Ophir & Ukraine

With events occurring rapidly in Eastern Europe and the world watching with bated breath, it is timely that Chapter XXIV Arphaxad has just been completed. The vast array of peoples of European or ‘western’ descent, those of Western Eurasia if you will – which is beginning to sound like George Orwell’s 1984 with three superstates ruling the world – excepting Russia, Turkey, Portugal and Spain descend from Shem’s son, Arphaxad.

It is worth noting that George Orwell probably by sound insight rather than biblical acumen, called it very close to how events will play out as we lurch then speed towards the end of this age. His three powers were: 1. Oceania which includes all of North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, the southern third of Africa and the British Isles; of which is the main location for the novel and its new name is Airstrip One 2. Eurasia which covers all of Europe and Russia and 3. Eastasia which includes China, Japan, the Koreas and South East Asia. The remaining region comprising the bulk of Africa, the Middle East and Southwest Asia is disputed and fought over by the three superstates.

Please refer to the article Four Kings & One Queen for specifics, though briefly: the Bible predicts that eventually Russia as the King of the North, will align with a German led Europe – and without the United Kingdom. A China led Asia is referred to as the Kings of the East in the Bible and will spell the final chapters of our current history, when they finally confront the King of the North at a battle prophesied as the battle of Armageddon.

The only slight discrepancy in Orwell’s geopolitical structure is that the nations of Celtic-Saxon-Viking descent will be left in the cold as the [non-biblical though appropriate moniker] King of the West. The nations of Central and South America will align as an economic and political unit according to Bible prophecy – and not as allies of the United States or Canada. Though difficult to envision now, the future for the British descended peoples is bleak, as the Bible predicts that The United States and a considerably stronger Canada will one day fall out. Coupled with this, they will both turn against what is left of a dissolved United Kingdom, namely England. The final pieces of these nations downfall is that as with Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the affects of mass immigration into the United States and Canada will affect the stability of these nations and their economic dominance.

This will lead to a lessening of their literal military might but also their confidence in using it. The coup de grace is that it is very conceivable that with rapidly changing economic conditions, sections of the fifty states of America will form new geopolitical entities that though remaining powerful, will lose their collective standing and influence, as will definitely occur in the United Kingdom. For Scotland will seek and gain independence and Northern Ireland will eventually leave the Union and form a federated Ireland with the Republic. It is not clear whether Wales which with England, constitutes the Kingdom of England will stay or go. Judging by events, history and prophecy it appears Wales may become independent in the future.

Some will be thinking, how will America ever fall with their military might, backed up by the world’s premier arsenal of military technology and nuclear warheads. Briefly, the main powers of the world – by deciding who enters and who doesn’t join the ‘nuclear club’ – have been able to maintain their control of the masses that bit more effectively by keeping the world firmly under the mushroom-like umbrella of an ominous nuclear threat [refer article: Nuclear Nefariousness].

Nuclear weapons not withstanding; the current situation is not as potentially deadly as one would surmise. From a geopolitical and biblical perspective it is the ominous rumblings of ‘no good will come of this’ and it is the continuation of the dominoes being systematically placed in the overall design scheme of those in the highest authority that seek to continually strengthen their control and power.

The land of Ophir is mentioned a number of times in the Bible and a few times is actually a lot; as most of the two hundred countries in the world are not mentioned specifically outside of the genealogical table of nations in Genesis chapter ten and I Chronicles chapter one. Would a nation comparable to Ukraine’s size be omitted from the bible discourse? Ophir was a son of Joktan, who was the great grandson of Arphaxad, the third son of Shem.

1 Kings 22:48

English Standard Version

Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish [Japan] to go to Ophir for gold, but they did not go, for the ships were wrecked at Ezion-geber.

1 kings 10.11

English Standard Version

Moreover, the fleet of Hiram [King of Tyre, Brazil], which brought gold from Ophir [H211 – ‘Owphiyr: ‘gold region in the east’], brought from Ophir a very great amount of almug [H484 – ‘almuggiym: a tree from Lebanon (sandalwood?)] wood* and precious stones.

Job 28:16

English Standard Version

It cannot be valued in the gold of Ophir, in precious onyx or sapphire.

Psalm 45:9

English Standard Version

 … daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor; at your right hand stands the queen in gold of Ophir.

Isaiah 13:12

English Standard Version

I will make people more rare than fine gold, and mankind than the gold of Ophir.

When Ophir is mentioned throughout the Bible, it is always in context of its gold and mineral wealth. One would expect this nation to standout amongst Joktan’s descendants today, just by sheer size of either resources and or, its economy. The meaning of Ophir is contradictory as it can mean, ‘exhausted, depleted’ and ‘reducing to ashes’ – ‘which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel’ – or conversely: ‘rich, abundance’ a ‘mark of wealth’ or a ‘coast of riches’ according to Abarim Publications.

