Canaan & Africa

Chapter XII

Canaan: the fourth and youngest son of Ham. Before we continue in earnest, there is a vital key to understanding not just Canaan but numerous identities to follow. This matter is being laboured as it has been the single biggest block in understanding where the peoples of the Bible were and where they are now. It requires a return to point number two in the introduction. 

Original peoples dwelt in a region after the flood; they then migrated. New peoples would move in; they then would be known by the names already associated with the area, the actual land, invariably from the previous dwellers. Tracking and identifying these former peoples, plus now the new ones becomes difficult, because historians and researchers assume they can rely on the names already established for the land area as still being applicable to the new migrations who are actually completely different people. 

Giving two peoples the same name because of where they are living and not based on who they are is non-sensical and mis-leading. We will discuss why the children of Canaan dwelt where they did and who the new people were that moved into their territory when Canaan migrated. All the information one can find on Canaan and Canaanites* in books, papers and the internet, unknown to the authors themselves, invariably relates to either a. other people of Ham’s line, b. Shem’s descendants, c. the line of Cain or d. the Nephilim and incredibly, not the true descendants of Canaan. 

Israel a History of – emphasis & bold mine:

‘From Ca’naan came eleven sons, the eldest being Sidon. Sidon founded the city Sidon, and was the progenitor of the Phoenicians. From Heth came the Hittites (Genesis 23:10), who ruled over an empire in Asia Minor for over 800 years. Hittites are very active throughout the entire Old Testament. They were present in Canaan at the time of Abraham, reaching their zenith sometime later in Asia Minor, yet were still a force during the reign of Solomon 1,000 years later (II Chronicles 1:17). Eventually their empire crumbled, and there is evidence that some of the Hittite people fled eastward. Cuneiform monuments record the name “Khittae”, and this may have been modified to Cathay. Archaeologists have noted many similarities between the Hittites and the Mongoloids.’

We will discover that the Phoenicians are descended from Shem and not Ham. True Canaanites had well dispersed by the time the Israelites arrived in Canaan in 1407 BCE. The Phoenicians were sea, shipping and trading people. The original Canaanites were not fond of the sea or boats. Similarly, Heth was a prominent son of Canaan. Later, prominent descendants of Shem were also called, Hittites. These Hittites were a war-like people, establishing a powerful empire that rivalled the Assyrians. Both Empires lived side-by-side in Asia Minor and established an alliance, rather than antagonising each other. These Hittites descend from Shem. We have seen earlier that the Khitt-ae are from Kitti, son of Javan and are the Malay peoples of Indonesia. An earlier people in Anatolia prior to the Hittites were the Hattians. The Hatti, derived from Khatti – a different word – and though easily confused with the Khittae, are an entirely different people, descending from Shem.

‘The Sinites are an interesting tribe. There is tenuous evidence that they may be the ancestors of the Chinese. Possibly the Sinites migrated east all the way to China. Of the descendants of Ham, Sin and Heth are the two most probable ancestors of the Oriental people. Ca’naan’s descendants, according to scripture, “spread abroad” (Genesis 10:18). Of the lines descending from the sons of Noah, these peoples migrated perhaps more than any other. The contributions made by the descendants of Ham, the youngest of the sons of Noah, are staggering. They were the first explorers. They became the first cultivators of the basic food groups. They discovered and invented medicines, and surgical practices. They were the first to develop fabrics, and the devices used to sew these fabrics. They were the inventors of mathematics, surveying, and navigation.’

The Chinese descend from Japheth and are East Asian – not Hamitic. The Phoenicians, Hittites and Chinese have not been slaves or subjugated to other nations. The peoples described above who travelled extensively and contributed to the advancement of society are the Phoenicians who built the city of Tyre and caused Sidon to flourish, making them world-renowned with their import-export trading interests. 

A H Sayce page 55-59 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Canaan bordered on Egypt, and the name is usually explained to mean the lowlands. It originally denoted, in fact, the narrow strip of land which lies between the sea and the mountains on the coast of Palestine. Here the great cities of the Phoenicians were built, and it was from hence that the Phoenician ships started on their voyages in search of wealth. As time went on, the name of Canaan came to be applied to the land beyond the mountains on the east. In the letters written from Palestine to the Egyptian court a century before the Exodus, and discovered among the ruins of Tel el- Amarna, Kinakhkhi or Canaan denotes the district which intervened between the cities of the Philistines and the country northward of Gebal. The latter was called the land of the Amorites. In the books of the Old Testament the word Canaan has acquired an even greater extent of meaning than it has in the tablets of Tel el-Amarna. The cities of the Philistines, as well as the barren region east of them, are alike included in Canaan. Even the Amorites have become Canaanites, like the inhabitants of Hamath far away to the north.’

Canaan is mentioned many, many times in the Bible, not in reference to their people but the land they first settled, that in time became busier than grand central station in terms of human traffic and the varying numbers of nations that dwelt in the region for millennia.

‘The original land [actually much later] of Canaan was called Phoenicia by the Greeks and Kaft by the Egyptians. It is possible that both names were derived from the palms which grew luxuriantly there. Kaph and Kipptih signify a palm-branch in Hebrew, and phoenix in Greek has the same meaning. But it is also possible that the latter word was derived from the name of the country in which the Greeks first became acquainted with the palm, not that the country took its name from the tree.

The language of Canaan, as it is called by Isaiah [19:18], differed but slightly from Hebrew. The Hebrew tribes, in fact, like their kindred in Moab and Ammon, must have exchanged their earlier Aramaic dialects for the language of the country in which they settled. In no other way can we explain how it came about that the Syrian emigrant [Deuteronomy 26:5] should have acquired the ancient language of Canaan. The adoption of the new language was doubtless facilitated by the relationship of the Aramaic dialects to Hebrew or Phoenician. They belonged to the same family of speech and bore the same relation to one another that French bears to Italian.

Interesting and coincidental observation regarding language, which we will re-visit when studying Aram and Moab. 

‘It will be seen that the tribes and cities of which Canaan is said to have been the father were related to one another only geographically. The blond Amorite and the yellow-skinned Hittite of the north had nothing in common from a racial point of view either with one another or with the Semitic tribes of Canaan. Geography and not ethnology has caused them to be grouped together.

Sayce hits upon the key point regarding Canaan. The blond Amorites are not the descendants of Amor, the son of Canaan. All the information we read regarding Canaan in extraneous material and in the Bible after Abraham and certainly by the time the  sons of Jacob [Israelites] arrived [between circa 1,900 – 1400 BCE], witnesses a change in who the Canaanites were. The original Canaanites had departed for Africa and other Canaanites* had moved into the vacated strip of land, or had forced the true Canaanites south. It was a lucrative piece of real estate with its rich soil and extensive ports. There were many peoples and those who were evil, the Nephilim descended giants and those who had intermarried with them, by default fell to the descendants of Jacob during the waging of a momentous war for seven years to clear the land after they entered in 1407 BCE. 

A well known online encyclopaedia, accurately states the multiculturalism and variety of ethnicities that fell under the ‘Canaanite’ banner at the time of this intermediate period and the incorrect ascribing of the term to the Phoenicians from an ethnic vantage, yet accurate from a geographic perspective – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name “Canaan” appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations. The word “Canaanites” serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations.It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible.The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians,and after the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage (founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (chanani) of North Africa during Late Antiquity.’

Herman Hoeh, Origin of the Nations – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Originally the sons of Canaan settled in Palestine. Canaan, remember, was the first born of Ham [Canaan was Ham’s youngest son – see Chapter XI]. Canaan’s descendants – and this includes the other sons of Ham – were to be “servant of servants” (Genesis 9:25). Their children are to serve both Shem and Japheth (verses 26,27). There is nothing wrong with serving – we all have to learn to serve. Shem and Japheth must become God’s servants, too. That is why Canaan is called a “servant of servants.” Many have quoted this in direct reference to the [Black African]. As brothers of Canaan, the [Africans] have shared the same position in life, but [Africans] are not Canaanites.

Dr Hoeh has confidently stated his position, firstly, based on the later ‘Canaanite’ peoples and the trading ‘trafficking’ of the Phoenicians – very understandable, yet incorrect. And secondly, to distance himself from the thorny issue of equating the Black peoples with Canaan – particularly at time of writing in 1957 America. 

‘The Canaanites were great traffickers of old. The word Canaanite in Zechariah 14:21 is, in fact, translated as “trafficker” in the Jewish translation. The Sidonians, descendants of Canaan, were famous seamen in the days of Solomon. The Greeks called them “Phoenicians”. But the Phoenicians called themselves “Kna” or “Knana”, meaning Canaanite.’

From a historical time-line perspective, the original Sidonians were linked to Canaan [who were not sea-traders], the intermediate Sidonians to Aram [the original Phoenicians], a son of Shem and the later Sidonians, who  were linked with Midian, another great trading people and a son of Abraham. The Phoenicians lived in Canaan as the collective area was known, hence their identification with this name – it was they who were the ‘famous seamen.’

‘When Israel entered the land of Palestine under Joshua, whole tribes of the Canaanites were destroyed or driven out of central Palestine (Judges 3:1-4) because some of the Canaanites were extremely degenerate in their morals. Now turn to Genesis 10:18, “Afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad”. Where did they journey?’

The ‘extremely degenerate’ Canaanites at this time, that the sons of Jacob encountered, were not the original sons of Canaan but the Nephilim descended giants who had infiltrated the land. We will cover this subject in-depth in a later chapter.

‘The Canaanites settled the island of Malta and parts of Sicily, Southern Italy, Sardinia, North Africa and even Southern Spain and Portugal, where the sons of Javan were already living. Most people are familiar with the Phoenicians from grade and high school days. In North Africa the Canaanites are called Moors – a name probably derived from Amors, the Hebrew form of “Amorites”. From these lands they have spread into North and South America since the days of Columbus. The Portuguese – of mixed Canaanite and Tarshish stock – have settled much of Brazil. And the Sicilians are [well known] in big cities in America. The underworld “Mafia” organization which springs from Canaanitish Sicily, is but a modern version of their ancient tendency to traffic among the nations of the world.

Canaanites have also intermarried into Esau – Turkey today (Genesis 26:34), and Judah (Genesis 38:2), and Israel (Judges 3:5-7). Only a few Canaanites remain in North Palestine and Lebanon. The Canaanites are seldom included in the prophecies which pertain to this twentieth century. They exert no great position or influence in the world.’

Esau’s ‘Canaanite’ wives were not true Canaanites but – as stated earlier of the four options for non-Canaanite* peoples a, b, c & d – they were from d. Nephilim families. Judah did take a wife from the original Canaanites. The Israelites as mentioned in the Book of Judges took wives from later Canaanites from b. Shem’s descendants. We will learn that the Latins of Europe – such as the Portuguese and Sicilians – are descended from Shem and are not from Japheth or Ham. The majority of Latinos in the Americas though, are descended from a. Ham, but not from Canaan; as is also true of the Moors and the Arab peoples of the Lebanon and Palestine. Another fascinating coincidence has occurred, with regard to the Portuguese and Brazil, which we will return to in a later chapter.

The original meaning of Canaan was different. The term ‘Trafficker’ and link to trade, was applied to Canaan the land and the later people living in Canaan and not to the original Canaanites. Herman Hoeh states the brother[s] of Ham have ‘shared the same position in life’. The Bible reveals that Canaan was to be a servant people, not Ham or any of the other three brothers of Canaan. Herman Hoeh ironically, while denying the simple truth of the Canaanites classification, in the process, reveals the true identity of Canaan. For they are the Black peoples of East, Central, West and South [Sub-Sahara] Africa

Matthew 18:1-5

New English Translation

At that time the disciples came to Jesus saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” 2 He called a child, had him stand among them, 3 and said, “I tell you the truth, unless you turn around and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven! 4 Whoever then humbles himself like this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5 And whoever welcomes a child like this in my name welcomes me.

A child who has a basic understanding of world history and has learned about the slave trade, would… if presented with the question: which people in the world have endured untold hardships, extremes of poverty and the severest of suffering at the hands of slave traders, over recorded history? One can’t help but think a child, in their natural, honest speak-as-they-see-it innocence, would quickly offer the Black descended people of Africa as their answer. It has been in the scriptures, right in front of us for a very long time. 

Luke 7:35

New English Translation

35 But wisdom is vindicated [or shown to be right ] by all her children [by all those who follow her].”

It is a highly sensitive issue and many are reticent to vocalise the palpable truth; so as to escape the vitriolic criticism that could inevitably ensue. Not speaking the undeniable, doesn’t alter it or make it disappear. It is a harshness beyond compare, that a whole line of people would be punished because of one man’s transgression; though we do not see all the pieces of the puzzle put together as the Creator does. 

The reality is that the Black people have suffered at the hands of the British, Americans, Dutch, Portuguese as well as the Arabs in recent history and as recorded in the Bible, at the hand of the Egyptians – the El Amarna tablets circa 1500 BCE. African tribes have continuously waged war against each other with horrific violence, making slaves of one another. There has been no rest for the descendants of Canaan and it continues to the present day where in the main, African governments and regimes brutally subjugate their own people. 

