress [military defence, strength] will disappear from Ephraim… 4 And in that day the glory of Jacob will be brought low, and the fat of his flesh will grow lean.

Zechariah 9:10, 13

English Standard Version

10 I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the war horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow shall be cut off, and he shall speak peace to the nations; his rule shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. 13 For I have bent Judah as my bow; I have made Ephraim its arrow…

Isaiah 9:9, 12, 19-21

English Standard Version 

9… Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria, who say in pride and in arrogance of heart… 12 The Syrians [Spanish] on the east and the Philistines [Mexicans] on the west devour Israel with open mouth. 19 Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts the land is scorched, and the people are like fuel for the fire; no one spares another. 20 They slice meat on the right, but are still hungry, and they devour on the left, but are not satisfied; each devours the flesh of his own arm, 21 Manasseh devours Ephraim, and Ephraim devours Manasseh; together they are against Judah.

A time when Canada and the United States in desperation, turn on each other and then together against England. This is in opposition to their current relationship that has been borne and refined during two world wars and several joint military operations over the decades. Churchill described it a special relationship. All the more meaningful when their individual identities, are rightfully understood. In 1946, March 5, Winston Churchill in an oration – The Sinews of Peace – at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri; which incidentally, he also lodged ‘iron curtain’ in the diplomatic lexicon, describes the friendship between Great Britain and the United States.

‘Now, while still pursuing the method of realising our overall strategic concept, I come to the crux of what I have travelled here to Say. Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organisation will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States. 

This is no time for generalities, and I will venture to be precise. Fraternal association requires not only the growing friendship and mutual understanding between our two vast but kindred Systems of society, but the continuance of the intimate relationship between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets at technical colleges.’

When Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau visited with the then United States President Barack Obama, they lavished praise on their nations’ relationship during the first official visit by a Canadian leader in nearly twenty years. Trudeau toasted the two nations as ‘siblings’ at a state dinner… and Obama said that the United States and Canada were ‘blessed to be neighbours.’ Though Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau does not fully comprehend how the United States of America and Canada are actual blood related siblings; and not just because they share an undefended border that is thousands of miles long, his observation, like Churchill’s is no less true. 

In fact this element of deep trust between Ephraim, Manasseh and Judah – with Benjamin, Simeon and Reuben – extends to Asher and Naphtali. Not everyone is aware that the only nations considered true allies by the United States are Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. A 2013 report disclosed by the German publication Der Spiegel noted that while the United States has a massive cyber-espionage program, that ‘only Canada, Australia, Britain and New Zealand were explicitly exempted from spy attacks.’ 

European nations such as Germany and France want the United States to treat them the same way they treat the Anglo-nations, which have been called the “five eyes.” There are longstanding and deep tensions over intelligence sharing between the United States, Germany and France. The United States has for decades, with few interruptions, strictly shared intelligence with just these four principal countries under the ‘five eyes’ agreement [FVEY], which includes a proviso that they do not spy on each other.

American symbol of power

“Germany and France have long resented this special relationship in intelligence,” according to Tim Naftali, of the New America Foundation, “But the question is whether (France and Germany) would be able to accept the coordination of their foreign policies that comes along with the agreement.” When intelligence agencies discuss targeting they are giving away what they know, said Naftali. “Is the US prepared to do that across the board with France and Germany?” The United States of America officially considers Canada, Britain, Australia and New Zealand as its most trusted and possible only non-hostile, allies. 

Hosea 4:17-19

English Standard Version

17 Ephraim is joined to idols; leave him alone. 18 When their drink is gone, they give themselves to whoring; their rulers dearly love shame. 19 A wind has wrapped them in its wings, and they shall be ashamed because of their sacrifices.

Isaiah 28:1, 3, 7

English Standard Version

1 Ah, the proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim, and the fading flower of its glorious beauty, which is on the head of the rich valley of those overcome with wine! 3 The proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim will be trodden underfoot; 7 These also reel with wine and stagger with strong drink; the priest and the prophet reel with strong drink, they are swallowed by wine, they stagger with strong drink, they reel in vision, they stumble in giving judgment.

The prophet Isaiah may have meant this figuratively, as in drunk with power and success, though a literal explanation is probably also intended. There are nations with higher rates of alcohol consumption nationally and per person than the United States, but figures for rates of Alcoholism tell a different story. The United States primarily the tribe of Ephraim, is ahead of any other English speaking Celtic-Saxon-Viking nation.

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Alcohol Use Disorder/Alcoholism (both genders):

  1. Hungary – 21.2%
  2. Russia – 20.9%
  3. Belarus – 18.8%
  4. Latvia – 15.5%
  5. South Korea – 13.9% (tie)
  6. Slovenia – 13.9% (tie)
  7. United States – 13.9% (tie)
  8. Poland – 12.8%
  9. Estonia – 12.2% (tie)
  10. Slovakia – 12.2% (tie)

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Alcohol Use Disorder/Alcoholism (females):

  1. United States – 10.4%
  2. Russia – 7.4%
  3. Sweden – 7.3%
  4. Hungary – 7.2%
  5. South Korea – 6.8%
  6. Belarus – 6.2%
  7. Austria – 6.1%
  8. United Kingdom – 4.7%
  9. Latvia – 4.6%
  10. Slovenia – 4.5%

Psalm 78:9, 67

English Standard Version

9 The Ephraimites, armed with the bow, turned back on the day of battle. 10 They did not keep God’s covenant, but refused to walk according to his law. 11 They forgot his works and the wonders that he had shown them… 67 He rejected the tent of Joseph; he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim, 68 but he chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, which he loves.

Isaiah 11:13-14

English Standard Version

13 The jealousy of Ephraim shall depart, and those who harass Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not be jealous of Judah, and Judah shall not harass Ephraim. 14 But they shall swoop down on the shoulder of the Philistines in the west, and together they shall plunder the people of the east. They shall put out their hand against Edom and Moab, and the Ammonites shall obey them.

Zechariah 10:6-7

English Standard Version

“I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph. I will bring them back because I have compassion on them, and they shall be as though I had not rejected them, for I am the Lord their God and I will answer them. 7 Then Ephraim shall become like a mighty warrior, and their hearts shall be glad as with wine. 

Jeremiah 31:6, 8, 9, 18, 20

English Standard Version

For there shall be a day when watchmen will call in the hill country of Ephraim… 8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the farthest parts of the earth, 9… for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn. 18 I have heard Ephraim grieving, ‘You have disciplined me, and I was disciplined, like an untrained* calf; bring me back that I may be restored, for you are the Lord my God. 20 Is Ephraim my dear son? Is he my darling child? For as often as I speak against him, I do remember him still. Therefore my heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, declares the Lord.

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Ephraim is called a “bullock” or young* bull. In Hebrew “bullock” is “aegel”. Historically this very same name, “Aegel”, pronounced in the same way, was an alternative form for the ethnic term “Angle”. The Angles gave England (i.e. “Angle- land”) its name. Together with the Saxons, Jutes… and others the Angles conquered from the Celts the land that was later named England. The Angles were also called “Aegels”. The appellations “Angle” and “Aegel” were employed interchangeably. The Hebrew word for young bull is “Aegel”. Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yistchaki 1040-1105 CE) was the foremost Medieval Jewish Commentator. In commentating on this verse (Jeremiah 31:18) Rashi states that the Hebrew word “Aegel” (Young Bull) was a name applied to Ephraim.’ 

It was circa 500 CE that the Angles – the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh – from Angeln departed their lands as part of a full-scale migration over the North Sea to Britain, where they found several kingdoms in newly conquered territory. Angeln was reputedly left abandoned and empty by the mass population movement, allowing the Danish Vikings from Asher to migrate south and west to fill the gap. 

During this period, the Danes became an ever greater threat to the Frisian hegemony of the North Sea and the northwestern European coastal territories. The Angles as part of the Saxon peoples who also comprised the Jutes from Judah and the Frisians from Issachar and Zebulun, left little imprint on Anglia and Mercia, their strongholds in west and east Middle England [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali]. 

Chromosomes Sketch New Outline of British History, New York Times: 

‘But surprisingly, there is little sign of Anglo-Saxon heritage in southern England. “One tends to think of England as Anglo-Saxon,” Dr. Goldstein said. “But we show quite clearly there was not complete replacement of existing populations by either Anglo-Saxons or Danes. It looks like the Celts [or rather Jutes] did hold out.”’

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When Jacob transferred the birthright to the sons of Joseph he, with one hand resting on the head of each, prayed: “Let my name (Israel) be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac.” The birthright kingdom did, as we have seen, inherit the name of Israel, and also that of Isaac. For Amos says: “And the high places of Isaac shall be desolate, and the sanctuaries of Israel (Bethel and Dan) shall be laid waste, and I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword,” (Amos 7:9). Here we have Isaac, Israel and the house of Jeroboam used as interchangeable names for the ten-tribed kingdom. 

Thus the name of Isaac was named upon the house of Joseph, and it is true, both in race and name, that, in Isaac shall thy seed be called.” It seems that the Jews [Edom] had a preference for the name of Jacob, but Israel clung to the name of Isaac, especially after they were taken into captivity; they dropped the name of Israel and called themselves “Saac” – Sacae, or Saxae, as per Latin derivation – which is nothing more or less than the Hebrew name of Isaac, from which the initial letter “I” has been dropped. 

It is now a well-authenticated fact that the word Saxon is derived from the Hebrew name of I-saac, together with an affix which means sons of. Professor Totten says: “In most of the Eastern languages ‘sons of’ is written ‘sunnia.’ It is equivalent to the Scottish ‘Mac’ and the English and Irish ‘Fitz’ – Mac Donald, son of Donald; Fitz Henry, son of Henry. 

So, in the distant home of our ancestors, Saac-Sunnia means sons of Isaac. Stambul is formed of Istanbul by dropping the prefix I, and so the Saxon is a direct descendant of our father Isaac.’ 

Doctor W. Holt Yates accepts this derivation of the Saxon name as positive, and the Reverend W. H. Poole, D. D., speaks of it as follows: “It is a little curious to glean from the ancient nations and from the stone monuments of the early times the various forms in which this word is to be found. I will here insert a few from a list of my own gleaned from ancient history, thus: Sons of Isaac, Sons of Saac, Saac-Sunnia, Saac-Suna, Saac-Sena Saaca-pena, Esakska, Sacae-Amyrqui, Beth-Sakai (House of Isaac), Sunnia-Sakai, Sakai-Suna, Saca-Suna, Sacae-Sunnae, Sackisina, Sacka-Sunia, Saca-cine, Saka-Suna, Sacas-Sani, Sakas-Saeni, Saxi-Suna, Sach-Suni, Sachi, Sacha, Sakah, Saachus, Saacus, Sacho, Saxo, Saxoi, Saxonia, Saxones, Saxae, Sach-sen, Sack-sen, Saxe-sen, Saxone, Saxony, Saxon.” –  “Our Race.” 

Concerning the etymology of the word Saxon, Yatman says: “Its history is as follows: The Persians used the terms Sacae and Scythian as convertible, whether from a corrupt rendering of one from the other or because the Sacae, a great tribe of Scythians (wanderers) bordering upon them, were so called by a tribal name. 

Of the fact of the identity of the Sacae and the Scythians there is not the shadow of a doubt, and it is clear that these people called their country Sacasena. It is equally clear that the Saxons of England were the Scythians or Celte-Scythians. Their geographical position in Europe is accurately described by Plutarch, Tacitus, Ptolemy, and other authors.” 

To this testimony all the historians agree. Strabo asserts that the most ancient Greek historians knew the Sacaea as a people who lived beyond the Caspian Sea.’

‘Diodorus says: “The Sacaea sprung from a people in Media who obtained a vast and glorious empire.” 

Ptolemy finds the Saxons in a race of Scythians, called Sakai, who came from Media. 

Pliny says: “The Sakai were among the most distinguished people of Scythia, who settled in Armenia, and were called Sacae-Sani.” 

Albinus says: “The Saxons were descended from the ancient Sacae of Asia.” 

Prideaux finds that the Cimbrians came from between the Black and Euxine (Caspian) seas, and that with them came the Angli. 

Sharon Turner, the great Saxon historian, says: “The Saxons were a Scythian nation, and were called Saca, Sachi, Sacki, Sach-sen.” 

Gawler, in “Our Scythian Ancestors” (Page 6), says: “The word ‘Saacae,’ is fairly and without straining or imagination, translatable as Isaacites.”’ 

‘But why has it been necessary for the historians of these various nations thus to trace this name, search records, tablets and monuments, and hunt for the origin of the Anglo-Saxons? Are they an obscure people? Are they a feeble nation? Are they an ignorant folk? Are they an uncivilized race? No; they are diametrically opposite to all this… but they do not know where they originated, nor who were their ancestors – they are lost. 

Some of these historians whom we have quoted do not agree among themselves as to the origin of the Saxons, but belong to different schools of contention, and are wrangling over the question whether these lost people belong to the Aryan, or to the Semitic race. The only use which we have, just here, for their contention is to show that they all trace the Saxons to the very place where the captive ten tribes of Israel were deported by Shalmanesar, the King of Assyria. These same historians also show that the Sax-ons sprang into existence, in so far as their modern and medieval history is concerned, about three years after the Israelites were taken to that country, and that there they lose them and can trace them no further.’ 

Helmet of East Angle King Raedwald

In the Book of Revelation we read about the 144,000 saints that live at the end of days. They are the loyal and faithful ones gathered from the physical sons of Jacob. In counterpoint to the mark of the Beast – the mark of Cain – spiritually placed in everyone’s forehead or mind, these elect are sealed by the Holy Spirit with special protection from the Tribulation and the ‘time of Jacob’s trouble.’ [Jeremiah 30:7]

Revelation 7:1-8

English Standard Version

After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, that no wind might blow on earth or sea or against any tree. 2 Then I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, with the seal of the living God, and he called with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given power to harm earth and sea, 3 saying, “Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees, until we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads.” 4 And I heard the number of the sealed, 144,000, sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel:

verses 5-8

12,000 from the tribe of Judah were sealed,
12,000 from the tribe of Reuben,
12,000 from the tribe of Gad,

12,000 from the tribe of Asher,
12,000 from the tribe of Naphtali,
12,000 from the tribe of Manasseh,

12,000 from the tribe of Simeon,
12,000 from the tribe of Levi,
12,000 from the tribe of Issachar,

12,000 from the tribe of Zebulun,
12,000 from the tribe of Joseph,
12,000 from the tribe of Benjamin were sealed.

What various commentators have righty observed though wrongly interpreted, is that Joseph at number eleven and Manasseh at number six, are mentioned twice in place of the missing tribe of Dan. The answer is less to do with Dan and more to do with the fact that the 12,000 people from Manasseh means from the British and Irish descended peoples of Canada. The 12,000 people from Joseph, means from the British and Irish descended peoples of the United States, for they are comprised of two tribes, Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. Hence in the Bible recall, they are known and called, either Joseph or Ephraim. Manasseh on the other hand remember, is known vicariously as Machir, Gilead, the half tribe of Manasseh or simply as, Manasseh.

As we have learned from previous chapters: Judah is England; Reuben is Northern Ireland; Gad is the Republic of Ireland; Asher is Australia; Naphtali is New Zealand; Simeon is Wales; Levi are scattered, though mainly in England, Wales and Scotland; Issachar and Zebulun are the British in South Africa and Zimbabwe; and Benjamin is Scotland. 

Key points and dates in Canadian history.

1688 – War fought between King William’s New England and New France. 

1713 – The British gained control of much of Eastern Canada under the Treaty of Utrecht.

1755 – The British expelled the Acadians from their lands. 

1759 – The British occupied Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. 

1763 – France lost the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years’ War to the British. The British gained control of all the French lands in Canada as a result and  these were absorbed into the British Empire.

1775 – The invasion of the Continental Army of America is stopped at the Battle of Quebec. 

1783 – The Treaty of Paris established official borders between the United States and Canada. 

1784 – The colony of New Brunswick was established. 

1791 – Quebec was divided into Upper Canada – today’s Ontario – and Lower Canada, today’s Quebec. 

1812 – War between the British and the United States. American forces attempted to invade Canada. 

1818 – The 49th parallel is determined as the border between much of the United States and Canada.

1837 – Rebellion occurred throughout Canada towards the British government. 

1838 – The Durham Report was issued which recommends that Upper and Lower Canada be united. 

1840 – Upper and Lower Canada were merged into a single colony – the United Provence of Canada – by the Act of Union. 

1846 – The border between the United States and Canada in the west is decided by the Oregon Treaty. 

1867 – The Dominion of Canada is formed – the Canadian Confederation. It included the four provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. 

1870 – The province of Manitoba joins Canada and in 1871 – British Columbia becomes the sixth province of Canada. 

1873 – The Northwest Mounted Police were established. They become the Canadian Mounted Police. 

1896 – Gold was discovered in the Yukon. The Klondike Gold Rush occurred as thousands of prospectors moved to Canada to find gold. 

1905 – Saskatchewan and Alberta become provinces. 

1931 – When the Statute of Westminster was authorised, whereby Canada became an independent nation. 

1982 – The year Canada actually became fully independent from the United Kingdom, adopting its own constitution. 

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. The etymological origins of the word Canada, is accepted as coming from the St Lawrence Iroquian word kanata, meaning ‘village’ or ‘settlement.’ The national motto A Mari Usque Ad Mare means ‘From Sea to Sea.’ Covering 3.85 million square miles, Canada is the world’s second largest country by total area, after Russia. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 5,525 miles, is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, with 1,323,783 people. 

Britannica – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although Canada shares many similarities with its southern neighbour – and, indeed, its popular culture and that of the United States are in many regards indistinguishable the differences between the two countries, both temperamental and material, are profound. “The central fact of Canadian history,” observed the 20th-century literary critic Northrop Frye, is “the rejection of the American Revolution.” Contemporary Canadians are inclined to favour orderly central government and a sense of community over individualism; in international affairs, they are more likely to serve the role of peacemaker instead of warrior, and, whether at home or abroad, they are likely to have a pluralistic way of viewing the world. More than that, Canadians live in a society that in most legal and official matters resembles Britain – at least in the English-speaking portion of the country.’

Canadian Coat of Arms

Key points and dates in American history.

1492 – Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas. The origin of the name America is often attributed to the explorer Amerigo Vespucce. Yair Davidy offers an alternative derivation from the term Machir, the son of Manasseh. The Western Hemisphere is referred to as either North, Central or South America, though when the term ‘American’ is used, this is normally a universal reference to the peoples of the United States. The nickname ‘Yankee’ for a North American derives from a form of the name Jacob. The Latinos themselves, use the term Norte Americanos to refer to Americans in the United States. 

America may have even taken its name from a Welshman called Richard Amerik, a chief investor in late fifteenth century voyages of discovery. The word Amerik itself is derived from ap Meuric, Welsh for ‘son of Maurice’ – the latter was anglicised further to Morris. The American state of Pennsylvania is possibly named after the Welsh word for head, pen.

In an audio study course called An Invitation to Hebrew in its section on the ‘Vocabulary of Jewish Life’ the teacher confirms that ‘covenant in Hebrew is… b’rit. He mentions its occurrence in the term b’nai b’rit, or the ‘children of the covenant’ in reference to the United States of America, which is called in Hebrew, Artzot Ha-Brit, ‘the lands of the covenant.’ [Mordecai Kamrat, Spoken Arts, Incorporated, 1960].

1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon visited Florida. 

1540 – Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto explored the Southeast. 

1565 – St. Augustine was established as the first permanent settlement in the United States. 

1607 – The Jamestown settlement – Virginia Colony – was founded by John Smith. 

1620 – The Mayflower landed with the pilgrims at Plymouth. 

1629 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded. 

1692 – The Salem witch trials took place in Massachusetts. 

1765 – The British government imposed the Stamp Act on the colonies. The colonies protested with the Stamp Act Congress. 

1770 – The Boston Massacre occurred. 

1773 – Bostonians protested the Tea Act with the Boston Tea Party dumping tea into the Boston Harbor. 

1774 – The First Continental Congress was held. The British government imposed the Intolerable Acts on the colonies. The American colonies grew unhappy with what they called “taxation without representation”.

1775 – The Revolutionary War began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord. The Second Continental Congress was held and the Battle of Bunker Hill occurred. The American Revolutionary War fought by the Thirteen Colonies against the British Empire, was the first successful war of independence by a non-European entity against a European power in modern history.

1776 – The American colonies declared their independence as the United States of America. 

1777 – The Continental Army stayed at Valley Forge for the winter. 

1781 – The British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia. The Articles of the Confederation were ratified by the colonies. 

1783 – The Revolutionary War officially ended with the Treaty of Paris. 

1787 – The Constitution was adopted by the Constitutional Convention. 

1789 – George Washington became the first President of the United States. 

1791 – The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution as the first ten amendments. 1793 – The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney. 

1803 – The size of the United States was nearly doubled with the Louisiana Purchase from France. 

1812 – The War began against Great Britain. 

1815 – United States troops led by Andrew Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans. 

1823 – The Monroe Doctrine was declared by President James Monroe. North and South America closed to any further colonisation and to any interference by an European power.

1836 – The Battle of the Alamo took place in Texas. 

1838 – The Cherokee Nation was forced to march from the Southeast to Oklahoma in what was known as the Trail of Tears. 

1846 – The Mexican-American War began.  

1849 – Prospectors travelled to California in the California Gold Rush. 

1860 – Abraham Lincoln was elected president. 

1861 – The American Civil War began. 

1863 – The Union Army won the Battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves in the South. 

1864 – Union General Sherman made his famous “march to the sea.” 

1865 – The American Civil War came to an end with General Robert E. Lee surrendering at the Appomattox Court House. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. 

1865 – Slavery was outlawed by the Thirteenth Amendment. 

1867 – Alaska purchased from Russia. 

1869 – The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed. 

1876 – The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. 

1914 – In both World Wars the United States tried to remain neutral but ended up on the side of the United Kingdom and the Allies.

Britannica – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Probably no other country has a wider range of racial, ethnic, and cultural types than does the United States. The nation’s wealth is partly a reflection of its rich natural resources and its enormous agricultural output, but it owes more to the country’s highly developed industry. 

Despite its relative economic self-sufficiency in many areas, the United States is the most important single factor in world trade by virtue of the sheer size of its economy. Its exports and imports represent major proportions of the world total. The United States also impinges on the global economy as a source of and as a destination for investment capital. The country continues to sustain an economic life that is more diversified than any other on Earth, providing the majority of its people with one of the world’s highest standards of living. 

America was the first of the European colonies to separate successfully from its motherland, and it was the first nation to be established on the premise that sovereignty rests with its citizens and not with the government. In the 20th century the United States emerged as a world power, and since World war II it has been one of the preeminent powers. It has not accepted this mantle easily nor always carried it willingly; the principles and ideals of its founders have been tested by the pressures and exigencies of its dominant status. The United States still offers its residents opportunities for unparalleled personal advancement and wealth.’ 

Yair Davidy describes the link between the name Joseph and Parthian rulers, as well as metallurgy in ancient Spain and in Samaria of ancient Israel.

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Arsacides were the rulers of the Parthian* Empire in Persia. The Parthians rulers were of Israelite descent [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. Some scholars trace the name “Aspourgos” to the Iranian “aspa” meaning horse or to the Akkadian-Syrian “aspuraku” meaning “horseman”. The name however had a different original connotation and any similarity with the word for “horse” and the like deviates from the primary root of the name. Haynman traces the name “Aspourgos” to the Semitic-Hebrew root “asaph” (to gather in) and to “biraka” which she understands to, mean “thy self-creation” or something similar. She points out that the name Joseph has the same origin. 

The people of Tanais did have their own independent form of monotheistic belief, similar to but not derived from Judaism. They did not eat pork [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad]. They were part of the Sacae-Scythian people who had Israelite tribal names and are shown for other reasons to have been of Israelite descent. It may therefore be concluded that they revered “Joseph” under the name “Aspourgos” because they were descended from Joseph. The guilds connected with Aspourgos really did have ceremonies commemorating traditions about Joseph. They also retained some degree of monotheistic sentiment because they were of Hebrew origin. This was also the reason they did not eat pork whereas all other peoples in the region at that time did. 

… researchers have suggested that the features found in Tanais were part of the Sakae-Scythian culture in general. Tanais was abandoned in the early 400s CE, about the time of the Hun invasion of Europe, and its inhabitants apparently joined their Scythian brothers and moved westward.’ 

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Ammianus Marcellinus said that the original inhabitants of Tartessos had been called Dorians. The Dorians in Classical literature were a branch of the Greeks but in this case the intention is to people coming via the port of Dor on the coast of Israel. Dor was the major port on the coast of Central Israel and in Assyrian times it was the name given to a province comprising the whole coastal area. Bochart using Greek and Latin sources demonstrated that the Dorians who migrated to Gades and Tartessus were descendants of a legendary “Dorus and Phoenicius” i.e. of Dorians and Phoenicians. Bochart traced them to Dor in Israel and says that originally they were identified as Galicians, i.e. Galatians. 

… the original Dorians of Tartessus, the first settlers of Baetica in southern Spain, and the Galatians were all essentially one and the same people and that amongst them were members of the Tribe of Manasseh. “Dor and her towns” had been part of the region inherited by the Tribe of Manasseh whose original Canaanite inhabitants at first could not be driven out but were put to tribute (Joshua 17:11-12, Judges 1:27- 28). Later the area was considered Israelite. “All the region of Dor” became one of the 12 administrative districts into which the Land of Israel was divided by King Solomon and it was governed by Abinadab who “had Taphah the daughter of Solomon to wife” (1-Kings 4:11). 

When the Assyrians conquered Israel they named the whole coastal region of Manasseh and Ephraim after Dor. Ptolemy records the “Menesthei Portus”, i.e. the Port of the Tribe of Manasseh in the region of the Turdulorum just to the east of Gades off the southwest coast of Spain! The port of Gibraltar is within the area most consistently connected with Tartessos and therefore was Israelite before Spain existed. Gibraltar since 1704 CE has belonged to Britain [Judah*].This is not a coincidence! 

Metal produced in Baetica (in southeast Spain) was called “Samarian metal” (Pliny N.H.) after Samaria in Israel. There was also a port named “Samarium” in Galatia of northwest Spain. The Samar (Somme) River in north Gaul and neighboring city of Samarobriva (Amiens) and the Sambre River just to their north in Belgium were also named after Samaria in Israel.’ 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘When Americans spread westward toward the Pacific Ocean, they migrated in wagon trains. In doing so, they carried on a tradition of the ancient Scythians. The Scythians also migrated via covered wagons, which are described in the following words: 

“The wagons in which the women and children traveled had from four to six wheels. They were covered with felt roofs and the space inside was divided into two or three compartments. Little clay models of these prototypes of the modern caravan have been found in some… Scythian burials.” 

Like the cowboys of the American “West,” the Scythians also “excelled at lassoing.” 

With their horse riding, lassoing, and “wagon trains,” Scythian culture resembled the pioneer days of the American West (without the six­shooters). Perhaps the power of genetic influence is more potent than generally realized. 

The original twelve tribes of Israel grew to became thirteen when Joseph was subdivided into the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. Since Ephraim was given its portion before Manasseh, Manasseh essentially became “the thirteenth tribe.” The number “13” has uniquely been associated with the founding of America. The United States of America was born as a union of thirteen separate colonies, with its flag exhibiting thirteen stripes and thirteen stars. The prominence of the number “13” in the founding of America indicates a divine hand influencing world events to appropriately place the number “13” on this new Manassehite nation.’ 

This is circumlocutory reasoning to fit a theory. It could be argued that thirteen represents Ephraim as the thirteenth born and the last or youngest even though blessed greater than Manasseh. Thirteen could also represent Jospeh as in he represents twelve and thirteen. Apportioning Manasseh to the the number thirteen is convenient but doesn’t make sense by itself, particularly when we know the United States is principally Ephraim or Joseph. It is Canada that is Manasseh; though to be fair, it is the one whom is forgotten

‘A common symbol of the United States of America is an eagle clutching “an olive branch” and a “group of arrows” in its talons. The olive branch signifies America’s desire for peace while the arrows signify prowess in war. Is it only coincidence that the ancient Scythians (a “Sacae” nation) used the same war sign as modern America (a “Saxon” nation): a clump of arrows? Furthermore, the eagle was also a common Scythian symbol. One Scythian eagle­crest was found in a pose resembling the eagle­crest of the United States: both show eagles with modern outstretched wings and flared tail feathers (the Scythian eagle holds prey in its talons, while the American eagle holds a branch and a clump of arrows in its talons).Indeed, the eagle­crest of the United States not only has its roots in the Scythian eagle­ crest, but also proclaims [an Israelite] origin by having thirteen arrows in one talon, thirteen leaves on the olive branch in the other talon, thirteen stars over the eagle’s head, thirteen bars in the shield over the eagle’s body, and even thirteen letters in the phrase “E PLURIBUS UNUM.”

If this sounds surprising, consider the fact that in 1857, two messages were given by a Rev. F. E. Pitts to a joint session of the U.S. Congress, presenting evidence that the United States of America was descended from the ten tribes of Israel! Pastor Pitts had little of the information presented in this book available to him, so he based his conclusion on biblical prophecies alone. He utilized prophecies in the books of Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and Hosea to show that America had fulfilled many prophecies about the ten tribes of Israel. Pastor Pitts wrote: 

“The United States of America, our great country, is foretold in the Holy Scriptures… The United States of America is the nationality that is promised in the prophetic Scriptures to arise in the latter times as Israel Restored… Such… was ancient Israel, and such is the United States of America.”

An alternative argument on the re-occurring number thirteen, is presented by Stewart A Swerdlow in his book, Blue Blood, True Blood, Conflict and Creation, 2002:

The United States was established with 13 colonies, one for each of the Illuminati families. The original flag had 13 stars, and still has 13 stripes. The eagle, the symbol of the United States, holds 13 arrows in its talons. The United States is actually a corporate asset of the Virginia Company that was established in 1604 in England with direct involvement of the Rothschilds. The finances of the Rothschilds were necessary to fund the exploration and exploitation of the North American continent. The assets of the Virginia Company, including the United States, are owned by the Holy Roman Empire via the Vatican. Executorship remains with the British royal family, but actual ownership lies with the Roman Catholic Church.

The United States of America is not named after Amerigo Vespucci, as you learned in school. The Illuminati would never name a continent, actually two continents, after an Italian mapmaker.

The name is actually a combination of words.