Quora, Glenn Webb – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Excerpt from Peresopnytsia Gospel (Matthew 19:1) (1556) where the word ukrainy (оукраины) corresponds to ‘coasts’ (KJV Bible) or ‘region’ (NIV Bible). [T]he Ukrainian symbol is a trident and has a coastline to its south.’

Rare Gold Nuggets – emphasis & bold mine: 

Gold mining is still a young and growing industry in Ukraine. As with many regions in the world with a turbulent political history, the economic development in the mining industry has been limited… Ukraine holds large reserves of gold in several regions… some suggestions that there is as much as 3,000 tons of gold to be found all around Ukraine…’

This is the equivalent of 2,722 tonnes and would place Ukraine 5th in countries with the largest gold mine reserves, behind Australia at number one [10,000 tonnes], Russia [5,300], South Africa [3,200] and the United States [3,000].

there are more than two hundred locations around Ukraine that gold is known to be found. The potential for gold… is amazingly vast… These are huge expectations for a huge country.’

A Short History of the Ukrainian Tryzub, Gary Sohayda, January 2022 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘A trident with a crossed central prong was also confirmed in 1918 as the emblem of the Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet. In 1939, the Diet of Carpatho-Ukraine, the short-lived independent Ukrainian state that emerged from Czecho-Slovakia, adopted the trident with a cross as its official coat of arms. Finally, in 1992, following the restoration of Ukraine’s independence the previous year, Ukraine’s Parliament adopted the trident as the chief element in its coat of arms. The trident is today shown on Ukraine’s monetary emissions (coins as well as some bank notes or their watermark) and on its postage stamps.’

The Trident is a potent symbol of the god of the sea and water, Neptune or Poseidon. A link to Ophir’s strategic importance for gold via its position in ancient mercantile trade routes – once located in Sumer near the Persian Gulf, then later during the United Kingdom of Israel and the reign of King Solomon, on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Today, Ukraine represents the vital ‘warm water port’ for itself and Russia and hence, the obvious importance of the Crimea.

The trident is a weapon, whether for spear fishing or as a polearm. The significance as a weapon of Neptune is the fact that it symbolises his control over the seas. Though its wider application is that the three prongs reflect his mastery over the three principalities of heaven, earth and hell. Neptunes power does not stop there, for it is also linked with birth, life and death; mind, body and spirit; and past, present and future.

Ukraine is Ophir, the eleventh son of Joktan. All the conflicting definitions of Ophir’s name are specifically accurate and parallel the split history and destiny of Ukraine as an unhappy partner of Russia. The verb even means ‘to desire or draw near’ exactly the relationship that ‘Little’ Russia has with ‘Great’ Russia. For the largest Russian diaspora in the world are the 8,334,100 Russian people living in Ukraine [2001 Census]. To complicate matters, a third of the Ukrainian population in the eastern part of the country identify as Russian, speaking Russian. Other Ukrainians also speak Russian and higher percentages of Russians live in the western and central regions of the nation in the industrialised city centres. The total population of Ukraine is 43,293,111 people and is the seventh highest in Europe. 

Ukraine is the 4th biggest mineral producer in the world, behind South Africa in first, Russia and Australia. Ukraine has up to $510 billion in iron ore reserves alone. Apart from the presence of many mineral reserves, Ukraine is best known for its productive mining sector. 

There are over three hundred mining facilities actively operating across Ukraine. As an aside, both South Africa and Australia were predicted to be rich in natural resources and mineral powers. Europe’s second largest country, is a land of vast fertile agricultural plains and large pockets of heavy industry in the east. Ukraine is known as the ‘breadbasket’ of Europe and is amongst the top three exporters of grain in the world. It has some of the most fertile land on earth with rich black soil called chernozem – literally, ‘black dirt.’ 

This soil produces high agricultural yields due to its high moisture storage capacity and levels of humus; with more than seventy percent of the country comprising prime agricultural land. Parts of Russia and the United States of America also have rich soils with high organic content called mollisols. It is estimated that Ukraine can feed at least half a billion people. Its main crops including corn, soybeans, rye, oats, beets and barley. With Russia, Ukraine supply a quarter of the world’s wheat and half of its sunflower products. Ukraine is the fourth largest producer of potatoes in the world. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Ukrainian global shipments during 2020…

  1. Cereals: US$9.4 billion 
  2. Iron, steel: $7.7 billion 
  3. Animal/vegetable fats, oils, waxes: $5.8 billion 
  4. Ores, slag, ash: $4.4 billion 
  5. Electrical machinery, equipment: $2.5 billion 
  6. Machinery including computers: $1.9 billion 
  7. Oil seeds: $1.8 billion 
  8. Food industry waste, animal fodder: $1.6 billion 
  9. Wood: $1.4 billion* 
  10. Articles of iron or steel: $877.8 million 

Ores, slag and ash was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 23.1% from 2019 to 2020. The leading decliner among Ukraine’s top 10 export categories was oil seeds, thanks to a -28.1% drop year over year.’