As tragic as the taking of people from their families and homes was and transplanting them in the New World of America, the Caribbean and Brazil, with dangerous, deadly ocean crossings and often savage masters; it has resulted for future generations of African Americans to have at least a chance of a life of opportunities, far greater than their fellow peoples – those living on the African Continent today. I empathise with all the descendants of African Americans though that have not benefited in being transplanted from their homeland and if history could be rewound, this reason alone would be enough cause to turn back time.

The severity of the punishment handed down to the Canaanites stopped short with them and did not include their possession of territory. Their land is vast, with huge natural resources. In the top ten countries with the most natural resources that China tops, one African nation is included at number nine; the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]. Mining is the primary industry of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2009, the country had over $24 million in mineral deposits including the largest coltan reserve and vast amounts of cobalt. The DRC also possesses large copper, diamond, gold, tantalum, and tin reserves, along with over three million tons of lithium. Lithium and cobalt both integral ingredients for batteries in electric vehicles.

Regarding Canaan’s name, there is somewhat of a conflict, between what the word actually means and what it became associated with. Strong’s Concordance #H3667 includes: Merchant, Traffick, Traffickers, Trader, Lowland and from root H3665, Humiliated. Canaan, as inferred by several commentators, was to be a ‘servant of servants’, ‘humbled, subdued’ and ‘subjugated’. The land of Canaan was low lying and it became synonymous with Merchants and trafficking of goods. Saying that, Canaan as a people were also trafficked and treated as merchandise. 

Abarim Publications – bold theirs: 

‘For a meaning of the name Canaan, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Low. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Merchant or Servant… We would interpret the name Canaan as International Trade or International Synchronicity… From the verb (kana), to be brought into synchronicity.’

Canaan can mean the ‘land of purple’ from the term kinahnu: purple dye. The colour purple became associated with the Phoenicians. It is an interesting coincidence that The Color Purple is the title of Alice Walker’s 1982 novel and subsequent Steven Spielberg film. The story is about African American gender, race and nationhood. The link with purple to Canaan’s descendants is insightful, as purple is associated with the following lofty traits, invariably denied to Canaan but no less desired:

Bourne Creative:

‘Purple combines the calm stability of blue and the fierce energy of red. The color purple is often associated with royalty, nobility, luxury, power, and ambition. Purple also represents meanings of wealth, extravagance, creativity, wisdom, dignity, grandeur, devotion, peace, pride, mystery, independence, and magic.

The color purple is a rare occurring color in nature and as a result is often seen as having sacred meaning. Lavender, orchid, lilac, and violet flowers are considered delicate and precious. Throughout history, purple robes were worn by royalty and people of authority or high rank… the rare occurrence of purple in nature made it one of the most expensive color dyes to create.

The amount of melanin a person has dictates not only the colour of their skin. 

Rastafari: The Truth About Melanin – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Melanin refines the nervous system in such a way that messages from the brain reach other areas of the body [more] rapidly in Black people… Black infants sit, stand, crawl and walk sooner than [white infants], and [demonstrate] more advanced cognitive skills than their white counterparts… Carol Barnes writes “… your mental processes (brain power) are controlled by the same chemical that gives Black humans their superior physical (athletics, rhythmic dancing) abilities. This chemical… is Melanin!”

The abundance of Melanin in Black humans produces a superior organism physically… Melanin is the neuro-chemical basis for what is called [Soul] in Black people. Is God Black? The Original Man was [black], “made in the Image of God” his Parent. Children look like their parents. All the other races are but diluted variations of the Original Black Race.

When studying Noah, we established that the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man are described as white in the Bible. The same is written in the Book of Enoch chapter 46:1-3.

1 At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time. And his head was white like wool, and there was with him another individual, whose face was like that of a human being. His countenance was full of splendor… 2 And I asked the one… who had revealed to me all the secrets… “Who is this… 3 And he answered me and said to me, “This is the Son of Man, to whom belongs righteousness, and with whom righteousness dwells. And He will open all [that is] hidden… for Yahweh of Hosts has chosen Him, and He is destined to be victorious before Yahweh of Hosts in eternal uprightness.” 

We will look further in to man being the image of God. There is a link to the colour black as this author states; just not quite the answer one would expect.

‘Most [white people] have calcified pineal glands which thwarts Melatonin production, thereby limiting their [spiritual]* capacity. Located in the brain, the tiny pineal [and] pituitary glands regulate the body’s other glands. Esoteric tradition regards the area of these glands as the third eye, seat of the soul, and the mystical Uraeus represented by the cobra on the forehead of Egyptian [royalty’s] crowns.’

A succinct definition online: ‘Uraeus is an important symbol associated with the Gods, Goddesses, and Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is represented by the image of an upright cobra in a threatening pose and is believed to have its origins in Iaret, an Egyptian word meaning the risen one. The icon symbolized divine authority, royalty, sovereignty, and supremacy and was worn as a crown or head ornament by the ancient Egyptian divinities and rulers. This sacred serpent symbol reiterated the connection between the Gods and the Pharaohs and wearing the Uraeus conveyed legitimacy to the royal personage. The rearing cobra indicated that the ruler enjoyed the protection and patronage of Goddess Wadjet, the Lower Egypt deity. After the unification of Egypt, the Uraeus was depicted together with the Vulture, which was the symbol of Nekhbet, the patroness of Upper Egypt. The merged symbol was called ‘The Two Ladies’, the joint protectors of the country.’

‘Why did Africans view the European as a child of God, but the Europeans viewed the African as a soulless savage? Because of “melatonin,” described as a mentally and morally stimulating humanizing hormone produced by the pineal gland. Scientific research reveals that most [white people] are unable to produce much melatonin because their pineal glands are often calcified and nonfunctioning. Pineal calcification rates with Africans is 5-15%; Asians 15-25%; Europeans 60-80%! This is the chemical basis for the cultural differences between [blacks] and whites, causing some Black scholars to raise the question that the European approach, that of the logical, erect, rigid, anti-feeling posture, reflects a left brain orientation and reflects that they lack the chemical key of melatonin to turn on their unconscious and… feelings. Melanin [gives] humans the ability to [feel] because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy.’

A case in point, is the faith* that Black people exhibit towards their Saviour and their exuberance and passion at Church services. This has often produced thoughts of respect and a little jealousy, towards their genuine peace and joy.

‘After considering Melanin to be a “waste” product of body-metabolism which “served no useful function,” Western… science has now discovered that Melanin is the chemical key to life and the brain itself! All studies and facts about Melanin suggest that after 400 years of attempting to make [the Black race inferior], “Western science is facing the sobering reality that, by its own self-defined standards, Black people are probably superior to whites in both intellectual potential and muscle coordination.” (Sepia magazine interview).

In humans, melanin is the primary determinant of skin and hair color. However, few people know that melanin is found in almost every organ of the body and is necessary for the brain and nerves to operate, the eyes to see, and the cells to reproduce. It is also found in the stria vascularis of the inner ear. In the brain, tissues with melanin include the medulla and pigment-bearing neurons within areas of the brainstem, such as the locus coeruleus and the substantia nigra. It also occurs in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland.

Exposure to the sun has the potential to cause premature aging of the skin, as well as various skin cancers. [The] ability to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation depends on the amount of melanin in your skin, which is determined by the number of melanocytes that are active beneath the surface… Melanin is an effective absorber of light; the pigment is able to dissipate more than 99.9% of absorbed UV radiation. In even the most light-skinned people, the body’s melanocytes respond to sun exposure by producing more melanin, which creates the effect known as tanning. However, there is a limit to the degree of protection that melanin can provide, and it’s significantly higher in people with naturally darker skin.

Melanin can absorb a great amount of energy and yet not produce a tremendous amount of heat when it absorbs this energy, because it can transform harmful energy into useful energy. According to dermatologist and dermapathologist Dr. Leon Edelstein, director of the National American West Skin Pathology Consultation Service, melanin can absorb tremendous quantities of energy of all kinds, including energy from sunlight, x-ray machines, and energy that is formed within cells during the metabolism of cells. His theory is that melanin has the ability to neutralize the potentially harmful effects of these energies.

Darkly pigmented people tend to exhibit less signs of aging. Dermatologist Susan C. Taylor, author of “Brown Skin,” points out that Blacks and other people of color generally look younger than their lighter-skinned peers because of the higher levels of melanin in their skin. The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against folate depletion. 

Folate is water soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. Folate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, folate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Folate breaks down in high intense UVR. Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects.’ 

‘Dr. Frank Barr, pioneering discoverer of melanin’s organizing ability and other properties, theorizes in his technical work, Melanin: The Organizing Molecule: “The hypothesis is advanced that (neuro)melanin (in conjunction with other pigment molecules such as the isopentenoids) functions as the major organizational molecule in living systems. Melanin is depicted as an organizational “trigger” capable of using established properties such as photon – (electron) – photon conversions, free radical-redox mechanism, ion exchange mechanisms, and semiconductive switching capabilities to direct energy to strategic molecular systems and sensitive hierarchies of protein enzyme cascades. Melanin is held capable of regulating a wide range of molecular interactions and metabolic processes…”

The map of former African colonies is a grim picture. To be clear, the African people have suffered because of their forefather Canaan and his actions; not, because the Black people are inferior to any other racial line, or because they have brought suffering on themselves. Black peoples are not inferior to any other race of people on Earth. Nor do they deserve any kind of racial discrimination for their ethnic characteristics and colour of their skin.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the Greek New Testament the name Canaan is spelled Χανααν [Acts 7:11 and 13:19]  and Canaanite (female) is spelled Χαναναια (Matthew 15.22]. The masculine form Χαναναιος does not occur in the New Testament but both Matthew and Mark make mention of a Simon the Kanaanite (Κανανιτης;  [Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18]).

The name Canaan may have been original — meaning “land of purple,” says HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, which relates it to Phoenicia, also meaning purple — and turned proverbial, but it may also have been taken from the Hebrew verb (kana) and projected back upon this person… The verb (kana) means to synchronize, or to give up individual leanings in order to unite more effectively as a group. Noun (kin’a) means bundle or pack.’

A further irony, as the sons of Canaan have not been a unified people and their leaders have not given up individual leanings.

‘The Old Testament’s passion for reaching the “land of Canaan” may have a very clear connotation of reaching the blissful situation of international synchronicity. Being located on the bridge between three continents, the [intermediate] historical people of Canaan maintained a flowering culture of trade. Thus the words, meaning Canaan, and, meaning Canaanite, acquired the additional meaning of trade or merchant (Zephaniah 1:11, Ezekiel 16:29).’

The original allotment of land running north-south on the furthest eastern coast of the mediterranean or the far west coast of the fertile crescent, had been designated for Shem’s descendants. Canaan’s descendants had dwelt there before migrating southwest to Africa. Ultimately, the sons of Jacob also migrated away from this strip of land.

In the Book of Jubilees chapter Ten, verses 28-33, we read about Canaan after the flood and when land was apportioned to Japheth Ham and Shem, in the wider Near and Middle Eastern region. Recall, Madai [Chapter IV] requested to live adjacent to Shem’s descendants. 

And Ham and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion in the land of the south. And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt [the Nile], that it was very good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west(that is to) the sea [North Africa], and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him: ‘Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition; for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem; for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the [Holy Judge], and in the presence of Noah our father.’ But he did not harken unto them, and dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of Egypt… 

Canaan’s three brothers all migrated to northern Africa. Canaan followed later as predicted, settling in North West Africa. Ultimately, two brothers left Africa and two remained. One being Canaan, who eventually spread southward throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

We read in Genesis 10:15-18 ESV, of the sons of Canaan:

Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

In other words: Sidon, Heth, Jebu, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath. 

The endeavour to identify all eleven of Canaan’s lines of descendants – as there are some forty plus African nations containing Canaan’s offspring – for now, remains a future project. We will concentrate on Sidon the firstborn and Heth the second born, who is also a prominent line. 

Insight into Canaan’s sons is provided by Professor Aaron Demsky, in Reading Biblical Genealogies – Including a close look at how the description of the Canaanite lineage was constructed (Genesis 10:15-18) – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Sons of Canaan… include twelve names. In order to come up with twelve Canaanite sons – another typological number implying a full people (see below) – it needed to include different kinds of names.

… Six of the names are ethnic names, known from the lists of the indigenous Canaanite peoples, that appear either in part or in full some twenty-five times in the Bible. Three of these terms are the externally documented: Canaanites, Amorites and Hittites. The rest are unknown in non-biblical texts: Jebusites, Girgashites and Hivites. The [Perizzites], who appear in a number of these lists, are not mentioned here.

… The list also includes five Phoenician-Syrian city-states as part of the Canaanite league:

1. Sidon along the coast,

2.`Arqa (Tel `Arqa, ca.20 kms north east of Tripoli) [Ark]

3. Sin (Shian in the Assyrian sources; in later Jewish documents it is identified with Tripoli in Lebanon)

4. Arwad (Ruad, an island port between Tripoli and Latakia) [Arvad]

5. Semer (Assyrian Ṣumur, south of Arwad) [Zemar]

6. Hamath (Hama one of the major cities in middle Syria), situated on the Orontes.

The names of these “sons” are not presented uniformly.