  • “Am” is the Hebrew word for “people”
  • “Ame” is also the command form of the Spanish/Latin verb “to love”
  • “Eri” or “ari” is a Hebrew term for “lion”
  • “Rica” is the feminine form of the Spanish word for “rich”
  • “Ka” is the ancient Egyptian word for soul, or spirit force within a body

The symbolic statement of America is that it is a combination of Lemuria and Atlantis; a blend of the… Lyrae with… Draco… [and] the combination of these… civilizations would produce the most powerful, technological Empire ever known!’

There are two other words worth noting that may have an etymological link with the word America. The first is Amorica or Aremorica, which literally means ‘place in front of the sea.’ The word differs merely by one vowel letter. It was the name for the northwestern extremity of ancient Gaul, now known as Brittany. In Celtic, Roman and Frankish ages, Amorica also included the western area of what later became known as Normandy. Both Normandy [Normans] and Brittany [Britain] have strong Israelite association [refer Chapter XXX  Judah & Benjamin].

The other word is Mercia which derives from the Old English word Merce, meaning ‘people of the Marches’ or boundaries. Swapping two letters, gives Merica. Mercia was a powerful Saxon kingdom – with its capital in Tamworth – during the seventh to ninth centuries and was prominent amongst the six other great Saxon kingdoms of East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen, 1902 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The first national flag of those original United States had thirteen Stars and thirteen Bars. The bars symbolize the Union, and the constellation of thirteen stars was intended to symbolize the nation formed of thirteen independent states. In this, the Great Seal of our country… we have the arms and crest of the United States of America. We would first call your attention to the fact that the eagle is holding in what is called the “Dexter” talon an Olive Branch. In the fourteenth chapter of Hosea, that prophet, who has so much to say about lost Ephraim-Israel, we have the following: “O Israel, return unto the Lord thy God; I will heal their backslidings; I will love them freely; for mine anger is turned away from him… I will be as the dew to Israel; he shall grow like the lily (the national flower of Egypt), and cast forth his roots as Lebanon (royal cedar). His branches shall spread, andhis beauty shall be as the OLIVE tree.Ephraim will say, What have I to do any more with idols?”’  

‘Ephraim is the representative of the house of Joseph, and we have placed this Scripture before our readers that they may see that the Olive tree is among the insignia of the birthright family, and that it is here represented as belonging to one of the Branches of the birthright kingdom, and since the birthright is Joseph’s, it is the Olive Branch of Joseph which has been placed in the “Coat of Arms” of [Ephraim], the thirteenth tribe in Israel, who has now fulfilled the prophecy of becoming a great nation. 

Still this fact, if it stood alone, might not mean so much, but in the other talon, which is called the “Sinister,” is a “Bundle of thirteen Arrows,” which represents the nation individually and collectively prepared for war. 

It is marvelous that the Olive Branch should have been made our official insignum of Peace, and that the Arrows should have been made by law to represent the War Power of the country, for the Arrows were in the heraldry of Israel, as well as the Unicorn and Lion, when Balaam was compelled to bless instead of curse them. Also, the Josephites were Bow-men, and Jacob, after speaking of Joseph and his branches, said, “The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him. But his Bow (munitions of war) abode in strength, and the Arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob,” Genesis 49:23-24. It is a well-known, and much-rejoiced-over fact that the Bow of the United States, which has sent her Arrows into the ranks of her enemies, has always abode in strength, and that both her chief men and people have always said: “God has helped us.” 

and the Eagle, like everything else that pertains to national Israel, has fallen to the birthright family, and is now the national ensign of the thirteenth tribe of Israel, the people of which are not only the descendants of [Ephraim]… but they also compose the firstborn nation out of the “MANY NATIONS,” which were promised to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, and whose ensign Eagle holds in his beak a scroll upon which is written their national motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” which has thirteen letters, and means “One out of MANY.”

“He (Israel) shall fly as an Eagle, and spread his wings over Moab,” Jeremiah 48:40. No wings except those which are spread out can be shadowing wings, and the Shadowing wings of Israel’s Spread Eagle are in the ensign of the United States of America. Hence, America is the land shadowed by wings of which Isaiah wrote, whose ambassadors cross the sea in vessels of bulrushes, or, literally, of caldrons which absorb water; i. e., the modern steamship. The Shield, or escutcheon, which is borne on the breast of the Spread Eagle, has thirteen pieces, called pales, or paleways, which comes from the same word as palings or pickets. These thirteen paleways are united by one at the top. The Lord said to Abraham: “I am thy Shield.” 

‘On the national seal of America, the “Great People,” above the shadowing wings and the scroll, is a Cloud emitting rays of Glory. “Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel… and behold the Glory of the Lord appeared in the Cloud.” To our fathers that glory Cloud was significant of the presence of Jehovah. That Glory Cloud,  which hung over Israel, guided those who had but just escaped from the Egyptian bondage, and it stood between them and their enemies. But this is not all, for this Cloud of our American heraldry surrounds what is called “The Constellation.” 

This constellation is a group of thirteen stars, or planets, on a field of azure sky, which is exactly the same number of planets that appeared on the azure sky in the dream of Joseph, which drove him into separation from his brethren. 

Any one of these features in the blazonry of our nation might have been a coincidence, but when we see that there is not a single feature, but that which is Josephic and Israelitish, it is simply astounding.

But when we turn our face upon the reverse side of that great national seal we are overwhelmed, for there stands the Great Pyramid of Egypt, which is one of the two great monuments of Egypt, the birthplace of Ephraim and Manasseh, the Egypto-Israelitish sons of Joseph, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham. And, marvel of marvels! The national Crest of England has that other great monument of Egypt, the Sphinx, on its reverse side. Thus do the people of Great Britain and the United States of America, the Brother nations, by that which speaks louder than words, for signs are arbitrary, say that they are the offsprings of the Egypto-Israelitish holders of the Abrahamic birthright. 

The people of the United States made this declaration by that which was made a law on Thursday, June 20, 1782, for on that day the ensign which bears those shadowing wings of Israel, together with the Heraldry of Joseph, became a law among us. Also over the pyramid on the reverse side of the Great Seal of America is another thirteen-lettered motto, which, of course is not only lawful, but also national; i.e., “Annuit Coeptis,” – “He (the Lord) hath prospered our undertakings.” This also is Josephic, for we read, “The Lord was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man.” “The Lord was with him (Joseph), and that which he did the Lord made it to prosper,” Genesis 39:3-23. 

Those who understand the Cabala and the arithmography of the Scriptures, it is known that the number thirteen is significant of rebellion, but all that we can say about it here is that the first time this number occurs in the Bible it is with reference to Rebellion (Genesis 14:4) [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. Surely that people whose characteristic number is thirteen did rebel in 1776, and prospered in it, too. They also prospered in 1814, in another little affair concerning the acquisition of a vast stretch of territory known as Louisiana. 

This people have also had rebellion within their own borders, and it is a remarkable fact that, although thirteen was not the number of states in the Confederacy, the Confederate Congress, in 1863, formally adopted a battle flag for the Confederacy, and also a Confederate flag. The Battle Flag was a white field with a blue cross of this (X) shape, in which there were thirteen stars. The flag for the Confederacy was white, with a red field in the Dexter chief corner, bearing this same (X) cross with its thirteen stars. Here again is both rebellion and the birthright cross of the house of Joseph. In his struggle the government also prospered, and it was essential that it should thus prosper, not only in this case, but also in the others of which we have spoken, in order to fulfill a prophecy concerning one feature of their history, namely: “Shew my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to undo the heavy burdens, and let the OPPRESSED GO FREE, and that YE break every yoke?” These are the reasons for which Our Race go to war. England freed her slaves in 1838 and America freed hers in 1861.’

Tribal Emblems of Ephraim – National symbols of America, Mark Lane: 

‘In Numbers Chapter 2 it says “Everyone of the children of Israel shall camp by his own standard, beside the emblems of his father’s house” (Numbers 2:2). 

We thus conclude that each tribe of Israel had emblems, or tribal symbols. The tribal symbols of Ephraim would likely have been: 

 Symbol of a Bull or Wild Ox or Horn
 Symbol of fruitfulness of the land: Sheaf of Wheat or Fruit Laden Bough Symbol of Strong Arm or Arrows

If the USA is the prophetic fulfillment of Ephraim we would expect to see its citizens rallying to their county’s protection under similar national symbols. That is precisely what we see. Ephraim was granted the blessing of divine protection. In the Bible this is signified by the figure of an eagle. The Lord said that he protected Israel on the exodus from Egypt “on eagle’s wings” (Exodus 19:4). Therefore, the eagle is the symbol of God’s protection: it is not the symbol of a nation per se. Many of the national symbols of the USA match the symbols of the tribe of Ephraim. 

(1) Great seal of the United States: 

 Eagle grasps a clutch of arrows in one claw 

 Eagle grasps a fruitful bough in the other claw
 Eagle’s breast displays a shield (allusion to spiritual protection)
 Eagle’s head is turned to its right: facing West (allusion to the West side of the Camp)
 Over the Eagle’s head is a cloud (allusion to the cloud of God which traveled with the      Camp)
 Obverse side displays a pyramid (allusion to Joseph who ruled Egypt)
 Obverse side display the “eye of God” (another allusion to God’s watchful protection)

(2) American Money: 

The penny displays two sheafs (two tribes) [representing Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh] of wheat: on the left and on the right 

The US one dollar bill has both sides of the Great Seal printed on it 

(3) American Mottos: 

“In God We Trust” placed on pennies (1865) official motto of US (adopted in 1956)
“New World Order” NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM (Great Seal)
“Out of Many One” E PLURIBUS UNUM (Great Seal)
“He has Prospered our Undertakings” ANNUIT COEPTIS (Great Seal)

In the US national symbols the number 13 is prominent. There are 13 stars in the cloud, 13 arrows in the clutch, 13 leaves on the bough, 13 fruits on the bough, 13 strips on the shield… The spiritual number 13 signifies “Rebellion” and in truth the United States gained its independence by rebelling against the authority of its… brother the United Kingdom. There were also 13 states in the original colonies of the United States. Normally rebellion has a negative connotation, however at the core of the American ideal of liberty and pursuit of happiness is the concept of resisting over-authoritarian governments.

It is fair to say Americans love their country and they express that on many occasions by honoring their flag, or their ‘colors’. One of the possible pitfalls of a nation being as great as America is its citizens might fall into a love of country that surpasses their love for God. To them the flag is a symbol of protection, much as the skins protected the tabernacle in the desert. When citizens begin to look to their government for protection, and not to God for protection, they put their trust in the wrong place. Instead of ‘In God We Trust’ it is ‘In our Natural Resources We Trust’, or ‘In our Military We Trust’, ‘In our Government We Trust’, or ‘In America We Trust’. When an American… looks at the stars and stripes, the colors should remind him that the great nation of the United States depends for its existence and prosperity on the blessing and protection of God, not the government of the day.’ 

Symbol of United States power – the American Bald Eagle

The Meaning of the Great Seal of The United States, American Heritage Education Foundation, 2017:

‘The Great Seal of the United States is the official emblem and heraldic device of the United States of America. It was adopted by the Continental Congress in 1782 [June 20] to represent the nation and to demonstrate to other nations of the world the ideas and values of its Founders and people.

The Great Seal of the United States guarantees the authenticity of official U. S. documents. It is used 2,000-3,000 times per year to seal documents. Such documents include treaties, presidential proclamations, appointments of government officials, and presidential communications to heads of foreign nations. The seal is also printed on the U.S. $1 bill, providing U.S. citizens with a ready reference to the nation’s foundational ideas. 

The custody of the Great Seal is assigned to the U.S. Department of State. The seal can be affixed by an officer of the Secretary of State. 

The Great Seal… was first used officially on September 16, 1782, to guarantee the authenticity of a document that granted full power to General George Washington “to negotiate and sign with the British an agreement for the exchange, subsistence, and better treatment of prisoners of war.” Thomas Jefferson was the first Secretary of State to have custody of the Great Seal. 

The Great Seal has two sides and displays a number of important symbols. The front (obverse) side of the seal displays the coat of arms of the United States. The coat of arms is officially used for coins, postage stamps, stationary, publications, flags, military uniforms, public monuments, public buildings, embassies and consulates, passports, and items owned by the U. S. government.’

The long held belief amongst many Biblical identity adherents that Ephraim is England, with its colonies; while Manasseh is the United States, is after some five hundred years like masonry stone work and concrete that is long dried and set. For those who believe this explanation, there is little point on the one hand in attempting to shatter this deeply imbedded and incorrect paradigm of belief. Those that support this premise feel very real indignation from any presentation that argues the opposite view. Rightly so, as it is intrinsically flawed arguing that England is Manasseh, when such is clearly not the case and they can rightly see through the error. 

Even so, the perceived threat of the truth regarding Ephraim is felt so strongly, that  extensive lists are compiled to validate the United States is still Manasseh. Since Canada is the real Manasseh and not the United States let alone England or its other offshoots, many of the points used as ‘proof’ suddenly lose their relevance or veracity as ‘evidence.’ It still may be of value to look at a selection of the points raised only as they relate to the United States and Ephraim, while ignoring the blind tangents of those relating to the United Kingdom, Great Britain or England [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. 

‘Jacob placed Ephraim before Manasseh, and he was called the Firstborn’ [Genesis 48:14-19, Jeremiah 31:9]. It is argued that Ephraim’s [prophetic] destiny was to be fulfilled before Manasseh’s because the roles were reversed. If such is the case, then the United states did become a nation… before Canada. The younger did become the firstborn. 

‘Ephraim set before Manasseh means he would be first in both time and greatness’ [Genesis 48:20]. It is argued that Ephraim would be set before Manasseh in terms of position and time and in sense of occurrence and importance. If such is the case, then the United States is a greater nation that Canada and came into being before Canada became a nation. 

‘Manasseh would become a great people after Ephraim.’ It is argued that though Manasseh is the elder son of Joseph, he would become additionally or subsequently to Ephraim, a great people – the second to come into greatness. If such is the case, then Canada was definitely second to America. 

‘Manasseh would be a republic with a representative government, not a monarchy.’ As the scriptures do not say this, it cannot be a valid point of argument. Another commentator defines Manasseh as ‘responsible representation’ as in a republic, Ephraim as ‘aristocracy’ as in royalty and Machir as ‘capitalism’ and the ‘principle of salesmanship.’ These definitions in this writer’s view are stretching Hebrew definitions to fit suppositions that cannot be used as objective evidence. Judah was to be defined by its monarchy. Both Manasseh and Ephraim were not. Though if Manasseh was to be a great people, or a ‘multitude gathered as a unit’ as in one people, one nation and Ephraim a ‘company of nations’ as in many groups of peoples comprised of many peoples, then Canada and the United States have fulfilled scripture. 

Bible exponent William Dankenbring, based on Greg Doudna’s research, became the most vocal supporter of the belief that Ephraim was the United States, prior to his death in 2017. It is a view only a minority of people have been able to comprehend within the identity movement. Ironically, as there are many people in America who do not have any allegiances or ties to British-Israel believing groups or Church of God affiliation, they already understand that the United States is Ephraim of the Bible. 

The United States as Ephraim, William F Dankenbring – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Although virtually no one has noticed it, God has left the identity of modern Israel in the most obvious place one could imagine – in the very name  of our great nation!  Our nation is the only nation in the world directly named ‘company of nations’!

The house of Israel was a company or union of equal members, none of whom were sovereign. This fits the United States. It does not fit Great Britain or the British Commonwealth. The British Commonwealth has never been a company of equal states.  Britain has always been one great nation. Whereas the British Commonwealth is a collection of scattered, independent, satellite nations around the world under the authority of the single great nation Britain.  The United States is an assembly of fifty united states who have given up their sovereignty in the interests of collective political union and are, for the most part, united geographically, as was the house of Israel anciently. The United States began with thirteen states.  When we reached the West Coast we had ‘filled up’ our land with forty-eight states, perhaps paralleling the forty-eight cities for the Levites in ancient Israel. Then we added two more to reach a ‘fullness’ of fifty, or five times the number in the house of Israel of old (and the Jubilee number). The United States is the company, fullness, assembly, or convocation of states that Ephraim was to  become” 

In Hebrew, the word for “nations” here is goyim, and means “peoples, nations, states, a troop, a flight,” a word that has the sense of “massing.” Thus Jacob really said the descendants of Ephraim would become a TROOP of people, a MASS of people, MANY states, families, or groupings. Thus we have in fulfillment of this prophecy THE FIFTY STATES of the United States – we became 50 different states, UNITED, but ONE PEOPLE. Each state has its own constitution and government.’ 

‘On the other hand, if Ephraim were the nations of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa… then when the prophecies of Hosea speak of Ephraim “calling to Egypt” or “going to Assyria,” which of those nations would be meant? (Hosea 7:11). If Ephraim were composed of widely scattered nations, the prophecies of Hosea would be inexplicable; it would be impossible to determine to which “part” of Ephraim they applied, or how they could possibly apply to every “nation” of Ephraim!  Obviously, the prophecies directed toward Ephraim in the Bible are directed to ONE UNITED COUNTRY, one sovereign nation, UNITED TOGETHER – as Ephraim was historically, and as the United States is, today! The very words of the U.S. Constitution reveal our national identity! The Constitution begins, “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union… ” 

The U.S.A. – A Union of “Nation-States” Ephraim was to become a united company or assembly of peoples.  Isn’t it interesting that the United States is famous around the world for being the “melting pot” of the nations? The United States has more emigrants from more diverse locations, than any other nation on earth!  This is both a strength, and a fatal weakness. The prophet Hosea foretold this condition would describe Ephraim in the last days! Hosea wrote, “Ephraim MIXES with the nations; Ephraim is a flat cake not turned over (white on one side, baked black or brown on the other side). Foreigners sap his strength, but he does not realize it. His hair is sprinkled with gray, but he does not notice” (Hosea 7:8-9). 

Ephraim’s very name means “double fruit.” It is the United States which exploded onto the world scene, becoming a world power in the days of Theodore Roosevelt at the turn of the century, and the twentieth century has been hailed as “America’s Century,” and world peace “Pax Americana.” Jacob prophesied that the younger brother, Ephraim, was to be greater than his older brother, Manasseh.  Manasseh, the firstborn, was the older brother.  Which nation is older – the United States or Great Britain? 

But what about the United States? Is it greater than Great Britain… Let’s face this question honestly and squarely, without pride, pretence, or hypocrisy. The United States is the wealthiest nation in the world in terms of resources, business and assets, and gross national produce – although we have also become the world’s biggest debtor nation by far due to our… living beyond our means… Either California or New York could be the world’s fifth or sixth richest nation in the world. The state of Illinois produces more than the entire continent of Africa! The eight industrial states from New York to Illinois produce as much as the Common Market, [Russia], or all of Latin America, Africa, most of Asia except Japan, and the Middle East combined!

The United States is greater than Britain by far. It is the United  States which is the greatest and most powerful nation the world has ever seen. It has been the United States which has soared to the status of the richest of nations… not Great Britain. The comparison in national wealth is meaningless – there is no comparison. The economy of the United States has been the engine that has driven the free world since the end of World War II. It has led to postwar recovery of the entire Western World. Further, there is no comparison in military power between the two nations [today]…’ 

‘If the United States is NOT Ephraim, the most populous, “doubly fruitful” Israelitish nation – then who is? Fruitfulness, flourishing population, can also refer to the rate of growth.  The growth rate of the United States has been nothing short of phenomenal… an exponential population growth of nearly 70 times over!  No country in history has, like the United States, literally come from out of nowhere, and literally EXPLODED in population growth and power, both [in its] military and economic [influence]! Truly, the United States – modern “Ephraim” – has experienced a dramatic population increase. Truly it has lived up to its name – and is “DOUBLY fruitful”!’

Two great powers, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [Judah, Benjamin, Simeon & Reuben] and the United States of America [Ephraim & the half tribe of West Manasseh]. Both have the word united as part of their official names as the House of Israel and the House of Judah were once the United Kingdom of Israel. Remember the forgotten nation, Canada [the half tribe of East Manasseh].

Early during the American Civil War, the Union’s plan was to economically strangle the Confederacy via naval blockades in all the major Southern Ports. The Confederacy sent Ambassadors to Britain in an attempt to drum up opposition support. They bypassed the Union blockade and reached Cuba. James Mason and John Slidell boarded the British mail ship, the Trent. The Union intercepted the ship and arrested the two diplomats. The Union had violated all principles of international law relating to neutrality, with the British government rightly pointing out that the United States Congress had declared war on Britain in 1812, when the British had seized American vessels en route to France. 

It looked as if Britain might enter the war against the North but was averted by Lincoln’s apology and the release of the Confederate commissioners. Britain openly favoured the South, letting them build warships in British shipyards. According to Kemp, the link was ‘cemented by the personal friendship of the British Jewish Prime Minister… Benjamin Disraeli, and the Confederate Jewish Secretary of State, Benjamin Judah. Disraeli’s views on race… made him personally sympathetic to the Confederate cause, and when Judah fled the South at the end of the war, he stayed as Disraeli’s personal guest at the latter’s private house in England.’ 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Battle of the Bull Run [July 21, 1861] was an early defeat for the Union, which at first believed it would easily be able to crush the Confederates by launching an attack into northeastern Virginia. Repulsed by the Confederates, the Union army fled in disarray to Washington DC. The Confederates pursued the Union army, and seemed to threaten the Northern capital. The battle exhausted both sides, with the Union suffering 14,500 casualties and the South 9,100 in the seventeen-day-long engagement. 

On April 6, 1862, a confederate army, which had crept undetected on Grant’s forces, launched a surprise attack on the Union camp at Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The engagement, which became known as the Battle of Shiloh, saw the Confederates repulsed after two days of savage fighting. The losses inflicted in the battle gave both sides cause for concern. The Union forces suffered some 13,000 casualties and the Confederates around 10,700. Around 3,400 of these were killed outright, a record which was soon surpassed in later battles of the war.’

Abraham Lincoln at the end of the war, had instructed Grant to be generous with the defeated Confederates as he intended a policy of reconciliation to restore the Union. The President also intended repatriation of the Black slaves to Africa or the Caribbean. With his assassination, the Northern floodgates of hate spilled forth against the South. The United States Congress sought revenge through a series of laws known as the Reconstruction Acts with the design to punish the South for everything, including slavery, secession and the war.

The Flag on the right is remarkably similar to the state flag of Georgia and was the first Confederate flag, known as the ‘Stars and Bars’ from 1861 to 1863.

Special Field Order No. 15 had instigated exclusive rights for the freed Blacks in parts of the coastal regions of South Carolina and Georgia; creating Black homelands and enclaves within American borders. This order was remarkably revoked by the incoming President, Andrew Johnson. Not only had the Civil War ended slavery across the entire nation, it also made clear that the federal system of government had won out, in that the government had the right on certain matters to override the individual ‘state’s rights’, as supported by the confederate ideology. 

The war produced devastating loss of life with a total of 610,000 deaths of which 250,000 were from the South. This represented 4.5% of the total population of the South of 5.5 million people, as compared to 1.6% for the North of a population of 19.4 million people. The half tribe of West Manasseh after the Civil War, was not only defeated, it was destroyed and plundered. During the reconstruction, the best of the South left for the western territories. It is there that the vibrancy of the old South was relocated to Texas, California, the Northwest and the Cowboy states. 

Destiny decreed the breaking up of the company of nations, the ‘multitude of people’, the union of states, was not to occur in 1861; for Ephraim and West Manasseh had not come into the fullness of their birthright blessings that would peak exactly one hundred years later during the 1960s. The union of America’s fifty states is what gives it its strength. The opposite condition would erode, diminish and destroy America’s power. 

From Information Warfare to the Break-Up of the USA… Decoding the Work of Dr. Igor Panarin, New Dawn, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘In 2010 Dr. Panarin predicted the USA would balkanise, amidst social conflict, and split into separate states. Certainly the proposition of a ‘United States’ based on constitutionalism rests on weak foundations and has nothing of an organic character about it. There is no defining feature of an American ‘ethnos’, and no basis for a positive symbiotic relationship enduring between the sundry ethnicities. Panarin claims the United States is on course to balkanise due to the stressors of its huge debt, deficit and social protests. “The overlapping financial, economic and social challenges may eventually cause the world’s strongest superpower of the 20th century to collapse,” notes Panarin.

Far from being a fanciful scenario, the US military recently addressed the same problems emerging from rapid urbanisation in ‘megacities’. The US military regards ‘megacities’ (populations of 10,000,000 or more) as an approaching problem of instability. The US Army comments that megacities are a unique environment that they do not fully understand. One of their reports gives a picture of proliferating criminal networks and underground economies, natural disasters and the inability of decaying infrastructures to withstand stressors. A predicted feature is the breakdown of civic order through ethnic and religious conflict among diverse groups that are forced together to share diminishing resources and utilities. 

“As resources become constrained, illicit networks could potentially fill the gap left by over-extended and undercapitalized governments. The risk of natural disasters compounded by geography, climate change, unregulated growth and substandard infrastructure will magnify the challenges of humanitarian relief. As inequality between rich and poor increases, historically antagonistic religions and ethnicities will be brought into close proximity in cities. Stagnation will coexist with unprecedented development, as slums and shanty towns rapidly expand alongside modern high-rises. This is the urban future.”

The report comments on the increasingly heterogeneous populations inherent in a megacity as potentially “explosive.”’ 

“One of the hallmarks of megacities is rapid hetero and homogeneous population growth that outstrips city governance capability. Many emerging megacities are ill-prepared to accommodate the kind of explosive growth they are experiencing. Radical income disparity, and racial, ethnic and sub cultural separation are major drivers of instability in megacities. As these divisions become more pronounced they create delicate tensions, which if allowed to fester, may build over time, mobilize segments of the population, and erupt as triggers of instability.” 

‘The US Army analysis accords with the 2010 analysis of Dr. Igor Panarin.’

Canada possesses one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world. Influenced principally by economic policy and family reunifications. In 2019, a total of 341,180 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia.India, the Philippines and China are the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada, with new immigrants settling mainly in the urban ares of large cities such as Toronto with 5,928,040 people, Montreal with 4,098,927 people and Vancouver with 2,463,431 people. Canada accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over ten percent of the annual global refugee resettlements. Canada resettled more than 28,000 people in 2018.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the country’s largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32 percent of the population), followed by English (18.3 percent), Scottish (13.9 percent), French (13.6 percent), Irish (13.4 percent), German (9.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent), Italian (4.6 percent), First Nations (4.4 percent), Indian (4.0 percent)… Ukrainian (3.9 percent), [Dutch (3.23%) and Polish (3.21%)]. There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. 

The Indigenous population in Canada is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada’s population claimed an Indigenous identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-Indigenous visible minority. In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent) and Black (3.5 percent). Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Canada’s population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations.’ 

Those people identifying as British or Irish amount to 45.6%. Added with the 32% that identify as Canadian, which is primarily English as in the main, they are founding families from which the majority were ‘English’ and have dwelt in Canada for two or three centuries they understandably and logically perceive themselves as Canadians, rather than English, Scottish or Irish. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In Canada, Third World immigrants are called “visible minorities” and according to the 2006 census, their numbers increase at a rate five times the growth in the population as a whole [Genesis 9:27]. In the five years between 2001 and 2006, the Third World population increased 27.2 percent to nearly 5.1 million individuals, with the majority coming from China, the Philippines, and India. In 2009, Third World immigrants made up 42.9 percent of Toronto’s residents, and 41.7 percent of Vancouver’s population. As of 2007, nearly 20 percent of Canada’s population [were] born elsewhere, and official government projections are that by 2031, 33 percent of the country’s population will be of Third World immigrant origin. This figure is most likely an underestimate, as the higher reproduction rate… has not been factored in. In reality, Canada is set to lose its white majority population by 2040.’

The United States though comprising a diverse population demographic still harbours a core British and Irish element that influenced not only the genesis of the American nation but still strongly influences American society today… though, for how long? 

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population. The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members. White Amercians of European ancestry, mostly German, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, form the largest racial group, at 73.1% of the population. African Americans constitute the nation’s largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry group, and are around 13% of the total U.S. population. Asian Americans are the country’s second-largest racial minority (the three largest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Filipino, and Indian).’

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… the European-origin element of the American population stood at 64 percent at the beginning of 2010. This is a dramatic decline from 1960, where whites made up 88 percent of the US’s population… In 2009, non-Hispanic whites made up just under half of all children three years old… Just ten years earlier, more than 60 percent of children in that age group were white. According to the 2010 data, nonwhites babies under the age of two outnumbered white babies for the first time… 

Illegal immigration from Latin America is America’s single largest demographic issue, and if allowed to continue unabated, will see much of the US turned into a Third World country within a few decades.

… even though [white Americans] percentage of the total population is set to drop further, their real numbers will remain relatively constant for several decades. After the year 2050 there will be a sudden and dramatic decline, however as old age takes its natural toll (unless the white birthrate increases).’ 

The 2020 Census broke down the United States demographic as the following. White and European – not including Hispanics [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor] – comprised 57.8% of the population of America. The two largest groups are those of German ancestry as well as English. The English percent of 7.1 is bolstered by those old families that now identify as ‘American’ who are mainly of English heritage at 6.1%. This 13.2% is the exact same as the 13.2% who say they are German. 

From a Celtic-Saxon-Viking perspective, including all British and Irish stock who would represent the peoples of Joseph who live in America, one could also add the Irish at 9.7% and the Scottish at 1.7%. Thus the principal descendants of Joseph, would equate to 24.6%. The reality though, is that the peoples of German descent may actually be descendants of Joseph too, and possibly the peoples of Norwegian [1.3%] and Dutch [1.2%] descent. This would produce a grand total of 40.3% of the total population or approximately 135 million people. 

The peak immigration period for Germans was in the mid-nineteenth century, when thousands were driven from their homes by unemployment and unrest. Despite having no successful New World colonies, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the United States in the 1670s and settled principally, in New York and Pennsylvania. Germans were attracted to America for familiar reasons to other immigrants, such as open tracts of land and religious freedom. Their contributions to the nation included establishing the first kindergartens, Christmas trees, hot dogs and hamburgers.

Is there any evidence outside the Bible that when ‘Germans’ as an example, emigrated to the United States, that they were closer ethnically to Israelites in America than Ishmaelites in Germany? Actually, it would seem yes. 