The word Ukraine means literally, on the outskirts and from a Russian Empire perspective, that was true. It has been ‘the borderland’ for much of its existence and Ukraine has been a convergence point for east and west; partly including the territory once occupied by the Scythian peoples. Ukraine and Russia share common historical origins, particularly in the east; whereas the west of the country has closer ties with its European neighbours, especially Poland.

Early Germanic tribes from Jutland and surrounding environs migrated and in time some of them would filter down towards western Ukraine, including the mighty Goths who would control a vast swathe of Ukraine for a couple of centuries. Following this, Ukraine was home to some of the earliest Slav states and notably, the grand principality of Kiev in the tenth and eleventh centuries made it a focus of East Slavic cultural development. The Cossack Hetmanate republic emerged in central Ukraine in the seventeenth century. The region only gained more permanent borders during the Soviet era and independence as a sovereign nation wasn’t until 1991 upon the collapse of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is a unitary republic governed under a semi-presidential system which has been moving increasingly towards strengthening ties with the rest of Europe outside Russia, until the 2022 invasion by Russia. 

Flag of Ukraine

Referring to the modern state as The Ukraine is incorrect both grammatically and politically, said ‘Oksana Kyzyma of the embassy of Ukraine in London. “Ukraine is both the conventional short and long name of the country.” The use of the article relates to the time before independence in 1991, when Ukraine was a republic of the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukrainians probably decided that the article denigrated their country (by identifying it as part of Russia) and abolished ‘the’ while speaking English… As well as being a form of linguistic independence in Europe, it is also hugely symbolic for Ukrainians.’ 

Ukraine Is the Most Important Country for the European Union… Ivan Dikov, 2019: 

‘Which is the most important “outside” country for the European Union at the present moment and for the foreseeable future… It’s Ukraine. The reason… Ukraine is the largest country that has the realistic potential, the desire, and a wide range of prerequisites to become a member state of the European Union… Of course, that is a very long shot: Ukraine hasn’t even been recognized as an official EU candidate country yet, and it’s not even sure when it will be, or even that it ever will be… Ukraine is the largest country that has the potential to become a member state of the European Union, and whose population seemingly has the desire to do so, and, what’s ever more important, whose society wishes to change correspondingly in the process. 

… Ukraine is what Poland was among the countries that joined the EU in the three “Eastern Enlargements” in the decade between 2004 and 2013… the great thing about the European Union is that it is a Union of “losers”: countries which either built empires to see them crashing down, or which were otherwise crushed, mauled, or severely threatened by empires… Ukraine… is quite big but not too big, so that… the Union as a whole… will be able to “swallow” its accession with relative ease. If or when Ukraine becomes a member of the EU, it would naturally assume a spot among the Big Six – which are now about to become the Big Five… (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Poland)… while this is still a very long shot, and Britain’s departure (which itself was a long shot for a while) is regrettable, but such a set up would bring a better East – West balance inside the EU… It would be very shrewd of the entire European Union to take notice of that fact.’

Any movement by Ukraine towards the European Union have been stopped in its tracks at time of writing; with Russian forces entering the Ukraine on the February 24, 2022, with a build up of troops in the Crimea from the formidable date of 22.02.2022. Events today were created centuries ago. Between 1772 and 1795, the Russian Empire and Hapsburg Austria as a result of the Partitions of Poland each had control of the territory that comprises modern day Ukraine for a hundred years or more. The Russian Revolution led to the Ukraine’s own civil war and then war with the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1921. In 1922, one hundred years ago, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was established. 

Leap ahead to 1954 and new Soviet leader Khrushchev who succeeded Stalin, being Ukrainian, transferred Crimea to Ukraine to mark the 300th anniversary of the Russian-Ukraine Union. When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, Crimea became independent. Late 2013 President Viktor Yanukovych, suspended preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union. This decision resulted in months of mass protests. The Ukrainian parliament impeached Yanukovych on 22 February 2014. On 22-23 February – exactly eight years previously – the Russo-Ukrainian War began when Russian forces entered Crimea. It was not an invasion as  such as Russia has a naval base in Sevastopol. A referendum in the largely ethnic Russian autonomous region of Crimea was held and with a ninety-five percent majority mandate, Crimea was de facto annexed by Russia in March 2014. 

The Crimean Peninsula has key strategic importance as the Black Sea region is pivotal to Russia, for it is the only gateway to the Mediterranean, Africa and beyond. Access is vital for shipping, oil and gas pipelines, as well as for military operations. Russia could and would never give up this most important warm water sea gate. 