1. The first three—Canaan, Sidon and Heth—are proper names.

2. The “descendants” are written as gentilics (i.e., relational adjectives in the nisbe form) with the definite article (the Jebusite, the Amorite), etc. Canaan also appears in this form at the end of the list.

Chiastic Form

The “descendants” are listed in chiastic order. Sidon is the firstborn followed by Heth. Following Heth are the other five Canaanite peoples, related to Heth, and then the five city states, obviously related to Sidon, as they are all Phoenician city-states like Sidon…

The Significance of Twelve

As we see from the later genealogies of Nahor (Genesis 22:20-24), Ishmael (Genesis 25:13-15), and of course, Jacob, twelve is a significant number in biblical tradition for classifying large ethnic units, or tribal leagues, in the patriarchal period. In this case of Canaan, however, we find a certain creativity in order to produce the desired number. The list has two anomalies:

1. The patriarch here is one of the twelve.

2. Five city-states (or feudal kingdoms) have been recast as clan units. 

As noted above, the larger branches of the three sons of Noah are defined not only by ethnicity and language affinity, but also by geographic proximity (verses 5, 20, 31). Moreover, emphasizing the integral territorial aspect of tribal identity, sundry geographical notices were appended, e.g., verses 10-12; 30. Similarly, in verse 19, this genealogy of Canaan is enhanced by a fascinating geographic description of the borders of Canaan (verse 19): The Canaanite territory extended from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, near Lasha. This description serves both to minimalize Canaanite territory and to introduce places that will appear in later narratives.

Northern Border – Phoenician Cities  

Following a three pointed pattern of delineating borders, which I have identified, i.e., “From X, coming to Y, near Z”, the list begins with Sidon, which probably now implies the entire Tyrean kingdom on the Phoenician coast from Acco in the south to Nahr Kalb in the north (Joshua 13:4-6; compare the territory of Asher 19:24-30).

South-Western Border – Philistine Cities

The second point, on the south-western border of Canaan, Gerar (Tel Harur, present day Netivot on Nahal Gerar, i.e. biblical Nahal HaBesor), was defined by the third point Gaza, some 20 kms away. This description of the southern border of Canaan serves another literary purpose by anticipating the stories of Abraham and Isaac going to Gerar and the story of Jacob’s funeral cortège from Egypt to Hebron at the end of the book (Genesis 50:10-11).

Eastern Border – The Dead Sea and the Five Cities  

From the south western corner of the Land, the border goes to the southern edge of the Dead Sea. The description introduces the five cities [technically only four as Lot escaped to Zoar and it was spared] which are eventually destroyed in the story of Lot and Sodom.’

A possible two groupings for the descendants of  Canaan, as proposed by Demsky – 

Cities: Sidon [proper name], Ark, Sin, Arvad, Zemar and Hamath

Clans: Heth [proper name], Jebus, Amor, Girgash, Hiv, [Canaan] 

According to Demsky, the clans are the literal sons of Canaan and amongst other places, they lived in the aforementioned cities. This position seems to create further questions. How did these six cities acquire their names? It would seem plausible they are so named after their founders. They being the first and seventh to eleventh sons listed in Genesis chapter Ten. Is an extra Canaan applicable and if so, is he Canaan junior or possibly a grandson of Canaan senior? There are a fair number of scriptures for some of the cities and sons, so we will look at a sample. The majority refer to later ‘Canaanites’ where the original sons of Canaan were not living and so are discounted in this chapter.

The Book of Jasher 7:13 includes additional or duplicate names, totalling ten sons instead of eleven, with Jebus missing:

And the sons of Canaan were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi [Arvad?], Zimodi [Zemar?] and Chamothi [Hamath].

Sidon, or Zidon in Hebrew means: ‘fishery, hunting place.’ From the verb sud, to hunt or fish. The noun mesad means fastness or stronghold – a typically defensive structure. ‘Sud’ in French means south.* When studying Kitti [Chapter VIII] – an economic, key geographic maritime, port people – we looked at Isaiah chapter 23. There are additional major nations in a similar key geographic port location.

Isaiah 23:1-3

Complete Jewish Bible

A prophecy about Tzor [Tyre]: Howl, you “Tarshish”[Japanese] ships, because the harbor is destroyed! On returning from Kittim [Indonesia], they discover they cannot enter it. 2 Silence, you who live on the coast, you who have been enriched by the merchants of Tzidon [Sidon] crossing the sea. 3 By the great water the grain of Shichor, the harvest of the Nile, brought you profits. She was marketplace for the nations. 4 Shame, Tzidon, for the sea speaks; the fortress of the sea says,“I no longer have labor pains or bear children, yet I have raised neither boys nor girls.”

Verse 12 NCV:

He said, “Sidon, you will not rejoice any longer, because you are destroyed. Even if you cross the sea to Cyprus [Kitti], you will not find a place to rest.”

Zechariah 9:1-3

Revised Standard Version

The word of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach and will rest upon Damascus [Aram]. For to the Lord belong the cities of Aram [son of Shem], even as all the tribes of Israel; Hamath [city of Canaan] also, which borders thereon, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. Tyre has built herself a rampart, and heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the mud of the streets.

Tyre is associated with the intermediate ‘Canaanites’ or Phoenicians; whereas the later ‘Phoenicians’ are linked with Sidon. Though the Phoenicians are White peoples descended from Shem, both nations today also contain a Black population descended from Canaan. We will study scriptures regarding Sidon, when we look at the European peoples who dwell within this nation. Sidon is en route from Tarshish and Kitti and links them to Tyre. All are major trading nations and key ports. As Sidon is associated with Hamath and other Canaanites, we are looking for a prominent nation on the coast of Africa. Sidon is the Republic of South Africa* and its black citizens include the Canaanite clan of Hiv.

Sin and Zemar are not mentioned outside of Genesis and 1 Chronicles. Ark is mentioned in Joshua 16:1-3, NET within the future lands of the tribe of Jospeh:

The land allotted to Joseph’s descendants extended from the Jordan at Jericho to the waters of Jericho to the east, through the desert and on up from Jericho into the hill country of Bethel. The southern border extended from Bethel to Luz, and crossed to Arkite territory at Ataroth. It then descended westward to Japhletite territory, as far as the territory of lower Beth Horon and Gezer, and ended at the sea.

Arvad equates with the people of Angola. Arvad is connected in a military capacity with Sidon and particularly Tyre.

Ezekiel 27:8, 11 

New English Translation: 

The leaders of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers; your skilled men, O Tyre, were your captains… The Arvadites joined your army on your walls all around, and the Gammadites were in your towers. They hung their quivers on your walls all around; they perfected your beauty.

The link between Angola and Tyre will be become very clear when we study Tyre. Excluding Arab nations, Angola is the eighth most populous African nation – with 34,141,995 people – and possesses the fifth strongest military in sub-Saharan Africa, behind Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya at fourth. The meaning of Arvad is a ‘wandering fugitive’ from the verb ‘arad, ‘to flee’ or ‘be free’ and the verb rud, ‘to wander restlessly.’

Hamath is mentioned a number of times and linked with Arvad, who in turn is associated with Sidon. Hamath is the most prominent Canaanite region [city-state] after Sidon and is the nation of Nigeria, with its people coming from the clan of Heth. A coincidence is Ham-ath being similar to the name Ham, as Niger-ia has been named from the their racial strand.

2 Kings 19:13

English Standard Version

Where is the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad [Arvad], the king of the city of Sepharvaim, the king of Hena, or the king of Ivvah? [Isaiah 36:19]

2 Samuel 8:9-10

English Standard Version

When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer [of Zobah], Toi sent his son Joram to King David… [1 Chronicles 18:1-5, Ezekiel 47:17]

The link between Hamath and King David of Judah is significant and not a coincidence. These verses also highlight the strength of Hamath, thus a sizeable nation commensurate with the economic or military clout of Sidon is being discussed. Nigeria with South Africa is a leading nation in Africa. It has an immense population of 212,655,051 people – seventh highest in the world. Notice on the fertility rate chart that Nigeria has one of the highest rates in the world. Nigeria is in red, located south of Niger in Pink, with the highest rate in the world.

A well known online encyclopaedia, provides a helpful summary of Nigeria’s recent history – emphasis and bold mine:

‘… The Kano [Canaan] Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, [Hamath city-state of Canaan] with other major Hausa cities… all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known… as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks…)There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire [Kainam, Kenan] as the region’s major centre for Islamic civilization.

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the [regions] Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. 

The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors’ territory as forced labour; [in] time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors’ society. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports.’

We will return to the significance of the Portuguese being the first European peoples [in the modern era] to both trade and colonise areas outside of Europe.

‘In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering… and [advancing]… with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. 

The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic [civilisation], the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.

A changing legal imperative ([the] transatlantic slave trade [was] outlawed by Britain in 1807)… [caused] after that illegal smugglers [to purchase] slaves along the coast by native slavers. Britain’s West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain. 

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company… By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River. [The] British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company’s territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern… and the Northern… [Protectorates] into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. 

Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. By independence in 1960, regional differences… were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present [day, with imbalances] between North and South. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). The United States is the country’s largest foreign investor.

Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. As of 2014 it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Next to petrodollars, the second-biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030.

Nigeria is the 25th largest economy in the world and the biggest in the sub-Saharan African continent. Its 2019 nominal GDP was $448 billion dollars. Nigeria’s economy relies heavily on the oil industry and is the largest oil exporter on the continent; with Africa’s largest reserves of natural gas. Resource extraction industries, such as coal, tin, and other metal mining are integral to the Nigerian economy. Oil dominates in terms of contribution to GDP and exports. Between a fifth and a half of Nigerians work in agriculture, primarily small-scale subsistence agriculture. Nigeria’s economy has grown rapidly in the past few decades, but it also faces significant challenges such as desertification and lack of infrastructure

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Nigerian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$29.7 billion 
  2. Ships, boats: $2.1 billion
  3. Oil seeds: $346.4 million
  4. Cocoa: $338.1 million 
  5. Fertilizers: $183.5 million 
  6. Aircraft, spacecraft: $169.1 million 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $130 million 
  8. Tobacco, manufactured substitutes: $64.5 million 
  9. Raw hides, skins not furskins, leather: $62.8 million 
  10. Machinery including computers: $46.8 million 

Machinery including computers represents the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 417.9% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aircraft and spacecraft via a 141.5% gain.

Year over year, the severest decliners among Nigeria’s top 10 export categories were tobacco including manufactured substitutes (down -37.8%), mineral fuels including oil (down -36.3%) and the highly capital-intensive ships and boats product category (down -33.9%).’

The Flag of Nigeria with Coat of Arms

Heth in Hebrew means: ‘terror, dread,’ From the verb hatat, ‘to deplete of courage.’ A formidable name and the latter White peoples known by that name, certainly lived up to it. The Hittites in the Bible, are in every case, in reference to the the later peoples. One passage which refers to the original people of Heth is in Genesis chapter twenty-three.

Genesis 23:8-11

English Standard Version

8 And he said to them, “If you are willing that I [Abraham] should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat for me Ephron the son of Zohar, 9 that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he owns; it is at the end of his field. For the full price let him give it to me in your presence as property for a burying place.” 

10 Now Ephron was sitting among the Hittites, and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the Hittites, of all who went in at the gate of his city, 11 “No, my lord, hear me: I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the sight of the sons of my people I give it to you. Bury your dead.”

Jebus in Hebrew means: ‘trodden underfoot, he will trample down.’ The numerous references to the Jebusites [including all the Canaanite clans] are in the main, to the Nephilim descended giants or people that intermarried with them that dwelt in Canaan. We will look at a selection of verses for these peoples in a different chapter. Amor in Hebrew means: ‘talkers.’

Genesis 15:18-21

English Standard Version

18 On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 the land of the… 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites… 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.”

Girgash in Hebrew means: ‘dwellers in a clayey soil,’ ‘take and stroke’, Hiv: ’villagers’ and Perizz: ‘wildling, rural.’ The Canaanites and Perizzites are always placed together. Their relationship is not clear, yet they appear to be close and as one.

Genesis 13:7

English Standard Version

… and there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock. At that time the Canaanites and the Perizzites were dwelling in the land.

A well known online encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters [six clans].The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language.A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world’s populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa.

Whether there are twelve, eleven, ten or six main Canaanite lines is difficult to ascertain. The identification of six ancestral clusters though, supports Aaron Demsky’s hypothesis and so we may well have found Canaan’s six clans. The major African ethnic groups could be divided as located in: West Africa, the Horn of Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, Southeast Africa and Southern Africa. 

In Chapter X, Magog, Tubal & Meshech, the article Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Descend from Three Neolithic Super-Grandfathers stated in its additional paper – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… clade E [is distributed] mainly in Africa, so there are two hypotheses, 1) haplogroups D and CF migrated out of Africa separately; 2) the single common ancestor of CF and DE migrated out of Africa followed by a back-migration of E to Africa. From this study, the short interval between CF/DE and C/F divergences weakens the possibility of multiple independent migrations (CF, D, and DE*) out of Africa, and thus supports the latter hypothesis… Y DNA haplogroup A represents the oldest branch of the Y-chromosome phylogeny. Like haplogroup B, it only appears in Africa, with the highest frequency among the hunter-gatherer groups in Ethiopia and Sudan. A3b1 is a Khoisan exclusive haplogroup [Southern Africa].’