Origin, Yair Davidiy, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… many people of Israelite descent remained in Germany, especially in the west, until around the 1800s when there was a massive migration to the USA. The migrants from Germany to America were different physically, sociologically, and ideologically from those who stayed behind. They were… more liberal and independently minded, often of non-conventional, more fundamental religious persuasion and of a different physical type. In Germany they had belonged to groups and social classes that never actually really belonged to the mainstream of historical German society. Similarly, in Britain, the migrants to America either came mostly from the west and north or they belonged to socially distinct elements that had formed a separate grouping alongside the feudal stratifications that had previously existed. 

In the case of Germany we have descendants of Israelites separating themselves from their non-Israelite neighbors and moving out: Often one village would remain and all inhabitants of the community next door emigrate to America. What applies to Britain and Germany has been studied and documented but the same phenomenon appears to have taken place throughout Europe wherever people of Hebrew origin were to be found.’

Researcher Raymond McNair looked into this question and reported the following – emphasis & bold mine. 

Most true Germans are characterized by “Alpine” round skulls... Yet ethnologist Madison grant writes, “In the study of European populations the great and fundamental fact about the British Isles is the almost total absence there of true Alpine round skulls”. Ripley, in The Races of Europe says, “The most remarkable trait of the population of the British Isles is its head form; and especially the uniformity in every respect which is everywhere manifested. The prevailing type is that of the long and narrow cranium, accompanied by an oval rather than broad or round face“. Remember that this is the same type as the northern Celtic type. It is also the same as the Teutonic, Scandinavian type – the Scythian type!’

In a 1915 article – “Are We Cousins to the Germans?” – Sir Arthur Keith wrote that “the Britons and German represent contrasted and opposite types of humanity“. He explained, “The radical difference in the two forms leaps to the eye. In the majority of the Briton – English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish – the hinder part of the head, the occiput, projects prominently backwards behind the line of the neck;the British head is long in comparison with its width”. Keith then pointed out that “in the vast majority of Germans,” the back of the head is flattened” – indicating “a profound racial difference”… “The explanation,” according to Keith, “is easy. With the exodus of the Franks to France and the Anglo-Saxons to Britain in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth centuries of our era, Germany was almost denuded of her long-headed elements in her population”. 

an older study from R.F. Parsons… showed that the German heads were indeed more rounded than the British heads. The study also reported: In 1925 [a sample of] Germans [shows] the glabello-maximal length averages [are] 189 mm and the breadth 155. In 127 British soldiers they are 191 mm and 149 respectively, and in 103 medical students of British parentage, 194 and [152] (Parsons, R.F. Anthropological observations on German prisoners of war. The Journal of the Royal Anthropologic Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 49, January-July 1919, pages 20-35). 

Britannica [11th Edition, Volume 11] The total number of those who sailed for the United States from 1820 to 1900 may be estimated at more than 4,500,000. The greater number of the more recent immigrants was from the agricultural provinces of northern Germany… It is clear then that the Anglo-Saxon peoples are not Germanic – at least in the modern sense of the term.’

The Germans who left Germany to go to America in the 1800s and particularly before, were different from those who stayed behind. German officials who witnessed the emigration remarked on the physical differences and the ethnic distinction. The distinction also included areas of origin in Germany, religious orientation and social outlook. 

Aside from German ancestry, citizens who claim to be English-American are the next largest group. Predominantly found in the northwest, the west and northeast of the United States, the number of people directly claiming to be English-American has dropped by over twenty million people, since the 1980 United States Census because more citizens who originated from the land of Pilgrims have started to identify themselves as simply, American. 

The majority of the founding fathers of the United States were of English ancestry as have been the majority of United States presidents. But by English, it is meant descending from the tribes of Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia:

‘In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, “Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they’ve been a good or a bad thing for this country.” The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%.’

Ethnic composition of the American Colonies
1700 / %1755 / %1775 / %
English / Welsh80.0English / Welsh52.0English48.7
Other European2.0Irish5.0Scottish6.6
Other European2.0Swedish0.6
Twelve*100.0Thirteen100.0 Colonies100.0
(Province of Georgia not included)

The most English states according to the 2000 census in numbers of people were [Southern States in bold]: 1. California 7.4%; 2. Florida 9.2%;3. Texas 7%; 4. New York 6%; 5. Ohio 9.2%; 6. Pennsylvania 7.9%; 7. Michigan 9.9%; 8. Illinois 6.7%; 9. Virginia 11.1%;10. North Carolina 9.5%.

The states with the highest percentages of people with English ancestry [New England states in bold] included: 1. Utah 29%; 2. Maine 21.5%; 3. Vermont 18.4%; 4. Idaho 18.1%; 5. New Hampshire 18.0%; 6. Wyoming 15.9%; 7. Oregon 13.2%; 8. Montana 12.7%; 9. Delaware 12.1%.

The English as discussed, were the first non-Native Americans to settle the eastern seaboard area that became the United States of America. The first permanent colonies established at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay during 1620 to 1622 and also James Oglethorpe’s settlement in Savannah, Georgia, in 1732. 

‘English joint-stock companies, proprietors, and Crown officials sought to create a modified version of their native society in their American colonies. While many Englishmen came to America to exercise their own religion, and others sought liberation from the religious intolerance on both sides of the Atlantic – as did Roger Williams, fonder of Rhode Island – most English settlers were drawn by the economic opportunities and cheap land.’ [S Hanft, English Americans]. 

Between 1820 and 1930 over four million British immigrants chose the United States as their new home. They brought with them technological skills which helped turn the United States into a major industrial nation by the end of the nineteenth century. Cultural alignment and a common language allowed British immigrants to integrate more rapidly, giving rise to a unique Anglo-American culture. 

America and Britain in Prophecy, Raymond McNair, 1996: 

‘Sharon Turner (1768-1842) … says, “Europe has been populated by three great streams of population from the East… The earliest of these… comprised the Cimmerian and Celtic race. The second consisted of the Scythian, Gothic, and Germanic tribes; from whom most of the modern nations of continental Europe descended… third and most recent… Slavonian and Sarmatian nations… who established themselves in Poland, Bohemia, Russia, and their vicinities. 

It is from the first two generations of European population that the ancient inhabitants of England successively descended… The earliest of these that reached the northern and western confines of Europe, the Cimmerians and Celts, may be regarded as our first ancestors; and from the German or Gothic nations who formed, with the Scythians, the second great flood of population into Europe, our Anglo-Saxon and Norman ancestors proceeded”.’

Ezekiel 34:11-12

Amplified Bible

11 For thus says the Lord God, “Behold, I Myself will search for My flock and seek them out. 12 As a shepherd cares for his sheep on the day that he is among his scattered flock, so I will care for My sheep; and I will rescue them from all the places to which they were scattered on a cloudy and gloomy day.

Even though the tribes were so-called lost, they would be sifted through the nations and eventually allotted new homes. It was understood during the apostolic age that the tribes existed under different nomenclature. 

Colossians 3:11

English Standard Version

11 Here there is not Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, free; but Christ is all, and in all.

The Israelites were known as barbarians and Sycthians as they migrated westwards through Europe. This verse is contrasting between Greeks, Jews and Israelite Scythians, whether ethnically or spiritually, because they had responded to the gospel that Paul and the other apostles were preaching. They could be a slave physically, yet still free spiritually. These same Scythians were synonymous with the later peoples called Saxons. 

It was reported in 2010 “that when teams of geneticists led by Professor Bryan Sykes took DNA samples in the Celtic regions of Britain they discovered ancestries in the Caucasus, which lay within ancient Scythia, and Mediterranean Europe”. 

For the most common variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype #3 the Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database has DYS389i, ii values of 13 and 29, and DYS385a, b values of 11 and 14. This Haplotype differs by just one step upward on the most quickly mutating marker. This Haplotype is very interesting, from the perspective of the YHRD database, because most of the top frequencies are not in Europe but in the United States. Of the top twenty, twelve are among United States populations. Two are Hispanic samples, three are African-American – most likely of Anglo-American origin – and the rest are European American

These samples congregate in areas of the United States settled by English, Scottish, Irish, German and French immigrants. This accords with the Western European origin of the AMH. The Republic of Ireland and London in England appear among the top ten European frequencies, along with four separate locations in The Netherlands. Although descendants would have likely acquired this Haplotype through British ‘Celtic’ ancestry, the multiple hits in the Netherlands suggest a Saxon origin is more than likely. 

This confirms observations made by the late Raymond McNair and others that those immigrants who arrived in America, were somehow different than other Europeans such as with the Germans, who lived nearby, but who stayed behind in Europe. This physical evidence supports the proposition that Americans of Western European origin are different to the peoples they left behind in England, Ireland and Germany and that they are in fact a unique tribe of the sons of Jacob. In this case, the tribe of Joseph and his sons Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh. 

Based upon the information above on Atlantic Modal Haplotype #3, immigration and other data, Raymond G Helmer concluded: ‘In short – haplotype R1b came to the United States from exactly the immigrants that we would expect to carry it. [R G Helmer, The Blood of Mankind – Part III The Blood of America].

Another group who joined the great story of the United States were the Irish, with the great potato famine of the 1840s sparking mass migration from Ireland. Between 1820 and 1920, some 4.5 million Irish are believed to have moved to the United States and settled in large cities like New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago and San Francisco. Currently, almost ten percent [9.7%] of the total population of the United States claim Irish ancestry, some 32.5 million people – compared with a total population of nearly seven million for the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland today [figures include Scots-Irish]. Irish ancestry citizens of note include John F Kennedy and Neil Armstrong.

Other White & European peoples on the 2020 census include Italian 5.1%, French 3.0% and Polish 3.0%. One of the most influential nationalities to migrate in large numbers to the United States were the Italians. Between 1880 and 1920, more than 4 million Italian immigrants arrived in the United States forming ‘Little Italys’ wherever they went. Italians brought their cuisine, culture and entertainment to the United States. A further large wave of Italian immigrants arrived in the country following World War II. 

Historically, along with the English, the French colonised North America first and most successfully in the North East along the border areas of Quebec and in the south around New Orleans and Louisiana. The largest of the Slavic groups to live in the United States, are Polish Americans, who were some of the earliest Eastern European colonists to the New World. Up to 2.5 million Poles arrived in the United States between the mid-nineteenth century and World War I, flocking to the largest industrial cities of New York, Buffalo, Cleveland, Milwaukee and Chicago. 

According to the 2020 Census, the largest non-white minority group is the Hispanic & Latino American peoples comprising 18.7% of the total population. Dominated by Mexican descent at 10.29%. Other Latinos include Puerto Rican 1.49%, Cuban 0.57% and others at 6.35%. 

From 1990 to 2000, the number of people who claimed Mexican ancestry almost doubled in size. Those with Mexican ancestry are most common along the Southwestern border of the United States and they are the largest ancestry in Los Angeles, San Diego, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio and Phoenix. In many states, the Hispanic population doubled between the 2000 and 2010 census. In New Mexico, Hispanics outstripped whites for the first time, reaching forty-six per cent compared to forty per cent. 

While Hispanic communities cover a swath of states from California to Texas, American Indians are more dispersed, with pockets of populations in states including Arizona, New Mexico, Montana and the Dakotas, with a higher concentration of Alaska Natives in Alaska of the total 0.7% they comprise of the American population. The Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders account for 0.2% of the population. 

The second biggest minority group is the African-American at 12.1%. Black or African-American is a term for citizens of the United States who have ancestry in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of African Americans are descended from slaves from West and Central Africa and have become an integral part of the story of the United States, gaining the right to vote with the 15th amendment in 1870, but struggling with their civil rights for at least another century. Predominantly living in the south of the nation where they were brought to work on the cotton plantations and as slaves in the late eighteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries; Black Americans also have sizeable communities in the Chicago area of Illinois and in Detroit, Michigan. 

The third biggest minority group is the Asian American at 5.9%. It comprises Chinese 1.2%; Filipino 1.1%; Indian 1.0,%; Vietnamese 0.5% and other Asians at 1.8%. Finally Middle Eastern peoples according to the 2010 Census accounted for 3.2% of the total population, of which there were Arab 0.54%; Iranian 0.1501%; Armenian 0.1537% and Jewish at 2.11%. 

The United States has its roots in being a welcoming homeland for immigrants, though that hasn’t always been the case. As waves of new arrivals flooded United States shores in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a movement to restrict who was allowed into the country took hold as well. In 1882, Congress enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first major federal law to put immigration limits in place and the only one in American history aimed at a specific nationality. It came into being in response to fears, primarily on the West Coast, that an influx of Chinese immigrants was weakening economic conditions and lowering wages. This law was extended in 1902. 

Other laws followed. For instance the Immigration Act of 1917, which created an Asiatic Barred Zone to restrict immigration from East Asia and the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which limited the number of immigrants from any country to three percent of those people from that country who had been living in the United States as of 1910. 

The 1924 Immigration Act capped the number of immigrants from a particular country at two percent of the population of that country already living in the United States in 1890. This favoured immigrants from northern and western European countries like Great Britain over immigrants from southern and eastern European countries such as Italy. 

It prevented any immigrant ineligible for citizenship from coming to America. Since laws already on the books prohibited people of any Asian origin from becoming citizens they were completely barred entry. The law was revised in 1952, though retained the quota system based on country of origin in the United States population and still only allowed low quotas for Asian nations. 

‘Speaking to the American Committee on Italian Migration in June 1963, President Kennedy cited the “nearly intolerable” plight of those who had family members in other countries who wanted to come to the U.S. and could be useful citizens, but were being blocked by “the inequity and maldistribution of the quota numbers.” Two years later, in signing into law a replacement system that established a uniform number of people allowed entry to the United States despite national origin, President Lyndon B Johnson said it would correct “a cruel and enduring wrong in the conduct of the American nation.”’ 

As discussed in length in the preceding chapter [Chapter XXXII Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali] it is next to impossible to find studies on the European component of the English speaking nations outside of the English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish and Irish of the British and Irish Isles. An excellent study is the one presented by Richard Morrill. 

Morrill touches upon the lack of research to draw upon. It is recommended that Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad, are read prior to this chapter. What we do know is that the core American, whether they be descended from Manasseh or Ephraim will eventually be shown to have a unique set of Haplogroups, similar yet distinct from other English speaking, Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples. 

The key Y-DNA Haplogroups for the descendants of Jacob are R1b and I1 and to a lesser degree R1a and I2. We would expect to find the same groups and similar ratios within the British descended American peoples. 

Race, Ancestry, and Genetic Composition of the U.S. Richard Morrill, Professor Emeritus of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Washington, 2015 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Race and ancestry, or countries/peoples of origin, are popular topics, with large amounts of data attempting to help us understand the ethnic nature of the country. In this paper I attempt a summary description of the intersections of race, ancestry, and genome, at the state level, but I hasten to emphasize that the “findings” are tentative, highly uncertain, and based on astoundingly unreliable data. I hope some readers may point the way to better data or safer interpretations. Table 1 presents a summary of numbers of people by ”race” by broad ancestral/ethnic or countries of origin together with the main Y-DNA (male) genetic haplogroups associated with the racial and ancestral groups. [Note: I have not altered any figures in Tables 1, 2 or 3. I have tidied up the wording in some of the cells]. The haplogroups are male individuals who share a particular mutation or common male ancestor up to 50,000 years ago. All this is uncertain and speculative, for these reasons. The race and ancestral identifications are self-reported, and subject to lying as well as ignorance. But we still can make beautiful detailed maps, down to the county level! The numbers of persons with good DNA analyses are too few to permit highly confident estimates at useful levels of geography. But let’s see what we have.’

Table 1Race, Ancestry, Haplogroups

GroupNumber (millions)Ancestry groupNumber (millions)Haplogroups

White, non-Hispanic192England, Scotland, Ireland87R1bI



France & Belgium12R1b


Eastern Europe16R1aI,J,N

Balkans, Near east2J, G

White Hispanic23Mexico16R1b

Central America,Caribbean7R1b



Asian14Moderate white admixtureO

Native American34US, AK5QR1b

Latin America29

Pacific Islander0.4Hawaii white admixture
up to 50%



‘Well, some 215 million people are probably mainly white (69%), of which 192 million (61%) are self-identified non-Hispanic white. The difference of 23 million are people who identify as white and Hispanic. About 40 million identify as Black or African-American, although there is probably an admixture of 20 percent or more of “whiteness”.  Up to 14 million identify as of Asian origin, but as many as 1 million may be white in genetics and appearance, e.g. people from Afghanistan, NW India or West Pakistan.  Finally less than 1 million identify as Pacific Islanders.’

We have discussed in Chapter XIII Cush & Phut and Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor, the identity of the Indian, Pakistani and the Hispanic-Latino descended Americans and their Hamitic, or equatorial* descent. They are not descended from European or western peoples via Shem.

‘This leaves a large number of 34 million who identify as all or partly Native American, including about 5 million Alaskan or US Native American, about half of whom are clearly Native American, but about half of whom appear to be and are probably genetically mostly white. Then 29 million are “Mexican” or Caribbean, etc., not a race, but a perceived or actual combination of Spanish (some Portuguese) and Native Americans, from the US southwest, central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Even though these people legitimately identify as a mix of Native and Spanish, most are genetically* “white”.

Ancestry, country of origin, or ethnicity are even harder categories. The complexity is incredible. Not only have the “countries” changed again and again over the last few centuries, but persons’ stated identities, which can be multiple, are often bewildering, because of centuries of mixing, often with people who may not know their heritage. For example, some 20 million identify as “American” which is perfectly reasonable, if they are descended from early immigrants (1620 to 1820). People also do reasonably identify with more than one country/people, but these combinations are not tabulated, and it is difficult to claim accuracy from the data on ancestry. Finally, most of our ancestries are European countries, but we know from both history and genetic analysis that people have mingled and moved within “Europe” for thousands of years.’

This is where Haplogroups and the percentages are key as they point towards a European origin that is either more British, Germanic, French, Italian, Iberian, Baltic or Slavic.

‘Given these warnings, what do we almost know? The largest groupings of non-Hispanic whites first the English-Scottish-Irish at some 87 million, 28% of the population, followed by Germans (including Dutch, Austrian, Swiss) at about 50 million, and Scandinavians at 10 million. Others from Western Europe include 16 million from Italy and probably 12 million from France. Eastern Europe is the origin of about 16 million, including 9 million from Poland, 3.5 million from Russia, and 1.5 million from both Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and over 1 million from Greece. About 2 million are from the eastern Balkans and the Middle East.’

A high percentage if not all of those people claiming German, Dutch and Scandinavian ancestry are the same peoples as the British and Irish. A proportion of the French, if they originated from northwestern France may also be included. 

‘As discussed above, self-identified Hispanic whites number some 23 million, people with an African origin perhaps 40 million, of an Asian origin, 13 million, then up to 34 million as from Native American or Native-American-Spanish admixture. Much has been learned about the genetic evolution of humans and of their complex migration… across the globe. Since the majority of Americans are of European ancestry, the genome story of Europe translates to the genetic structure of the United States.  Table 2 summarizes the numbers of persons by haplogroup estimated for the US population. In Table 1 I added an estimate of the haplogroups associated with the racial-ancestral combinations. These are tentative and will be worked on further.’  

Table 2Major haplogroups
GroupPopulation% of populationAreas
R1b15650Western Europe
I4413Central Europe
R1a166Eastern Europe
J145Southeast Europe & Near East
G124Southwest Asia
Q93Native American
N20.7Baltic, Siberia
M0.50.2Pacific Island

‘The relevant haplogroups are:

  • E… still dominant in Africa, and the many descendant groups of equally old
  • F, which developed in south Asia (India-Pakistan)… All F subgroups seem to have differentiated in the same hearth area (India to the Caucasus)…
  • G occurs in modest numbers in Italy, Turkey and the Balkans,
  • N in the Baltic countries and Siberia,
  • I divided into I1, still strongly Scandinavian and I2 in south Italy and the west Balkans
  • J in Greece and the Middle East (includes most Jews).
  • R1b… Europe, dominant from Italy through France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium on through England and Ireland (plus North Africa).
  • R1a is strongest in Eastern Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Russia)
  • O, Asian
  • Q, Native American

In the tables and maps I distinguish between the R1B peoples dominantly English, German or French-Italian, andan R1bh population, which is the self-reported American Hispanic population…

How does this translate to US states (besides with difficulty)? The estimates are based on the self-reported ancestry of people by states and related to the haplogroups of those ancestries. Please see Table 3 and three maps of states the classification is based on the top 2 or 3 relevant haplogroups. [Hawaii] is unique as the only state with a dominant O, Asian, group, and the District of Columbia as the only area dominated by E (African origin).

Four states, KS, ME, NH, and WV are most strongly just R1b (West European – English, German and Italian-French). The largest number of states, 12, the historic south, plus MO, are primarily R1b and secondarily E. Six states are also strong in R1b and E, but also in R1a, eastern Europe, IN, MD, MI, OH, NY (also has Hispanic and Jewish), and PA. Somewhat similar are IL and NJ (notice that many of these are contiguous), with R1b, E, and R1bh.’

Estimated Haplogroups for US states

StateDominant groupShare2nd (share)3rd (share)4th (share)
Rb1 EnglishRb1 GermanRb1 French-Italian
ALR1b50E 25

AKR1b56Q 13I 7R1a 6
AZR1b53R1bh 25E 7R1a 6
ARR1b70E 13

CAR1b37R1bh 30O 14E 7R1a519117
COR1b68R1bh 16R1a 6I 6
CTR1b76R1a 15

DER1b69E 14

DCE43R1b 31

FLR1b52R1bh 20E 15R1a8J 5301210
GAR1b50E 30

HIO 40
R1b  22M 16

IDR1b70I 8

ILR1b56E 15R1bh 12R1a 6
INR1b69E 7R1a 6



KYR1b71E 7

LAR1b55E 25


MDR1b53E 24R1a 8

MAR1b80R1a 8

MIR1b69E 14R1a 11J 5
MNR1b68I 16 +R1a 8

MSR1b44E 28

MOR1b74E 12

MTR1b78I 11Q 7

NER1b79R1a 11I 9

NVR1b51R1bh 20


NJR1b58E 17R1bh 13R1a >12J 8261319
NMR1b55R1bh 35Q >10

NYR1b56E 15R1a 10R1bh 9J 7261317
NCR1b55E 20

NDR1b72I>10R1a 9

OHR1b66E 12R1a >10

OKR1b55Q 10E 7

ORR1b67I 9

PAR1b77R1a 11E 10

RIR1b89R1a 7

SCR1b53E 28

SDR1b70I 20?Q 9R1a6
TNR1b59E 17

TXR1b49R1bh 30E 13

UTR1b65I 13R1bh 12

VTR1b93R1a 5

VAR1b56E 20

WAR1b63I >10O 7R1bh 6

WVR1b77I >10R1a >10

WYR1b80Q 5I >5


‘The [first] map includes a set with the R1b and I1 combination (high in Scandinavian also), ID, IA, and OR, a related pair with a significant R1bh presence, UT and WA, which also has a sizeable O population. Also related are MT and SD, with R1b, I but also Q (Native American). States with R1b, I and also R1a (Eastern Europe) include MN, NE, ND and WI. Three states have R1b, then Q or Q and I:  OK<WY and AK (the highest Q share at 13%).’ 

‘The [second] map shows first four states with R1b and R1a, all in New England: CT, MA, RI and VT. CO and NV have the combination of R1b and R1bh.’ 

CA [California] is quite complex, with only a modest R1b share [Western European], a very large r1bh share [Hispanic], and also a sizeable O [East Asian and Polynesian] and then E [African-American] share. AZ and NM also have R1b, R1bh, but also Q (Native American).  FL is also complex, with R1b, R1bh, but also E, R1a and J.’

California shows a higher Hispanic element in its population as well as Black and Asian compared to European stock. If we contrast New Hampshire and New Mexico with each other; New Mexico has 55% R1b and 35% R1bh as indicative of its Latino element being 35% of the State’s population and 10% Q of its Native American component, either separate or part of the Hispanic proportion. The R1b split shows that its white population have 5% southern European influence, 17% Central European and 33% Western European. 

New Hamphire on the other hand reveals its beginnings with purely European stock of 96% with little or no Black or Hispanic influence. Its R1b split shows that 10% of its population have central European ancestry, 37% have southern European heritage and 50% have western European or British and Irish descent. 

The state of Maine has the highest western European R1b percentage at 56%. Rhode island has the highest southern European R1b percentage at 45% and North Dakota has the highest central European R1b influence at 46%. Connecticut appears to have the highest level of eastern European R1a at 15%, New Mexico the highest Latino R1bh at 35% and Washington DC the highest level of African-American E1b1b at 43%.’

‘I also present a few maps of ancestry combinations. The shares of English (plus Scot and Irish), German (plus Austria, Netherlands and Switzerland) and French-Italian (plus Belgium) – all part of the R1b group, are also shown in Table 3. English and German (19 states) and German and English (7) are the most common ancestries of Americans (Map 4). English and German by themselves dominate most in KS and WV. Scandinavian is added to English-German for ID, OR and WA (which also adds Asian), and to German-English, for IA, MN, ND, SD, then together with East European for NE and WI. These 11 states are the most “northern European”. Native Americans are added most for MT, OK, WY and especially AK (now 15 states) and then a Hispanic component to CO and UT.’

‘The English-German and German-English sets include 8 more states with a sizeable Black population, AR, DE, IL, IN, KY, MI and MO, and OH, then PA with a sizeable French-Italian and East European population as well. The full set is also a contiguous bloc across much of the north, and crossing into the south central. Not surprising (Map 5) is the English Hispanic (AZ, NV) and Hispanic-English, (NM, plus CA and TX, with additional Asian and German, and Black and French-Italian, respectively), covering the southwest, plus FL, adding a Black population). An English-Black combination coves the rest of the southern portion of the country – LA (Black English, French), then AL. GA, MS, NC, SC, TN and even MD.’

‘This leaves, (Map 6) besides HI and DC, a northeastern set of 8 states with a distinctive combination of English and French-Italian, CT, ME, NH, RI, VT, plus MA, adding E European) and complex NY, adding Black and East European. The entire mosaic reveals the fascinating stories of immigration and subsequent migration, still ongoing and becoming ever more complex.’

Regarding Haplogroups, it is recommended for those readers who have not been constant readers to read Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad before the next section; since we lack major MtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroup studies for British Canadian and American citizens. The main mtDNA Haplogroups for the British, Irish and closely related peoples of western Europe are reproduced in the table below. 

                            H       J      T2      K      HV        U5    HV0+V

Wales                60     15       1        8                       4           4

Benelux            47       6        9      12     0.7           3            3

Denmark          47     13       6        9                      6            4

Norway             46     11       8        5      0.2         11            4

Sweden             46      8       4        6      0.5         12            5

Sephardim       46      5                  8         8                         9

England            45    13       6         8                      9            3

Netherlands     45     11      12      10                      8           8

Germany           45      9       8        7     0.5            9           4

Scotland           44    13       6        7      0.2            8           3

Ireland              44    11       5      12          1            8           6

One would expect Canadians and Americans of Celtic-Saxon-Viking stock to be somewhere within this grouping of family nations descended from Abraham; which includes Keturah, Ishmael, Esau and Jacob. The sixty-four thousand dollar question, is where? My guess would be between Ireland and Scotland for Americans and for Canadians, between Scotland and England.

With regard to Y-DNA Haplogroups: “Haplogroup R-M269 is the sub-clade of human Y-chromosome Haplogroup R1b that is defined by the SNP marker M269. According to ISOGG 2020 it is phylogenetically classified as R1b1a1b.” R-M269 is the most common European Haplogroup, in the genetic composition of mainly Western Europe; increasing in frequency from an east to west gradient. For instance in Poland it is found in 22.7% of the male population, compared to Wales at 92.3% and is carried by over 110 million European men. Scientists propose that the age of the M269 mutation is somewhere between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago. The time frame is plausible and neatly fits with the birth of Peleg and hence the beginning of the R1b mutation, circa 7727 BCE – according to an unconventional chronology. The most recently significant R1b mutations originated with Abraham and his descendants beginning in 1977 BCE.

The sub-Haplogroup R1b-U106 (S21) is more frequent in central to western Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany; R-U198 is most prevalent in England, while the sub-lineage R-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula; R-U152 is more frequent in Switzerland, France and Italy, and R-M529 in the Celtic nations of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. 

It is here that we would obtain proof of how German the descendants of Germans are in the United States, for if they are German as in descending from Ishmael, the dominant R1b they would carry would be U106. If though they are from the tribe of Joseph, then one would expect these German peoples to carry an R1b strain that was either M529 or U198. Until more research is conducted, or studies made apparent, this will remain a tantalising question remaining to be answered. 

We have kept a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we have investigated. 

Turkey            R-M269   14% — R-U106   0.4%

Russia             R-M269   21% — R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia          R-M269   17% — R-U106      4%

Poland             R-M269   23% — R-U106     8% 

Ukraine           R-M269   25% — R-U106     9%

Czech               R-M269   28% — R-U106   14% 

France             R-M269   52% — R-U106     7%

Italy                  R-M269   53% — R-U106    6%

Swiss                R-M269   58% — R-U106   13%

Netherlands    R-M269   54% — R-U106  35%

Denmark         R-M269   34% — R-U106   17%

Austria             R-M269   27% — R-U106   23%

Germany         R-M269   43% — R-U106    19%

England           R-M269   57%  — R-U106   20%

Ireland:           R-M269   80%  — R-U106      6%

USA:                R-M269   46%  — R-U106    15%

With the addition of the United States we can see that its Central European component of R-U106 matches the most closely, the Czechs, Swiss, Danes, Germans and English. Its more western R1b Haplotype R-M269, most closely matches Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and England. Overall, the United States matches Germany the most closely. This is an interesting finding and a little surprising that it does not match England more closely?

The sixty-four thousand dollar question again, is whether this is because the white, western European, British and Irish driven R1b percentages for Americans are truly more aligned with Germany, or whether they very probably, show admixture, that only a comprehensive study of British and Irish descended Americans could answer if there are higher levels of R-M269 and of R-U106 in keeping with the levels of England, in particular for instance. 