It was during the Crimean War of 1853 to 1856 that a coalition of Britain, France and Turkey won Crimea from Russia. Russia’s mistrust of the West is reasonable and the threat of Ukraine joining the European Union and or Nato with possible foreign military presence on Russia’s border, has led to its preemptive strike on Ukraine, to topple a puppet regime with links and support from the West. 

Ukraine is already very unstable with its ‘debt-to-GDP ratio [doubling] and close to 60% of the people [living] below the poverty line. Its industries are crumbling, and pensions/social welfare have been deeply slashed. Neo-Nazi groups are on the rise, and 80% of young people are desperate to leave the country’ now with no end in sight. And so like its name Ophir, Ukraine is at once a nation ‘exhausted, depleted’ and being ‘reduc[ed] to ashes’ – yet remains a nation potentially ‘rich, [with] abundance’ having a ‘mark of wealth’ and a ‘coast of riches.’

Edited excerpt from Chapter XXIV – Arphaxad

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

The Incredible Identity, Origin & Destiny of Nimrod

Chapter XXI

Nimrod, is listed as a son of Cush in Genesis chapter ten, though we are not told whether he is the eldest, youngest or somewhere in between his supposed five half-brothers? [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. Nimrod was apparently Nephilim; part human, part fallen angel – though many would debate this point – and for that to be possible, Nimrod’s father must have had more than one wife or partner. The woman in question – though again, many would debate an angel or Nephil being or appearing as a female – who was Nimrod’s mother, would have been an Angel herself. Or the unsavoury alternative is that his grandfather Ham had a relationship with an angel, meaning Cush was a Nephil and Nimrod was second generation, or an Elioud [1 Enoch 7:11]; though this scenario may be unlikely. 

Sources speak of male Nephilim, not female. There do not appear to be references to either angels or Nephilim fathering daughters. Are hybrids always sterile, is there only one viable gender produced and is this the case with Nephilim? We find references to sons as in, the sons of Anak in the Book of Numbers. Yet in the least this shows the Nephilim could reproduce for at least one generation and were not sterile. So what is the truth of Nimrod’s ancestry.

Numbers 13:22, 33

English Standard Version

33 And there we saw the Nephilim (the sons [H1121 – ben] of Anak, who come from the Nephilim), and we seemed to ourselves like grasshoppers, and so we seemed to them.”

22 They went up into the Negeb and came to Hebron. Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the descendants [H3211 – yaliyd] of Anak, were there…

In verse thirty-three the Hebrew word ben is typically used for ‘son’ or ‘grandson’ and in the KJV it is used 2,978 times for the word son. Though this word also means ‘children’ and is used 1,568 times. Children is in the ‘plural’ and includes ‘male and female.’ It can even be used in reference to ‘sons of God (for angels)’. The Hebrew word used in verse twenty-two is translated as ‘born [6], children [4] and sons [2]. It could be phrased, ‘those born of Anak.’ Sons can be used to denote all offspring, thereby including male and female descendants. We learn that the children of Anak are not just first generation Elioud [also transliterated Eljo – Book of Jubilees 7:22], but rather a generational line of descent. The Book of Joshua adds important information regarding the Anakim.

Joshua 14:15; 15:13

English Standard Version

Now the name of Hebron formerly was Kiriath-arba. (Arba was the greatest man among the Anakim… Arba was the father of Anak).

We learn that Anak had a father Arba, who was in fact the progenitor of a line of Elioud and is therefore the original Nephil. Thus his son Anak was not a Nephil, but a first generation Elioud and literally the first of the Anakim giants.

We have investigated and understand in Chapter XI Ham, the family intrigue in Ham’s family with his involvement in the Noah and Canaan incident. So does it extend to Cush? It seems that a Cushite Nimrod may not have been the progenitor of a specific line of people or a nation state, as per the genealogical listing in the Table of nations in Genesis chapter ten. Though a few spare verses speak about Nimrod, a tremendous amount is contained within them; with permutations far reaching through the annals of time until our present day and beyond.

Nimrod in Hebrew means: ‘to Rebel’ from the verb marad, ‘to be rebellious or revolt.’ There is scant detail in the Bible, though enough to learn his Nephilim condition and that he was not the only one of his kind after the flood as we already have seen some survived, but rather, he was probably the first and possibly only true Nephil to be born after the Great flood – becoming the preeminent Nephil of the world, to stand fully in defiance to the Creator. 

Genesis 10:6-12

English Standard Version

6 The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 

Cush fathered [H3205 – yalad: bring forth] Nimrod [H5248 – Nimrowd: rebellion, valiant]; he was the first [H2490 – chalal: began] on earth to be [H1961 – hayah] a mighty man [H1368 – gibbowr: strong, brave]. 