The alternative view of mankind beginning in the Middle East is more viable and this would support what we have learned with the descendants of Canaan migrating to Africa, not from it… and then a ‘back-migration.’ Scientists concur that Y-DNA haplogroup A is the oldest [original] haplogroup – associated with Black people – and then make the incorrect assumption, that all people have come out of Africa. The exact same assumption has been made with mtDNA L0 and L1. 

This supports the unproven evolutionary theory, but does not allow for a provable pre-flood world, with a singular – Black line – [or dual racial lines if we include the Neanderthal of Day Six – a Yellow/Red line] and the introduction of a White line [through Noah and his son Shem] just prior to the Flood. After the Flood, the new races [sixteen lines from Noah’s grandsons] repopulated the world from the Hindu Kush and Indus Valley regions, as opposed to the African continent.

African Human mtDNA phylogeography at a glance, Alexandra Rosa & António Brehm, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:


‘Macrohaplogroup L divides into haplogroups L0-L6… Haplogroup L0 further includes sub-haplogroups L0a, L0d, L0f and L0k… L0d, the first individual sub-clade to derive from the L0 node… its divergence from L0abfk… The distribution of this clade appears to be restricted to Khoisan people in South Africa, and to Tanzanian and Angolan populations… Similarly, sub-haplogroup L0k is found almost exclusively among South African Khoisan… existing also at low frequencies among click-speaking Tanzanian groups… 

Their L0d and L0k shared lineages, which represent more than half of their maternal pool suggest an ancestral link predating the appearance of present-day click-speakers, likely remnants of an East African proto-Khoisan population… The mtDNA pool of the Khoisan people shows over 60% of L0d and L0k lineages… 

The L0a1 sub-clade has an eastern and southeastern African distribution including Nubia, Sudan and Ethiopia… L0a2 lineages are thought to trace the dispersal of Bantu-speakers towards South Africa…’


‘MtDNA L1… One of its daughter clades, haplogroup L1b, is concentrated in western-central Africa, particularly along the coastal areas… peaking in the Senegal Mandenka and Wolof… and Fulani people in Burkina-Faso, Chad and South Cameroon… L1c occurs frequently in Central and West Africans… Curiously, more recent reports state frequencies ranging 18-25% in Angola Bantu ethnic groups… A substantial revision for the L1c phylogeny has been proposed by Quintana-Murci et al. (2008). It shed additional light… and helped corroborate past relationships between Central African Bantu-speaking farmers and their hunter-gathering neighbors, the Pygmies… Both groups likely shared an ancestral Central-African proto-population rich in L1c mtDNAs… and evolved into the diverse forms observed today among the modern agricultural populations (L1c1a, L1c1b, L1c1c, L1c2-6, etc.) while L1c1a is the only surviving clade in western Pygmies… Both L1b and L1c were proposed as Central Africa autochthonous lineages…


Haplogroup L5, previously known as L1e, occupies an intermediate position between L1 and L2’3’4’6… 

It has been observed at low frequencies in eastern Africa, namely Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, with minor gene flow introducing these lineages in the Mbuti Pygmies and North Cameroon Fali… The Central African Pygmies particular genetic pool including both L1c and L5 may assign them a “relict” status, similar to that proposed for the Khoisan… 


Together with L3, haplogroup L2 comprises ~70% of the sub-Saharan maternal variation. Haplogroup L2a is the most frequent and wide- spread mtDNA cluster in Africa, reaching over 40% in Tuareg from Niger/Nigeria and Mali… Recent star-like demographic bursts in L2a1a and L2a2 and their expansion to southeast people are most likely associated with the expansion(s) of the Bantu-speaking populations… L2b-L2d haplogroups are dominant and largely confined to West and West-Central Africa…   


The variation classified as haplogroup L6… is nowadays largely confined to Yemeni people and a few samples in Ethiopian Amhara and Gurages. It is noteworthy that L6 presents a very narrow phylogeography… Given its presence in Ethiopians, where its sister clades are also diverse and frequent… L6 has a most likely origin in East Africa, where it might have been preserved in isolation for tens of thousands of years. In any case the homeland of L6 may still be missing.


Haplogroup L4 is a sister clade of L3, typical of East and Northeast Africa, although present at low frequencies… The L4a motif has been found in Sudan and Ethiopia, though initially misclassified as L3e4… Similarly we also refer to L4b2, previously known as L3g… or L4g… This is frequent in Tanzania and Amhara and Gurages from Ethiopia…


… superhaplogroup L3… is widespread in Africa, its frequency and diversity providing evidence of a sub-Saharan expansion of its sub-clades towards West Africa… This superhaplogroup is subdivided into various clades and harbours also the two main M and L superhaplogroups found outside of Africa. Both L3b and L3d are prevalent in the West quadrant of sub-Saharan Africa… in average 10%…

L3b also shows considerable frequencies in the Hutu people in Rwanda… and South African Kung… L3d constitutes an important percentage of the South African maternal pool, being more expressive in Angola and Tanzania… a subset of L3b is common among Bantu speakers of south-western Africa and thus is a likely marker of the Bantu expansion… The L3e cluster has been subdivided into L3e1, L3e2, L3e3 and L3e4, since the time of HVS-I information per se… 

The oldest branches of L3e are thought to have arisen in Central Africa/nowadays Sudan… Within L3e2, the L3e2b lineages constitute the most frequent and widespread type of L3e, primarily found in West and Central Africa…

The network in Cerný et al. (2007) reflects a clear starlike phylogeny of L3e5 types found mostly in western Central Africa. Although an important diffusion has occurred into North Africa, the root type is relatively prevalent in the Chad Basin… The diffusion of haplogroup L3f ranges from Ethiopia in the east, to Angola and Mozambique in the south, the Chad Basin in Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau in the west and Tunisia in the north…

L3f1 founder lineages in Central and West Africa… L3f2 is a quite infrequent clade found almost exclusively among Chad speaking populations from the Chad Basin and virtually absent from Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan peoples… Therefore, it is contemporary with its sister clade L3f1, and probably arose around the Chad Basin area. Nevertheless, the haplogroup is present in northern Cushitic groups from Somalia and Ethiopia…’

African Americans

‘The current distribution range of African mtDNA lineages is far broader than the African continent. Long-distance gene flow mediated by the Atlantic slave trade since the 16th century is worth mentioning in this review. 

Brazilians harbor the most important reservoir of African maternal lineages outside of Africa. Early description of the genetic landscape of Brazilians with sub-Saharan ancestry confirms the historical evidence, with L1c and L3e lineages summing up to nearly half of the African share… Later studies on Afro-Americans residing in the American continent report 65% of mtDNA types in South America as having a Central African origin, 41% and 59% of Central Americans tracing progeny to West Central Africa and West Africa respectively, while North American ancestors are estimated as being 28% West-Central Africans and 72% West Africans… These results corroborate the historical record of these regions… The origin of Afro-Americans in U.S.A. is associated with West African (>55%) and West-Central/Southwest African (<45%) mothers, also in close proximity to historical data… 

Recent results on admixture analysis suggest that Africans brought to Brazil as slaves were originally from two geographical regions: i) 69% of the maternal pool of Black Brazilians in Rio de Janeiro is attributed to West-Central and Southeast Africa, close to two former Portuguese colonies (Angola and Mozambique) and ii) 82% of mtDNA lineages in Porto Alegre are found in West Africa, in the northern portion of the Gulf of Guinea… Such detailed analysis is possible given the clear mtDNA haplogroup structure which allows the discrimination of geographic/linguistic origins. Once again genetic records are in agreement with historical data…’ 

African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups, multiple authors, 2006 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced migration of an estimated 11 million Africans to the Americas. Only 9 million are thought to have survived the passage, and many more died in the early years of captivity. Historical accounts indicate that virtually all enslaved Africans brought to North America came from either West or West Central Africa. A recent comparison of mtDNA sequences from 1148 African Americans living in the US with a database of African mtDNA sequences showed that more than 55% of the US lineages have a West African ancestor, while fewer than 41% came from West Central or South West Africa.

Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mother to daughter with few, if any, changes occurring over many generations, it is possible to compare contemporary African-American mtDNA haplotypes with contemporary mtDNA haplotypes in a worldwide database to obtain information about the ancestral origins of these mtDNAs.’ 

‘In such a comparison, continent-specific haplotypes are readily observed, and the assignment of mtDNAs to continent of origin is relatively straightforward. The more difficult task is to tie particular mtDNA haplotypes to specific geographical regions and ethnic groups within a continent. This task is particularly difficult for Africa, as there is more genetic diversity among Africans than among people from any other continent…

The most extensive pan-African haplotype… is in the L2a1 haplogroup. 40% of African-American mtDNAs did not match any sequence in the database, it is clear that matches to a single African ethnic group will not be the outcome for most African Americans, and even when a match to a single ethnic group is obtained, multiple matches may occur in a larger database. Furthermore, for the typical African American, the maternal ancestor who was the source of the mtDNA was just one of hundreds of enslaved African ancestors. In fact, it likely that there has been more mixing of African ethnic groups in the Americas than has ever occurred elsewhere. Thus, the ancestors of virtually all contemporary African Americans came from a large number of ethnic groups located throughout the region from Senegal to Angola.

Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, multiple authors, 2007:

‘Several L haplogroup lineages occur most frequently in eastern Africa (e.g., L0a, L0f, L5, and L3g), but some are specific to certain ethnic groups, such as haplogroup lineages L0d and L0k that previously have been found nearly exclusively among southern African “click” speakers. The presence of very old mtDNA haplogroups (i.e., L0d, L0f, and L5) in Tanzanians that are rare or absent in other regions of Africa suggests populations in Tanzania may have had a large long-term effective population size and/or a large degree of long-term population structure, which has acted to preserve many divergent and rare mtDNA haplogroup lineages that appeared early in modern human history. The presence of these ancient lineages in Tanzania also suggests that eastern Africa might be the source of origin of many other African mtDNA haplogroup lineages. 

Our findings are consistent with other studies of mtDNA genetic diversity in African populations that have suggested populations in eastern Africa form a highly diverse gene pool…’

A sample of Y-DNA haplogroups from the six largest African nations; plus Ghana is included, as it has a very pure haplogroup sequence. Kenya and Tanzania are represented by Bantus and South Africa is represented by southern Bantus, the Zulu [also southern Bantu] and the Khoisan.

Ethiopia:           E1b1b – A – T – J – B – E2 

Khoisan:            A – E1b1a – E1b1b – B – E2

RSA Khoisan:   E1b1a – A – E1b1b – B – E2 

Tanzania:          E1b1a – E1b1b – E2 – B – A – T

Kenya:               E1b1a – E2 – A – E1b1b – B

RSA Bantu:       E1b1a – E2 – B – A – E1b1b

RSA Zulu:          E1b1a – E2 – B – A 

DR Congo:        E1b1a – E2 – E1b1b – A 

Nigeria:             E1b1a – B – E2 – E1a – E1b1b – A 

Ghana:               E1b1a – E1a – E1b1b

The haplogroup J in Ethiopia is reflective of Arab peoples or admixture. The haplogroups E, A and B and their respective clades are the main Haplogroups for the Black African peoples. Ethiopia and Ghana are poles apart percentage wise, on an east – west axis and Nigeria and the Khoisan on a north – south axis.

                                 E1b1a    E1b1b       E2         B          A 

Ethiopia                                  63           1.5        1.5         10

RSA Khoisan            36         15              4         12         33

Khoisan                     23         16              2         12         44

Tanzania                   48         22            16           9          3

Kenya                         52         14            17           3         14

RSA Bantu                 55          4             21          11          5

RSA Zulu                    55                         21         20          3

DR Congo                  64         14            19                       3

Nigeria                       68           4              7          10         3

Ghana                         92           1         

Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and its population is 118,587,254 people, the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The largest ethnic group in Ethiopia is the Oromo; of which I have used their Y-DNA haplogroup spread rather than the combined population, as it affects the E1b1b, A and J percentages significantly.

Kenya in East Africa has the sixth highest population with 53,771,296 people. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is in Central Africa, with the third highest population of 92,609,143 people. The main ethnic group in the Congo are the Kongo and in Nigeria it is the Igbo. Tanzania is in East Africa, with the fourth highest population of 61,981,437 people. Ghana in West Africa, has a population of 31,898,831 people – the tenth highest.

In the south, the Republic of South Africa has the fifth highest population of 60,262,064 people, of which the vast majority are Black people. The Y-DNA haplogroups of the largest ethnic group, are from the Zulu.

People with understanding want more knowledge, but fools just want more foolishness.

Proverbs 15:14 New Century Version

“The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widely spread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible.” 

Bertrand Russell [1872-1970]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Indonesia: Kittim, Khitai & Cathay

Chapter VIII

The third son born to Javan is Kitti translated solely in the plural, Kittim. There are a number of Bible verses attributed to him and his role in our civilisation is evolving as I write. A key player, growing in world affairs. A nation similar to China so-to-speak, in that it is awakening and beginning to flex its muscles.  

Israel A History of:

‘Kittim has been understood to refer to Cyprus. It is plausible that the Hebrew term “Ma-Kittim”, meaning “the land of Kittim”, perhaps developed into the term “Macedonia”.’