Y-chromosome haplogroups in US populations, Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog, 2005 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘For the US population as a whole: The most common haplogroup is R-M269 (37.8%), which is found in all of the ethnic groups. This haplogroup predominates in Western European populations. E-P1 [E1b/E1b1a], the second most frequent haplogroup in the U.S. (17.7%), is the most common haplogroup in West African populations. It is found at high frequencies in our AA samples, and at lower frequencies in HA samples from the Eastern U.S. Three haplogroups that originate in Northern and Western European populations include I-P30 [I1] (6.1%), the third most common haplogroup in our U.S. sample, I-P19  [I2a1] (2.8%) and I-P37 [I2a2] (1.6%). Haplogroups that likely originate in Eastern and Southern European populations are also present in our U.S. database, including R-M17  [R1a] (3.4%), E-M78 [E1b1b] (2.4%), G-P15 [G2a] (2.4%), and J-M172 [J2](1.5%). The fourth and fifth most frequent haplogroups in our database, Q-P36 (5.9%) and Q-M3 (5.8%), along with C-P39 (1.5%), are founding Native-American Y chromosomes. These haplogroups are frequent in our NA and HA samples, and are found at low frequency in our AA, EA, and SA samples. Asian-derived chromosomes, primarily in haplogroups O and N, are extremely rare in all but our SA sample.’

This article presents an overall picture of Y-DNA Haplogroups that is helpful in part, yet still lacking the specific Haplogroup sequencing we require for the original core of the American demographic. Putting this information with the more recent percentage for R-M269 and adding to the table below gives an idea of where the United States sits in relation to its brother and cousin nations, but not a wholly accurate view.

                           R1b      J      E1b1b       G         R1a        I

Ireland               81       2            2           1            3        12

N Ireland           77       2                                       2        20     

Wales                 74    0.5            4           3           1         16

Scotland            73        2            2       0.5           9         14

England             67       4             2           2          5         21

Flanders             61       5             5           4          4        20

France                59       8             8          6           3        16

Netherlands      49       4             4          5           4        25

Germany           45        5             6          5         16        22

United States   46        2           2          2           3         11 

Italy                    39      19           14          9           4        10

Sephardim        30      28          19          8           4        12

The five nations of Britain and Ireland immediately standout as belonging together, as well as separately from their near family members in the western portions of the continent. The English show the greatest levels of admixture. This is not surprising as one, they are the largest nation and two have been geographically placed to be impacted the most by the invading migratory waves of Israelites. A reflected scenario of these factors in England is indicative of the United States, who has also experienced a great inpouring of waves of emigrants over a period of three hundred years. 

The principle Y-DNA Haplogroup percentages aside from R1b and E1b1b are probably a fair reflection. What is not, is the higher level of E1b1b as contributed in the main by the African American population and the lower percentage of R1b that reflects the United States as a whole, but not those people of Israelite descent from the tribes of Ephraim and West Manasseh. 

… and [they] who have lived wisely and well will shine brilliantly, like the cloudless, star-strewn night skies. And those who put others on the right path to life will glow like stars forever. This is… for your eyes and ears only… [a] secret. Put the book under lock and key until the [time of the] end. In the interim there is going to be a lot of frantic running around, [by people] trying to figure out what’s going on.

Daniel 12:3-4 The Message

“An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it.”

Mahatma Gandhi

“With great power there must also come – great responsibility”

Spider Man, Amazing Fantasy No. 15 – 1962

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad – the Celtic Tribes

Chapter XXXI

In the last chapter, we briefly mentioned Wales identity as Simeon. Wherever Judah is, Simeon will not just be next to them, but part of them. Only one nation and former Principality, could fulfil this role. [Since 1542, Wales have with England, constituted the Kingdom of England. Though Wales ceased being a Principality between 1535 to 1543, it was only in 2011 that its status as a country was made official by the ISO].

Scotland has its own law, distinct from English law, its own issued bank notes and currency of pound sterling and its parliament has law making powers beyond that of the Welsh Parliament. The Welsh have the same law as England and as we learned in the preceding chapter [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin], they constitute with England, the Kingdom of England. 

The ‘lost ten tribes’ is a misnomer as all thirteen tribes were lost. The separating of the tribes into ten for the Kingdom of Israel and two for the Kingdom of Judah is misleading, as not just the House of Benjamin was united with the House of Judah, but many from the family of Kohath from Levi and the tribe of Simeon were also integral to the United Kingdom of Judah; as these four are the core of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Today, Northern Ireland is part of that United Kingdom, though for how long – for its destiny is to join its Israelite brothers. 

It is ironically, ten tribes if we include Joseph as split into three, Ephraim, the half tribe of West Manasseh and the half tribe of East Manasseh. If we don’t split them, as identity researchers would, then it would technically be the ‘eight’ lost tribes: Joseph, Reuben, Issachar, Zebulon, Gad, Asher, Dan and Naphtali. 

As Judah is typically ascribed to the Jews and Benjamin either to the Jews or to Abraham and Keturah’s children of Norway or Iceland; Simeon is ascribed to either Scotland or rightfully, Wales. One identity expert presents a case for the American Irish. In my investigation, Northern England was considered as well. 

Reuben and Gad had a historical relationship, which we will see replicated by other brothers; in that half brothers lived next to each other instead of with their full blood brother. In this case Gad from Leah’s handmaid Bilhah and Reuben from Leah both crossed the River Jordan to settle on the eastern border lands of Israel in Canaan. They lived next to East Manasseh, Ammon and Moab. Today, they live next to each other and share the land of the Emerald Isle. They are in juxtapostion with the three nations on the British mainland and to their west is the half tribe of East Manasseh as would be expected. 

Gad is the Republic of Ireland and Reuben is Northern Ireland, dominated by the Province of Ulster. As the brothers Reuben, Simeon and Levi with their half brother Gad are all intertwined in their histories and within the islands of Ireland and Britain it is logical to discuss them within the same chapter. We will probably revert back to Benjamin and the Picts at times because of their shared history of living in Northern Ireland, prior to settling in Alba. 

Genesis 29:31-34; 30:9-10

English Standard Version

31 When the Lord saw that Leah was hated [loved less than Rachel], he opened her womb, but Rachel was barren. 

32 And Leah conceived and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben [see a Son], for she said, “Because the Lord has looked upon my affliction; for now my husband will love me.” 33 She conceived again and bore a son, and said, “Because the Lord has heard that I am hated, he has given me this son also.” And she called his name Simeon [heard]. 34 Again she conceived and bore a son, and said, “Now this time my husband will be attached to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore his name was called Levi [attached]… 9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife. 10 Then Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, “Good fortune has come!” so she called his name Gad [good fortune].

Reuben’s name derives from the verb ra’a, ‘to see’ or ‘understand’ and the noun ben, ‘son’ meaning ‘behold a son, son of vision, a son who’s seen.’ Reuben was Jacob’s first son and first by Leah, born in 1752 BCE. Recall that the Reu prefix is a family name for Arphaxad. Reu was a son of Peleg. There is a Reuel a son of Esau, a Reuel associated with Moses’s father-in-law, a Benjamite [1 Chronicles 9:8] and a chief of Gad, Eliasaph who was the son of a Reuel [Numbers 2:14]. 

Simeon was the second born to Jacob and Leah in 1750 BCE and his name comes from the verb shama’ ‘to hear.’ Levi was Jacob and Leah’s third son, born in 1748 BCE and his name stems from the verb lawa, ‘to join’ or ‘connect.’ Gad meanwhile was born in 1744 BCE to Leah’s handmaid Zilpah. 

Gad was Jacob’s seventh son, Leah’s fifth including Zilpah’s sons and Zilpah’s eldest of two. Gad’s name derives from the verb gadad, ‘to cut, invade’ and ‘expose.’ Jones’s Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names says: ‘Good luck.’ Everyone has heard of “the luck of the Irish.” 

This saying is applicable to the Irish of the Republic. The nation of Ireland is Gad. Reuben equates to the Protestant peoples of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has a unique status, and so he is ‘a son who’s seen, or behold a son’, as in a people… not a sovereign state; not a province, as it is comprised of six of the total nine counties of Ulster; not a nation; though it is both a region and constituent country of the United Kingdom. 

Gad is invariably ascribed to Switzerland and one identity expert offers Sweden. Reuben is unanimously identified as France. We have discussed the Swiss from Haran and the French from Moab & Ammon in Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon and the Swedes from Keturah in Chapter XXVII Abraham.

Genesis 34:1-31

English Standard Version

Now Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to see the women of the land. 2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he seized her and lay with her and humiliated her. 3 And his soul was drawn to Dinah the daughter of Jacob. He loved the young woman and spoke tenderly to her. 

4 So Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this girl for my wife.”

5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah. But his sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob held his peace until they came. 6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. 7 The sons of Jacob had come in from the field as soon as they heard of it, and the men were indignant and very angry, because he had done an outrageous thing in Israel by lying with Jacob’s daughter, for such a thing must not be done.

Shechem had a strange way of showing his love for Dinah, through rape. Shechem became obsessed with Dinah. Dinah must have been alluring in personality as well as in looks. One wonders what seeing ‘the women of the land’ means. Did Shechem mis-read Dinah and then afterwards, realise she was unique and that he wanted her as his wife. We have discussed the fact that Dinah was Zebulun’s twin. This means she was Leah’s last of seven children. Leah was thirty-four in 1740 BCE when she had Dinah. After Jacob had left his father-in-law, Laban and reconciled with Esau in 1720 BCE, he settled in Shechem. Thus Dinah visiting the women of the land, must have been locally where they were living. Recall in Chapter XXIX Esau, we studied Job and the possibility his second wife was a descendant of Dinah.

8 But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter. Please give her to him to be his wife. 9 Make marriages with us. Give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves. 10 You shall dwell with us, and the land shall be open to you. Dwell and trade in it, and get property in it.” 11 Shechem also said to her father and to her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you say to me I will give. 12 Ask me for as great a bride-price and gift as you will, and I will give whatever you say to me. Only give me the young woman to be my wife.”

We have studied the Hivites and the different peoples that went by that name: the original Hivites from Canaan’s son Hiv [refer Chapter XII Canaan], Nephilim [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega] and the fact that certain descendants of Shem also became known by Canaanite names after the original sons of Canaan had migrated to North Africa [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. These Hivites fall into the third category and their link with the Midianites and Kenites was explored in chapter XXVII Abraham. What is also interesting is that these circumstances of the Israelites living adjacent to the Hivites and the Hivite’s willingness to share has been replicated in South Africa – modern day Sidon [refer Chapter XXIII Aram] – between the Dutch Afrikaans and the British. We will also find that Dinah’s connection with the Hivite, Shechem and that fact her brother is Zebulun, much more than a passing coincidence. 

13 The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and his father Hamor deceitfully, because he had defiled their sister Dinah. 

14 They said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised, for that would be a disgrace to us. 15 Only on this condition will we agree with you – that you will become as we are by every male among you being circumcised. 

16 Then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters to ourselves, and we will dwell with you and become one people [a bold faced lie]. 17 But if you will not listen to us and be circumcised, then we will take our daughter, and we will be gone.”

18 Their words pleased Hamor and Hamor’s son Shechem. 19 And the young man did not delay to do the thing, because he delighted in Jacob’s daughter [they may have been married at this point]. Now he was the most honored of all his father’s house. 20 So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city and spoke to the men of their city, saying, 21 “These men are at peace with us; let them dwell in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters as wives, and let us give them our daughters. 22 Only on this condition will the men agree to dwell with us to become one people – when every male among us is circumcised as they are circumcised. 23 Will not their livestock, their property and all their beasts be ours? Only let us agree with them, and they will dwell with us.” 24 And all who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.

25 On the third day, when they were sore, two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, took their swords and came against the city while it felt secure [at night] and killed all the males. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the sword and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house and went away. 27 The [other] sons of Jacob came upon the slain and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister. 

It was a cruel trick that began with a lie and ended in murder; though none less than Shechem deserved. For Shechem had abused his position of authority to do as he liked, assuming Jacob’s family would accept his whims. It would have been enough to stop there, particularly as Shechem wished to make amends and do right by Dinah. It is here that we learn more about Simeon and Levi. If Dinah was about twenty-five – it may have happened earlier – it would have been 1717 BCE and Simeon would have been thirty-three and Levi, thirty-one. 

It is apparent that Simeon and Levi were very similar, they were both emotional and impetuous and they acted in one accord, believing a savage act of retribution was moral. It is admirable that they sought justice for Dinah’s shame, though it was a step too far. It circumnavigated the future that the Creator may have preferred for Shechem, Dinah and not forgetting Simeon. Note that Simeon’s brothers supported him and Levi in following up what they had started. Intriguingly, it did not seem to deter the Eternal from giving Levi’s descendants the responsibility of the priesthood.

28 They took their flocks and their herds, their donkeys, and whatever was in the city and in the field. 29 All their wealth, all their little ones and their wives, all that was in the houses, they captured and plundered.

30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me by making me stink to the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites.My numbers are few, and if they gather themselves against me and attack me, I shall be destroyed, both I and my household.” 31 But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?”

The chapter ends abruptly, though the trouble Jacob envisioned either didn’t happen or didn’t amount to much. As they were living near the Hivites, it makes sense Jacob was concerned. Jacob is displaying his customary worry; a trait of his – that we have witnessed previously – and not always relying on the Eternal as much as he could. The Hivites and their allies may have deemed the Israelites too dangerous and decided to let it lie. 

Previously, we read the Genesis account of Joseph in Egypt when his brothers visited in 1687 BCE during the seven years of famine that occurred during 1689 to 1682 BCE. We have discussed Jacob’s, Judah and Benjamin’s involvement. Reuben and Simeon are also discussed in the narrative. 

Genesis 42:18-37; 43:16-23

English Standard Version

18 On the third day Joseph said to them, “Do this and you will live, for I fear God: 19 if you are honest men, let one of your brothers remain confined where you are in custody, and let the rest go and carry grain for the famine of your households, 20 and bring your youngest brother [Benjamin] to me. So your words will be verified, and you shall not die.” And they did so. 21 Then they said to one another, “In truth we are guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when he begged us and we did not listen. That is why this distress has come upon us.” 22 And Reuben answered them, “Did I not tell you not to sin against the boy? But you did not listen. So now there comes a reckoning for his blood.” 23 They did not know that Joseph understood them, for there was an interpreter between them. 24 Then he turned away from them and wept. And he returned to them and spoke to them.And he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes. 25 And Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain, and to replace every man’s money in his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. This was done for them.

35 As they emptied their sacks, behold, every man’s bundle of money was in his sack. And when they and their father saw their bundles of money, they were afraid. 36 And Jacob their father said to them, “You have bereaved me of my children: Joseph is no more, and Simeon is no more, and now you would take Benjamin. All this has come against me.” 37 Then Reuben said to his father, “Kill my two sons [Hanoch and Pallu were the eldest and second born of four sons] if I do not bring him back to you. Put him in my hands, and I will bring him back to you.” 

16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house, “Bring the men into the house, and slaughter an animal and make ready, for the men are to dine with me at noon.” 17 The man did as Joseph told him and brought the men to Joseph’s house. 18 And the men were afraid because they were brought to Joseph’s house, and they said, “It is because of the money, which was replaced in our sacks the first time, that we are brought in, so that he may assault us and fall upon us to make us servants and seize our donkeys.” 

19 So they went up to the steward of Joseph’s house and spoke with him at the door of the house, 20 and said, “Oh, my lord, we came down the first time to buy food. 21 And when we came to the lodging place we opened our sacks, and there was each man’s money in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight. So we have brought it again with us, 22 and we have brought other money down with us to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks.” 23 He replied, “Peace to you, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has put treasure in your sacks for you. I received your money.” Then he brought Simeon out to them.

Recall that Reubens’s secret plan was to release Joseph so that he wouldn’t die. Judah resorted to a plan that also meant Jospeh wouldn’t die, but unlike Reuben’s plan it meant pretending he had died. Reuben again, feels honour bound to make a bad situation better by offering at that time, both his sons. It is not clear why Simeon is selected to be held as a prisoner. It poses a series of questions. The only matter we know about Simeon is his act of vengeful violence. Could this have been on Joseph’s mind? Dinah is never spoken of again after Simeon and Levi’s atrocity. Some offer that Dinah may have died with her husband during the chaos of that night. If so, circa 1717 BCE meant Joseph would have been nine or ten years of age. Joseph may have held Simeon accountable if Dinah had been lost. If Job married a descendant of Dinah [refer Chapter XXIX Esau] as alleged, did she have a child by Shechem? 

Genesis 48:5

English Standard Version

5 And now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, as Reuben and Simeon are.

Jacob is speaking to Joseph and in a dramatic turn of events, takes or adopts his two grandsons as his very own sons. This means they would share in the birthright blessings promised to Joseph. The birthright if you will, skipped a generation, or, that Manasseh and Ephraim were elevated to actual sons of Jacob. Twelve sons became thirteen. What is very interesting is that Reuben and Simeon are stated together. Was the original intention to split the birthright blessing? 

Recall the Sceptre of Rulership and Royalty was given to Jacob’s fourth son Judah. The Priestly line of service was given to Levi, Jacob’s third born son. It appears credible that Reuben and Simeon were to be the recipients of a split blessing. If so, this means one of the peoples that became the Welsh and the Northern Irish would have instead become a great nation and the other would have become an even greater nation comprised of many peoples. All four sons were born to Jacob’s wife Leah and all four sons were caught out in compromising acts of weakness of character. Judah’s were discussed in length in Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin.

The descriptions of Jacob’s sons, with future prophecies are addressed by Jacob, Moses and the Ephraimite Judge Deborah.

Genesis 49:5-7

English Standard Version

5 “Simeon and Levi are [close] brothers; weapons of violence are their swords. 

The Message: Simeon and Levi are two of a kind, ready to fight at the drop of a hat.

Simeon and Levi were joined at the hip as they say and were obviously close brothers. Historically, a sword is a symbol for Simeon as are fortifications or castles. Interestingly, there are far more castles in Wales than any other country in the world per square mile; some six hundred, with some having been lived in for over a thousand years. The King James version says that they were ‘instruments of cruelty.’

6 Let my soul come not into their council [their discussions]; O my glory, be not joined to their company [their plans]. For in their anger they killed men, and in their willfulness [H7522 ratsown: ‘pleasure, desire, self-will’] they hamstrung [H6131 aqar: cut]oxen. 

The Hebrew word means to cut or hamstring, hobble a creature. Simeon and Levi took pleasure in maiming animals regularly for sport.

7 Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce, and their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel.

The punishment for their actions was to diminish their standing as sons of Jacob and strip them of tribal status, absorbing them into the remaining eleven tribes. The key reason for this was because Simeon and Levi misused the circumcision rite, which was an act of setting people apart as sanctified before the Eternal. The brothers had misused it as a weapon of war and revenge. The Creator relents for both brothers and lessens their sentences. In the last chapter it was mentioned that Levi and his descendants were given the role of the Priesthood and ministration as well becoming in today’s parlance, the teachers, lawyers and civil servants of society. Though, they were still to be scattered amongst the Israelite nations. The majority of which as Levi means, attached themselves to the tribes associated with the Kingdom of Judah. Today they equate to the nations of England, Scotland and Wales.

In Judges chapter five, Deborah addresses eleven of the fourteen Tribal splits. The three not mentioned, are Simeon, Levi and Judah who did not take part in the war against the kings of Canaan. In Deuteronomy chapter thirty-three, Moses adds additional prophecies to Jacob’s. The only omission, is Simeon. This is because they were going to be closely aligned with the tribe of Judah. Levi on the other hand, has a more lengthy discourse than some of his brothers.

Joshua 19:1, 9

English Standard Version

The second lot [first lot, Benjamin] came out for Simeon…  according to their clans… The inheritance of the people of Simeon formed part of the territory of the people of Judah. Because the portion of the people of Judah was too large for them, the people of Simeon obtained an inheritance in the midst of their inheritance.

Deuteronomy 33:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And of Levi he said, “Give to Levi your Thummim, and your Urim to your godly one,
whom you tested at Massah, with whom you quarreled at the waters of Meribah;

The account of Massah and Meribah is given in Exodus 17:1-7. The people were thirsty from lack of water when they camped at Rephidim in the wilderness of Sin. Rephidim was Nephilim territory. It is ironic symbolism that the land had no water [Jude 1:12 “. waterless clouds…”] They quarrelled with Moses and tempted the Eternal by saying: “Is the Lord among us or not?” Hence Massah means tempted and Meribah, quarrel. The Eternal did provide water, through a miracle of water gushing from a large rock, after Moses struck it with his staff. 

The Urim and Thummim was a priestly device for obtaining oracles on decisions. The high priest’s ephod – an apron-like garment – had a breast piece, which was an inlaid pouch with twelve precious stones engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel [Exodus 28:15–30; Leviticus 8:8]. 

Finding the Will of God, Dr Bruce Waltke, page 62-64 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The priest could use the urim and thummin to determine God’s will in a particular situation… the priest carried in his breastplate perhaps two… stones, one white and the other black, that would give a yes or no answer to a specific question. Should Israel be preparing for battle, they would somehow shake or toss the [stones]. If they turned up black the Israelites would not go to battle, and if they turned up white they would proceed into battle with the knowledge that they were in the will of God. We read in Exodus 28:30, “Also put the Urim and the Thummin in the breastpiece, so they may be over Aaron’s heart whenever he enters the presence of the Lord. Thus Aaron will always bear the means of making decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.”

1 Samuel 28:6 makes clear a definite answer was not always obtainable, so it may not have been as simple as tossing two stones on [the] ground. Moses never used them; they were given for the high priest in aiding those who could not find God’s guidance any other way. 

Some translate the words urim and thummin to mean “curse” and “blessing,” others simply “dark” and “light,” although the literal translation [from the Hebrew is]… “light” and “perfections.” 

The Old Testament seems to indicate that the urim and thummin faded from use during the early days of Israel’s monarchy, and are only referred to once after the Babylonian exile. This may be so because the institution of monarchy God inaugurated the office of prophet. The prophets now participated in God’s heavenly court and communicated God’s messages to the courts in Jerusalem and Samaria. Apparently prophets who revealed God’s word to the king replaced the urim and thummin, through which He revealed His mind to the priest. Nevertheless, we still find Ezra using this device to determine the ancestry of the priests who returned from the exile in Ezra 2.63. After this the Bible never mentions the urim and thummin again.’ 

9 who said of his father and mother, ‘I regard them not’; he disowned his brothers and ignored his children. Forthey observed your word and kept your covenant.

This appears to be speaking of Levi, yet it is ultimately Aaron who would have the responsibility of carrying the Thummim and Urim on his breast plate and of casting them in decisions. We have read of this ceremony regarding the Azazel, the sacrificial goat on the Day of Atonement [refer Chapter XXI Nimrod].

10 They shall teach Jacob your rules and Israel your law; they shall put incense before you and whole burnt offerings on your altar. 

Many Levites and all the Priests did not have an easy task. It was hard work maintaining the Tabernacle in their forty year trek through the wilderness and during this time from 1446 to 1400 CE and beyond until 70 CE, the sacrificing of so many animals on a daily basis as well as the ceremonial seven times a year for the annual Feasts was both burdensome and bloody. This is one significant reason why the Son of Man’s sacrifice was liberating. It ended all the ritualistic statutes, judgements and laws that pertained to the levitical sacrificial system. It wasn’t so much a blessing to Levi and his descendants, but a burden of responsibility. Even so, Moses calls for the Creator to bless* and protect Levi and his descendants, in a statement remarkably echoing the one given to Judah regarding his enemies.

11 Bless, O Lord, his substance, and accept the work of his hands; crush the loins of his adversaries, of those who hate him, that they rise not again.”

Book of Jubilees 31:12-17

12 And the spirit of prophecy came down into [Isaac’s] mouth, and he took Levi by his right hand and Judah by his left. 13 And he turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said to him: May the Almighty of all, the very Yahweh of all the ages, bless you and your children throughout all the ages. 

14 And may Yahweh give to you and to your seed greatness and great splendor, and cause you and your seed, from among all flesh, to approach Him to serve in His sanctuary…15 And they shall be judges and princes, and chiefs of all the seed of the sons of Jacob; They shall speak the word of Yahweh in righteousness, And they shall judge all His judgments in righteousness. And they shall declare My ways to Jacob And My paths to Israel. The blessing of Yahweh shall be given in their mouths To bless all the seed of the beloved. 16 Your mother has called your name Levi, And justly has she called your name; You shall be joined to YahwehAnd be the companion of all the sons of Jacob[scattered in Israel]; Let His table be yours, And do you and your sons eat thereof; And may your table be full unto all generations, And your food fail not unto all the ages. 17 And let all who hate you fall down before you, And let all your adversaries be rooted out and perish; And blessed be he that blesses* you, And cursed be every nation that curses you.’ 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Simeon received no blessing from Moses. In fact, he does not even mention the tribe! Jacob said God would scatter them throughout Israel. How? Take a map of Palestine for the time of the division of the land. Notice that Simeon did have an inheritance South of Judah. When Judah separated from Israel, Judah occupied that territory, yet Simeon went with Israel! The only explanation is that Simeon migrated into Israel generally, but no new territory was assigned to Simeon.This tribe became scattered. It is possible that the small scattered tribes in Western Europe, variously called the Senones or Semaones or Sennones, represented the fragments of the tribe of Simeon.’ 

It isn’t the only explanation as we have learned. Simeon didn’t go with Israel immediately; instead, it was an integral part of Judah and Benjamin.

‘Levi, the priestly tribe, was to be scattered in Israel (Genesis 49:5-7). God never gave them land to inherit as the other tribes. Therefore, we should not expect them to be given territory today. Nothing is said in Deuteronomy 33 about inheriting land. Among the Jews today we find many bearing the names: Levi, Levy, Levine. Others bear the name “Cohen” and its variations. The Hebrew word “Kohen” means priest and is so translated 725 times in the King James version. Here then, we have the great bulk of Levi scattered among Judah because they left their priestly functions in Israel almost totally (I Kings 12:31).’ 

Agreed, that the priestly Levites of Kohath, from Aaron were associated with the true tribe of Judah and not the Jews. Though they are not to be equated with ‘the great bulk of Levi.’ Levi was scattered amongst all the tribes, as all priests were Levites, but not all Levites were priests. 

Certain Simeonites are named who went up against Sier and defeated them, living in part of their land. 1 Chronicles 4:42-43 ESV:  ‘And some of them, five hundred men of the Simeonites, went to Mount Seir, having as their leaders Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi. 

And they defeated the remnant of the Amalekites who had escaped…’ Numbers 13:5 ESV gives the name of the Simeonite sent with others to spy out Canaan before they invaded: ‘from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori [remarkably similar to Sier’s forbear Hor, as in Horite].’ A selection of verses supporting the close bond Judah and Simeon shared geographically and politically; as England and Wales exhibit today.

1 Chronicles 6:65

English Standard Version

They gave by lot out of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin these cities that are mentioned by name.

Joshua 21:9

English Standard Version

Out of the tribe of the people of Judah and the tribe of the people of Simeon they gave the following cities mentioned by name…

Judges 1:3, 17

English Standard Version

And Judah said to Simeon his brother, “Come up with me into the territory allotted to me, that we may fight against the Canaanites. And I likewise will go with you into the territory allotted to you.” So Simeon went with him… 17 And Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they defeated the Canaanites who inhabited Zephath and devoted it to destruction…

In the Book of Jubilees we learn of the names of the wives of Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Gad, with the Book of Jasher offering further details.

Book of Jubilees 34:20-21

And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives. The name of Reuben’s wife is ‘Ada; and the name of Simeon’s wife is ‘Adlba’a, a Canaanite; and the name of Levi’s wife is Melka, of the daughters of Aram, of the seed of the sons of Terah [Nahor] … and the name of Gad’s wife, Maka… And Simeon repented, and took a second wife from Mesopotamia as his brothers.

Book of Jasher 45:1-3,5-6,9-10

1… Reuben the son of Jacob went to Timnah and took unto him for a wife Eliuram,the daughter of Avi the Canaanite, and he came to her. 2 And Eliuram the wife of Reuben conceived and bare him Hanoch, Palu, Chetzron and Carmi, four sons…

2… Simeon his brother took his sister Dinah for a wife, and she bare unto him Memuel, Yamin, Ohad, Jachin and Zochar, five sons. 3 And he afterward came to Bunah the Canaanitish woman, the same is Bunah whom Simeon took captive from the city of Shechem, and Bunah was before Dinah and attended upon her, and Simeon came to her, and she bare unto him Saul.*

5… Levi… went to the land of the east, and… took… for [a wife a daughter] of Jobab the son of Joktan, the son of Eber; and Jobab the son of Yoktan had two daughters; the name of the elder was Adinah… 6 And Levi took Adinah, and… came to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house, and Adinah bare unto Levi, Gershon, Kehath and Merari; three sons.

9… Gad… went to Haran and took… [a daughter] of Amuram the son of Uz, the son of Nahor… 10… and the name of the [youngest daughter] Uzith… and Gad took Uzith; and brought [her] to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house. 11… Uzith bare unto Gad Zephion, Chagi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi and Arali, seven sons.

It is not clear who the identity of Reuben’s wife is. As his brothers, Judah and Simeon had a propensity for marrying Canaanite women, a women of Black descent cannot be ruled out. It seems unlikely that Simeon took his sister Dinah as a wife, though the question would remain who his first wife was if his second Canaanite wife gave him only his son S[h]aul.* Levi either took a wife from Joktan’s line – which today equates to the predominantly Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe, though also includes the peoples of Baltic and Balkans descent – or from the same line as his father and grandfather had before him. Gad is stated as marrying from the line of Nahor, as Isaac and Jacob had done before him as well.

In Numbers chapter one, census numbers for the tribes two years after they left Egypt are listed. The Levites are not included in the census figures. These are the numbers for the tribes we have covered this far, including Judah and Benjamin which weren’t included in the previous chapter.

The Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month [New Moon, April/May], in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt [1444 BCE], saying, 2 “Take a census of all the congregation of the people of Israel, by clans, by fathers’ houses, according to the number of names, every male, head by head. 3 From twenty years old and upward, all in Israel who are able to go to war, you and Aaron shall list them, company by company. 

21 those listed of the tribe of Reuben were 46,500 [4].

23 those listed of the tribe of Simeon were 59,300 [2].

25 those listed of the tribe of Gad were 45,650 [3].

27 those listed of the tribe of Judah were 74,600 [1].

37 those listed of the tribe of Benjamin were 35,400 [5].

But the Levites were not listed along with them by their ancestral tribe. 48 For the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 49 “Only the tribe of Levi you shall not list, and you shall not take a census of them among the people of Israel. 50 But appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of the testimony, and over all its furnishings, and over all that belongs to it. They are to carry the tabernacle and all its furnishings, and they shall take care of it and shall camp around the tabernacle… And if any outsider comes near, he shall be put to death. 52 The people of Israel shall pitch their tents by their companies, each man in his own camp and each man by his own standard. 53 But the Levites shall camp around the tabernacle of the testimony… And the Levites shall keep guard over the tabernacle of the testimony.”