The word ‘first’ or ‘Began’ derives from the Hebrew chalal which has many sinister connotations and bleak meanings: ‘to profane, pollute, defile, stain, sorrow, desecrate, prostitute, break’ and ‘slay.’ It includes to ‘defile oneself ritually, sexually’ or in eating ‘common things.’ ‘To violate’ or ‘dishonour a covenant’ and ‘to wound, dissolve’ or ‘pierce.’ ‘To break one’s word’, ‘to begin as if by an “opening wedge”. It also includes ‘to play the flute or pipe’ and a ‘player on instruments.’ 

The two meanings I would pick up on are the opening wedge and playing the flute or pipe. One recalls the tale of the pied [more than two patches of colour on clothing] piper. 

In 1284, a colourful Piper led one hundred and thirty children away from the town of Hamelin in Lower Saxony Germany, to a mountain, after also ridding the township of rats. Initially, it appeared the Piper was doing the town a great service before his real motive was threateningly and hypnotically carried out. This is alarmingly reflective of Nimrod as we shall discover. The ‘opening wedge’ relates to Nimrod beginning what had occurred in the antediluvian age and was shut down by the flood; the opening of the conduits between our physical dimensions and the spiritual realm. 

The phrase ‘to be’ in the Hebrew is highly revealing for it means: ‘come to pass, exist, happen, fall out, come about.’ Nimrod was the first or began ‘to come into being, to arise’ and ‘be established.’ Nimrod came to ‘be in existence, remain’ and ‘be brought about’ as in a ‘place or time.’ The end of verse eight reveals what he was to be. 

The Hebrew for mighty is gibbowr or in the plural, gibborim. It can be translated as ‘strong, brave, valiant, champion, chief’ and interestingly as an ‘upright man’ and finally, as ‘giant.’ By implication it renders as a ‘powerful warrior’ or ‘tyrant.’ The word is derived from H1396 gabar, which means: ‘to prevail, be powerful’ and significantly in Nimrod’s case, ‘to act proudly (toward God).’ It does not prove or disprove that Nimrod was a Nephil by itself.

Genesis chapter six, uses the same phraseology to describe the Nephilim.

Genesis 6:4

English Standard Version

The Nephilim [H5303 – nphiyl: giant, tyrant, bully] were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God [H430 – ‘elohiym: angels] came in to the daughters [H1323 – bath: young women] of man and they bore children to them. These were the mighty [H1368 – gibbowr] men [ones] who were of old [H5769 – ‘owlam], the men [H582 – ‘enowsh] of renown [H8034 – shem].

The Hebrew word Nphiyl derives from the primitive root naphal H5307. Now this word reveals the the true nature of these ‘giant tyrants.’ This word is used to describe Cain, of which we shall return. It can be translated as the following: fail [318], fall down [25], cast down [18+9], fall away [5], divide [5], overthrow [5] and lost [2]. The further meaning include: ‘to fall (of violent death), to fall short, waste away, to throw or prostrate oneself, be cast down, fugitive, perish’ and ‘rot.’ The definitions are not positive and reveal the abominable condition of creatures that were part spiritual and part physical – fallen ones like their dark Angel fathers. 

The phrase ‘of old’ adds more pieces of the Nephilim puzzle. It is translated as: ever [272], everlasting [63], perpetual [22], evermore [15], ancient [5], always[3] and long [2]. It literally means a ‘long duration, antiquity, for ever, everlasting, long time, ancient time’ and tellingly, ‘continuous existence, indefinite or unending future, eternity.’ 

Even more revealingly, it derives from the word alam H5956. This word is translated as ‘hide, blind, dissemblers, hidden, secret’ and ‘secret thing’ and means ‘be hidden, to be concealed, be secret, to hide oneself, to veil from sight.’

The word ‘dissembler’ is intriguing for it means: ‘to give a false or misleading appearance to; conceal the truth or real nature of: feign, to let pass unnoticed; ignore… to conceal one’s true motives, thoughts… by some pretence; speak or act hypocritically.’ We will discover that this is the exact modus operandi of the Nephilim who reside in the shadowy world that bridges our own and that of the angelic realm.

The Hebrew word for man means literally a mortal man. What is interesting is that these were not normal men. The word ‘enowsh derives from ‘anash H605. This word defines these men of renown as ‘woeful’ and ‘incurable[y] desperately wicked, to be desperate, to be sick, to be frail, feeble’ and ‘melancholy.’ The Hebrew word for renown is the same word used for Noah’s youngest son, Shem. It means: ‘fame, glory, reputation’ and ‘authority.’ The word shem is regarded as the equivalent of H8064, Shamayim, which means: ‘to be lofty, the heavens or stars.’ This links the Nephilim to their infamous fathers, the sons of God who became corrupt angels, the fallen stars from heaven [Revelation 12:4].

The Voice translates the same verse as:

Now at that time and for some time to come, a great warrior race lived on the earth. Whenever the sons of God would have sex with the humans’ daughters, the women bore them children who became mighty warriors. In the days of old, they became famous heroes, the kind people tell stories about!