Herman Hoeh states:

‘The descendants of Kittim first settled on the island of Cyprus and then migrated into Southern Italy. This is simply proved by checking the historical fulfillment of Daniel 11:30. The “ships of Kittim” were Roman fleets sailing from Cyprus. In modern times many Spanish and Portugese people (as well as Italians and a few Greeks) have migrated to the New World. These are the lands of Javan today.’ 

We have learned that Javan descends from Japheth and is an Asian branch of the family tree, not European. The Latin peoples of southern Europe do not descend from Japheth. The Kittim travelled throughout the Mediterranean before their huge eastward arc towards Asia. It is not accurate to think that the Chinese were the Khitai, or called themselves by that name. The region to the west of China was known as Khitai [Cathay] by other peoples, as they could only migrate eastwards until they arrived upon the Khitan Empire, ruled by the Khitais. The real China was further east beyond Khitan lands. The peoples who dwelt around the Yellow River delta region would refer to themselves by the specific Dynasty during which time they lived.

Early after the flood, Kitti settled in present day Larnaca on the east coast of Cyprus, known in ancient times as Kition, [in Latin Citium]. The whole Island became known as Kittim in Hebrew. The name was employed loosely in Hebrew literature, so it was often applied to all the Aegean islands and even to the West in general – especially the seafaring West. 

Flavius Josephus [circa 100 CE] records in his Antiquities of the Jews that Cethimus [son of Javan] possessed the island Cethima: ‘it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews…’

The expression ‘isles of Kittim’, found in the Books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel indicates that some centuries prior to Josephus, this designation had become a broad description for the Mediterranean islands. As Dr Hoeh says, this designation was further extended to apply to the Romans, Macedonians* and Seleucid Greeks. The Septuagint translates the use of Kittim in the Book of Daniel 11:30 as Romans. 1 Maccabees 1:1 states that: Alexander the Great the Macedonian,* had originated from the ‘land of Kittim’ – in reality, the ancient and at one time home of the Kittim. By this later time, Hoeh describes the real Kitti had long left the Mediterranean. As they were a prominent people, their legacy of territory and influence lingered in southern Europe through use of their name. 

In the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Kittim are referred to as being of Asshur. Eleazar Sukenik argued that this reference to Asshur, refers to the Seleucid Empire which controlled the territory of the former Assyrian Empire; though his son Yigael Yadin, interpreted this phrase as a veiled reference to the Romans. Some authors have speculated that Kittim comes from an Akkadian word meaning invaders. Others have identified Kittim with the land of Hatti (Khatti) and the Hittite Empire. We will learn that neither the Romans or the Hittites are descended from Japheth.

The mediaeval rabbinic compilation Yosippon, says the Kittim camped in Campania and built a city called Posomanga, while descendants of Tubal camped in neighbouring Tuscany and built Sabino, with the Tiber river as their frontier. They soon went to war following the rape of certain sabines by the Kittim, who are equated with the Romans. The war ended when the Kittim showed the descendants of Tubal their mutual progeny. They then built cities called Porto, Albano, and Aresah. Later, their territory is occupied by Agnias, King of Carthage. This may be an accurate account if it relates to between 8500 – 6000 BCE. If later than this, then these would be European peoples living where Kitti and Tubal once did and their names have been appropriated. Possibly, the people being described with former names, are the early Romans and Etruscans.

The name Kitti in Hebrew signifies: ‘Beaters, Pulverizers’ from the verb katat, ‘to beat or hammer.’ Recall the two sons of Gomer: Riphath [Cambodia] and Togarmah [North and South Korea]. Their names broadly mean respectively, ‘Crusher’ and ‘Bone Breaker.’

Abarim Publications:

‘The name Kittim is a plural form of Kitty, although this singular doesn’t occur in Scriptures. 

The alternative plural form Kittiyyiym, occurs in Isaiah 23:12 and Jeremiah 2:10. The verb… means to beat or hammer, either to forge swords and ploughs and such, or to fragment and disperse of whatever is beaten. Adjective (katit) literally means beaten, but occurs only to denote a costly oil from beaten fruits. Noun (mekitta) refers to anything crushed or pulverised… Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names… reads Subduers.’

The nation of Indonesia are the people of Kittim.

The Republic of Indonesia consists of an astounding 18,108 islands; which include Sumatra, Java, Borneo [Kalimantan], Bali, Sulawesi [Celebes], Flores, West Timor and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world’s largest island country and the fourteenth largest country by land area at 735,358 square miles. With 276,975,366 people, it is the world’s fourth most populated country as well as the most populous Muslim majority nation. Java is the world’s most populous island and home to over half of the country’s population. Notice the similarity between the main island of Indonesia, Java and Kitti’s father, Javan.

The country’s capital Jakarta, is the second highest urban populated area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and the eastern part of Malaysia and despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has enormous areas of wilderness that support one of the world’s highest levels of biodiversity. 

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since the seventh century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit, traded with people from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign influences and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars introduced Islam, while Europeans brought Christianity through colonisation. 

The first Europeans arrived in 1512, when Portuguese traders sought to monopolise sources of nutmeg and cloves. Dutch and British traders followed and in 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company. The politically dominant Javanese, are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population.They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java. The country’s official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay. Most Indonesians speak at least one of more than seven hundred local languages,often as their first language – Javanese is the most widely spoken.

Intermittently interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their three hundred and fifty year presence in the archipelago. The country proclaimed its independence in 1945, though it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia’s sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two nations.

In 1850, George Earl an English ethnologist, proposed the term Indunesians, though preferring Malayunesians, for the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago. One of his students James Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for the Indian Archipelago. Dutch writers in East Indies publications, preferred the Malay Archipelago. The name Indonesia derives from Greek Indos and the word nesos, meaning ‘Indian islands’.

The economy of Indonesia is the largest in Southeast Asia, one of the emerging market economies of the world and a member of the G20. It is the 16th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP [$1.12 trillion] and the 7th largest in terms of GDP. In 2012, Indonesia replaced India as the second fastest-growing G-20 economy, behind China.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Indonesian global shipments during 2020. 

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US$25.6 billion 
  2. Animal/vegetable fats, oils, waxes: $20.7 billion 
  3. Iron, steel: $10.8 billion 
  4. Electrical machinery, equipment: $9.2 billion 
  5. Gems, precious metals: $8.2 billion 
  6. Vehicles: $6.6 billion 
  7. Rubber, rubber articles: $5.6 billion 
  8. Machinery including computers: $5.2 billion 
  9. Footwear: $4.8 billion 
  10. Paper, paper items: $4.2 billion 

Iron and steel was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 46.8% from 2019 to 2020. In second place for improving export sales was gems and precious metals via a 24.2% gain. The leading decliner among Indonesia’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil [due] to a -25% drop year over year.’

Indonesia is a paradox as it has played a modest, back-seat role in the world economy since its independence. Its importance has been considerably less than its size, abundant natural resources, and geographic location would seem to warrant. Kittim has not yet gotten into full-swing and we will likely witness a transformation of its influence on the world stage. It is one of the top four [with South Korea] in the Next Eleven [economic potential] nations and as the world’s biggest Islamic Nation, a contender as the potential leader, or influencing nation of the Muslim world.

The prophet Balaam provides a future prophecy on specific nations, including Kitti.

Numbers 24:24

English Standard Version

But ships shall come from Kittim and shall afflict [H6031 – anah, meaning: to afflict, abase or humble (one self)]  Asshur and Eber; and he too shall come to utter destruction.”

Some have misleadingly translated Kittim as Cyprus or Italy. At some point, Indonesia’s military and naval power will either be formidable enough to fight Russia and Western Europe, or the verse is a veiled reference to a naval cavalcade of various nations travelling from a base in Kittim. A confederation of states linked to the King of the South, as written in the Book of Daniel^ is described. It also appears from the Hebrew word anah, that it could be the ships from Kittim that are humbled.

Isaiah gives a prophecy on Tyre and its demise in chapter 23:1, 12 NCV:

This is a message about Tyre: You trading ships [Tarshish], cry! The houses and harbor of Tyre are destroyed. This news came to the ships from the land of [Kittim].He said, “Sidon, you will not rejoice any longer, because you are destroyed. Even if you cross the sea to [Kittim], you will not find a place to rest.”

Jeremiah 2:10

King James Version

For pass over the isles of Chittim…

Ezekiel 27:6

Young’s Literal Translation

Of oaks of Bashan they made thine oars [ship building], Thy bench they have made of ivory, A branch [H1323 – bath, meaning: daughter, town, company, first] of Ashurim from isles of Chittim.

Ship building is a growing industry in Indonesia, presently in the shadow of Japan and Malaysia. Later, we will learn the significance of Bashan and ships. The second part of the verse links Kitti and seemingly a great grandson of Abraham. Most translations inaccurately translate as Asshur [Russia], possibly following the relationship shown in Numbers 24:24. See Genesis 25:3 and the personality of Ashurim [Ashurites]. We will discover that the descendants of Ashurim – also listed in the plural – have had an historical link with Indonesia [Kitti]. The Hebrew word used in Ezekiel is not the same as the one used for Abraham’s grandson in Genesis, though it is a closer match than the Hebrew word used for Jacob’s son Asher in Genesis chapter forty-nine; though, Asher the son of Jacob can not be ruled out of contention, as we will find that their close geographic location with Kittim, is uncanny.

Daniel chapter Eleven^ contains the single longest prophecy in the Bible that chronicles thousands of years and on into the future. The early part of the chapter references Greece [Javan] – somewhat confusingly – actually the Greco-Macedonian Empire and its confrontation with the existing, ruling Medo-Persian Empire. The players of north and south, subtly change over the centuries. Towards the end of the chapter the Kings of the North and South have shifted from a Mediterranean – Middle Eastern – orientation to a global power struggle. We read in Daniel 11: 15, 18, 29-30:

English Standard Version

Then the king of the north shall come… Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands [Javan]^and shall capture many of them… At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but it shall not be this time as it was before. 

For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw, and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant.

Sometimes translated unhelpfully, as ships from the west. The interlinear says: ‘For ships Chittim shall come…’ It does not include ‘of’ or ‘from’ in the Hebrew, though I consider the inference is from more than that of, Kittim. We learned in Numbers 24:24 that Kitti fights against Asshur and Eber – an alliance of Russia and Western Europe. Asshur [Assyria] is revealed as a future King of the North. The King of the North attacks the coastlands [Southeast Asia]. Kitti is either part of those nations amalgamated with the King of the South, or accommodates a military and naval presence within its strategically positioned borders in southeast Asian waters.

Theses verses in Daniel chapter Eleven, highlight a beginning point of a specific time period, that includes actions of magnitude performed by important and specific individuals in the future. The significance of this is considerable and we shall return to it in detail when we study Shem’s son, Asshur and also Nimrod.

Geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, claims there is a genetic division between Eastern Orientals and Southeast Asians and Zhou Jixu agrees, that there is a physical difference between these two populations. The complexity of the genetic data has led to serious doubt amongst scientists about the usefulness of the concept of an Asian race, as distinctive Asian features clearly represent separate lines… of the sons of Japheth.

After looking at all four of Javan’s sons, it can be understood that those sons of Japheth located in Asia, such as Madai, Gomer and Javan are all divergent and distinctive lines  of descent. As there are a number of lineages from Japheth’s sons, this does not discount an overall Asian identity. There is variety within the Asian genome, for Japheth had seven sons.

Austronesian Indonesians are genetically close to southeast Asians, while the further east one travels the more inhabitants of the Pacific Ocean region exhibit a Melanesian affinity. Prominent mt-DNA haplogroups – of which we are now quite familiar – include the prevalent southeastern Asian M, F, B and also Y2 in the western regions of Indonesia, the speakers of Austronesian languages and spoken in Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and Madagascar. In the eastern island chains of Indonesia it is mainly haplogroups Q and P, found amongst non-Austronesian speakers. 

The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific, multiple authors, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. The haplotype diversity of communities ranged from 0.862–0.996, which indicates that most individuals within these groups carry unique mtDNA lineages. 

The most diverse communities are found in eastern parts of the archipelago (Sumba, Flores, Pantar and Alor), where both Asian and Papuan lineages occur side by side.

Haplogroup frequencies differ between western and eastern Indonesia… In the west, haplogroups B5a (12%), B4c1b3 (9%) and Y2 (10.5%) are carried by a third of individuals. These haplogroups, frequent in western Indonesia, are notable by their near absence in eastern Indonesia. In the east, haplogroups F1a4 (8.7%), Q including Q1 and Q2 (7.7%), P (2.8%) and B4a1a1a (2.3%) represent nearly a quarter of individuals. 

Correspondingly, these haplogroups are rare or absent in western Indonesia, which is expected for lineages with strong Papuan connections (P and Q), but more surprising for lineages like the Polynesian motif (B4a1a1a). The Polynesian motif is found as far west as Bali, albeit in just two individuals (0.4%). However, it was not detected in samples from the western Indonesian islands of Java, Sumatra, Nias and Mentawai, even though this region is thought to have contributed to the settlement of Madagascar where the Polynesian motif is carried by nearly a third of individuals. The prevalence of the Polynesian motif in Madagascar, and its absence from the island region where the inhabitants of Madagascar originated, has yet to be satisfactorily explained. [A subsequent article in 2015 answers the question].’** 

‘We compared the distribution of Indonesian mtDNA haplogroups with those of surrounding populations… Most haplogroups are shared. 