Notice that Judah is by far the biggest tribe of these five – as England has a sizeable population today – and note Simeon is second. The respective sons and clans of the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Gad.

Genesis 46:8-

English Standard Version

8 Now these are the names of the descendants of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons. Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, 9 and the sons of Reuben [4]: Hanoch [inaugarated], Pallu [distinguished], Hezron [enclosure], and Carmi [vinedresser]. 

10 The sons of Simeon [6]: Jemuel [God’s day], Jamin, Ohad [to praise] , Jachin [established] , Zohar [tawny], and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman* [Exodus 6.15]. 

11 The sons of Levi [3]: Gershon [exiled], Kohath [congregation], and Merari [bitter]. 

16 The sons of Gad [7]: Ziphion [hidden], Haggi [festive], Shuni [silence], Ezbon [undertsand], Eri [focused], Arodi, and Areli [lion of God]. 

Gad’s son Eri may have an etymological link with Eri-n and Ire for Ireland. Hanoch was also the name of one of Midian’s five sons, a son of Abraham and Keturah [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. Another census was taken as they were entering Canaan some forty years later, circa 1404 BCE.

Numbers 26:1-65

English Standard Version

After the plague, the Lord said to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron, the priest, 2 “Take a census of all the congregation of the people of Israel, from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers’ houses, all in Israel who are able to go to war.” 3 And Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho… 

These are the clans ofthe Reubenites, and those listed were 43,730. 8 And the sons of Pallu: Eliab. 9 The sons of Eliab: Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram. These are the Dathan and Abiram, chosen from the congregation, who contended against Moses and Aaron in the company of Korah, when they contended against the Lord 10 and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died, when the fire devoured 250 men, and they became a warning. 11 But the sons of Korah did not die.

14These are the clans of the Simeonites, 22,200.

18 These are the clans of the sons of Gad as they were listed, 40,500.

51 This was the list of the people of Israel, 601,730.

Did the reader spot the slight decrease in Reuben and Gad’s numbers between the two censuses? More importantly, the huge decrease in the Simeonite number? They went from one of the biggest tribes to the smallest. We will look at this anomaly shortly.

58 These are the clans of Levi: the clan of the Libnites, the clan of the Hebronites, the clan of the Mahlites, the clan of the Mushites, the clan of the Korahites. And Kohath was the father of Amram. 59 The name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt. And she bore to Amram Aaron and Moses and Miriam their sister. 60 And to Aaron were born Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 61 But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered unauthorized fire before the Lord. 62 And those listed were 23,000, every male from a month old and upward. For they were not listed among the people of Israel, because there was no inheritance given to them among the people of Israel.

63 These were those listed by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who listed the people of Israel… 64 But among these there was not one of those listed by Moses and Aaron the priest, who had listed the people of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had said of them, “They shall die in the wilderness.” Not one of them was left, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.

The extended family and clans for Simeon are listed in the Book of Chronicles. 

1 Chronicles 4:24-43

English Standard Version

24 The sons of Simeon: Nemuel [Jemuel], Jamin [the right hand], Jarib [he contends], Zerah, Shaul [jackal, fox]; 25 Shallum [retribution] was his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son. 26 The sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimei [famous] his son. 27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers did not have many children, nor did all their clan multiply like the men of Judah.28 They lived in… five cities, 33 along with all their villages that were around these cities as far as Baal. These were their settlements, and they kept a genealogical record.

34 Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah the son of Amaziah, 35 Joel, Jehu the son of Joshibiah, son of Seraiah, son of Asiel, 36 Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, 37 Ziza the son of Shiphi, son of Allon, son of Jedaiah, son of Shimri, son of Shemaiah – 38 these mentioned by name were princes in their clans, and their fathers’ houses increased greatly. 39 They journeyed to the entrance of Gedor, to the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks, 40 where they found rich, good pasture, and the land was very broad, quiet, and peaceful, for the former inhabitants there belonged to Ham [Canaan].

Three of Simeon’s six sons have had a name change between the Book of Genesis and the Book of Chronicles. Either that, or they have died and Simeon had another three sons. Ohad, Jachin and Zohar are the original names and the new names are Jarib, Zerah – a family name of Judah] and Shallum.

1 Chronicles 5:1-26

English Standard Version

The sons ofReuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn, but because he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, so that he could not be enrolled as the oldest son; 2 thoughJudah became strong among his brothers and a chief came from him, yet the birthright belonged to Joseph), 

3 the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 4 The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog [high] his son, Shimei his son, 5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal [Lord, possessor] his son, 6 Beerah his son, whom Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria carried away into exile; he was a chief of the Reubenites. 10 And in the days of Saul they waged war against the Hagrites [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], who fell into their hand. And they lived in their tents throughout all the region east of Gilead.

Two of Reuben’s descendants are worth noting. The first is Gog and the second is Baal. Both formidable names. We touched on the giants in British history named Gog and Magog, or it may have been one giant and also the record of giants in Northern Ireland. This name is quite a coincidence. The name Baal is associated with worship of the Prince of Darkness. It is of even more interest because as we have covered in other chapters, Baal is the storm god and his symbol includes the Bull from the constellation Taurus. Ulster has a plethora of names that include the prefix Baal. Two that standout are Bel-fast and Bal-lymena. Others include: Belleek, Belalt, Ballycastle, Ballygowen and Ballyward. Reuben has left many such names throughout Ireland as well: Ballyshannon, Ballina, Balbriggan and Ballybunnion for example.

11 The sons of Gad lived over against [Reuben] in the land of Bashan… 12 Joel the chief, Shapham the second, Janai, and Shaphat… 13 And their kinsmen according to their fathers’ houses: Michael, Meshullam, Sheba [family name of Abraham, Joktan and Cush], Jorai, Jacan, Zia and Eber [family name of Arphaxad], seven. 14 These were the sons of Abihail the son of Huri, son of Jaroah, son of Gilead [family name of Manasseh], son of Michael, son of Jeshishai, son of Jahdo, son of Buz [family name of Nahor]. 

15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, son of Guni [family name of Naphtali], was chief in their fathers’ houses, 16 and they lived in Gilead, in Bashan and in its towns, and in all the pasturelands* of Sharon [great plain]* to their limits.

The words sharon and shannon may be linked, as shannon in Hebrew means fertile plain* and in Irish it means ‘old river’. A plain is fertile because it is close to a river or water. Ironically, there is a renowned Irish musician called… Sharon Shannon.

18 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of [East] Manasseh had valiant men who carried shield and sword, and drew the bow, expert in war… 19 They waged war against the Hagrites [sons of Hagar, refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. 20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and he granted their urgent plea because they trusted in him. 21 They carried off their livestock: 50,000 of their camels, 250,000 sheep, 2,000 donkeys, and 100,000 men alive.

… 26 the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan… [Media].

Many from the tribes of Reuben and Gad were taken into captivity together, after living next to each other for some six hundred and seventy years. It is no surprise if they migrated across Europe following each other and if they are now living adjacent to each other, across an expanse of water – the Irish Sea – from Judah, Benjamin and Simeon, who had also shared a geographical proximity. Replicated today in England, Scotland and Wales.

In Luke 3.23-38 we read of Christ’s adoptive father Joseph’s lineage from Judah to David and included are men who are called related family names of the tribes:

29… Matthat, the son of Levi, 30 the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim, 31 the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David… 

In Ezekiel chapter forty-eight, Ezekiel describes a future city and the portions the twelve tribes will occupy. For Manasseh and Ephraim as included together. Four gates on each of the four sides are described:

Ezekiel 48:30-35

English Standard Version

30 “These shall be the exits of the city: On the north side, which is to be 4,500 cubits by measure, 31 three gates, the gate of Reuben, the gate of Judah, and the gate of Levi, the gates of the city being named after the tribes of Israel. 32 On the east side, which is to be 4,500 cubits, three gates, the gate of Joseph, the gate of Benjamin, and the gate of Dan

We will discover that the grouping of Joseph, Benjamin and Dan is no coincidence. Their historical and genetic link a profound part of the Israelite story, coupled with sizeable prophetic outcomes and importance.

33 On the south side, which is to be 4,500 cubits by measure, three gates, the gate of Simeon, the gate of Issachar, and the gate of Zebulun. 34 On the west side, which is to be 4,500 cubits, three gates, the gate of Gad, the gate of Asher, and the gate of Naphtali. 35 The circumference of the city shall be 18,000 cubits. And the name of the city from that time on shall be, The Lord Is There.”

Returning to the dramatic decrease in the Simeonite tribe, identity researcher and expert, Steven Collins provides a logical answer. He also concluded that the Simeonites were the historical Spartans, though we have investigated an alternative identity in Chapter XXIX Esau.

The Missing Simeonites, Steven M Collins – emphasis & bold mine:

A logical explanation for the sudden drop in several tribes’ population is that most of the tribe of Simeon and varying contingents of the other tribes literally “walked out” of the camp and left the main body of Israelites to strike out on their own. Where did they go?

In the book of Numbers, we find that the Israelites under Moses undertook a first and second census of the tribes of Israel while they were in the Wilderness. The results of those enumerations of the tribes of Israel reveal some surprising results. In Numbers 1:1-3 and verse 18, we see that the census tallied the number of males “twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel.” Therefore, we should keep in mind that the entire population of Israel’s tribes in the Wilderness consisted of far more than the tally in Numbers 1. 

As a guideline, one would ordinarily double the numbers to allow for one wife per man of military age. Given the polygamous culture at that time, some of the men may have had a number of wives. It is difficult to make an estimate of the number of children, but we should keep in mind that large families were very common at that time. Numbers 1:46 records that 603,550 adult males were numbered in the census. Based on some of the above rough methods of estimating the number of the entire nation of Israel at that time, we can see that the Israelites can be conservatively estimated to be body of approximately 3,000,000 people. For American readers, that number would equal the approximate population of Oregon. The actual number of Israelites was likely higher as the tribe of Levi wasn’t included in this census, nor were the people of the “mixed multitude” which accompanied the Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus 12:38).

Listed below are the populations of adult males per tribe, given in the order listed in Numbers 1.’


‘Modern readers will notice that the tribe of Judah was, at that time, the largest tribe. The three smallest tribal figures are the three tribes which descended from Jacob and Rachel: Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. However, when the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh are totalled together, they numbered 72,700, showing the actual total of Israelites descended from Joseph constituted the second largest grouping in Israel. Notice that the tribe of Simeon was the third largest tribe in this census…

Now, let’s examine the census taken approximately 40 years later… For purposes of comparison, listed below are the totals from each census and the change in the total of adult males in each tribe. The second census is listed in Numbers 26. Numbers 26:2 confirms that it is the sum of males “twenty years old an upward… all that are able to go to war in Israel,” so each census was conducted with the same criteria.’

TRIBE1st Census2nd CensusChange

The national totals indicate the number of Israelites enumerated under Moses had dropped very slightly, but the tribal totals reveal something very different had transpired. The most evident change is that over half the tribe of Simeon inexplicably “disappeared” from the census totals. What happened? Simeon, the third largest tribe in Israel in the first census, had plummeted to be the smallest tribe of all in the second census! Another anomaly leaps out at the reader.

The tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh shared the birthright blessing of the Abrahamic covenant, which included being blessed with large population growth. Manasseh had, indeed, risen dramatically in population, going from 32,200 to 52,700, a gain of 20,500 people, by far the largest increase in any tribe. However, its brother tribe which shared this birthright blessing, Ephraim, dropped 8,000 people to join Simeon at the bottom of the population totals of the tribes in Israel. Even the tribe of Benjamin outnumbered the Ephraimites at that time. Judah was still the largest tribe, but Manasseh’s explosive growth resulted in the tribe of Joseph being the largest tribe if Manasseh and Ephraim were added together. As many readers might observe, something “doesn’t add up” in these figures. As commentator Paul Harvey says here in America, let’s examine what happened to determine “the rest of the story.”

I believe the key to what happened in Numbers 26 is found in the previous chapter. In Numbers 25, we learn that Phineas, a Levite, executed “a prince of a chief house among the Simeonites” (verses 7-14). Phineas leaped to execute this Simeonite prince for his audacity in rebelling against God by taking a Midianite woman into his tent at a time when god was punishing Israel for such deeds. Indeed, God sent a plague among the Israelites which killed 24,000 people, and that plague was stayed by the action of Phineas.’

More violence from the explosive brothers of Simeon and Levi; this time it is between themselves. 

‘The Bible does not record which tribes suffered the most from that plague. Even if one assumes the Simeonites bore the brunt of this plague, it does not begin to account for the drop in population of approximately 56,000 males of 20 years and older among the tribes which lost population between the two censuses. Also, Numbers 25:9 records that 24,000 people died in the plague, it does not state that all those slain were “males 20 years of age and older.” This indicates that 24,000 men, women and children of all ages died in the plague, and that perhaps 6,000 of that total were males 20 years and older. Where did the rest go?

It is my belief that after the execution by a Simeonite prince by a Levitical priest, there was a great dissension in the camp of Israel. We know from the accounts in the Torah of their wanderings in the Wilderness that the Israelites were very prone to revolting against Moses over various provocations. We know from Genesis 34:25 that Simeon and Levi were the two most impulsive sons of Jacob, the two most likely to settle a matter “by the sword.” To put it in modern American terms, they were the kind who “shot first and asked questions later.” Genesis 49:5-7 prophesies that impulsive wrathfulness leading to violence would characterize both Simeonites and Levites through all the millennia up to and including the “latter days.”

In the episode of Phineas the Levite unilaterally executing a Simeonite [prince], the two most violent tribes were likely at loggerhead[s],and a civil war among the tribes was not improbable. God usefully directed the Levites’ propensity to violence into becoming a tribe of butchers, killing, cutting up and sacrificing innumerable animals under the system of animal sacrifices established in ancient Israel. Simeon had no such outlet.

I believe a logical explanation for the sudden drop in several tribes’ population is that most of the tribe of Simeon and varying contingents of the other tribes literally “walked out” of the camp and left the main body of Israelites to strike out on their own. The huge drop in the number of Simeonites indicates that the Simeonites led this partial “exodus” from the Israelite camp. The Simeonites were impulsive and the execution of one of their chieftans (however just) could easily have provoked such an action.

The census figures indicate that the tribes of Ephraim and Napthali contributed most of the remaining Israelites who accompanied most of the tribe of Simeon as it left the Israelite encampment. The census data indicates that the entire tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Issachar and Benjamin stayed with Moses as their second census totals reflect normal demographic growth.

Would God or Moses have allowed so large a mass of Israelite to leave the camp? I think the answer is yes. Indeed, they may have encouraged it as a way to end the dissension in the camp. There was no commandment of God that forbade any Israelites to leave the camp in the Wilderness, so the only penalty that exiting Israelites would bear would be that their children would not enter the Promised land with the children of those who stayed. Remember that every adult (except Caleb and Joshua) were under a death sentence in the Wilderness. For their rebellion, they would wander till the entire generation who refused to go into the Promised Land at first was dead! Under such circumstances, many could have thought: “If my choice is stay and die in this desert or leave and trust to my wits and sword to make a living, I’ll choose the second option.”

The tribe of Simeon, naturally impulsive, would likely have led such a mini-exodus. The fact that Manasseh grew greatly between the censuses and that Ephraim dropped dramatically argues that this can only be explained if a large number of Ephraimites left the camp. Both tribes were the birthright tribes, and they shared the same promises. If no one had left the camp, the population figures of Ephraim and Mansseh should have reflected the same growth.

If we limit our number of exiting Israelites to only those tribes who had net reductions in their tribal totals, we have about 50,000 males above age twenty and all their wives and children (perhaps 200,000 people). The tribes whose populations stayed static indicates that some of the natural growth of those tribes was deleted from the census because contingents of their tribes also joined the exodus. The total of those leaving the camp may have been larger than 200,000. If such an event occurred, there would have been a powerful stimulus to conduct the second census to “see who we have left.” Indeed, Numbers 26:1-2 shows that right after the events described above, God told Moses to take a census of all the tribes.

Where did the departing Israelite go?’

Members from the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Ephraim were early arrivals in Ireland, though there were two other tribes who were the very first to arrive in the British Islands of firstly Erin and later Albion. Those two tribes were Dan and Simeon. Both would then enter Britain to explore it, with Simeon making their permanent home there instead of Ireland. It was the Simeonites who moved completely to Britain and were the first Britons with the distinction of the status as the first tribe to settle there, known as Cymry and later as Welsh. Whereas Dan was likely the first to explore Britain, they like the tribe of Benjamin and unlike Simeon had a foothold in both Britain and Ireland; before Benjamin moved entirely to the northern reaches of Britain in Pictavia and later Scotland. The Tribe of Dan’s story is somewhat more complicated. 

 Origin, Yair Davidiy – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Sennacherib recorded having exiled more than 200,000 people from Judah. The Bible mentions him having captured all of the unfenced cities in Judah (2 Kings 18:13) and Midrashim also speak[s] of Sennacherib deporting vast numbers from Judah and Simeon. These exiles joined the deported Tribes of northern Israel and shared their destiny. Sennacherib… intermittently besieged Jerusalem over a number of years but his army was stricken by an angel and 185,000 Assyrians died. Sennacherib returned to Nineveh where he was assassinated by two of his sons who fled to Ararat (Urartu) [refer Chapter XVII Lud] (2 Kings 19:37). 

The Ten Tribes before their exile had been called by the Assyrians, “Khumri”. This term* in Assyrian could also be rendered “GUMRI”. A similar name, “Gimiri” in Babylonian can connote “tribes” and a related term “gamira” can mean mobile exiles. At all events most authorities agree that the Cimmerians of history were composed of several peoples of differing origins. All signs indicate that at least some of these peoples were Israelite! 

The Cimmerians had first been reported of by the Assyrians at the earliest in 714 though the more accepted date is ca.707 BCE. The Scythians though originally part and parcel with the Cimmerians had separated from the main body and were acting independently. Cimmerians and Scythians essentially consisted of the same elements though in different proportions. The king of the Cimmerians was referred to in an Assyrian inscription as “King of the Amurru”. The name “Amuru” was sometimes applied to Israelites and geographically the land of “Amurru” had encompassed the former Israelite areas of “Syria and Palestine”. 

The Celts were believed to have come from the east and to have advanced via the Danube Valley. Welsh Legend stated that their ancestors, the Cymry, had been led by Hu Gadarn from Drephane opposite Byzantium (on the Bosporus) across the sea to Britain. The Welsh call themselves “Gomeru”. In Welsh tradition, they (i.e. Cimmerians) were led by Hu from Drephrobane opposite Byzantium across the sea to Defene in Wales. The name Defene is sometimes rendered as “Daphne” and there was a port named Daphne opposite Byzantium. Daphne of Antiochea was one of the places to which the Ten Tribes were taken into exile.’ 

Ancient Gaul or Gallia in Latin, was a vast region of western Europe that spread far beyond the modern borders of France. The Greek term Galatia is the same as Gallia. The Greeks connected the word Galatai to the ‘milk white’ skin of the Gauls and Galatians, as gala means milk. In turn, the word is related to the Welsh word gallu which means ‘to be able (can)’. 

Even so, Gaul is not related to Gallia, but rather stems from the French Gaule or Waulle, which derives from the Old Frankish word Walholant, meaning ‘land of the foreigners.’ The Old English word Wealh, or Wealas derives from the Proto-Germanic, walhaz – meaning an outlander, foreigner, Celt. An exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin speaking people indiscriminately. It is cognate with the names Wales, Wallonia of Belgium and Wallachia of Romania. Whereas the Irish word Gael – derived from Goidel and Gaidheal – superficially similar with Gaul, are two distinct words and not derived from each other. 

Interestingly, an old Welsh name for Wales was Gwalia and the modern French name for Wales is Pays de Galles; matching the similar Romanian translation of ‘country of the Gauls’. Germanic peoples called the Gauls, Volcae and the Old English word for native Britons was Vahls, which in time become Wales. It must be remembered, these are descriptions of the Welsh by others. The Cymry have always called themselves and their country Cymru and in Gaelic, Gymru.* 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 469 – 471 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… ancient Britons migrated from Troy, from tribes led by a Trojan hero named Britu, one of many nomatives from which Britain derived… legends suggest London’s Celtic name from antiquity was Lloegress, which owned an even more mystical name dating even further back into antiquity, documented as Troja Newydd, or New Troy. 

Brutus of Troy was the grandson of Aeneus, founder of the Romans in Greek mythology. Brutus was the hero of legend who rebelled against the Greeks three generations after the fall of Troy, escaping the wrath of the Greeks by sailing with his people past the Pillars of Hercules to an island known today as Britain. They freed Britain from a race of giants led by Gog, Magog, and Albion… Brutus and his victorious followers settled along the banks of the Thames River, naming it Troia Nova (New Troy), or Trinovantum. Brutus’s ancient kingdom of Britain became identified as Albion… the earliest name by which Britain was known… 

Ancient Welsh legends… record three waves of… immigration that were made up first of the tribe of Cymrey… second invasion came from the tribe of the Lloegrians, and the third invasion derived from the Brython tribe of Llydaw. All three were of the same language, culture, and race. Lloegres was the ancient appellation for southern and central England, while Cymrey was the name given for Wales, northern England, Cornwall and the Scottish border region. After the death of Brutus, Britain split into three kingdoms under the rule of his three sons. The names of those three kingdoms became known as Lloegres, Cymry, and Albyne. 

… the region of Troy, was known in antiquity as Galatia… the Black Sea region is the originating home of the Celts… and home of the Scythians and Sarmatians. The Greeks knew the Celts as Keltoi or Galatia, while the Romans… knew the Celts as the Celtae and Galatai. Julius Caesar… referred to the Celts first as Gauls… they referred to themselves in their own language as Celts. Some scholars think Celt derived from the root key, the Old Irish celim, meaning “hidden,” suggesting they were the hidden people or people that concealed things. Celt, in another version, is thought to have derived from the European root quel, meaning “elevated,” which then evolved to Old Irish as Celthe. The Celts regarded themselves as the elevated or noble race. The noble Celt was… blond, blue-eyed [including] the Irish, British, Welsh, and Scottish… [Celts] had red hair and pale green eyes… [possessing] strikingly similar characteristics to the Tuatha Denaan… Galatea translates as “milky white”… The Celts of Galatia were the very same people to whom [the Apostle] Paul preached.’

Britain’s Trojan History, Bernard Jones – emphasis & bold mine:

Homer, in his epic the Iliad, tells us that Aeneas led the Dardanians in the war against the Greeks whilst Hector led the Trojans. Aeneas was a cousin to Hector, who was killed by the great Achilles. It was said that Hector was the ‘heart’ of Troy whereas Aeneas was its ‘soul’. Aeneas survived the war and led his people in exile to found a new Troy. The voyage of Aeneas had taken seven years when, eventually, he brought his fleet to rest. 

Here, he was received honourably by Latinus the king who, because of an oracle, pledged his daughter in marriage to the Trojan prince. His daughter, however, was already betrothed to a king of the Rutuli and he immediately went to war against the Trojans because of the insult. The war was a bloody affair but ended when the king of the Rutuli was killed by the Trojan prince. Aeneas had a son by his first wife, Creusa, and they called him Ascanius. 

Sadly, Creusa had perished at Troy on the night that the city fell. In due course Aeneas married Lavinia, the daughter of king Latinus and the Trojans built a city and it was called Lavinium, after her.

Brutus the Trojan was the great grandson of Aeneas of Troy. He accidentally killed his father when they were both out hunting and, as a result, was exiled for committing such a crime. He ended up in a certain part of Greece where he discovered descendants of Trojan captives, taken there by the Greeks after the Trojan War. Brutus stayed in the country for quite a time and became known for his skills, his courage and wisdom. 

In due course Brutus was prevailed upon to become the leader of all the Trojans, in order to free them from thralldom under the Greek king. After a number of battles, and against all odds, Brutus captured the Greek king. To save himself from being killed the king agreed to give his daughter to Brutus as his wife, and to let the Trojans depart in peace for another country. The Greeks supplied Brutus with a large number of ships and the Trojans departed, landing eventually in Totnes, in Devon.’

For further information on the identity of Brutus and his entourage, refer Chapter XXX Judah and Benjamin. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘“… the people of Waels call themselves, in ancient Welsh, ‘Bryth y Brithan,’ or ‘Briths of Briton,’ which means ‘The Covenanters’ of the ‘land of the Covenant.’ The first form of this phrase is almost vernacular Hebrew.” The fact that these “Brythonic Celts” who migrated to the British Isles bore the Hebrew B­R­T root word for “covenant” confirmed their Israelite origin. 

It is also unmistakably recorded in British history that the earliest settlers in Wales and southern England were called Simonii. They came by the way of the sea in the year 720 B. C. At this time there was the greatest influx of the Tuatha de Daanan to Ireland, and this synchronizes with the deportation of the Israelites of the commonwealth of Ephraim to Assyria, and the flight of Dan and Simeon from the seaports and coast country of Palestine. That Simonii is the plural of Simeon we need scarcely mention. 

It has been made clear to our readers that Omri, the sixth king of Israel, built the city of Samaria, the third and permanent capital of Israel, and that eventually the entire country, formerly called “All Israel,” became known as Samaria, because that was the name of its capital also that Samaria became one of the national names of Israel, and is so used in some prophecies concerning them. Hence Omri is regarded as the real founder of the kingdom of Samaria, and Samaria-Israel was often referred to by other nations as the House of Omri. 

When Shalmanesar, the king of Assyria, who led Israel into captivity, made a record of that captivity on the tablets of Assyria, he called them the House of Omri (Beth Khumree); also when Israel was confederate with Resin, king of Syria, and went against the Jews, and the Jews besought Tiglath-Pilesar, who was at that time king of Assyria, to become their confederate, he also in his records referred to Israel as the Beth-Khumree. In the annals of Sargon, who was also a king of Assyria (Isaiah 20:1), successor of Shalmanesar, and predecessor of Senacharib, Israel is called Beth Khumree (House of Omri), and their capital city Khumree. On the Nimroud obelisk, “Jehu, the son of Omri,” is written “Yahua-abil-Khumree.” 

Professor Rawlinson, who does not believe this truth we are enforcing, says: “Jehu is usually called in the Bible the son of Nimshi – although Jehosaphat was his actual father (2 Kings 9:20), but the Assyrians, taking him for the legitimate successor to the throne, named as his father, or rather ancestor, “Omri,” the founder of the Kingdom of Samaria – Omri’s name being written on the obelisk, as it is in the inscriptions of Shalmanesar, where the Kingdom of Israel is always called the country of “Beth Omri.” Dr.Hincks also says: “The title, ’Son of Omri,’ is equivalent to that of King of Samaria, the city which Omri built, and which was known to the Assyrians as Beth Omri, or Khumri.” 

The tribes of both Dan and Simeon belonged, of course, to the Beth Khumree, when used as meaning the Kingdom of Omri, or Samaria. Simeon seems to have clung to this name far more tenaciously than did Dan, for they still call themselves and their country Kymry. Saville says: “This name Kymri, or Cymry, as it is more commonly written, is in reality the plural of Kymro, meaning a Welsh-man, and the country of the Kymry is called by themselves Khymru, which has been Latinized into the well-known name of Cambria. The letter V in the Welsh language has two powers, and both these powers are active in the word Kymry. This letter V sounds as U, except when it stands in the last syllable of CL word, and then it has the sound of the Italian i or the English ee! Hence, the correct pronunciation of the country of Wales, or land of the Cymry, in its ancient tongue would be as near as possible to the names Kumree, Khumree, or Kumri.” 

Thomas Stephens, in the preface to his “Literature of the Kymry,” says: “On the map of Britain, facing St. George’s Channel, is a group of counties called Wales, inhabited by a people distinct from, and but very imperfectly understood by, those who surround them. Their neighbors call them Welsh-men. Welsh or Walsch is not a proper name, but a Teutonic term signifying ‘strangers,’ and was applied to all persons who were not of that family: but the proper name of these people is Kymry. They are the last remnant of the Kimmerioi of Homer, and of the Kimry (Cimbri) of Germany. From the Cimbric Chersonesus (Jut-land) a portion of these landed on the shores of Northumberland, gave their name to the county of Cumberland, and in process of time followed the seaside to their present resting-place, where they still call themselves Kimry, and give their country a similar name. Their history, clear, concise and authentic, ascends to a high antiquity. Their language was embodied in verse long before the languages now spoken rose into notice, and their literature, cultivated and abundant, lays claim to being the most ancient in modern Europe.” 

Thus we find that the Khumree, Kumri, Kimry, Cumbre, Cimbri, or Cambrians, as the name is variously called in different tongues, were strangers and wanderers among the nations until they settled in the isles of the sea with the rest of their brethren, the Brith-ish or covenant people. 

“Herodotus, the ‘Father of History,’ tells us much about the Khumbri, a people who, in his day, dwelt in the Crimean peninsula and thereabout. He particularly notes that they had come into that territory from Media, which he remarks was not their original home or birthplace.” – Our Race. 

We have thus conclusively followed the word Khumree, for the reason that the people who are known as Angles, Saxons, Danes, Celts or Kelts, Jutes, Scots, Welsh, Scyths (or Scythians), or Normans can trace themselves back to Media-Persia, but no further, and find their ancestors in the Khumree, at the place, and at the very time, when Israel was losing her identity and was actually known in the history of that country as the Beth Khumree.’  

Somewhat out of context – as it relates to Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega – but because it is Welsh based, I have included interesting aspects relating to Dragons. Dragons being akin to Seraphim which are themselves, described as fiery flying serpents. The Dragon is a powerful Welsh symbol and is also representative of the Tribe of Dan. 

After the Flood, William Cooper, 1995 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The early Britons, from whom the modern Welsh are descended, provide us with our earliest surviving European accounts of reptilian monsters, one of whom killed and devoured king Morvidus (Morydd) in ca 336 BC. We are told in the account translated for us by Geoffrey of Monmouth, that the monster ‘gulped down the body of Morvidus as a big fish swallows a little one.’ Geoffrey described the animal as a Belua. Peredur, not the ancient king of that name (306-296 BC), but a much later son of Earl Efrawg, had better luck than Morvidus, actually managing to slay his monster, an addanc (pr. athanc: var. afanc), at a place called Llyn Llion in Wales. At other Welsh locations the addanc is further spoken of along with another reptilian species known as the carrog. The addanc survived until comparatively recent times at such places as Bedd-yr-Afanc near Brynberian, at Llyn-yr-Afanc above Bettws-y-Coed on the River Conwy (the killing of this monster was described in the year 1693), and Llyn Barfog. A carrog is commemorated at Carrog near Corwen, and at Dol-y-Carrog in the Vale of Conwy. 