Other translations also use the word Hero. Websters Dictionary: ‘the offspring of the gods and a human.’ The online Dictionary: ‘a being of godlike prowess… who often came to be honoured as a divinity, an immortal being; demigod.’

All this paints a dim and dark picture. There can be no doubt that we are speaking of non-human beings that were physical yes, in that their bodies would ‘perish’ yet the Spirit unlike mankind’s, had an ‘existence [that] was everlasting.’ Certain Biblical scholars and commentators reason this does not prove that Nimrod was a Nephil, but rather he was a Gibbo’r – a mighty man, a powerful tyrant ruler, no more no less. As we progress, support for Nimrod’s Nephilim status escalates.

He was a mighty hunter [H6718 – tsayid] before [H6440 – paniym: in opposition to, against, in front of, facing] the Lord. Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 

The Hebrew word for hunter is translated as: ‘hunting’ [3+1] and ‘catch’ [1]. It lends itself more to ‘the chase.’ The word tsayid is a form of tsuwd H6679, meaning: ‘chased’ and ‘sore’. It also means ‘to hunt eagerly or keenly’ and ‘to catch an animal’ or ‘figuratively, men.’ 

Not only was Nimrod the first to set himself in opposition to the Eternal in the post-diluvian age; he took the starring role in re-establishing the rebellious system of universal government and control that had begun with Cain and led to the flood in the first place. His predatory harvesting of mankind’s bodies, minds and souls, into a unified singular force was another attempt at thwarting the Creator’s plan and the continuation of the ongoing war between the Serpent and humankind [Genesis 3:15]. 

10 The beginning [H7225 – re’shiyth] of his kingdom [dominion] was Babel [Babylon], Erech [Uruk – (Arach, Iraq)], Accad [Akkad], and Calneh, in the land of Shinar [Akkad and Sumer]. 

The Hebrew word for beginning is translated as: ‘firstfruits, first’ and ‘chief.’ It means the ‘best’ and ‘choice part.’ The ‘first, in place, time, order or rank.’ The matter that was  preeminent for Nimrod, was the building of Babel and what he intended to accomplish in this city-state complex. Either Nimrod departed, once Babel was completed and the wheels were set in motion for his diabolical Tower, or he left Shinar for Assyria after the aborted Tower of Babel incident. For whichever reason, Nimrod then went to the land of Ashur’s descendants building another four cities.

11 From that land [region] he went into Assyria [H804 – Ashshuwr or Asshur] and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah [today known as Nimrud], and 12 Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city [Nineveh]. 

Nimrod completed the ‘great city’ – in Assyria, a rival to Babel in Shinar – that would not always be Assyria’s capital but even so would always be its main city, Nineveh. It is not clear what Nineveh means, though most concordances provide ‘abode of Ninus.’ Ninus was the mythological founder of Nineveh. Many commentaries credit Nimrod with Ninus, though it is more likely that Ninus was Ninyas, Nimrod’s son. Ninus was supposedly the son of  Belos or Bel, deriving from the god Baal. Thus, Nimrod was the instrumental architect of the great civilisations that arose in the fertile crescent and the land of Shinar; when the descendants of Noah’s sons migrated from the Indus Valley westward to Mesopotamia. This after originally settling there from the route  they had taken southwards from the Himalayas after the flood. 

There are two anomalies in the verses in Genesis describing Nimrod. A well known online encyclopaedia discusses the ambiguity in the original Hebrew text that makes it unclear whether it is Nimrod or Asshur who additionally built the remaining four cities of Nineveh: ‘… (both interpretations are reflected in various English versions). Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (circa 1616) to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria.’

My opinion, judging from the two sentences of verse ten and eleven running together and Nimrod being the subject, is that he is the founder of all eight cities. The four cities [including Babel or Babylon, a future capital] of Shinar, in time came to represent Arphaxad’s children and the remaining four cities with Nineveh the future capital in Assyria, came to represent Asshur’s descendants, the first of Shem’s five sons to  expand its influence of power. During the time of Nimrod, one assumes all eight city-states would have been peopled by his family of brothers, right? This would mean principally Cush, and perhaps also Phut, Mizra and Canaan… that is, if Nimrod is in fact related to Cush?

If it was not for a cryptic verse in the Book of Micah, one would probably move on seamlessly with an expose on Nimrod. The red flag though, is that a descendant of Cush – the predominant peoples of the Indian sub-continent and south Asia today – should have such an invested interest and building program, in the two main future strongholds of power – Shem’s sons, Asshur and Arphaxad. It appears that a Cushite Nimrod took little interest in his own people from Ham and rather concentrated his efforts with his cousins from Shem. Something is out of kilter.