The deep maternal lineages M17a, M73, M47, N21, N22, R21, R22 and R23 have patchy distributions across mainland and island southeast Asia, likely reflecting ancient maternal lineages tracing back to the first settlers in this region. Four of these lineages (M17a, N21, R22 and R23) reach higher frequencies in western compared with eastern Indonesia… Owing to proposed population origins of Austronesian language speakers in Taiwan, Indonesian links to the Philippines and indigenous Taiwanese are of especial interest. These three locations share four haplogroups (E1a1a, M7b3, M7c3c and Y2), which have previously been suggested as candidates for a mid-Holocene dispersal out of Taiwan… lineages shared with Filipinos and indigenous Taiwanese are generally more common in the east than in the west of Indonesia. The exceptions are Y2 and M7c3c…

Alternative hypotheses, such as Austronesian groups originating in and dispersing from Indonesia, remain possible, with many genetic lineages in Indonesia showing old and local connections. Models combining these two extremes may ultimately be the best predictors. We envisage some genetic contributions from Taiwan, possibly including speakers of early Austronesian languages, with a substantial biological heritage from waves of ancestral populations arriving in island southeast Asia… ancestral-derived haplotype orders are consistent with a rapid expansion from Taiwan to the Philippines and Indonesia, but population dispersals in the opposite direction are equally likely. Although we provide haplogroup dates with some reluctance, we note that relative ages are inconsistent with a simple dispersal from Taiwan to the Philippines, and thence to Indonesia. Instead, they seem a better fit to widespread population movements within island southeast Asia during the Holocene.

The Polynesian motif is also generally associated with a Taiwanese dispersal, but actually possesses an unusual geographical distribution. The ancestral form occurs widely throughout mainland and island southeast Asia. However, the Polynesian motif itself is found only at low frequency in the Philippines (0.5%) and eastern Indonesia (2.3%). Although frequencies reach as high as 7.4% on Timor, the lineage is found no further west than Bali (0.4%, or just 2 of 457 individuals). This is consistent with a proposed origin in island Melanesia, but notably conflicts with the high frequency of the Polynesian motif in Madagascar… We suggest that an inclusive framework that describes the full distribution of this unusual mtDNA lineage is still lacking. Nevertheless, an unambiguous connection with population dispersals from Taiwan during the Neolithic seems increasingly unlikely.

In comparisons with neighboring populations, Indonesia’s closest genetic connections lie toward mainland [Elishah – Malaysia] and island southeast Asia [Dodanim – Philippines] rather than Oceania [Rodanim]…the only mtDNA lineage found across all Indonesian island groups is M7c3c, but this haplogroup, while also present in Taiwan and the Philippines, appears to be absent from other Austronesian-speaking populations in Oceania. Therefore, no single shared mtDNA lineage links all speakers of Austronesian languages, even if only at low frequency. Instead, Austronesian populations are characterized more by their diversity than by any shared genetic inheritance.’ 

Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, multiple authors, 2009:

‘Eastern Indonesia possesses more linguistic diversity than any other region in Southeast Asia, with both Austronesian (AN) languages that are of East Asian origin, as well as non-Austronesian (NAN) languages of likely Melanesian origin. Here, we investigated the genetic history of human populations from seven eastern Indonesian [EI] islands, including AN and NAN speakers, as well as the relationship between languages and genes, by means of nonrecombining Y-chromosomal (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. We found that the eastern Indonesian gene pool consists of East Asian as well as Melanesian components, as might be expected based on linguistic evidence… 

In addition, we noted a small fraction of the NRY and mtDNA data shared between eastern Indonesians and Australian Aborigines likely reflecting an ancient link between Asia and Australia.^^

All AN languages trace back to a common ancestral language (Proto-AN) and are thought to have spread by an expansion that started about 5,500–6,000 years ago in Taiwan with an assumed ultimate origin in East Asia… Furthermore, we identified at least two haplogroups (Q1 and Q2) that were previously suggested to be of Melanesian origin… whereas our new data suggest they might be of EI origin instead. Moreover, the mtDNA sequence diversity within haplogroup Q1 was very high in EI (0.967 ± 0.01) making it somewhat unlikely that this haplogroup exists in EI as a result of a recent migration from Melanesia… 

We found NRY haplogroup C-RPS4Y in surprisingly high frequency in EI, accounting for 14.2% of all EI Y-chromosomes… which is the highest frequency of any region in our current and previous data set… The RPS4YT mutation characterizing the major haplogroup C represents one of the two oldest branches of the NRY tree in Asia/Oceania (in addition to M9)… It most likely represents the oldest NRY haplogroup of Asian origin in EI. Haplogroup C-RPS4Y has not been reported in East Asia or Polynesia, is almost completely absent from Melanesia (reported so far from one male from coastal PNG and one Fijian), and is very rare in Southeast Asia (outside EI)… However, this NRY lineage was previously found at an appreciable frequency (10%) in northern Australian Aborigines… and also, albeit less frequently (1.3%), in central Australian Aborigines…^^ Extremely high frequencies of C-RPS4Y (xM38) (92%) were also previously found in males from Cibol on Flores… C-RPS4Y^ was also previously found in India, albeit in low frequency, and was used to support an ancient genetic link between India and Australia.’ [This writer considers it a possibility, that there is a historical and genetic link between the Indian Dravidian and the Australian Aborigine]. 

Mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome suggest the settlement of Madagascar by Indonesian sea nomad populations, multiple authors, 2015: 

‘Linguistic, cultural and genetic characteristics of the Malagasy suggest that both Africans and Island Southeast Asians were involved in the colonization of Madagascar. Populations from the Indonesian archipelago played an especially important role because linguistic evidence suggests that the Malagasy language branches from the Southeast Barito language family of southern Borneo, Indonesia, with the closest language spoken today by the Ma’anyan. A combination of phylogeographic analysis of genetic distances, haplotype comparisons and inference of parental populations by linear optimization, using both maternal and paternal DNA lineages, suggests that Malagasy derive from multiple regional sources in Indonesia, with a focus on eastern Borneo, southern Sulawesi and the Lesser Sunda islands.**

Prior to the European colonial period, Austronesian-speaking populations were the most widespread of any language family. While most groups speaking Austronesian languages moved eastward, settling the Pacific Ocean, others moved westward through the Indian Ocean, reaching eastern Africa and Madagascar. Dispersing halfway around the world within the past two millennia, the Austronesian expansion is often considered the last substantial wave of migration in human prehistory.

A recent study of genome-wide SNP data suggests that the western and central regions of Indonesia (Java/Borneo/Sulawesi) have the closest genetic connections with Malagasy. This is in agreement with previous studies of uniparental markers (mtDNA and the Y chromosome), which found genetic affinity between Malagasy and western Indonesian populations. A key lineage linking Indonesia and Madagascar is the Polynesian motif (a mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, B4a1a1, characterized by the polymorphisms A14022G, T16217C, A16247G and C16261T).

More recently, it has been recognized that Malagasy carry specific point mutation variants (mtDNA nucleotides 1473 and 3423), which together have been termed the Malagasy motif. This Malagasy version of the Polynesian motif is distributed throughout Madagascar with frequencies in specific ethnic groups ranging from 11-50%. While still debated, this relatively homogenous distribution has been interpreted as supporting the first arrival of the Polynesian motif during an early phase of Madagascar’s settlement. To date, the Malagasy motif has not been found in Indonesia, or anywhere else outside Madagascar. 

Based on analysis of 96 Y chromosome binary markers… the majority of men in the Ma’anyan, Lebbo’ and Bajo carry haplogroups previously found in Southeast Asia, particularly C, K, and O… Among the haplogroups shared between Malagasy and Indonesians… four originated in Island Southeast Asia (C, O1a, O1a2, O2a1), while six have western Eurasian origins (J1, J2, J2b, T, L and R1a). The Ma’anyan and five other Indonesian groups, all located around the Sulawesi sea (east Kalimantan Dayak, Java, Bali, Mandar and Sumba), share four of these Island Southeast Asian haplogroups. Importantly, Malagasy uniquely share just one subhaplogroup (O2a1a1-M88) with Ma’anyan, and this lineage has not been discovered in other regions of Indonesia. O2a1a1 may therefore be a marker of male genetic contributions from southern Borneo to Madagascar.

Malagasy and Indonesians share mitochondrial haplogroups B4a1a, B4a1a1 (Polynesian motif), E1a1a, F3b, M7c1a4a, M32c and Q1… Of these, B4a1a1, E1a1a and Q1 are found exclusively in eastern Indonesia. Conversely, F3b, B4a1a and M7c1a4a occur ubiquitously across both eastern and western Indonesia, and M32c has been observed in only one Javanese individual.

The Polynesian motif (B4a1a1) is considered strong evidence of Indonesian gene flow into Madagascar, where a variant is found at moderate frequency (11-50%). With the exception of Bali… B4a1a1 only occurs in eastern Indonesia. Considering the restricted geographic distribution of the Polynesian motif, it is most likely that this lineage from Madagascar traces back to eastern rather than western Indonesia.

Malagasy and Indonesians share ten haplotypes in seven haplogroups… two haplotypes each in B4a1a and B4a1a1; three haplotypes in M7c1a4a; and one haplotype in each of the other shared haplogroups… eastern Indonesian populations tend to share more haplotypes with Malagasy than western Indonesian groups. We propose that the settlement of Madagascar had an Indonesian source location around southern Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda islands and eastern Borneo.’

What we have found thus far from Madai [less so due to the European admixture], though particularly with Gomer and Javan, is both the high percentage level and occurrence of Y-DNA haplogroups O, C, and K. The peoples of Indonesia are no different and expectedly assume a similar haplogroup pattern. Travelling from west to east, the major Islands of Indonesia exhibit the following major Austronesian Y-DNA haplogroups.

Sumatra:     O2 – O1a – O1b – F – C – K – D

Java:            O1b – O1a – O2 – C – K 

Borneo:       O2 – C – O1b – O1a – F

Bali:             O1b – O1a – O2 – C – K – Q 

Sulawesi:    C – O1a – O2 – O1b – K – F 

Sumatra has a population of nearly sixty million people and its haplogroup sequence contributes heavily to the Indonesian total. Sumatra is distinct from the other Indonesian islands and has the closest match with the Filipinos.

Sumatra:       O2 – O1a – O1b – F – C – K – D

Philippines:  O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b – [B – E]

Sumatra:       O1a  [18%]     O2a  [30%]   O1b [14%]   C [5%]    K [4%]   D [2%]  F [14%]

Philippines:  O1a  [28%]    O2a1 [39%]   O1b [3%]     C [5%]    K [20%]

Java has the highest number of people in Indonesia with nearly one hundred and fifty million people, over half the Indonesian total; dominating the Indonesian haplogroup pool. Java has a closer match to the people of Bali [0.7 million people] than any other island or nation. Borneo with approximately twenty-five million people and Sulawesi with twenty million people also share more in common genetically. 

Java:         O2  [23%]  O1a [23%]  O1b  [42%]  C  [2%]     K  [2%]   

Bali:          O2  [7%]     O1a [18%]  O1b  [59%]  C  [2%]     K  [1%]        

Borneo:    O2  [36%]  O1a [9%]    O1b  [21%]   C  [22%]                   F [2%]

Sulawesi: O2  [17%]   O1a [21%]  O1b   [13%]  C  [22%]   K  [7%]   F [ 6%]

The Melanesian Y-DNA haplogroups – again travelling west to east – show the following.

Bali:                 O -C – K – M – S

Sulawesi:        O – K – S – M

Flores:             C1 – C – S – K – O – M

East Timor:    C1 – K – O – S – C – M

West Papua:   C1 – M – K – O

Bali and Sulawesi are closer, whereas the Islands of Flores [two million people], East Timor – a separate sovereign state, outside Indonesia – [1.5 million people] and West Papua [one million people] share a closer haplogroup similarity. West Timor is part of Indonesia, with a population of two million people and shares the Island of Timor with East Timor. West Papua is part of Indonesian New Guinea with Papua, which has five million people and they both share the western half of New Guinea with Papua New Guinea in the eastern half, which has a population of nearly nine million people and is a separate, distinct nation. 

While the western half of New Guinea was a Dutch colony, the north-eastern region was once a German colony and the south-eastern territory a British colony. Papua New Guinea is a mineral power and the fifth biggest country in terms of natural mineral reserves; holding about $222 billion worth of reserves of bauxite, the commercial ore of Aluminum. The country is estimated to hold up to 24% of the total bauxite reserves in the world.

Bali:                O  [84%]   K   [1%]     S   [0.4%]   M  [0.7%]   C [2%]

Sulawesi         O  [64%]   K   [6%]    S   [5%]       M  [1%]

Flores:            O  [9%]     K    [11%]   S  [13%]      M  [3%]      C [39%]    C1 [24%] 

East Timor:   O  [18%]   K    [18%]   S  [13%]     M  [8%]      C [36%]    C1 [8%]

West Papua:  O  [3%]     K    [23%]                      M   [30%]   C [44%]   

A comparison of the Melanesian Y-DNA haplogroups shows the lessening of the primary Austronesian [and East and Southeast Asian] haplogroup of O and the increasing percentages of the typical Melanesian haplogroups of K, S, M as well as C, also an Austronesian, East and Southeast Asian key haplogroup. 