Moreover, ‘dinosaurs’, in the form of flying reptiles, were a feature of Welsh life until surprisingly recent times. As late as the beginning of the present century, elderly folk at Penllin in Glamorgan used to tell of a colony of winged serpents that lived in the woods around Penllin Castle. As Marie Trevelyan tells us: 

‘The woods around Penllin Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. An aged inhabitant of Penllyne, who died a few years ago, said that in his boyhood the winged serpents were described as very beautiful. 

They were coiled when in repose, and “looked as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow”. When disturbed they glided swiftly, “sparkling all over,” to their hiding places. When angry, they “flew over people’s heads, with outspread wings, bright, and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock’s tail”. He said it was “no old story invented to frighten children”, but a real fact. His father and uncle had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry. The old man attributed the extinction of the winged serpents to the fact that they were “terrors in the farmyards and coverts”.’

‘This account is intriguing in many respects, not the least being the fact that it is not a typical account of dragons. The creatures concerned were not solitary and monstrous beasts, but small creatures that lived in colonies. Not at all like the larger species of winged reptile that used to nest upon an ancient burial-mound, or tumulus, at Trellech-a’r-Betws in the county of Dyfed, for example. 

But whilst we are in Wales, it is worth noting that at Llanbardan-y-Garrag (is Garrag a corruption of carrog?), the church contains a carving of a local giant reptile whose features include large paddle-like flippers, a long neck and a small head. Glaslyn, in Snowdon, is a lake where an afanc was sighted as recently as the 1930s. On this occasion two climbers on the side of a mountain looked down onto the surface of Glaslyn and they saw the creature, which they described as having a long grey body, rise from the depths of the lake to the surface, raise its head and then submerge again. 

One could multiply such reports by the hundred. In England and Scotland, again until comparatively recent times, other reptilian monsters were sighted and spoken of in many places. The table at the end of this chapter lists eighty-one locations in the British Isles alone in which dinosaur activity has been reported (there are, in fact, nearly 200 such places in Britain), but perhaps the most relevant aspect of this as far as our present study is concerned is the fact that some of these sightings and subsequent encounters with living dinosaurs can be dated to the comparatively recent past. 

… in the 15th century, according to a contemporary chronicle that still survives in Canterbury Cathedral’s library, the following incident was reported. On the afternoon of Friday, 26th September, 1449, two giant reptiles were seen fighting on the banks of the River Stour (near the village of Little Cornard) which marked the English county borders of Suffolk and Essex. One was black, and the other ‘reddish and spotted’. After an hour-long struggle that took place ‘to the admiration of many [of the locals] beholding them’, the black monster yielded and returned to its lair, the scene of the conflict being known ever since as Sharp fight Meadow.

In 1867 was seen, for the last time, the monster that lived in the woods around Fittleworth in Sussex. It would run up to people hissing and spitting if they happened to stumble across it unawares, although it never harmed anyone. Several such cases could be cited, but suffice it to say that too many incidents like these are reported down through the centuries and from all sorts of locations for us to say that they are all fairy-tales. 

For example, Scotland’s famous Loch Ness Monster is too often thought to be a recent product of the local Tourist Board’s efforts to bring in some trade, yet Loch Ness is by no means the only Scottish loch where monsters have been reported. Loch Lomond, Loch Awe, Loch Rannoch and the privately owned Loch Morar (over 1000 ft deep) also have records of monster activity in recent years. Indeed, there have been over forty sightings at Loch Morar alone since the end of the last war, and over a thousand from Loch Ness in the same period. However, as far as Loch Ness itself is concerned, few realise that monstrous reptiles, no doubt the same species, have been sighted in and around the loch since the so-called Dark Ages…

As recently as the 18th century, in a lake called Llyn-y-Gader in Snowdon, Wales, a certain man went swimming. He reached the middle of the lake and was returning to the shore when his friends who were watching him noticed that he was being followed by: ‘…a long, trailing object winding slowly behind him. They were afraid to raise an alarm, but went forward to meet him as soon as he reached the shore where they stood. 

Just as he was approaching, the trailing object raised its head, and before anyone could render aid the man was enveloped in the coils of the monster…’ It seems that the man’s body was never recovered.’ 

The Flag of Wales

Leading into Levi and an important identifying sign of the sons of Jacob, is the fact that the Creator gave ancient Israel dietary guidelines. This would appear to be for good reason. Some animals just weren’t meant for human consumption. Certain sea creatures which are scavengers and look just like big bugs, such as prawns, shrimp, crayfish and lobster, as if these two points weren’t enough of a deterrent in eating them; they then often cause people to develop painful stomach aches after their consumption. Likewise, the pig is an animal that possesses the flesh anatomy rather akin to a human and while under a microscope, can be observed to be teeming with unpleasant and harmful microbes. In eating them, it is the next thing to human cannibalism.

The Eating of human flesh regularly is known to make the eater over time, crazy. As if they weren’t already to even try. People may wonder why some people are not always rational. One aspect not considered, is a diet which consumes a lot of pork, ham and bacon. This may well be a little understood factor, which science will corroborate in the future. Apparently, according to those who abhorrently know, pork is the closest meat in flavour and taste to human flesh and while cooked pork smells like human flesh; conversely, incinerated human flesh has a similar aroma to pork. 

It was more than a coincidence that George Orwell chose the pig as the leading animal in his landmark novel Animal Farm, for they are one of the most highly intelligent species on the Earth – one wonders why? For information on the shocking origin of the  domesticated pig, refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega.

Leviticus 11:1-8

New Century Version

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2 “Tell the Israelites this: ‘These are the land animals you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has split hoofs completely divided and that chews the cud. 4 “‘Some animals only chew the cud or only have split hoofs, and you must not eat them… 

Now the pig has a split hoof that is completely divided, but it does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you [because it is not a true herbivore, but rather an omnivore]. 8 You must not eat the meat from these animals or even touch their dead bodies; they are unclean for you.

We find considerable evidence of the Levitical influence in ancient Britain. There has also been much written linking the Levitical system with the Druids, who practised a combined pagan and Hebrew tradition. 

Yair Davidy has put together a number of quotes showing historical documentation adapted from his work The Israelite Origin of the Celtic Races, 1996 – emphasis & bold mine. Donald MacKenzie in 1935, examined food prohibitions in Scotland.

“There are still thousands of Highlanders and groups of Lowlanders who refuse to keep pigs or to partake of their flesh”. MacKenzie quotes from Sir Walter Scott (“The Fortunes of Nigel”): “Sir Munko cannot abide pork, no more than the King’s most sacred majesty, nor my Lord Duke Lennox, nor Lord Dalgarno… But the Scots never eat pork strange that! Some folk think they are a sort of Jews.” “The Scots till within the last generation disliked swine’s flesh as an article of food as much as the Highlanders do at  present”. Also from Sir Walter (“The Two Drovers”) we have an account of execration in Gaelic of a Highlander cursing some Englishmen who had been ridiculing him: “A hundred curses on the swine eaters, who know neither decency nor civility!” 

‘James VI of Scotland “hated pork in all its varieties”. In the English Civil War, a song against Scottish partisans of the Rump Parliament (1639-1661) went: “The Jewish Scots that scorns to eat The Flesh of Swine, and brewers beat, ’twas the sight of this Hogs head made ’em retreat, Which nobody can deny.” Dr.Johnson (1773): “The vulgar inhabitants of Skye, I know not whether of the other islands, have not only eels but pork and bacon in abhorrence; and accordingly I never saw a hog in the Hebrides, except one at Dunvegan”. Dean Ramsay (1793-1872): “The old aversion to the `unclean animal’ still lingers in the Highlands… I recollect an old Scottish gentleman who shared this horror, asking very gravely, `Were not swine forbidden under the law and cursed under the gospel?’”.’  

John Toland (1714): “You know how considerable a part of the British inhabitants are the undoubted offspring of [Judah and Levi] and how many worthy prelates of this same stock, not to speak of Lords and commoners, may at this time make an illustrious figure among us… A great number of ’em fled to Scotland which is the reason so many in that part of the Island have a remarkable aversion to pork and black puddings to this day, not to insist on some other resemblances easily observable.” 

‘D. A. MacKenzie… claimed that the taboo preceded Christianity and that the coming of Christian missionaries to Scotland actually weakened the prohibition. Mackenzie stated that after examination it appeared to him that in ancient Scotland there were two different cults or attitudes, one of which regarded the pig with abhorrence while the other revered it. Ancient pictures of wild boars have been found engraved on rocks. A first century BCE grave in Scotland contained what appears to have been a pig offering and other finds indicate the consumption of swine. 

MacKenzie connects the pig taboo with the Galatians… These were a small group of Galatians (also called “Galli”) who had gravitated to Anatolia (modern Turkey), conquered Phrygia and formed their own kingdom called Galatia in which they ruled over the natives. Lucian (“De Dea Syria”) wrote concerning the Galli of Galatia: “They sacrifice bulls and cows alike and goats and sheep; pigs alone which they abominate, are neither sacrificed nor eaten. Others look on swine without disgust, but as holy animals”. 

Mackenzie brings numerous sources showing that in Gaul, in Ireland, in other parts of Britain, pigs were both plentiful and respected. The boar was a favorite symbol. Pigs were reared for meat all over the Celtic area and the Continental Celts even had a developed industry curing swine meat which they sold to the Romans and were famous for. 

Eels, hare, and pike are also forbidden by the Mosaic code and the Scots had prejudices against all of these and refused to eat them though they are popular foods amongst the neighboring English. The obvious place to look for the source of these prohibitions is in a past exposure to and acceptance of the Mosaic Law and this was the source to which observers in the past usually traced them. It is interesting to note that from time to time certain fish and fowl which the Mosaic Code (of Ancient Israel) does permit came under a ban but only in the case of those expressly prohibited by the Law of Moses did the taboo last or become widely accepted.’ 

“Julius Casar found that the ancient Britons tabooed the hare, the domestic fowl and the goose. The hare is still taboo to many Scots”. 

‘It should be noted that abstaining from foods prohibited by the Mosaic Law may have physiological advantages conducive to long-term physical and emotional stability. Our examination of the religious practices of the early Christian Celts revealed that not only food taboos but also a large number of other practices were taken directly from the Mosaic Law and also that there existed a conscious identification with the Jews and ancient Levis. 

Some of these practices had proven parallels in ancient Druidical pre-Christian custom which taken together with other facts proves that at least a portion of these people were of Israelite descent. 

When the Celts became Christian they carried over into Christianity some of the customs of the Druids. There were Biblical Laws among the customs of the Druids that the British and Irish Celts continued to practice after becoming Christians. This explains in part why the original Celtic Christians of Britain adopted many “Old Testament” practices of the Law of Moses. Concerning the Druids: Julius Caesar (in his book “The Conquest of Gaul”) wrote: 

“The Druidic doctrine is believed to have been found existing in Britain and thence imported into Gaul; even today those who want to make a profound study of it generally go to Britain for the purpose… 

It is said that these pupils have to memorize a great number of verses so many, that some of them spend twenty years at their studies. The Druids believe that their religion forbids them to commit their teachings to writing, although for some other purposes, such as public and private accounts, the Gauls use the Greek alphabet”. 

‘The Romans persecuted the Druids and many Druids fled to Scandinavia according to Welsh tradition and this has been confirmed by archaeological finds… Those Druids who remained in West Britain and Ireland founded colleges and communal settlements… When the Celts were converted to Christianity… [these] were transformed into monasteries. 

T. W. Rolleston, (“Myths And Legends of the Celtic Race”, 1911, London) quotes from Bertrand (“L’Irlande Celtique”) – The Druids like the Hebrews… had an Oral Law that it was forbidden to write. They gave tithes and first fruits. Their sacrificial modes were similar to Biblical ones. They practiced ritual purity in ways that are reminiscent of Laws in the Bible about purification. Traditions exist that some of the Celts of Britain and Ireland practiced the Mosaic Law before the coming of Christianity. 

Leslie Hardinge says that the Celtic Christians of the British Isles placed a “strong emphasis on the legal aspects of the Old Testament”. An Irish work (“Liber ex Lege Moisi”) from ca. 800 CE uses Old Testament Law as “a prime directive, for the proper conduct of everyday life”. It is said that the Celtic Church was closer to Judaism than any other branch of Christianity. Harding says: 

“The shared elements include the keeping of the Saturday Sabbath, tithing, the definition of “first fruits” and offerings… inheritance of religious office, and fasting and dietary restrictions. It also appears that the Celts kept Easter by older methods of reckoning, one of which caused Easter to coincide with the Passover. Other scholarship suggests that Irish Churchmen of the seventh and eighth centuries actually considered themselves to be Priests and Levites, as defined under Old Testament law”. 

MRS. Winthrop Plamer Boswell, (“The Roots of Irish Monasticism”, California, 1969) adds to the above listed Jewish features of Celtic religion: 

“…the prominence of Hebrew features in Irish canon law collections (including Biblical cities of Refuge and Jubilee Years) together with Mosaic prohibitions on diet and injunctions on tithes… There was also a Hebrew treatment of the sanctuary… and finally there were many Hebrew words occurring in cryptographic monastic Irish works such as Hisperica Famina”. 

‘… the Celtic Church kept Saturday as the Sabbath Day. Incidentally,John Brand (“Observations on the Popular Antiquities of Great Britain”, London, 1841) describes the great lengths the Church went to, to extinguish all possible traces of 7th-day Sabbath keeping amongst the English. An article tracing the early observance of Saturday as the Sabbath noted:

‘[In the 500s CE Scotland]: “In this latter instance they seem to have followed a custom of which we find traces in the early monastic church of Ireland, by which they held Saturday to be the Sabbath on which they rested from all their labours” Columba specifically referred to Saturday as the Sabbath and this was the custom of that early church on Iona, an island off the coast of Scotland. [Scotland and Ireland 600s CE]: “It seems to have been customary in the Celtic Churches of the early times in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday as a day of rest from labour. They observed the fourth commandment (that you should not work on the seventh day) literally on the seventh day of the week.” [In the 900s CE Scotland]: “They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a Sabbatical manner.” [In the 1000s CE Scotalnd]: “They held that Saturday was properly the Sabbath on which they abstained from work.” During the 11th century the Catholic Queen of Scotland, Margaret, tried to stamp out those that kept Saturday as the Sabbath Day and who refused to honor Sunday as the Sabbath Day.’

W M Stukeley, in his book Abury, affirms after a close study of the evidence: “I plainly discerned the religion professed by the ancient Britons was the simple patriarchal faith.” [Cited in The Drama of the Lost Disciples, G F Jowett, 2009, page 44]. 

The Book of Chronicles records the main clans from the three sons of Levi.

1 Chronicles 23:1-

English Standard Version

When David was old and full of days, he made Solomon his son king over Israel.

2 David assembled all the leaders of Israel and the priests and the Levites. 3 The Levites, thirty years old and upward, were numbered, and the total was 38,000 men. 

“Twenty-four thousand of these,” David said, “shall have charge of the work in the house of the Lord, 6,000 shall be officers and judges, 5 4,000 gatekeepers, and 4,000 shall offer praises to the Lord with the instruments that I have made for praise.”And David organized them in divisions corresponding to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

7 The sons of Gershon were Ladan and Shimei. 8 The sons of Ladan: Jehiel the chief, and Zetham, and Joel, three. 9 The sons of Shimei: Shelomoth, Haziel, and Haran, three. These were the heads of the fathers’ houses of Ladan. 

10 And the sons of Shimei: Jahath, Zina, and Jeush and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei. 11 Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second; but Jeush [family name of Esau] and Beriah did not have many sons, therefore they became counted as a single father’s house.

12 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, four. 13 The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses. Aaron was set apart to dedicate the most holy things, that he and his sons forever should make offerings before the Lord and minister to him and pronounce blessings in his name forever. 14 But the sons of Moses the man of God were named among the tribe of Levi. 

15 The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer. 16 The sons of Gershom: Shebuel the chief. 17 The sons of Eliezer: Rehabiah the chief. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very many. 18 The sons of Izhar: Shelomith the chief. 19 The sons of Hebron: Jeriah the chief, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth. 20 The sons of Uzziel: Micah the chief and Isshiah the second.

21 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and Kish [family name of Benjamin]. 22 Eleazar died having no sons, but only daughters; their kinsmen, the sons of Kish, married them. 23 The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth, three.

24 These were the sons of Levi by their fathers’ houses, the heads of fathers’ houses as they were listed according to the number of the names of the individuals from twenty years old and upward who were to do the work for the service of the house of the Lord. 25 For David said, “The Lord, the God of Israel, has given rest to his people, and he dwells in Jerusalem forever. 26 And so the Levites no longer need to carry the tabernacle or any of the things for its service.”… 28 For their duty was to assist the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the Lord, having the care of the courts and the chambers, the cleansing of all that is holy, and any work for the service of the house of God. 29 Their duty was also to assist with the showbread, the flour for the grain offering, the wafers of unleavened bread, the baked offering, the offering mixed with oil, and all measures of quantity or size. 30 And they were to stand every morning, thanking and praising the Lord, and likewise at evening, 31 and whenever burnt offerings were offered to the Lord on Sabbaths, new moons, and feast days, according to the number required of them, regularly before the Lord. 32 Thus they were to keep charge of the tent of meeting and the sanctuary, and to attend the sons of Aaron, their brothers, for the service of the house of the Lord.

The Book of Chronicles also records which Levite families settled in various cities, of the various tribes throughout ancient Israel. The sons of Levi being Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Most of the Kohathites, of which Aaron descended lived in the territories of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin and the tribes that later constituted the Kingdom of Judah.

1 Chronicles 6:54-64

English Standard Version

54 These are their dwelling places according to their settlements within their borders: to the sons of Aaron of the clans of Kohathites, for theirs was the first lot, 55 to them they gave Hebron in the land of Judah and its surrounding pasturelands, 56 but the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh. 57 To the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of refuge: Hebron, Libnah with its pasturelands… 

60 and from the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon, Geba with its pasturelands… All their cities throughout their clans were thirteen. 61 To the rest of the Kohathites were given by lot out of the clan of the tribe, out of the half-tribe, the half of [West] Manasseh, ten cities. 62 To the Gershomites according to their clans were allotted thirteen cities out of the tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali and [East] Manasseh in Bashan. 63 To the Merarites according to their clans were allotted twelve cities out of the tribes of Reuben, Gad,and Zebulun. 

64 So the people of Israel gave the Levites the cities with their pasturelands. 65 They gave by lot out of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin these cities that are mentioned by name.

The Prophet Malachi gives a powerful prophecy about the time of the end and the Messianic return; with the majority of people who doubt and the few who exhibit faith.  Included, is a return by the Levites to Godly worship. Maimonides stated that during this time each Israelite would be informed of which tribe he belongs to.

Malachi 3:1-18

New Century Version

The Lord All-Powerful says, “I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way for me. Suddenly, the Lord you are looking for will come to his Temple; the messenger of the agreement, whom you want, will come.” 2 No one can live through that time; no one can survive when he comes. He will be like a purifying fire and like laundry soap. 3 Like someone who heats and purifies silver, he will purify the Levites and make them pure like gold and silver.Then they will bring offerings to the Lord in the right way. And the Lord will accept the offerings from Judah and Jerusalem, as it was in the past. 5 The Lord All-Powerful says, “Then I will come to you and judge you. I will be quick to testify against those who take part in evil magic, adultery, and lying under oath, those who cheat workers of their pay and who cheat widows and orphans, those who are unfair to foreigners, and those who do not respect me.

“I the Lord do not change. So you descendants of Jacob have not been destroyed. Since the time of your ancestors, you have disobeyed my rules and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you,” says the Lord All-Powerful.

13 The Lord says, “You have said terrible things about me.

“But you ask, ‘What have we said about you?’

14 “You have said, ‘It is useless to serve God. It did no good to obey his laws and to show the Lord All-Powerful that we were sorry for what we did. 15 So we say that proud people are happy. Evil people succeed. They challenge God and get away with it.’”

This is highly reflective of our modern age. Many people, not just the world’s elite, use their wealth to take an unfair advantage of the majority of the world, in keeping them impoverished. 

It certainly looks like they are all getting away with their selfishness  and cruelty; particularly as each century passes by with not retribution. But, their own day of reckoning beckons and justice will be served. 

16 Then those who honored the Lord spoke with each other, and the Lord listened and heard them. The names of those who honored the Lord and respected him were written in his presence in a book to be remembered. 17 The Lord All-Powerful says, “They belong to me; on that day they will be my very own. As a parent shows mercy to his child who serves him, I will show mercy to my people. 18 You will again see the difference between good and evil people, between those who serve God and those who don’t.

An odd story concerning Reuben, is his giving mandrakes to his mother Leah, when he was still very young and possibly only ten years of age.

Genesis 30:14-23

English Standard Version

14 In the days of wheat harvest Reuben went and found mandrakes [H1736 – duwday: basket, mandrake] in the field and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 15 But she said to her, “Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?” Rachel said, “Then he may lie with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”  

16 When Jacob came from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must come in to me, for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” 

So he lay with her that night. 17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar. 19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun. 21 Afterward she bore a daughter and called her name Dinah.

22 Then [later] God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.”

Reuben may or may not have known that the mandrake contains aphrodisiac and fertility properties. If he was a child, probably not; though what led him to find the mandrakes for Leah? Did Leah have a liking for them? Was Reuben inspired by the Eternal to look for them? Leah had a temporary barren period from the birth of Judah in 1746 BCE until Issachar in 1742 BCE. It is ironic that she gives the mandrakes to Rachel and conceives herself that night, yet Rachel who likely has the plant root does not bear Joseph until 1726 BCE. Some versions incorrectly call the plant a love apple, that is, a tomato.

The Mandrake is common in Palestine and flourishes in the spring, ripening at the time of the wheat harvest as Genesis states. The mandrake, also known as Satan’s apple, is the fruit – a potent root that somewhat resembles the human form – of the Mandragora officinarum, a member of the Solanaceae order [potato]. 

There is also a British version, the Bryonia Alba. They are said to have mystical and magical properties. It is a member of the Nightshade family, used primarily for its anaesthetic properties and closely allied to the Atropa belladonna or deadly nightshade of southern Europe. If ingested in sufficient quantities it can cause delirium and hallucinations. It is native to the Mediterranean and tellingly, the Himalayas [refer Chapter I Noah]. 

Next we read again of Reuben in Genesis thirty-five, in one small verse sandwiched between the death of Rachel and the death of Isaac. Isaac died in 1697 BCE and Rachel died giving birth to Benjamin circa 1699 BCE. Assuming it is 1698 BCE, Reuben is fifty-four years of age. Reuben is still young, not even middle aged; for he dies at the age of one hundred and twenty-five in 1627 BCE.

Genesis 35:21-22

English Standard Version

21 Israel journeyed on and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Eder. 22 While Israel lived in that land, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine. And Israel heard of it.

Bilhah was Rachel’s handmaid and someone that Reuben would have known very well. Further details are given in the Book of Jubilees.

Book of Jubilees 33:1-9

33.1 And Jacob went and dwelt to the south of Magdaladra’ef. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new month [New Moon the 1st] of the tenth month [January/February]. 2 And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel’s maid, the concubine of his father, bathing in water in a secret place, and he loved [lusted after] her. 3 And he hid himself at night, and he entered the house of Bilhah [at night], and he found her sleeping alone on a bed in her house. 4 And he lay with her, and she awoke and saw, and behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, and she uncovered the border of her covering and seized him, and cried out, and discovered that it was Reuben. 5 And she was ashamed because of him, and released her hand from him, and he fled. 

6 And she lamented because of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it to any one.7 And when Jacob returned and sought her, she said to him: ‘I am not clean for you, for I have been defiled as regards you; for Reuben has defiled me, and has lain with me in the night, and I was asleep, and did not discover until he uncovered my skirt and slept with me.’8 And Jacob was exceedingly wroth with Reuben because he had lain with Bilhah, because he had uncovered his father’s skirt. 9 And Jacob did not approach her again because Reuben had defiled her. And as for any man who uncovers his father’s skirt his deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before Yahweh.

A tragic experience of rape for Bilhah; coupled with not being able to be close to Jacob ever again. The condemnation against Reuben is severe and one realises the prophesies regarding his offspring are a punishment, as Canaan’s children were punished even though it was Canaan’s sin [refer Chapter XI Ham and Chapter XII Canaan]. It is curious that this incident is a sexual act after the sexual aspect of the mandrake story. It is in part because of this, that identity adherents have labelled France as Reuben. Though we have already discovered their rightful identity [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. 

Reubens Ravishing of Bilhah: A Parallel Account, Dr Rabbi David Frankel – bold his, emphasis mine:

‘We may compare the short original story [refer Chapter XI Ham] of the son (Canaan or Ham) molesting his [grand]father (Ham or Noah) and being cursed with the similarly curt story of Reuben’s sin with his father’s concubine, Bilhah, as related in Genesis 35:21-22, Then Israel traveled on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder. While Israel was living in that land, Reuben had sexual relations with Bilhah, his father’s concubine, and Israel heard about it.

Once again, we have a brief story about a son who sexually disgraces his father, though in this case it is the eldest son rather than the youngest son, and the disgrace to the father is done indirectly through incest with the father’s concubine, an act that the incest laws in the Torah call “revealing your father’s nakedness”:

Leviticus 18:8 Do not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife; it is the nakedness of your father. Leviticus 20:11 If a man lies with his father’s wife, it is the nakedness of his father that he has uncovered… Deuteronomy 27:20 Cursed be he who lies with his father’s wife, for he has revealed what his father has covered

Many have noted that the ending of the Reuben and Bilhah story is truncated. What happened when Israel “heard about it”? The story could hardly have simply ended there! The parallel with the Noah story suggests that the original continuation may be found in the “blessings” of Jacob before his death in Genesis 49:3-4…

Just as Noah immediately cursed his youngest son for taking sexual advantage of him, so Jacob, upon hearing about the act of his oldest son with his concubine, immediately pronounced the demotion of his status vis-a-vis his brothers. If this conjecture is accepted, the similarity between the two stories is even greater. Note that brothers play no active role in the story of Reuben’s sin just as they play no active role in the reconstructed story of Ham and Canaan. And, at least if we follow the reconstruction of that narrative suggested above, it too ended with the father’s denunciation of the sinful son alone.   

Incidentally, another parallel between the narratives should not be missed: just as the biblical editor sought to “sanitize” the sexual sin in the Noah story so did the Rabbis suggest that Reuben did no more than move his father’s bed from Bilhah’s tent to his mother Leah’s tent.’

Genesis 49:3-4

English Standard Version

3 “Reuben, you are my firstborn, my might, and the firstfruits of my strength [H202 – ‘own: vigour, generative power], preeminent in dignity [loftiness, exaltation] and preeminent in power. 4 Unstable as water, you shall not have preeminence, because you went up to your father’s bed; then you defiled it – he went up to my couch!

This is the only time that Jacob inserts his own opinion or feelings amongst the oracles concerning his sons – “he went up to my couch.”  It cost Reuben dearly, as the birthright or at least the lions share, if it was to be split with Simeon, was lost, forever; as Esau had also lost the birthright. Today, Northern Ireland – as a country, that is not a nation – is caught in a no-mans-land, between the lions of Judah and Gad – England and Ireland. It’s past checkered, violent and unstable as predicted. Like water that is never truly calm or still, so has the volatile history of Northern Ireland been between the Catholic, Republican Irish and the Protestant, Loyalists who reside in the majority of Ulster’s  nine Counties.

The Hebrew word for unstable is H6349 pachaz, meaning, as in ‘recklessness, wantoness, unbridled license, frothiness’ – to froth. The word for water is H4325 mayim and has the connotation for ‘danger, violence, transitory.’ It can mean ‘water of the feet’ that is literally, urine. The word preeminence is the Hebrew word H3498 yathar, meaning ‘excel.’ Reuben was not going to have an excess, say like Joseph, but rather a very much smaller inheritance. 

It is interesting to note that the Northern Irish are staunchly loyal and royal in their mindset and policy. Only Canada – apart from the obvious English – rivals them for their patriotism towards the Monarchy figurehead that is Queen Elizabeth II. It is as if they are over-compensating for what might have been as the eldest and even possibly the recipient of the sceptre and orb of rulership. In Northern Ireland the reminder of this is in the use of the frequent use of the word ‘royal as in the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the  title for the Northern Irish police force, from 1922 to 2001.

Deuteronomy 33:6

King James Version

Let Reuben live, and not die [H4191]; and let [H1961] not his men [H4962] be few [H4557].

Moses predicts that Reuben would have a lot of descendants… or did he. The King James version – with many others – misleadingly says Reuben would have many offspring. This is in part why identity teachers have unanimously taught Reuben as France. The Interlinear shows that the word not is added. The Hebrew word in question H4962 math, is translated as men [14], few [2], number [1] and small [1]. The connotation is to have less sex and less males. The English Standard version translates  this verse accurately: “Let Reuben live, and not die, but let his men be few.” 

Other translations with the correct context and meaning include:

HCSB: Let Reuben live and not die though his people become few.

CEV: Tribe of Reuben, you will live, even though your tribe will always be small.

MSG: Reuben: “Let Reuben live and not die, but just barely, in diminishing numbers.”

It is clear that Reuben though severely punished, in that he would be a very small tribe; he would still live and not cease to exist. France, aside from its genetic Haplogroup sequencing that shows they are related to the Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of Britain and Ireland; they are still not the same, they have a large population and a preeminence of power. France does not fulfil the prophecies for Reuben. Northern Ireland does… and its relationship with Gad from Ireland, makes it the only plausible answer.

Judges 5:15-16

Common English Bible

15… Among the clans of Reuben there was deep soul-searching. 16 “Why did you stay back among the sheep pens, listening to the music for the flocks?” For the clans of Reuben there was deep soul-searching.

The Reubenites were reluctant to get involved in the combined Israel war against the Canaanites during Deborah’s judgeship. In fact they didn’t participate at all. The other tribe that didn’t either was the tribe of Dan. This is a strange coincidence as we will discover when we study Dan. The word used for soul-searching in verse sixteen is different from the one in verse fifteen. The idea is said twice, so the strength of their reticence has been underlined for it to be stated in such a way. 