Micah 5:6

New English Translation

They will rule the land of Assyria with the sword, the land [country, people] of Nimrod with a drawn sword…

Micah’s future prophecy states ‘the people or country of Nimrod’ and equates it with the land of Assyria and not with the land of Cush? 

The Torah online – emphasis and bold mine:

The Nimrod passage interrupts the genealogy of Ham, which continues in verse 12. Moreover, the verses seem to diverge from the structure of the larger genealogical list: it focuses on one individual and the cities he founded, not on the sons he begat… the geographic picture it presents is problematicShinʿar is in southern Mesopotamia and Ashur in northern Mesopotamia, all in “Shemitic” territory. 

Cush, however, ostensibly Nimrod’s father, like other descendants of Ham, represents the well-known land of Kush, also known as Nubia, the Septuagint’s “Ethiopia,” roughly today’s Sudan. How are we to make sense of this? Critical scholarship is almost unanimous in the assessment that verses 8–12 were taken from a different source than the preceding and following verses. Most scholars would assign verses 1–7 and 13–32 to the Priestly school, and verses 8–12 to the J source. 

This suggests that we may explain the Nimrod narrative independently of the surrounding Table of Nations. This leaves us with two questions: What was its original meaning, and why was it linked to the genealogy of Cush? [The option]… embraced by most scholars and is likely correct… [is that] the Cush in verse 8, Nimrod’s father, [is] not [from] Nubia, but… a place in Mesopotamia. According to this, whoever inserted the J tradition into its present place mistakenly conflated the two.

The mid-third millennium B.C.E. was a time of great change in Mesopotamia. After several centuries of rivalry between various Sumerian city-states such as Ur, Uruk, Lagash and Umma, the rulers of the city of Kish managed to establish supremacy over much of southern Mesopotamia. This was the first time one Sumerian city succeeded in doing this. In successive generations, the title “King of Kish” (sar-kissati) would come to mean a divinely authorized ruler over all of Sumer and would be claimed at different times by the rulers of various cities. Use of the title “King of Kish” implied being victorious at war, a righteous judge and a builder of cities. Kish, I would argue, is the basis of the Cush of the Nimrod passage (v. 8).’ 

It is the view of this writer that the preceding summation is accurate when weighing the association of the Biblical Nimrod with all things Assyrian or Asshur and nothing Ethiopian or Cush. Further investigation on Nimrod, his actions and motives only further cement his physical line of descent as from Asshur and not from Cush. How and why his verses are inserted with Cush’s family tree and not Asshur’s is either a scribal error in thinking the father of Nimrod was Cush from Ham, or rather it was a deliberate attempt to conceal Nimrod’s true lineage from Kish of Asshur. The name Cush is intriguing for in the Hebrew it connotes black or a black countenance which the darker peoples of Cush are. Jone’s Dictionary offers an alternative meaning that could well describe Nimrod’s father of: full of darkness.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Nouns (mered) and (mardut) mean rebellion. The letter (nun), with which our name starts may be due to a grammatical construction that turns a verb passive (he was rebelled against), reflective (he turned himself against), or resultative (to be rebellious).

… Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Rebel. NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Strong… BDB Theological Dictionary suggests a relation to the Babylonian god Marduk, or the star-god Namra-uddu. Some scholars propose that Nimrod is the same figure as the mighty Greek hunter Orion.

… [Nimrod’s] epithet “mighty hunter before YHWH (Genesis 10:9) seems to indicate that the Lord was quite taken with Nimrod’s hunting skills. And what was he hunting for? His name suggests that he embodied the object of rebellion, but back when there was no empire to rebel against, the rise of empire was the actual rebellion.

It stands to reason that Nimrod… strove to rebel against primitivity and embrace culture and sophistication. Today some speak of science as “the pursuit of knowledge,” which may be precisely what “mighty hunter before YHWH” means. The name Nimrod may literally mean Rebel but by implication it means Cultivation or even Enlightenment.’

Reminiscent of 2 Corinthians 11:14 NCV: “This does not surprise us. Even Satan changes himself to look like an angel of light.”

‘The word for hunter is (sayyad) and derives from the verb (sud), meaning to hunt or fish. This means that Nimrod was probably the first of the so-called “fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19).’ 

Nimrod was a forerunner of a one-world-government dictator, establishing himself as mankind’s teacher, provider, master and saviour. An ante-christ, preceding not just the true Christ, but also the predicted anti-christ or ‘in-opposition-to’ false Prophet in the Book of Revelation.

‘Noun (mesad) means fastness or stronghold (a typically defensive structure). Noun (masod) may mean siege works or hunting implement (like a net). The denominative verb (sid) means to supply oneself with food.’