The specific haplogroups for East Timor include the following, which are in bold for typically Melanesian, italicised for typically South East Asian and both for those which reflect an indigenous Eastern Indonesian origin. 

Y-DNA:  C-M38, K-M9, S-M254, M-M4, M-P34, C-RPS4Y^, O-M119 [O1a]

mtDNA: P1, Q1, R14, B, B4a, F1a, R9c, E1a, E1b, E2, Polynesian motif.

Comparing the same Islands of Indonesia [and East Timor] with the ones we have looked at in Polynesia and Melanesia shows the same result. The haplogroup O, is higher in the Austronesian [Polynesian] peoples and the haplogroups K, M and S increase in percentage in the Melanesian populations.

Bali:                 O  [84%]   K   [1%]     S   [0.4%]   M  [0.7%]   C [2%]

Sulawesi         O  [64%]   K    [6%]    S   [5%]      M  [1%]

Flores:            O  [9%]     K    [11%]   S  [13%]    M  [3%]      C [39%]   C1 [24%] 

East Timor:    O  [18%]   K    [18%]   S  [13%]    M  [8%]      C [36%]   C1 [8%]

West Papua:  O  [3%]     K    [23%]                    M   [30%]   C [44%]   

Tonga:            O  [60%]   K    [1%]                                           C [23%] 

Maori:             O  [6%]     K    [2%]                                                         C1   [43%] 

Samoa:          O  [26%]   K   [3%]    S  [2%]       M [3%]                     C1   [61%]

Tahiti:             O  [29%]   K   [4%]                                                          C1   [67%] 

Fr Polynesia: O  [37%]   K   [8%]                                          C  [53%]

Papua NG:  O [4%]      K  [9%]   S  [18%]     M [54%] C  [2%]    C1   [15%]

Aborigine: O [1%]      K  [22%]                                       C  [6%]    C1   [60%] 

Fiji:                   O [13%]    K   [25%]                      M [35%]  C  [1%]     C1   [22%]       

Negritos:   O [14%]    K   [51%]                                       C  [11%]      

Micronesia:     O [9%]      K   [65%]                                      C  [19%]  

Y-DNA haplogroups O and K are shared amongst all the Polynesian, Micronesian and Melanesian peoples sampled and also included are either C or C1. This supports the common ancestry and descent from Japheth with the other peoples of Southeast Asia. Haplogroup M is indicative of the Melanesian peoples, with the highest percentages within the geographic area of the Papuan languages. Haplogroup S is mainly confined to the Melanesian peoples of Indonesia. The Polynesian Samoans exhibiting M and S haplogroups, reveal the intermixing with Melanesians. The Papuan New Guineans share a similar sequence to Fijians, also showing a common ancestry.

Malaysia:     O2a1  [28%]     O1a   [8%]      O1b [32%]   C [6%]   K   [8%] 

Java:            O2      [23%]     O1a   [23%]    O1b [42%]   C [2%]   K   [2%]   

Sumatra:      O2a    [30%]    O1a    [18%]    O1b [14%]   C [5%]    K   [4%] 

Philippines: O2a1  [28%]     O1a   [39%]    O1b [3%]     C [5%]    K   [20%]

Indonesian haplogroups are influenced by the majority of their population living on the Islands of Java and Sumatra. The closest affinity of the overall Indonesian [Kitti] haplogroup sequence is with Malaysia [Elishah]. The main contribution deriving from Java, which is more similar to the Malays and Sumatra, possessing more similarity with the Filipinos [Dodan].

Malaysia:      O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F – [R1a – D1 – H1a]

Indonesia:    O1b – O2a1 – O1a1 – K – C – F – [R1a1a – J2 – E – D1]

There is gold, and an abundance of rubies, but words of knowledge are like a precious jewel.

Proverbs 20:15 New English Translation

“Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to reform (or pause and reflect).” 

Mark Twain [1835-1910]

© Orion Gold 2020-2021 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Togarmah & the Koreas

Chapter VI

There are exceptions to every rule, in family living together – point number one in the introduction. We will encounter two significant exceptions amongst Japheth’s grandsons, with the first being the youngest son of Gomer and his prompt decision to dwell apart from his siblings. Togarmah is highlighted as a people with military capability and is prominent as part of the formidable alliance with Magog and Gomer’s other sons.

Book of Jasher 10:10-12

10 And the children of Tugarma are ten families, and these are their names: Buzar, Parzunac, Balgar, Elicanum, Ragbib, Tarki, Bid, Zebuc, Ongal and Tilmaz; all these spread and rested in the north and built themselves cities. 11 And they called their cities after their own names, those are they who abide by the rivers Hithlah and Italac unto this day. 12 But the families of Angoli, Balgar and Parzunac, they dwell by the great river Dubnee; and the names of their cities are also according to their own names.

Ancient Civilisation:

‘Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the Armenians traditionally claim to be descended from Togarmah… Ancient Armenia reached into Turkey. The name Turkey probably comes from Togarmah.’

We will see repeatedly, nations claiming to be a Bible identity though this does not make it so.


‘The Jewish Targums claim that Germany was also derived from Togarmah and his descendants. Turkey and Turkestan also have possible connections with Togarmah.’

Derek Walker – emphasis mine:

‘Togarmah is another country aligned with Russia. He was a son of Gomer, son of Japheth (Genesis 10:1-3), known in Assyrian records as Tilgarimmu, a city state in Eastern Anatolia (Asia Minor, modern Turkey)… This identification is generally acknowledged by all.

The Bible confirms Togarmah’s location in Ezekiel 38:6: “Beth-Togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all its troops.” The word Beth at the beginning of the word is the Hebrew word for “house.” It means “house or place of Togarmah.” In Ezekiel 38:6: “the house of Togarmah, and all its hordes” are specifically pointed out as being from the north. 

Therefore we know it is directly north of Israel. Some of the sons of Togarmah can be traced to the Turkoman tribes of Central Asia. Rimmer had no doubts that Togarmah is ancient Armenia (most of which is in Turkey today…) and cited certain Assyrian chronicles as well as Tacitus in support of his view. He said that the title the House of Togarmah is a common description for Armenia in Armenian literature. 

All agree to identify Togarmah with Armenia and Turkey. This fits Ezekiel, for Turkey is directly north of Israel. There’s a possible etymological connection between the names Togarmah and Turkey and Turkestan. In Ezekiel’s time, there was a city in Cappodocia (Turkey) known as Tegarma, Tagarma, Til-garimmu, and Takarama. It’s significant that [four] of the ancient locations Ezekiel gives are found today in the nation of Turkey. Clearly God is emphasising Turkey’s important part in the end-time coalition…’

The location of Togarmah in Asia Minor if accurate, relates to thousands of years ago. Many peoples have dwelt at this major continental intersection at one time or another; migrating as new peoples arrive. All these different groups of people cannot now still be living there, or all be called Turks.

Dr Hoeh adds:

‘One branch of the family of Gomer, however, did not journey to Southeast Asia. Ezekiel 38:6 explains it: “The house of Togarmah in the uttermost parts of the north, and all his bands” (Jewish translation). The far, far north means Russian Siberia today! That is where the descendants of Togarmah (Gen.10:3) live. These Asiatics are still a wild nomadic people, much as they were 2500 years ago, trading “with horses and horsemen and mules” (Ezek.27:14).’ 

The descendants of Togarmah figure more prominently in world affairs than as non-specifically identified nomadic, tribal, horsemen. The two scriptures mentioned by Dr Hoeh pertaining to Togarmah:

Ezekiel 27:14

New Century Version

14 “‘People of Beth Togarmah traded your goods for work horses, war horses, and mules.

This verse today, with a modern application, is revealing a people who are economically and technically advanced; producing machinery and transport for industry and arms weaponry.

Ezekiel 38:6 English Standard Version, translates as quoted by Hoeh.

Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all his hordes—many peoples are with you.

Derek Walker explained the meaning of ‘Beth’ as house. It is a family unit. Its use is showing Togarmah as a separate entity from his brothers Ashkenaz and Riphath. We learned when studying Madai, that Asshur [Assyria] lives in the north. There are not many options in Central and East Asia for who Togarmah might be. Other translations say:

New Century Version

… the nation of Togarmah from the far north…

New English Translation

… and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north…

There are only four peoples [five nations] Togarmah could be: China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea or Japan.

Youngs Literal Translation

… The house of Togarmah of the sides of the north…

This is a more specific translation and eliminates China and Mongolia.

Modern King James version

… the house of Togarmah from the recesses of the north…

This translation effectively eliminates Japan, for the connotation is a bend, a crook or even a hook. In the King James version it says ‘of the north quarters’. Of the north in Hebrew, from the root H6845, signifies ‘hidden, dark, gloomy’ and ‘unknown.’ Quarters in Hebrew, from H3411: yrekah meaning side or sides [used 21 times in KJB], coasts [3], parts [2], border [1], quarters [1]. It also means ‘flank, extreme parts,’ ‘the rear or recess’, ‘recesses.’

The Peninsula jutting out from the Asian continent with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [North] and the Republic of Korea [South] is the clear answer to where Togarmah is located today. This was not obvious until looking at this verse very closely. I had initially considered that Meshech and Tubal are North and South Korea and Japan is Togarmah. Though, only Korea could equate to being tucked away and hidden in a crook or recess. 

Korea was split in two in 1945 and unlike North and South Vietnam doe not look like uniting anytime soon. The use of House of Togarmah in Ezekiel 38:6, may hint at just one of the Koreas being part of the military alliance with Magog and the rest of Gomer – or it might be revealing the eventual unification of Korea.

Abarim Publications:

‘The name Togarmah most likely originated in a language other than Hebrew, and therefore does not occur as a word in the Hebrew language. But, transliterated as is, at the heart of the name Togarmah sits the common Hebrew noun (gerem), bone, which figuratively is used to mean self or strength. It comes from the verb (garam), meaning to lay aside or save… The verb [garam] means to leave over, to save for later… to break bones [or breaking bones].’

Recall the names of Gomer, Riphath and Askenaz: ’Bring to an end’, ‘Crushers’, ‘fire is scattered’ or ‘sprinkling of blood’. Further dread, with the addition of ‘Bone breaker’ to this formidable list of adversaries. 

Readers paying careful attention, may remember this quote earlier from the preceding chapter on Gomer – emphasis & bold mine:

The study said that Vietnamese people were the only population in the study’s phylogenetic analysis that did not reflect a sizable genetic difference between East Asian and Southeast Asian populations. Jung Jongsun et al. (2010) said that genetic structure analysis found significant admixture in “Vietnamese (or Cambodian) with unknown Southern original settlers.” The study said that it used Cambodians and Vietnamese to represent “Southern people,”… The study also said that Vietnamese people are located between Chinese and Cambodian people in the study’s genome map.’

Bhak Jong-hwa, a professor in the biomedical engineering department at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) states:

‘… the ancient Vietnamese, which was a population that flourished with rapid agricultural development after 8,000 BC, slowly travelled north to ancient civilizations in the Korean peninsula and the Russian Far East. Bhak said that Korean people were formed from the admixture of agricultural Southern Mongoloids from Vietnam who went through China – [According to most linguists and archaeologists with expertise in ancient Korea, the linguistic homeland of proto-Korean and of the early Koreans is located somewhere in Manchuria, particularly the Liao River.] – and hunter-gatherer Northern Mongoloids in the Korean Peninsula. Bhak said, “We believe the number of ancient dwellers who migrated north from Vietnam far exceeds the number of those occupying the peninsula,” making Koreans inherit more of their DNA from southerners.

Regarding Vietnam, recall that the Vietnamese have a genetic structure that is partially dissimilar to their related neighbours – with an unknown admixture – and more aligned to East Asian peoples in contrast. Korea has been populated in part from a migratory wave of people travelling eastward in the north and, primarily from another wave of migrants travelling northwards through China from… Vietnam – with Koreans actually possessing a majority of their DNA from these southern immigrants.

This is quite an admission and provides the link between Togarmah and his brother Ashkenaz in continental South East Asia. Who would have thought there is a genetic association between the Vietnamese and Koreans. Yet the Bible revealed this fact millennia’s ago, when it described Togarmah dwelling separately from his brothers. 

The Genetic history of Koreans: Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have produced evidence to suggest that: ‘the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous [marrying their own] ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups [O2b, O1b2 and C].Several studies confirmed that Koreans have both a Northeast and Southeast Asian genome.’

Paternal lineages – Jin Han-jun [2003]: ‘Korean males display a high frequency of Haplogroup O-M176 [O1b2, formerly O2b], a subclade that probably has spread mainly from somewhere in the Korean Peninsula or its vicinity,and Hapologroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3), a common Y-DNA haplogroup among East and Southeast Asians in general.’