The first Hebrew word is H2711, cheqeq meaning ‘thoughts, decrees, resolve, statute, action prescribed, an enactment, a resolution.’ It looks like they took so long to deliberate and make an official decision that the war was begun and finished before they could make up their minds. This is indicative of the Northern Irish government’s policy making, as it is not known for its decisiveness. The second word is H2714, cheqer meaning ‘a search, investigation, enquiry, examination, enumeration, deliberation.’ Just the definitions of the word sound painful. Therefore the procrastination of the Reubenites in making a decision, meant they did not get involved at all. 

Genesis 49:19

Amplified Bible

“As for Gad [H1410 – a troop] – a raiding troop [H1416 – gduwd: ‘band, army, company’] shall raid [H1464 – guwd: overcome, invade (with troops)] him, But he shall raid [H1464] at their heels and assault them (victoriously).

NLV: “A group of soldiers [the English] will go against Gad. But he will go against them at their heels [Northern Ireland].

Gad would be attacked but will have the last word. In this verse and context, Gad’s name means a ‘raiding troop’, yet in Genesis 30:11, his name means ‘good fortune’ from H1409 gad. Both definitions are correct and in the Hebrew definition of the name Gad  in Genesis chapter forty-nine, there is a play on the word Gad, as in ‘Gad, a Gad shall Gad.’ The mentioning of raiding at the heels of their enemies is another interesting coincidence, as in the preceding verses, Jacob speaks of Dan as a venomous serpent that with its fangs will bite the ‘horses heels so that his rider falls backward.’ Worth noting is that the tribe of Dan has a primary relationship with Reuben, a secondary one with Benjamin and tertiary connections with both Simeon and Gad.

In Judges five and the war against the Canaanites, we observed that Judah, Simeon and Levi were not involved and Reuben and Dan did not participate. Gad, like Judah and company is not mentioned either. These tribes all have one thing in common and that is that they are on the periphery of the action and war zone so-to-speak. The exception being Machir of the half-tribe of East Manasseh, who also dwelt on the east side of the River Jordan with Reuben and Gad. In Moses’s prophecy Gad chose the best land for himself.

Deuteronomy 33:20-21

English Standard Version

20 And of Gad he said, “Blessed [H1288 – barak: ‘bless oneself, be adored’] be he who enlarges [H7337 – rachab: ‘grow wide, grow large, make room’] Gad! Gad crouches like a lion; he tears off arm and scalp [Guerrilla and terrorist warfare]. 21 He chose the best of the land for himself, for there a commander’s portion was reserved; and he came with the heads of the people, with Israel he executed the justice of the Lord, and his judgments for Israel.”

It could be argued that the Emerald Isle is the best of the land of the two British Isles and even of all the Israelite nations. The identifications of Switzerland or Sweden as Gad fall short in two ways. Arguably, they both have great landscapes and countryside. It is more difficult to assign armies or invaders for either one and their chances of enlarging their territories is highly unlikely. 

Ireland on the other hand had to endure extreme measures while the English occupied their land. The saga of the English interaction and treatment of the Irish is brutal and uncomfortable reading. The Irish eventually won back their nation and became an independent Republic. As a Lion themselves, they stood up to the powerful Lion of Judah. With regard to enlarging their territory, I first considered the massive Irish immigration to the United States of America. Many millions fled the potato famine, which was in large part induced by the English. Only English and German descended Americans outnumber those of Irish descent in America. 

A more accurate interpretation, which in the past may have seemed unlikely, though with the United Kingdom having withdrawn from the European Union and Scotland sabre rattling its intention to leave the union; an Ulster separating itself from England and Scotland and forming an agreement with Ireland does not seem so far fetched. A federated Ireland with either the two capitals of Dublin and Belfast, or a new neutral location working together would be seen as a victory for the Republic. The religious population divide of Ulster could also be a genetic split; in that the Protestants are Reuben and the Catholics are not Reuben, but actually Gad. This could be another interpretation of Gad ‘enlarging his territory.’ 

As the tribes of Israel are all in the process of distancing themselves from Judah and the hold its monarchy exerts; then Northern Ireland leaving the United Kingdom could be inevitable. And before Scotland or Wales would be a sensational political event. The big question of course is whether Scotland or Wales would actually leave the United Kingdom as they historically were the integral tribes comprising the Kingdom of Judah – Judah, Benjamin and Simeon. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950:

‘Reuben, unstable as water and [not] having the excellency of greatness, we have recognized as France. Southern France, settled by the descendants of Javan (the Greeks), is gentile … is unstable, yet sets the styles for the world, has the form of real excellency, and has the same sex weakness as Reuben, is France… And is it not significant that the very country at war with England around 1800 should be France (Reuben), who would lose the birthright in the Napoleonic war? (Napoleon was Italian.)’ 

This identification appears to fit quite well, superficially. Though it unravels when we understand who the French are [refer Chapter VII Javan and Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon] and that Reuben was to be the smallest Tribe.

‘Gad, which means “the troop” certainly designates Switzerland the only Israelite nation in which every man is mobilized for defense. Against Gad would come the foreign troops, said Jacob, but he will “trod upon their heel.” Moses declared that Gad does NOT “leap,” a characteristic of the colonizing or pillaging tribes. Gad “teareth the arm, yea, the crown of the head” of the Holy Roman Empire, in whose territory “he chose a first part for himself, and there a portion of a ruler was reserved.” To Gad come “the heads of the people” as they do today to Geneva. No other nation on earth so perfectly fits this description of a nation of troops. Switzerland, Geneva particularly, has had a history of being an “international lawgiver.” Note: Even though the migrations of some of the ancestors of Switzerland and Germany are similar, while some have erroneously taught that Germany is Gad, Germany has no history of being a recognized lawgiver – but instead primarily descended from Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur and Chapter XXVIII Ishmael].’

No example is given in evidence of the Swiss being tread upon in fulfilment of prophecy; yet a leap is taken for Gad in assigning the Holy Roman Empire a role. A misinterpretation of scripture is applied by assigning a meaning of Gad as having many troops rather than the ordeal of being invaded and ruled, as Ireland endured. Also missed, is the close relationship between Reuben and Gad in dwelling together across the River Jordan. We will find that all the sons of Jacob had a close relationship with one other tribe. It is a startling coincidence, yet all the sons of Jacob paired off, though not always with a full brother, more times it was with a half brother. The exception is Dan, who from the get go was a lone wolf, a maverick and unlike his brothers and more like his cousin Esau or his uncle Ishmael. So far we have the close ties between Judah and Benjamin; between Simeon and Levi and between Reuben and Gad. 

The early history of Ireland is shrouded in the mists of mystery and myth. What is apparent is that there has been an overlapping of various waves of people. We will endeavour to sift through the legends and histories and glean what is relevant to Reuben and Gad. In so doing, we will bump into Benjamin and Zarah from Judah that we have already investigated as well as the tribe of Dan, who will be studied separately in a later chapter [refer Chapter XXXIV Dan]. 

Ireland’s history is ‘based largely upon the pseudo-historical Lebor Gabala, translated into English as the “Book of Invasions”, and Cath Maige Tuired, or the “Second Battle of Maige Tuired”.’ One of the first peoples recorded in Ireland are the Partholians, after their leader Partholon. An intriguing word as it is remarkably similar to the Israelite Parthians we discussed in Chapter XXX Judah and Benjamin. They are supposed to have ruled for three hundred years and then became extinct due to disease. A gap of thirty years separated them and the next peoples, the Nemedians. 

In the Annals of Clonmacnois, written circa 1408 CE, Bartholome is mentioned as arriving in Ireland during the time that Abraham was alive. What is interesting is that the Partholians are thought to have arrived in Ireland circa 2044 BCE. Abraham lived between 1977 and 1802 BCE. An old English version by Roberts of this same tradition said that the people who were led by Bartholomew, sailed to Ireland from Israel via Spain. Bartholome[w] is sometimes given as Partholomew and this may be a representation of the Partholonians. David Hughes in The British Chronicles, 2007, says: ‘the Partholonians were prominent in Ulster and in Scotland where they were referred to as “Parthi”.’ Due to the timing – Jacob being born in 1817 BCE – the Partholonians were not the sons of Jacob [tradition says they descended from Noah’s son Japheth], as the later Nemedians undoubtedly were. 

The Nemedians arrived in approximately 1714 BCE, ruling Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years, to 1497 BCE. Their journey began possibly from Spain with a fleet of thirty-two ships and a thousand people. Only one ship with about thirty people is said to allegedly have survived the journey, which included Nemed and his four sons. The name Nemed in Hebrew means ‘sanctified’ or ‘separated’ and is synonymous with the Hebrew name Peresh, given to the son of Machir from the half tribe of East Man9hasseh [1 Chronicles 7:16]. The Nemedians are claimed ‘to be descendants of Sru, Sera and Isru. 

These names… are all forms of the name Israel.’ Sera-[li] is how the Assyrians rendered the name Israel in at least one inscription.

Another ancient peoples in Ireland, were the Fomorians. The Fomorian origins are reputed as being from North Africa. They worshipped a goddess, Domnu and their leader was Balar or Balor, a form of the word Baal. They were in essence, sea-going – possibly female dominated – pirates. They are not considered as Celtic or permanent as they were a strange race of ugly, misshapen giants who lived on Tory Island off the coast of Donegal in Northwest Ireland. 

The ancient Annals of Clonmacnois records that the Fomorians were: “descended from Cham, the sonne of Noeh, and lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world.” Previously mentioned, the Giant’s Gateway in Ireland – Cloch-an-na-bh-Fomharigh: ‘causeway or stepping-stones of the Fomorians’ – was associated with giants and hence is also commonly called the Giant’s Causeway. 

The Fomorians were cruel and violent as they would repeatedly raid the mainland. The Fomorians had once fought the Partholanians. Once the numbers of the Nemedians had grown, they were at first successful against the Fomorians, with four decisive victories; but a pestilence decimated the population so that less than two thousand Nemedians survived. Thus the Fomorians ruled over the Nemedians for a while and then later also the Dananns, extracting heavy tributes and taxes from them. 

The Fomorian giants were undoubtedly Elioud descendants of Nephilim [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. They were an ancient inhabitant of the land and very possibly the first. The Irish Province of Ulster derives its name from them. For they would have been known as the Ulaid or Ulaidh and singularly as the Ulad or Uladh. This is the old Irish spelling for the Hebrew word Elioud also transliterated Eljo; the second generational offspring and beyond, of the Nephilim. The Irish name Uladh being pronounced as Ulla, would then become Ula-ster and hence Ulster. 

An online commentator states – emphasis & bold mine:

The etymology of the… word Elioud is composed of the words, El, Io, and Ud. You will also find this name in Welsh charters, which it is clear it is not originally a Welsh word, but it was Hebrew and taken to the Welsh. The Welsh etymology is also very similar, where it is said the meaning of el is many and iud is lord. I believe that this is a mistranslation, and it has the same meaning as the Hebrew.

The word El is a generic name for God… found in the word Elohim. The word Io is related to the words wisdom and knowledge. Sir Godfrey Higgins had written, “in Syriac Io, was the God of Wisdom or Knowledge… The God of Wisdom was the spiritual fire…” 

The meaning of the word Ud is “brand or branded.” Therefor, the meaning of Elioud would be something like “branded with the spiritual fire of Godly wisdom, or wisdom branded by the spirit fire of God.” Hence, they were [like] the sons of Cain, the accursed and branded by God as it is said in the scriptures when God confronted Cain about Abel’s death; God responded, “Not so; if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer vengeance seven times over”, and God “set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him” (Gen. 4:15).’

As an aside, in the genealogy of Christ through his father Joseph, should he have been born physically from his seed, one of His ancestors is a certain Eliud [Matthew 1.14–15], the great-great-grandfather of Joseph. The name Eliud is G1664, Elioud and means: ‘God his Praise’ or ‘God of Majesty.’ 

Finally, three Nemedian chieftains led their people in revolt. Attacking the Fomorian stronghold of Tory Island, the Nemedians managed to kill one of the Fomorian kings and captured one of their towers. In the process, the Nemedians were again almost totally annihilated, with purportedly only thirty Nemedians surviving the battle. These survivors fled from Ireland. 

According to legend, one branch of the Nemedians under Fergus Lethderg, fled with his son Briottan [from which ‘Britain’ may be linked] Maol to Alba [Scotland], where the whole island was named after him. This is more probable than Britain being named after Brutus some four hundred years later. These were related peoples to the British peoples who became known as Cymry descended from Simeon. A second branch of the Nemedians were led by Semeon, Semion or Simon Brec a son of Erglan son of Beoan son of Starn son of Nemed. They supposedly fled to Greece, where their descendants would later return to Ireland after being slaves for a long time; now known as the Fir Bolg

According to some versions, Semeon had never been in Ireland only his descendants were. The name Semeon equates to the name Simeon, the son of Jacob. Though it is not the same person rather a shared family name. For this branch of the Nemedians are the tribe of Reuben, who are later known as the Fir Bolg or Firbolgs, one and the same as the Belgae. The Fir Bolge or sons of Bolge are also referred to ‘Ffirvolge.’ Related names include: Firvolgian, Firbolgian, Belgarian and Belgian. 

Ptolemy describes the Tribe of Semoni on the southeast coast of Britain. They adjoined the Iceni whose name according to Yair Davidy “may be understood to be a Phoenician (or North Israelite) form of the appellation Jachin [fourth] son of Simeon (Genesis 46;10). The Welsh in their own and in Irish Literature were referred to as Semoni.” This is an important point, for the Semoni as Simeonites, were also known as Cymru. 

Five sons of Dela, a descendant of Semeon brought their people out of slavery from Greece and Thrace. This was two hundred and thirty years later in 1267 BCE, after they had departed Ireland in 1497 BCE and also prior to the Milesian Scotti – tribe of Zarah-Judah and Gad’s – arrival in 1046 BCE. The sons of Dela divided Ireland into their original five provinces, Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Meath. Their rule was short lived for a mere thirty-seven years and nine kings, until the Tuatha de Danann – tribe of Dan – arrived circa 1230 BCE. Some versions have that the tribe of Dana’s ancestor was Bethac who had left Ireland with the other Nemedians and later returned. The Milesian Scots arrived to find the Tuatha de Danaan had been ruling for one hundred and seventy-four years after the Second Battle of Moytura in 1220 BCE. The Firbolgs were perceived ‘as inferior people, and strangely, quite primitive in comparison to the Tuatha De Danann, and also the later Milesians.’ 

The ancient Book of the Genealogies by MacFirbis states – emphasis & bold mine: 

“Every one who is white (of skin) and brown (of hair), bold, honourable, daring, prosperous, bountiful in the bestowal of property, wealth, and rings, and who is not afraid of battle or combat: they are the descendants of Milesius in Erinn… Every one who is black-haired, who is a tattler, guileful, tale-telling, noisy… the disturbers of every council and every assembly, and the promoters of discord among the people, these are the descendants of the Firbolgs.”

The Firbolgs did not seem to have any trouble with the Fomorians, however they did not like the Tuatha De Danann and fought the First Battle of Moytura with them before they were defeated, circa 1230 BCE. 

The Story of the Irish Race, – emphasis & bold mine:

“The Irish race of today is popularly known as the Milesian Race, because the genuine Irish (Celtic) people were supposed to be descended from Milesius of Spain, whose sons, say the legendary accounts, invaded and possessed themselves of Ireland a thousand years before Christ. 

The races that occupied the land when the so-called Milesians came, chiefly the Firbolg [Reuben] and the Tuatha De Danann [Dan], were certainly not exterminated by the conquering Milesians [Gad and Zarah-Judah]. Those two peoples formed the basis of the future population, which was dominated and guided, and had its characteristics moulded, by the far less numerous but more powerful Milesian aristocracy and soldiery. All three of these races, however, were different tribes of the great Celtic family, who, long ages before, had separated from the main stem, and in course of later centuries blended again into one tribe of Gaels – three derivatives of one stream, which, after winding their several ways across Europe from the East, in Ireland turbulently met, and after eddying, and surging tumultuously, finally blended in amity, and flowed onward in one great Gaelic stream. 

The possession of the country was wrested from the Firbolgs, and they were forced into partial serfdom by the Tuatha De Danann (people of the goddess Dana), who arrived later. Totally unlike the uncultured Firbolgs, the Tuatha De Dannann were a capable and cultured, highly civilised people, so skilled in the crafts, if not the arts, that the Firbolgs named them necromancers, and in course of time both the Firbolgs and the later coming Milesians created a mythology around these. 

In a famed battle at Southern Moytura (on the Mayo-Galway border) it was that the Tuatha De Danann met and overthrew the Firbolgs. The Firbolgs noted King, Eochaid was slain in this great battle, but the De Danan King, Nuada, had his hand cut off by a great warrior of the Firbolgs named Sreng. The battle raged for four days. So bravely had the Firbolgs fought, and so sorely exhausted the De Dannann, that the latter, to end the battle, gladly left to the Firbolgs, that quarter of the Island wherein they fought, the province now called Connaught. And the bloody contest was over. 

The famous life and death struggle of two races is commemorated by a multitude of cairns and pillars which strew the great battle plain in Sligo – a plain which bears the name (in Irish) of “The plain of the Towers of the Fomorians”. The Danann were now the undisputed masters of the land. So goes the honoured legend.” 

The Firbolgs lost the battle because the Dananns had superior ‘technological’ weapons. Tailtiu was the daughter of King of the Mag Mor, “Great Plain”, from the Land of the Dead, which was a poetic name for Spain. Tailtiu married the last Firbolg king, Eochaid Mac Eirc, who died at Moytura. At her husband’s death, she married Eochaid Garb Mac Duach, a Danann warrior. Eventually, Lugh Lamfada led the Danann to overthrow the Fomorian tyranny and oppression and annihilate them, circa 1220 BCE in the Second Battle of Moytura. Balor was their last leader and Lugh killed him. Since Tailtiu was the foster mother of Lugh, she was held in honour by the Tuatha de Danann. The Tribe of Dana subsequently intermarried with the Fomorian giants. 

Fir means ‘man or men’ and Bolg is thought to have derived from the Hebrew Bela[gh] from either the son of Benjamin [Genesis 46:21]; or just as likely, a family head in the tribe of Reuben [1 Chronicles 5:8], who interestingly hailed from Aroer, near Baal-meon. A symbol of Reuben is a Man, which is linked to the water carrier [water from Jacob’s prophecy in Genesis 49:4] and the zodiacal sign of Aquarius [refer Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. 

Yair Davidy comments – emphasis & bold mine: 

The Fir Bolg are identified by researchers with the Belgae who in the 100s BCE sent colonists from their base in North Gaul into southern Britain where they were reported by Ptolemy. T.F. O’Rahilly idenfitied the Belgae in Ireland with the Erain (Iverni in the southwest) [and the] Ulaid (Ulster)… The Belgae gave their name to Belgium. Within the Land of Israel the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half Menasseh at an early stage had formerly expanded their territories up to and perhaps even beyond the Euphrates River. Sections of other Israelite tribes, including Benjamin, were also to be found in the Israelite areas between the Jordan and Euphrates Rivers. Ptolemy in his map of “Arabia” records the existence of Israelite clan and territorial names in areas adjoining the Euphrates. Amongst these names are Balagea and Belginaea which appellations relate to the Belgae descendants of Bela(g)h from Benjamin and/or Reuben.’

As both Benjamin and Reuben lived in Northern Ireland, the link to Bela* could relate to both of them. Ultimately, it was the tribe of Reuben who settled there as the ancient Ulaid, becoming the modern Ulster. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902:

‘Israel, as we know, was cast out of her land for idolatry, and Baal-ism* was one of her chief idolatries. Before she was cast out she seems to have acquired the habit of attaching the name of the god Baal to places and cities, for on the ancient maps of Palestine we find Baal-meon, Baal-gad, Baal-ath, Baal-shalisha, Baal-Tamar, Baal-peor, Baal-hazor, Baal-zephon, Mt. Baalah, and others. 

But surely these people carried that same proclivity with them to the islands, for in Ireland this name of the god Baal is found just as frequently, if not more frequently, a circumstance which shows that this idol was honored and worshipped by her eastern colonists. 

The Rev. T. R. Howlett furnishes us with the following list of Baal-it-ish names found in Ireland: Baa-y-Bai, Baal-y-gowan, Baal-y-Nahinsh, Baal-y- Castell, Baal-y-Moni, Baal-y-ner, Baal-y-Garai, Baal-y-nah, Baal-y-Con-El, Baal-y- Hy, Baal-y-Hull-Ish, Baal-NahBrach, Baal-Athi, Baal-Dagon. 

Regarding the evidence given by these names, Howlett says: 

“These certainly are memorials of the Baal worship once prevailing in Ireland. In them we have not only the name of Baal, but its conjunction also with other Hebrew names. How can this be accounted for, except as they were so called by emigrants from Phoenicia and Palestine? One thing that particularly marks the Hebrew origin of these names is their attachment to places but not to persons. The Canaanites and Phoenicians, attached the names of their gods, Baal, Bal, Bel to persons, as Eth-Baal, Itho-bal, Asdru-bal and Han-i-bal. These were family names among the heathen nations surrounding Israel. In like manner, we find among the chosen people the names of their God associated with and forming a part of family and personal names; as “El” and “Jah,” in Isra-el, Ishma-el, Lemu-el, Samu-el, Ezeki-el, El-isha El-ijah.. Baal never found favor among the Hebrews as a personal name, though used freely for localities They gave it to their towns, but not to their children. Its use in Ireland is proof of the Israelitish origin of the earliest settlers – philological evidence of racial unity.”

Linked with the Firbolgs time frame are the Galioin, also associated with the Lagin and Domain and all part of the Gabair peoples who came from Brittany or Amorica in France. Their name is considered a cognate to that of the Galli and Gauls. Yair Davidy states: ‘these names in Hebrew connote both “Exile” (“Goli”, “Gali”) and [the Sea of] Galilee.’ The Domain may be linked to the tribe of Dana and or the Fomorians and their goddess Domnu. As the Tuatha de Danann and Fomorians intermarried it is highly likely. The related Dumnonii were a British tribe found in Devon, Cornwall and also as far north as Scotland. 

The migration of the Dal Riata – the Dalriada Scots – to the West coast of Scotland is expertly and succinctly presented, in the following article. 

The Ulster Kingdoms: 3 – Dalriada (Causeway Coast and Glens Districts), Dr Ian Adamson OBE – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Linguistic and genealogical evidence associates ancestors of the Dál Riata with the prehistoric Iverni [Simeon](Erainn) [Reuben] and Darini, suggesting kinship with the Ulaid [Reuben] of Ulster and a number of Belgic [Reuben?] kingdoms in Munster. The bulk of the inhabitants in County Antrim would have been the Cruthinic Robogdii [Benjamin**], relatives of the Epidian Cruthin [Picts**] across the Sea of Moyle. Ultimately the Dál Riata over-lords [Zarah-Judah], according to the earliest genealogies, are descendants of Deda mac Sin, a prehistoric king or deity of the Belgic Érainn [Reuben].

Dalriada was founded by Gaelic-speaking people from Ulster, including Robogdian Cruthin, who eventually Gaelicised the west coast of Pictland, according to the Venerable Bede, by a combination of force and treaty. The indigenous Epidian [Caledonian Picts of Benjamin] people however remained substantially the same and there is no present archaeological evidence for a full-scale migration or invasion. The inhabitants of Dalriada are often referred to as Scots (Latin Scotti), a name originally used by Roman and Greek writers for the Irish who raided Roman Britain. 

Later it came to refer to Gaelic-speakers in general, whether from Ireland or elsewhere. The name Dál Riata is derived from Old Gaelic. Dál means “portion” or “share” (as in “a portion of land”) [Genesis 49:27, Deuteronomy 33:6] and Riata or Riada is believed to be a personal name. Thus, Riada’s portion.’

‘The kingdom reached its height under Áedán mac Gabráin (r. 574–608), but its growth was checked at the Battle of Degsastan in 603 by Æthelfrith of Northumbria. Serious defeats in Ireland and Scotland in the time of Domnall Brecc (d. 642) ended Dál Riata’s “golden age”, and the kingdom became a client of Northumbria, then subject to the Picts (Caledonian Cruthin). There is disagreement over the fate of the kingdom from the late eighth century onwards. 

Some scholars have seen no revival of Dalriada after the long period of foreign domination (after 637 to around 750 or 760), while others have seen a revival of Dalriada under Áed Find (736–778), and later Kenneth Mac Alpin (Cináed mac Ailpín, who is claimed in some sources to have taken the kingship there in c. 840 following the disastrous defeat of the Pictish army by the Danes). Some even claim that the kingship of Fortriu was usurped by the Dalriadans several generations before MacAlpin (800–858). The kingdom’s independence ended in the Viking Age, as it merged with the lands of the Picts to form the Kingdom of Alba.’

The salient points are 1. the similarity between Robo-gdii and possibly Reube-n. Even so, the link between the Cruthins and Picts is stronger 2. the indigenous Cruithnic Epidians of Caledonia remained unchanged because they were the larger body of people, the Picts from Benjamin 3. the Riada’s portion was either small, with the kingdom not lasting long as is fitting with the small tribe of Reuben. Or alternatively and far more likely it is applicable to Benjamin being the ‘son of the right hand’ and ‘sharing the spoil’.

Though the Dal Riada Scots – an amalgamation of peoples including Zarah-Pharez from Judah, Benjamin and Dan – temporarily assimilated with the Picts to form the new nation of Scotland, these people included a number of those that migrated back to Ulster during its plantation by England. We will investigate the identity of these people in a subsequent chapter. The ruling class of the Dal Riada Scots were those of the Red Hand of Zarah, intermarried with Pharez as discussed [refer Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin]. 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The settlements of the Phoenicians in Spain were originally named after several Hebrew names. One principal settlement was named Gades, Gadir or Gadeira, and today this city is known as Cadiz. 

Located on the Atlantic Ocean, it surely served as a major port for Phoenician expeditions to [Britain] and North America. The prominent historian, George Rawlinson, cites the Phoenician word for “enclosure” or “fortified place” as the source for the name of this ancient port city . He could just as easily have credited ancient Hebrew as the source of its name as the Hebrew word “gadar” means “enclose,” “fence up” or “make (a wall).”  Since the Hebrew word “gadar” would have been written without vowels at that ancient time, its consonants G­D­R serve precisely as the root word for the names Gadir or Gadeira. 

Another historian, L.A. Waddell, states Gades could be rendered “House of the Gads.”Gad was the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, and could easily have given its name to the colony of Gades. The tribe of Gad was prophesied by Moses in Deuteronomy 33:20 to “be enlarged” (i.e. “have a large population”). As their population expanded over the centuries, it is consistent with this biblical prophecy that Gad would have been one of the tribes most needing to export part of its population to some of Israel’s colonies. 

Another historian, Philip Hitti, cites that Gades was founded as a colony of the Phoenicians around 1000 B.C. , while the Encyclopaedia Britannica states that Cadiz was founded “as early as 1100 B.C.” This time frame for Cadiz’s founding is in the era of Israel’s rise to empire status under Kings David and Solomon, when we would expect to see Israel’s dominance in what is traditionally called the “Phoenician” Empire. That “Gades” bore the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel (Gad) strongly indicates that it was given that name by Israelites rather than by inhabitants of Tyre or Sidon. 

Also, an ancient name of Ireland was Ibheriu or Iberiu, and ancient Gaelic histories record that the ancestors of the Gaelic settlers of Ireland came from Iberia (“Phoenician” Spain). Ancient Ireland was also called Hibernia, a name which also preserved the Hebrew root word “Eber.” Note how closely the words Ibheriu and Iberiu coincide phonetically with the pronunciation of the word Hebrew. 

One other possibility exists for these early names in the British Isles. It was noted earlier that early histories of [Britain] record that the tribe of Asher operated the ancient mines in Cornwall. One of the clans of Asher was named the Heberites (Numbers 26:45), and this Hebrew name also serves as a precise root word for such names as Hibernia and the Hebrides. 

As this large group of Israelites resettled in the Black Sea region, they assumed new identities, but many key factors made them readily identifiable as Hebrews. The region to the east of the Black Sea (and north of Armenia) came to be known as Iberia,  confirming the presence of Hebrews from the ten tribes in that region. The Hebrews had given the old Phoenician/Israelite colony in Spain the name Iberia (after Eber, the namesake of the Hebrews),and it has long been called the Iberian Peninsula. 

The name of a modern Spanish river (the Ebro) still preserves the name of Eber, and is a reminder of the Hebrew (“Phoenician”) presence in the ancient Iberian Peninsula. The appearance of the same Hebrew name (Iberia) in the region north of Armenia verifies that this region became an area of Israelite resettlement for those who escaped Assyrian captivity by voluntary flight.’ 

The Goidels from Gaed-hals are Gaels and are also known as the Hiberi, Milesians and Scots. Their leader was called Gad-elus and they arrived in Ireland according to tradition some four hundred years – in the year 1046 BCE – after the Exodus. Recall, Niul had married an Egyptian princess named Scota, their son’s name Goid-el Glas a contemporary of Moses and the Israelites who were still living in slavery in Egypt. Moses had healed the infant Goidel Glas from a snakebite, and foretold that Goidel’s descendants would one day live in a land with no serpents. Few nations have noe snakes; though Ireland is one with Iceland and New Zealand. Notice the name Glas is the same as the prefix glas, for the city ofGlasgow. 

The name Scotti or Scot is linked to the Hebrew word Succoth which means a dwelling or booth, as in a temporary shelter. Gael is similar to the word Gaul, though does not derive from it. Portugal, is a word that is broken down into port-of-the-Gael; just as H-iber-nia is linked to the Iber-ian Peninsula. The Gaels gave Ireland its name Hibernia from their name the Hiberi, which is derived from the name Hebrew and that stems from Eber, the grandson of Arphaxad. The U’Neills, from which O’Neil derives are descended from the Gaels. The Gaels also gave their name Gaeli, to their language, Gael-ic. 

Judah’s Sceptre & Joseph’s Birthright, J H Allen 1902:

‘It is a remarkable fact that Young in his “Analytical Concordance” gives us the word Leag, as the original Hebrew word, while Strong in his “Exhaustive Concordance” gives us the equally correct word Gael, from the same Hebrew word. But be it Leag to the Hebrew or Gael to the Saxon, it is the same word to the same people, which they have reversed and given to their newer language, which is called the Gael, or Gael-ic tongue… spoken in its primitive simplicity in many places in Wales, Scotland and the north of Ireland. Wa-els is only another form of Gaels…’

Genesis 10:24

English Standard Version

24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber.

Similar to Eber, the name Shelagh is popular in Ireland. According to the website Celtic Female Names of Ireland other derivations are: “Sile – [Shee-la]… Sheela, Sheelah, Sheila, Shelagh, Sheelagh, Shiela, Sheilag, Cicily, Celia, Selia, Sissy.” 

Genesis 46:16

English Standard Version

16 The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.

Numbers 26:35-36

English Standard Version

35 These are the sons of Ephraim according to their clans: of Shuthelah, the clan of the Shuthelahites; of Becher, the clan of the Becherites; of Tahan, the clan of the Tahanites. 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the clan of the Eranites.

Ireland was anciently called Erin, Eran and Aran. A number of Ephraim’s and Manasseh’s descendants migrated to Ireland and from there, nearly five million Irish travelled to America between 1820 and 1930. For four decades the Irish constituted one third of all immigrants to the United States. In 2019, thirty-two million Americans identified as having Irish ancestry; ten percent of the total population. The link with Gad’s sixth son Eri is obvious with the name E-ire or Eir-e and the prefix ire. To this day, the Republic of Ireland is called Eire.

Yair Davidy:

“Roberts” in what is described as “one of the oldest histories in the English language” speaks of Israelites led by a certain Bartholome (Numbers 23:36, Eran son of Ephraim son of Joseph) who were driven from Spain and settled in Ireland: “Gwrgan(r)t….directed them (Bartholomew and company)… to go to Ireland, which at that time lay waste and uninhabited… and there they settled… and there their descendants are to this day in Ireland.” “He Bartholome… had his name from a river of Spain called Eirinnal, on the banks of which they had lived… they had arrived from Israel their original country and… their ancestors dwelt in a retired part of Spain, near Eirnia, from whence the Spaniards drove them to sea…”

One Gaelic tribe was known as Syths and the Welsh historian Gildas, records ‘the Skythic Vale’ from which the Clyde and Forth rivers originate. An area they occupied is the Isle of Skye which became known as Sgia or Syiath. In Gaelic it is called ‘Ant-Eilean Sgiathanach’ and later as Scotia. The Scots were also known as Scithae, Scitae, Scuitae and Scotae to the writers of old; as the Greeks called the Scythians, Skuthes. 

Ireland enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity after Lugh Lamfada, a Danite defeated the Fomorians. Lugh ruled Ireland for forty years from 1220-1180 BCE. One of his four wives was called Eri-u. Another wife had an affair with Cermait, the son of Dagda. Lugh killed Cermait for seducing his wife and Dagda is said to have wept tears of blood over the death of his son. Cermait had three^ sons: Sethor MacCuill, Cethor MacCecht and Tethor MacGreine. At Uisnech, the sons of Cermait ambushed and killed Lugh to avenge their father. Dagda succeeded Lugh as king. Dagda had received a mortal wound from Caitlin the wife of the Fomorian king Balor, during the Second Battle of Moytura in 1220 BCE, but did not die until he had reigned for a further eighty years till 1100 BCE. 

Next, the reign of Delbaeth lasted for ten years, before his son Fiachna succeeded him and also ruled for ten years. Fiachna died fighting Eogan of Inber Mor. Fiachna was succeeded by the sons^ of Cermait and they ruled Ireland for twenty-seven years. The three Danite brothers were married to the daughters of Fiachna. The brothers divided the land between themselves. It wasn’t until some seven years later that Ith arrived in 1046 BCE, with some of his companions. Ith was the son of Breogan and brother of Cualnge and Fuat. Ith was most notably, the uncle of Mil Espaine. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Breoghan (or Brigus) was king of Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, and Portugal – all which he conquered. He built Breoghan’s Tower or Brigantia in Galicia, and the city of Brigansa or Braganza in Portugal – called after him; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called after him Brigia. It is considered that “Castile” itself was so called from the figure of a castle which Brigus bore for his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a colony into Britain, who settled in that territory now known as the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after him, were called Brigantes; whose posterity gave formidable opposition to the Romans, at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain. Bilé was king of those countries after his father’s death; and his son Galamh [galav] or Milesius succeeded him. This Bilé had a brother named Ithe.’ 

The Milesians were the sons of Mil or Miled. His ancestors had originally come from Scythia, but Mil had brought them out of Scythia and later Egypt, before they settled in Spain, which was known as the Land of the Dead. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, pages 455-456, 458 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mils… known also as Millessius died in Spain, but his… descendants later conquered Ireland… [including] Hyber and Hymec, that later… [claimed] the land for themselves, renaming the island the land of Scota… a son named Eire-Ahmon… became the ancestral forbearer of the [Scot] kings of Ireland… Ireland… was derived from Hyber land, which in Latin was Hibernia and in old English was Iberland, which eventually changed to Iverland and then Ireland. The Irish heritage of Scota eventually migrated to Scotland, with Mor McErc of Dalriada as their leader in the fifth century CE… until 843 CE, when Kenneth McAlpin won and united the Scots with the Picts… [reuniting] two related but separate strains of bloodlines… the Picts migrated to Scotland in 600 BCE. Ireland is additionally the land where the lost eleven tribes of Israel were whispered to have migrated after their defeat at the hands of the Assyrians around 721 BCE.’ 

Irish Pedigrees. John O’Hart:

‘Milesius, in his youth and during his father’s life-time, went into Scythia, where he was kindly received by the king of that country, who gave him his daughter in marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. In this capacity Milesius defeated the king’s enemies, gained much fame, and the love of all the king’s subjects. His growing greatness and popularity excited against him the jealousy of the king; who, fearing the worst, resolved on privately despatching Milesius out of the way, for, openly, he dare not attempt it. 

Admonished of the king’s intentions in his regard, Milesius slew him; and thereupon quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of sixty sail. Pharaoh Nectonibus, then king of Egypt, being informed of his arrival and of his great valour, wisdom, and conduct in arms, made him General of all his forces against the king of Ethiopia then invading his country. Here, as in Scythia, Milesius was victorious; he forced the enemy to submit to the conqueror’s own terms of peace. By these exploits Milesius found great favour with Pharaoh, who gave him, being then a widower, his daughter Scota in marriage; and kept him eight years afterwards in Egypt. During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed the most ingenious and able persons among his people to be instructed in the several trades, arts, and sciences used in Egypt; in order to have them taught to the rest of his people on his return to Spain. 

The original name of Milesius of Spain was… “Galamh” (gall: Irish, a stranger; amh, a negative affix), which means, no stranger: meaning that he was no stranger in Egypt, where he was called “Milethea Spaine,” which was afterwards contracted to “Milé Spaine” (meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to “Milesius” (mileadh: Irish, a hero; Latin miles, a soldier).

At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and steered towards Spain; where he arrived to the great joy and comfort of his people, who were much harasssed by the rebellion of the natives and by the intrusion of other foreign nations that forced in after his father’s death, and during his own long absence from Spain. With these and those he often met; and, in fifty-four battles, victoriously fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. 

In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in Spain, of twenty-six years’ continuance, occasioned, as well by reason of the former troubles which hindered the people from cultivating and manuring the ground, as for want of rain to moisten the earth; but Milesius superstitiously believed the famine to have fallen upon him and his people as a judgment and punishment from their gods, for their negligence in seeking out the country destined for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear their Druid or magician… the time limited by the prophecy for the accomplishment thereof being now nearly, if not fully, expired. 

To expiate his fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, with the general approbation of his people, sent his uncle Ithe, with his son Lughaidh (Luy), and one hundred and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those western islands; who, accordingly, arriving at the island since then called Ireland, and landing in that part of it now called Munster, left his son with fifty of his men to guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the island. 

Informed, among other things, that the three sons of Cearmad, called Mac-Cuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine, did then and for thirty years before rule and govern the island, each for one year, in his turn; and that the country was called after the names of their three queens – Eire, Fodhla, and Banbha, respectively: one year called “Eire,” the next “Fodhla,” and the next “Banbha,” as their husbands reigned in their regular turns; by which names the island is ever since indifferently called, but most commonly “Eire,”because that MacCuill, the husband of Eire, ruled and governed the country in his turn the year that the Clan-na-Milé (or the sons of Milesius) arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further informed that the three brothers were then at their palace at Aileach Neid, in the north part of the country, engaged in the settlement of some disputes concerning their family jewels, Ithe directed his course thither; sending orders to his son to sail about with his ship and the rest of his men, and meet him there.’ 

Ith with his nephew’s blessing, decided to travel and explore this beautiful, new land Erin he had been told much about. Ith arrived peacefully in Ireland with his followers. The tribe of Dan welcomed Ith to Erin at first, though became suspicious of Ith’s motives for coming to Erin. Through misunderstanding of Ith’s comment about the land, the Danite kings murdered Ith and his two brothers. The Milesians escaped with Ith’s body. 

When his body was brought back to his family in Spain, the sons of Mil sought to avenge their great uncle’s death. They embarked with their warriors and families to Erin in sixty-five ships. A bard named Amairgin who was the son of Mil, led the warriors to Erin. The Danites chose to avoid a confrontation with the Milesians, so they used their magic to hide Erin in a fog. The Danites also cast a spell of straying on the Milesian fleet. Amairgin then used his own magic to dispel the spell. Eber Donn, a son of Mil, wanted to exterminate all the tribe of Dan, so the Danites sent a magical storm against the Milesian ships, whereby Eber Donn fell overboard and drowned in the raging sea. Amairgin managed to guide his ships to safety and land in Ireland. 

The three wives of MacCuill, MacCecht and MacGreine: Banba, Fodla and Eri-u sought out the Milesian leaders. Each queen asked the Milesians to name Ireland after her. It was Eriu who won the honour. Ireland became known as Erin or Erinn. All three Danite kings and their three queens were killed in the Battle of Tailtiu. The Tuatha de Danaan were defeated and forced to retreat. They did not leave Erin, but continued to live in Northern Ireland. Myth continues with Manannan placing a powerful spell of invisibility over many parts of Ireland – magical palaces were hidden under mounds and these places were called Sidh or Sidhe

With their magic, the Danites were believed to be able to appear or vanish from sight and were considered immortal. We will return to the this aspect of the Danites in Chapter XXXV Dan. Two other sons of Mil, Eber Finn or Heber and Eremon or Heremon partitioned Ireland into north and south and became their respective kings. Heremon ruled northern Ireland and Heber the south. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘When Ithe arrived where the (Danan) brothers were, he was honourably received and entertained by them; and, finding him to be a man of great wisdom and knowledge, they referred their disputes to him for decision. That decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithe exhorted them to mutual love, peace, and forbearance; adding much in praise of their delightful, pleasant, and fruitful country; and then took his leave, to return to his ship, and go back to Spain. 

No sooner was he gone than the brothers began to reflect on the high commendations which Ithe gave of the Island; and, suspecting his design of bringing others to invade it, resolved to prevent them, and therefore pursued him with a strong party, overtook him, fought and routed his men and wounded himself to death (before his son or the rest of his men left on ship-board could come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and his name, Magh Ithe or “The plain of Ithe” (an extensive plain in the barony of Raphoe, county Donegal); whence his son, having found him in that condition, brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his friends and relations to avenge his murder. 

And here I think it not amiss to notify what the Irish chroniclers, observe upon this matter… that all the invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, Partholan, Neimhedh, the Firbolgs, Tuatha-de-Danans, and Clan-na-Milé, where originally Scythians, of the line of Japhet, who had the language called Bearla-Tobbai or Gaoidhilg [Gaelic] common amongst them all; and consequently not to be wondered at, that Ithe and the Tuatha-de-Danans understood one another without an Interpreter – both speaking the same language, though perhaps with some difference in the accent. 

The exposing of the dead body of Ithe had the desired effect; for, thereupon, Milesius made great preparations in order to invade Ireland – as well to avenge his uncle’s death, as also in obedience to the will of his gods, signified by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid. But, before he could effect that object, he died, leaving the care and charge of that expedition upon his eight legitimate sons by his two wives… 

Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior, and fortunate and prosperous in all his undertakings: witness his name of “Milesius,” given him from the many battles (some say a thousand, which the word “Milé” signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously fought and won, as well in Spain, as in all the other countries and kingdoms he traversed in his younger days. 

The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent in the execution of their father’s command; but, soon after his death, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan’s Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or Inis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danans, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called Muc-Inis or “The Hog Island”); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. 

That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danan Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danan) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na- Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe, gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past…’

The beginning of the Milesians allegedly begins some four hundred and forty years earlier with a Scythian named Phoeniusa Farsaidh, or Fennius Farsa, who was a King of Scythia and a wise and learned man. Phoeniusa Farsaidh erected a school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of Æothena or Athens. Having continued there with his younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to his eldest son Nenuall; leaving him no other patrimony other than his learning and the benefit of the school. Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at Æothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh. The king gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea to inhabit and his daughter Scota in marriage. 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart elaborates: 

‘Gaodhal [or Gathelus], the son of Niul, was the ancestor of the Clan-na-Gael, that is, “the children or descendants of Gaodhal.” In his youth this Gaodhal was stung in the neck by a serpent, and was immediately brought to Moses, who, laying his rod upon the wounded place, instantly cured him: whence followed the word “Glas” to be added to his name, as Gaodhal Glas (glas: Irish, green; Latin glaucus; Greek glaukos), on account of the green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his life, remained on his neck after the wound was healed. And Gaodhal obtained a further blessing, namely – that no venemous beast can live any time where his posterity should inhabit; which is verified in Creta [Crete] or Candia, Gothia or Getulia, Ireland, etc. 

The Irish chroniclers affirm that from this time Gaodhal and his posterity did paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on their banners and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs, in imitation of the Israelites; and that a “Thunderbolt” was the cognizance in their chief standard for many generations after this Gaodhal.’ 

‘The following is a translation of an extract from the derivation of this proper name, as given in Halliday’s Volume of Keating’s Irish History, page 230.’ 

“Antiquaries assert that the name of Gaodhal is from the compound word formed of ‘gaoith’ and ‘dil,’ which means a lover of learning; for, ‘gaoith’ is the same as wisdom or learning, and ‘dil’ is the same as loving or fond.”

Some versions of these legends also say that they kept the Laws of Moses, including unclean meats. The Goidels wandered for forty-two years in North Africa, the land of the Philistines, Syria and onwards to Spanish Galatia in northwestern Iberia. Some records also include ‘Miletus in ancient Caria on the west coast of Anatolia and Messina in Sicily’ as locations of their sojourn.

‘Heber Scut (scut: Irish, a Scot), after his father’s death and a year’s stay in Creta, departed thence, leaving some of his people to inhabit the Island, where some of their posterity likely still remain; “because the Island breeds no venemous serpent ever since.” He and his people soon after arrived in Scythia; where his cousins, the posterity of Nenuall (eldest son of Fenius Farsa, above mentioned), refusing to allot a place of habitation for him and his colony, they fought many battles wherein Heber (with the assistance of some of the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), being always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from the other, and settled himself and his colony in Scythia, who continued there for four generations. (Hence the epithet Scut, “a Scot” or “a Scythian,” was applied to this Heber, who is accordingly called Heber Scot.) Heber Scot was afterwards slain in battle by Noemus the former king’s son.’ 

Regarding Caleb, Yair Davidy states:

‘Historically the Kings of Egypt very rarely gave their daughters to outsiders but it is recorded that Solomon king of Israel married a daughter of Pharoah. Also Moses the deliverer and Lawgiver of Israel as a child had been adopted by a daughter of Pharoah. 

In Talmudic tradition the foster-mother of Moses was the same “Batya” daughter of Pharoah who later married Mered (1 Chronicles 4:18) from the Tribe of Judah.’ 

1 Chronicles 4:13-18

English Standard Version

13 The sons of Kenaz: Othniel and Seraiah… and Seraiah fathered Joab, the father of Ge-harashim, so-called because they were craftsmen. 15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the son of Elah: KenazThese are the sons of Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered married; and she conceived and bore Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah, the father of Eshtemoa. 18 And his Judahite [not Jewish] wife bore Jered the father of Gedor, Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah.

‘According to Talmudic tradition “Mered” is another name for Caleb, son of Yefunei, the Kenazzi, a Prince of Judah (Numbers 13:6). Caleb, says the Talmud, married “Batya” the daughter of Pharoah who had rescued and raised  Moses.’ 

Recall we studied Caleb in Chapter XXVII Abraham. Davidy has additional details of interest. The account of Caleb being Mered or marrying Pharaoh’s daughter is difficult to align, as Moses was born in 1526 BCE and Caleb was born in 1478 BCE. Moses flees Egypt in 1486 BCE, some eight years before Caleb is born. Caleb was also a slave at the time; his marrying Moses adoptive mother, Queen Sobeknefru is unlikely.

‘Some descendants of Caleb, the “Chelubai” (1 Chronicles 2;9) are traceable to Chalybonitis and to the “Chalybe” people. Chalybonitis was in northwest Syria. Chalybonitis in northern Syria was in an area associated with the Iari descendants of Yair who himself (1 Chronicles 2:22) was a son of Segub son of Hezron ancestor (or “father”) of Caleb (Chaleb): The eponymous ancestor IAR was later recalled in place-names of Ireland and Scotland. The family name of Caleb was “Kenazi” which name connotes “metalworker”. In the Pontus (on the southeast shores of the Black Sea) and Caucasus the Chalybes were famous metallurgists. The Chalybes were considered as of Cimmerian origin.  They are recalled by Greek Chroniclers such as Xenophon. A people of similar name (i.e. the “Calybes”) who were also famous as metal-workers were later reported of in the Galatian area of northwest Spain. Justin (44:3) said that the Calybes were skilled metallurgists. From Galatia (“Galacia”) in Spain Celts identified with the Milesian-Hiberi migrated to Ireland and from there to Britain. The legend of the Milesians that one of their ancestors had been married to the daughter of Pharoah may be connected with the presence of “Chalybes” (or “Calybes”) descendants of Caleb from Judah amongst them.’ 

An interesting point raised by Davidy – emphasis & bold mine:

Gildas said that the British Celts were “Truly Israel of the Exodus”. Gildas wrote about 540 CE. He lived in Britain at the time that it was being conquered by the pagan Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. As a Christian priest and a Celt he was horrified by what he saw. He attributed the calamity to the sins of the native British people and upbraided them. He used Biblical expressions and several times addressed the British princes as Israel and referred to Britain as “a treacherous lioness of Gad” though why he chose Gad out of all the 12 Tribes of Israel is unknown.’

A curious thing for Gildas to say, seeing as the tribe of Gad were well ensconced in Ireland at this time. Yair Davidy says: ‘In 1581 Vincenzio Galilei (father of the astronomer, Galileo Galilei) wrote that the Irish [Royal Milesians] believed themselves descended from David, King of Israel, and that was why they used a harp as their symbol.   

‘Ptolemy listed numerous place and historical ethnic names proving that Israelite tribes once ruled over all the area of northern Syria reaching at least to the Euphrates. Examples are the areas called RAHABENI (i.e. Reuben), MASANI (Menasseh), CAUCHABENI (i.e. Sons of Chauchi, i.e. of Haggi son of Gad), BATHANAEI (Bashan in Aramaic), CHALYBONITIS (Chalybes of Judah), and the cities of Belginaea and Belagaea (Belgae from Bela-g-h), and GABARA from Geber in the region of Bashan (Bathanaei) close to Masani (Menasseh). The “House of Gabbar” were the ruling dynasty of “Yadi”. Yadi was a Judaean enclave in northwest Syria (“Hamath which belonged to Judah” 2-Kings 14:28) known as “Yadi” (i.e. “Judah” in Assyrian) and also garrisoned by the “Dananu” from the Tribe of Dan and somehow associated with the neighbouring Tribe of Gad since its other name “Smal” is synonymous with Zephion a clan of Gad.

The Lagin people gave their name to Leinster in east Ireland. They were also known as GABAIR. After being conquered by the Milesian Goidels, the Lagin Gabair joined forces with them and participated in raids on, and settlement in, Scotland. They have been equated with the Gailian or Galioin, which names may well derive from the Golan in the Land of Israel since GEBER or GABAR appears to have once been an important family name in that general area.  To the northeast of Eboracum (York) and the Parissi in Britain were the GABRANTOVICES. Further north in the Caledonian region (of Scotland) of the Gadeni (Otadeni) was the settlement of Gabrosentas. 

From Gilead (“Galaad”) of Israel emerged the Galatae or “Galadi” of northern Gaul, the Galadon of northern Wales and southern Britain, and the Caledonians of Scotland. These groups had ethnic migratory connections with the Gaels of Ireland. An example of genuine Historical tradition mixed with literary additions and imaginations is found in the Chronicles of Eri. ‘The Chronicles of Eri, being the history of the Gaal Sciot Iber, or the Irish People, translated from the Phoenician dialect of the Scythian language’, by Roger O’ Connor were published in London in two volumes in 1822. 

The Chronicle says that the Gaali had been in Armenia, and the Caucasus. They were traders and metallurgists, and archers. They were oppressed by the Assyrians and fled via Hamath in northern Syria. Hamath adjoined ‘Daphne of Antiochia’ which in effect was a suburb of Hamath. Hamath in Northern Syria or rather ‘Daphne of Antiochia’ was considered by the Talmud as one of three regions through which the Lost Ten Tribes were taken into exile. The Chronicles tells how the Gaali sailed to Spain which was then ruled by the Phoenicians who in turn were directed from Hamath. In Spain the Galli moved from the southern area of Tartessos to Galatia in the northwest. They shook off Phoenician control. Together with the Phoenicians from their base in Spain they had established mining operations in Cornwall, in Britain. 

Some of them moved to Aquitaine in Gaul. Due to war and famine, those of the Galli who were in Spanish Galatia emigrated to Ireland. Though not Phoenicians they worshiped God under the form of baal, received instruction in Phoenician ways, bore Hebrew-sounding names and they had Israelite-values such as an aversion to images and other characteristics. 

The Chronicles connect up with a verse in Isaiah: ‘They shall lift up their voice, they shall sing for the majesty of the LORD. They shall cry aloud from the sea. Wherefore, glorify the LORD in the fires, even the name of the LORD God of Israel in the isles of the sea’ (Isaiah 24:14-15). ‘Cry aloud from the sea’: In Hebrew the word ‘from the sea’ (‘me-yam’) also means ‘from the west’. The major sea was to the West. The Aramaic Translation and Commentators say it means the exiles who will be in the West in the Last Days. Then it goes on to speak of the isles of the Sea meaning Britain. 

According to “The Chronicles of Eri” the Gaali of Sciot (the people he is speaking of) had the custom of lighting beacon fires on the coasts. 

‘All the headlands and promontories belonging to the Gaal of Sciot on the northwest coast of Spain were called in the Phoenician language Breoccean, that is, The Land of Flaming Fires, because of the blaze that was kept up and could be seen at a great distance out to sea. The same custom was observed on the coast of Cornwall and Devonshire after the Gaal of Sciot joined with the Phoenicians in their mining operations there, and that land was called Breotan, Breo meaning Flaming Fire’ (‘BIAR’ = burn in Hebrew).’ 

‘We thus find that the people known as the Gaal of Sciot, the people whom the Chronicles claim were the ancestors of the Irish and Scots… had the custom of lighting fires that could be seen out to sea. They practiced this custom when they were in northwest Spain and later on the southwest coast of [England] when they set up mining operations in that area. We find elsewhere that this practice was known throughout Britain. 

A Polish Linguist named Piotr Gasiorowski reports that the ancient British were in the custom of lighting fires on the hilltops that could be seen out to sea: Piotr Gasiorowski: 

‘I think the tradition of erecting hilltop cairns and mounds as orientation marks, and of using beacon fires for long-distance communication was very strong in Celtic (also Roman) Britain; the landscape of much of the country is as suitable for this purpose as could be. One trace of that is the occurrence of the Brythonic element tan- ‘fire’ (Welsh tan) in hill names (there are many Tan Hills in England). – not only in ancient times but all through history down to the invention of the telegraph. 

For example, a network of beacons set up on hilltops was used in England in 1588 to signal the approach of the Spanish Armada, and once it was spotted off the Scillies (islands southwest of Cornwall in southwest Britain) the news reached the English commanders in no time at all.’

Returning to King Heremon some four hundred years later in 1046 BCE. Heremon was the seventh son of Milesius or Mil; though only the third of the three sons who left any issue. From him were descended the kings and nobility of the Connaught and Dalriada Kingdoms. Heremon with his eldest brother Heber were the joint first Milesian and Gael monarchs of Ireland. The date given in the Library of Ireland, Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart, 1892, is that they began to reign in 1699 BCE. This is too early, for Judah and Gad were born in 1746 and 1744 BCE respectively and it does not take into account the period of the Nemedians of 217 years, the gap until the Fir Bolgs returned of 230 years, their rule of 37 years, the approximate time the Fomorians ruled the Danites of 10 years and lastly, the Tuatha de Danaan 174 or 197 years kingship of Ireland. 

Heber is recorded as being killed a year later – in the unconventional chronology this equates to 1045 BCE. Heremon then reigned for fourteen years until 1031 BCE. ‘During which time a certain colony – called by the Irish, Cruithneaigh, in English “Cruthneans” or Picts – arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called “Alba,” but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland.’ 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign, Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mor MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon – so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time.’ 

‘Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardcath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King’s County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon.’

Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber’s four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir’s only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh Galian, now called Leinster, he gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber’s sons. 

From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the [Royal] Milesian Irish of Ireland andScotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. 

From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory – the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). 

From Heremon, the youngst of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus. Mor MacEarca down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to the present time. 

The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland, and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly. 

Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and standard, for the following reasons; namely, that, in his travels in his younger clays into foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions on his shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they did the country: each of them bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to this day: some with additions and differences; others plain and entire as they had it from their ancestors.’ 

The thirteenth monarch of Ireland was Tigernmas ot Tiernmas and he reigned seventy-seven years; though according to Keating, he reigned only fifty years; of which he fought twenty-seven battles with the family of Heber Fionn, all which he won. It was during his reign that gold was mined near the Liffey and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. Tigernmas also ‘made a law that each grade of society should be’ ranked and ‘known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel’ – believed to have been the origin of the Scottish plaid. ‘According to Keating, one colour was used in the dress of a slave; two colours in that of a plebeian; three, in that of a soldier or young lord; four, in that of a brughaidh or public victualler; five, in that of a lord of a tuath or cantred; and six colours in that of an ollamh or Druid, or chief professor of any of the liberal arts, and in that of the king and queen.’ 

He died in 890 BCE ‘on the Eve of 1st of November or Halloween, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght [Field of Adoration], in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring his Sun-God idol, Crom Cruach [the crooked heap].’ Tigernmas was the first to introduce image worship in Ireland. This idol was worshipped up to the time of St. Patrick, by whom it was destroyed. The sun worship was a throwback to the Magi or wise me from the East – the empire of Parthia – who were led to Bethlehem by divine inspiration to see the infant Messiah. 

During his son Smiomghall’s reign, the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch. Later, King Fiacha Labhrainn, slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber at the battle of Carman. 

During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the twentieth Monarch, Aongus Olmucach. In 796 BCE, the Picts had again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them by Heremon, but the Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute. 

Crimthann-Niadh-Nar was the one hundredth Monarch of Ireland, and styled ‘The Heroic.’ It was in his reign that the Saviour was born in 3 BCE. ‘Crimthann’s death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, dau of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland). Tuathal Teachtmar was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms…’ 

Irish Pedigrees, John O’Hart:

‘Partholan and his followers, called in Irish Muintir Phartholain, meaning “Partholan’s People.” 

2. The Nemedians [Reuben, Simeon & Dan]. 

3. The Fomorians [Giants], 

4. The Firbolgs or Firvolgians, who were also called Belgae or Belgians [(Reuben) Northern Ireland]. 

5. The Tuatha-de-Danans [Dan]. 

6. The Milesians or Gaels [(Hiberi) Gad]. 

7. The Cruthneans or Picts [Benjamin (Scotland)]. 

8. The Danes and Norwegians (or Scandinavians) [Vikings]. 

9. The Anglo-Normans [Judah]. 

10. The Anglo-Saxons (or English) [(Jutes) Judah]. 

11. The Scots from [Benjamin and Zarah-Pharez] North Britain. 

The Nemedians came from Scythia in Europe, and were located chiefly in Ulster at Ardmacha (or Armagh), and in Derry and Donegal; and in Leinster at the Hill of Uisneach, which is situated a few miles from Mullingar, in the county Westmeath. 

The Fomorians are represented as a race of giants, and were celebrated as having been great builders in stone. They were located principally along the coasts of Ulster and Connaught, mostly in Antrim, Derry, Donegal, Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo, and had their chief fortress (called Tor Conaing or Conang’s Tower) on Tor Inis or the Island of the Tower, now known as “Tory Island,” which is off the coast of Donegal; and another at the Giants’ Causeway, which in Irish was called Cloghan-na-Fomoraigh or the Causeway of the Fomorians, as it was supposed to have been constructed by this people, who, from their great strength and stature, were, as above mentioned, called giants: hence the term “Giants’ Causeway” – a stupendous natural curiosity of volcanic origin, situated on the sea-coast of Antrim, and consisting of a countless number of basaltic columns of immense height, which, from the regularity of their formation and arrangement, have the appearance of a vast work of art; and hence were supposed to have been constructed by giants. 

After the Fomorians became masters of the country, the Nemedians (neimhedh: Irish, dirt, filth of any kind), were reduced to slavery, and compelled to pay a great annual tribute on the first day of winter – consisting of corn, cattle, milk, and other provisions; and the place where these tributes were received was named Magh Ceitne, signifying the Plain of Compulsion, and so called from these circumstances. This plain was situated between the rivers Erne and Drabhois (drabhas: Irish, dirt, nastiness), between Ballyshannon and Bundrowes, on the borders of Donegal, Leitrim, and Fermanagh, along the sea-shore. – See Connellan’s “Four Masters.” 

Three bands of the Nemedians emigrated with their respective captains: one party wandered into the north of Europe [Dan]; others made their way to Greece [Reuben], where they were enslaved, and obtained the name of “Firbolgs” or bagmen, from the leathern bags which they were compelled to carry; and the third section took refuge in England [Simeon], which obtained its name Britain, from their leader “Briottan Maol.” – See Miss Cusack’s “History of Ireland.” 

The Firbolgsor Firvolgians, who were also Scythians, divided Ireland amongst the five sons of their leader Dela Mac Loich: “Slainge [slane] was