Maternal lineages: ‘Haplogroup B, which occurs very frequently in many populations of Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas, is found in approximately 10% (ethnic Koreans from Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia) to 20% (Koreans from South Korea) of Koreans. Haplogroup A has been detected in approximately 7% (Koreans from South Korea) to 15% (ethnic Koreans from Arun banner, Inner Mongolia) of Koreans.’Haplogroup A is the most common mtDNA haplogroup among the Eskimo and many other Amerind ethnic groups of North and Central America.’ Other major Korean mtDNA haplogroups include: D4 [29%], M7 [11%], G [6%] and F [5%].

Immunoglobulin G: Hideo Matsumoto professor emeritus at Osaka medical College, tested Gm types [genetic markers] of immunoglobulin G of Korean populations in 2009. Matsumoto said that, ‘Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene possibly originating in southern China and found at high frequencies across Southeast Asia southern China, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Assam and parts of the Pacific. Matsumoto said that the average frequency of Gm afb1b3 for Koreans was 14.7% which was intermediate between a frequency of 10.6% for general Japanese and a frequency of 24.1% for Beijing Han Chinese.’

Autosomal DNA – Jin Han-jun [1999] said: ‘based on genetic studies of classic genetic markers of protein and nuclear DNA… that these 9-bp deletion frequencies are consistent with earlier surveys which showed that 9-bp deletion frequencies increase going from Japan to mainland Asia to the Malay peninsula.’

‘The Cavalli-Sforza’s chord genetic distance (4D,) from Cavalli-Sforza & Bodmer (1971), which is based on the allele frequencies of the intergenic COII/tRNALys region, showed that Koreans are more genetically related to Japanese than Koreans are genetically related to the other East Asian populations which were surveyed. The close genetic affinity between present day Koreans and Japanese is expected due to the Yayoi migration from China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan which began about 2,300 years ago. Horai [1996] detected mtDNA D-loop variation which supports the idea that a large amount of maternal lineages came into Japan from immigrants from the Korean Peninsula after the Yayoi period.’

‘Kim Jong-jin [2005] conducted a study about the genetic relationships among East Asians based on allele frequencies. Focusing on how close Chinese, Japanese and Koreans are genetically related to each other. The study concluded that Middle West Korea was a melting pot in the Korean Peninsula with people traveling from North to South, South to North, and people traveling from East China…’

Jung [2010] said that Koreans are genetically homogenous. The study stated ‘the affinity of Koreans is predominately Southeast Asian with an estimated admixture of 79% Southeast Asian and 21% Northeast Asian for Koreans… all of the Koreans which were analyzed uniformly displayed a dual pattern of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian origins. The study said that Koreans and Japanese displayed no observable difference between each other in their proportion of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian admixture.’ We will refer to this parallel when we discuss the Japanese people.

Koreans [paternal] Y-DNA is related to the Vietnamese; whereas their autosomal DNA [non-sex chromosomes] is more closely aligned with the Chinese. The main Haplogroup O2b of the Koreans, is a sister group of the primary Vietnamese Haplogroup O2a. Vietnamese people have only minor percentages of Haplogroup O2b in their DNA compared to Koreans. 

The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree, multiple authors, 2002 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Haplogroups A, C, D, G, Y, and Z almost completely cover the mtDNA pool of Northeast Asians, whereas in Southeast Asians C, Y, or Z mtDNAs have rarely been found, but instead haplogroups B and F are predominant. 

N9a** is, compared with its sister bough Y, widely spread [in SE Asia], although at very low frequencies, among most East Asian populations… Considering the geographic distribution of the boughs and twigs we see further regional patterns. In contrast to A4, which is widely spread, the A5 twig, with its low diversity suggesting shallow time depth [not sons of Japheth but grandsons of Japheth with an evolution and migration unlike their siblings and uncles], is specific to Koreans and Japanese… Similarly, B4 is the prevailing bough in haplogroup B… covering all haplogroup B types in Native Americans and Polynesians. B5 is found most frequent, accounting for about one third to one half of the B types, in eastern China, Korea, and Japan… 

E1 is so far found only in Southeast Asia… F1a is the main branch of F… in Southeast Asia, whereas F1b is more frequent in Central Asians and Mongols, Koreans, and Japanese. G2a is highest among Central Asians (8.8%) [Kazakhstan] and also above 3% in Tibetans and Ainu and rare or absent among southern Chinese, Vietnamese, island Southeast Asians… and Siberians. G3 is not yet well screened, but evidently it is seen in Korea, Mongolia, and Central Asia. 

Haplogroup M7, although characteristic for East Asian populations, has not been found in the northeast of the continent… It is also very rare in Central Asians… This haplogroup has been detected so far in China and Vietnam, the Korean peninsula and Japanese islands, as well as among Mongols, the West Siberian Mansi, and island Southeast Asia. Koreans possess lineages from both the southern and the northern haplogroup complex and share M7a with Japanese, Ainu, and Ryukyu islanders. 

The geographic specificity of the boughs and twigs of M7… is most intriguing: M7c1c is specific to island Southeast Asia and M7b1 is of Chinese provenance, whereas M7a, M7b2, and M7c1b are found almost exclusively in Korea and Japan. In fact, M7 is one of the prevailing haplogroups not only among Japanese (of Honshu and Kyushu) but also for Ainu and Ryukyuans, thus testifying to a common genetic background.

Khazaria, Korean Genetics – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Among Korean males who have been studied, the Y-DNA (paternal DNA) haplogroups [O1b2] (P49) and [O2] (M122) were particularly common. About 7.9 percent of Koreans belong to a branch of [O1b] known as haplogroup O1b2 [the Vietnamese also have O1b2]. Koreans are racially a purely Mongoloid population. They carry the 1540C allele on their EDAR gene which among other things results in thicker hair than other races. Koreans also have the ABCC11 gene nearly universally so they have dry earwax as opposed to the wet earwax of most people in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.’

The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers, Han-Jun Jin, Chris Tyler-Smith, and Wook Kim, 2009: 

“The mtDNA haplogroup D4 is very common among Korean people. This haplogroup is also prevalent in Siberia. The study found mtDNA haplogroup A in about 10% of the Koreans tested. A is the most frequently encountered mtDNA haplogroup among… New World Indian (Amerindian) populations from North America and Central America. Meanwhile, the mtDNA haplogroup B is also found in some Koreans and it’s also common in China and Japan. Less common Korean mtDNA haplogroups include F, M, R, U, and Z.”

“The Koreans are generally considered a northeast Asian group because of their geographical location. However, recent findings from Y chromosome studies showed that the Korean population contains lineages from both southern and northern parts of East Asia.”

Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of the Koreans, multiple authors, 2003:

“We have analyzed eight Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), M9, M175, LINE1, SRY(+465), 47z, and M95) and three Y-STR markers (DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393) in 738 males from 11 ethnic groups in east Asia in order to study the male lineage history of Korea… the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups reveals the complex origin of the Koreans, resulting from genetic contributions involving the northern Asian settlement and range expansions mostly from southern-to-northern China.

The haplogroups carrying the M9-G mutation and additional sublineages of M9-G in Korea appear to be at an intermediate frequency (81.9%) between southeast and northeast Asian populations. This result implies that the Korean population may be influenced by both the northeast and southeast Asian populations. Even within haplogroup O, the most frequent Korean STR haplotype (23-10-13 with the markers DYS390-DYS391-DYS393, 19% of haplogroup O… is the most frequent in the Philippines (27%), whereas the second most frequent Korean haplotype (24-10-12, 16%) is the most frequent in Manchuria (45%)…

In this study, the Koreans appear to be most closely related overall to the Manchurians among east Asian ethnic groups… although a principal components analysis of haplogroup frequencies reveals that they also cluster with populations from Yunnan and Vietnam…

“Using two multiplex systems, all 593 Korean mtDNAs were allocated into 15 haplogroups: M, D, D4, D5, G, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, R9, B, A, and N9. As the D4 haplotypes occurred most frequently in Koreans, the third multiplex system was used to further define D4 subhaplogroups: D4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4h, and D4j.”

“[Mitochondrial] Haplogroup N9a** is characteristic of eastern Asian populations, where it is detected at… frequencies in Japan (4.6%), China (2.8%), Mongolia (2.1%) and Korea (3.9%)…”

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia, 2009:

“Koreans were found to have the least amount of Austronesian DNA compared to other East Asian peoples, even a little less than the Japanese.

This is a significant point, as this lends weight to the proposal that the Koreans [and Japanese] have been separated from the main body of their respective family enclaves. The Austronesian [Polynesian] peoples and the related archipelago southeast Asian nations of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, migrated southwards from Taiwan after crossing from mainland China thousands of years ago. The Japanese as remaining major Island people, were not included in this migratory path. Similarly, for the majority of the Korean people. Thus the Koreans [and Japanese] having the lowest amount of Austonesian DNA is not a surprise and supports their unorthodox movement and evolution in relation to their respective brothers.

Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes, multiple authors, 2005: 

“All southeastern Asian populations cluster together on the left side of the plot; with only northern Han Chinese, Korean, and Manchu populations showing closer affinities with southeastern groups than with their geographic neighbors. All other northeast Asians, as well as central Asians, south Asians, and Oceanic populations, are on the right side of the plot… 

[There is a] very low incidence of (Y-DNA) D chromosomes in Korea… [and] very few O-47z chromosomes found in Korea and Southeast Asia… Haplogroup M12 is the mitochondrial counterpart of Y chromosome D lineage. This rare haplogroup was detected only in mainland Japanese, Koreans, and Tibetans, with the highest frequency and diversity in Tibet (Tanaka et al. 2004). 

… Y chromosomes that originated in Southeast Asia expanded to Korea and Japan…”

There is a wealth of haplogroup data for South Korea and the opposite regarding North Korea. Though it confirms their haplogroups match, as they are one people artificially divided within two nations. 

The Korean Y-DNA haplogroups in descending percentage order:

O2a1 [42%] – O1b2 [ 33%] – C [13%] – K [4%] – N [4%] – O1a [3%] – D1b [ 3%] – Q [2%]

Other trace haplogroups include: P and NO, both indicative of an Oriental descent. It is interesting to now compare Vietnam and Korea.

Vietnam:  O2a [40%] – O1b [33%] – Q1 [7%] – O1a [6%] – C [4%] –

D1 [3%] – N [3%]

Korea:       O2a [42%] – O1b [ 33%] – C [13%] – K – [4%] – N [4%] –

O1a [3%] – D1 [ 3%] – Q [2%]

Vietnam:    O2a – O1b – Q1 – O1a – C – D1 – N 

Korea:         O2a – O1b – C – K – N – O1a – D1b – Q 

The Vietnamese and Koreans share near identical percentages for their first two major clades. Substantiating the familial link and the geographic estrangement as revealed in the scriptures regarding Togarmah and his brothers Ashkenaz and Riphath.

What would be the odds, that these two peoples – two brothers – of Vietnam and Korea would be cut in half so-to-speak, during the twentieth century. Both peoples are also located on the eastern extremity [coastlines] of their respective regions. 

The House of Togarmah is a very specific title and an uncommon usage in the Bible. It may allude to one Korea in the predicted East Asian Army; or it might be specifying North Korea’s involvement in Magog’s military machine. Once we have concluded Japheth’s sons identities, it will be apparent why both options have to be weighed.

A comparison of North and South Korea:

IndicatorNorth KoreaSouth Korea
Official languagesKorean
GovernmentJuche single-party stateRepresentative Democracy
Formal declaration9 September 194815 August 1948
Area120,540 km2100,210 km2
Population 25,778,81651,835,110
GDP total (2011/2014)$40 billion$1.755 trillion
CurrencyKorean People’s wonKorean Republic won
Active military personnel1,106,000639,000
Military expenditure (2010/2012)$10 billion$30 billion

North and South Korea’s combined population is close to the Amerindian and the Turko-Mongol populations in the world. With regard to Ezekiel 27:14 and the economic, military strength of Togarmah, it is worth listing the key industries and exports of both countries.

North Korea: military products, machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining [coal, iron ore, limestone, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead and precious metals], metallurgy, food processing and tourism.

South Korea: electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding and steel.

South Korea, with a 2019 GDP of $1.65 trillion is the 12th largest economy in the world. South Korea’s economic journey is a twentieth century success story – the miracle on the Han River. South Korea is reputed for its strategy of export led growth, the dominance of its large business conglomerates [Chaebols] and its highly motivated and educated populace. South Korea has built a network of free trade agreements with over fifty-eight countries which account for over three-quarters of the world’s GDP.

South Korea ranks highly on the index of nations with superior technology, at number three in the world. South Korea is the birthplace to some of the biggest names in technology and development: LG, Hyundai, and Samsung are all global leaders. South Korea is also in the forefront of the Robotics field. 

South Korea is included in the group of Next Eleven countries that are projected to dominate the global economy in the middle of the 21st century. Other N-11 nations include Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, and Vietnam. Most of the group’s total gross domestic product derives from Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey, whose economies have grown significantly. The World Bank described South Korea as one of the fastest growing major economies of the next generation along with the burgeoning  economies of the BRIC nations [Brazil, Russia, India and China], as well as Indonesia. 

Fools do not want to understand anything. They only want to tell others what they think.

Proverbs 18:2 New Century Version

“Did I ever think I might have been wrong? Yes, sometimes and briefly. But never because of the supposed majority against me.” 

Christopher Hitchens 

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