The Book of Jasher 7:23-51 offers insight into Nimrod. It may even be a facet of the Noah, Ham and Canaan jig-saw we studied in Chapter XI Ham. Reference to the passage delayed, so as not to influence the earlier study. There is room for doubt with regard to authenticity and veracity of editing of the passage. It is included more for interests sake than historical accuracy; with liberty being taken by this writer in only including the salient points and omitting the obvious poetic licence. 

23 … At that time the sons of men again began to rebel and transgress against God… 24… the garments of skin which God made for Adam and his wife, when they went out of the garden… 25… after the death of Adam and his wife… were given to Enoch… and when Enoch was taken up to God, he gave them to Methuselah, his son. 26. And at the death of Methuselah, Noah took them and brought them to the ark, and they were with him until he went out of the ark. 

27 And… Ham stole those garments from Noah his father, and he took them and hid them from his brothers. 28And when Ham begat his first born Cush, he gave him the garments in secret, and they were with Cush many days. 29 And Cush also concealed them from his sons and brothers, and… Cush… gave him those garments… and Nimrod grew up, and when he was twenty years old he put on those garments

30… Nimrod became strong when he put on the garments… [similar to the Judge of Israel, Samson from the Tribe of Dan], and he was a mighty hunter in the earth, yea, he was a mighty hunter in the field, and he hunted the animals and he built altars… 31 And Nimrod strengthened himself, and he rose up from amongst his brethren, and he fought the battles of his brethren against all their enemies round about.” 

32… and he reigned upon earth… 34 And… at that time there was a war between his brethren and the children of Japheth, so that they were in the power of their enemies. 35 And Nimrod went forth at that time… and when he was on the road, Nimrod strengthened the hearts of the people that went with him. 36 And he said to them, Do not fear, neither be alarmed, for all our enemies will be delivered into our hands, and you may do with them as you please. 37 And all the men that went… they fought against their enemies, and they destroyed them, and subdued them, and Nimrod placed standing officers over them in their respective places. 38 And he took some of their children as security, and they were all servants to Nimrod and to his brethren… 

39 And when Nimrod had… returned from battle, after having conquered his enemies, all his brethren, together with those who knew him before, assembled to make him king over them, and they placed the regal crown upon his head. 40 And he set over his subjects and people, princes, judges, and rulers, as is the custom amongst kings. 41 And he placed Terah [Abraham’s father] the son of Nahor the prince of his host, and he dignified him and elevated him above all his princes.

42 And whilst he was reigning according to his heart’s desire, after having conquered all his enemies around, he advised with his counselors to build a city for his palace, and they did so. 43 And they found a large valley opposite to the east, and they built him a large and extensive city, and Nimrod called the name of the city that he built Shinar… 44 And Nimrod dwelt in Shinar, and he reigned securely, and he fought with his enemies and he subdued them, and he prospered in all his battles, and his kingdom became very great.

The war against Japheth’s children, would have occurred relatively early after the flood, of 10,837 BCE. Time would have elapsed for Noah’s family to migrate from Kashmir to the Indus Valley [circa 10,500 – 9500 BCE] and for Nimrod to be born [c. 10,000 BCE]. Peoples then migrated west to Mesopotamia [circa 9500 – 8500 BCE]. The heart of the reason for war with Japheth was probably land and territory disputes [circa 8000 BCE]. We learn in Genesis chapter Ten that Nimrod built his Shinar cities first, then the cities in Asshur [cica 7500 – 7000 BCE. The building of the Tower at Babel was approximately 7000 – 6800 BCE, culminating in its destruction circa 6755 BCE. 

Abraham’s father Terah was born 4077 BCE. It seems incredulous that Nimrod would still be alive… but he was not an offspring of a Nephilim that survived the flood and thus a second generation Nephilim, an Elioud who would have been quarter angelic or spirit. These beings were a watered-down version and did not live as long. Nimrod was not and so it is highly likely he was still alive, after 6,000 years and still ruling in 4077 BCE. If he had not died during the Tower of Babel confusion. Humans were still living long ages, for Terah did not die until 1842 BCE, living some 2,235 years. 

The decision by Abraham to follow the Eternal is impressive when the context of his choice is understood with the back drop of being raised in the very head aristocratic and political family of the day, serving  the most evil potentate imaginable.  

45 And all nations and tongues heard of his fame, and they gathered themselves to him, and they bowed down to the earth, and they brought him offerings, and he became their lord and king, and they all dwelt with him in the city at Shinar, and Nimrod reigned in the earth over all the sons of Noah, and they were all under his power and counsel. 46 And all the earth was of one tongue and words of union, but Nimrod did not go in the ways of the Lord, and he was more wicked than all the men that were before him, from the days of the flood until those days. 47 And he made gods of wood and stone, and he bowed down to them, and he rebelled against the Lord, and taught all his subjects and the people of the earth his wicked ways; and Mardon his son was more wicked than his father… 

49 And Terah the son of Nahor, prince of Nimrod’s host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated him very high [circa 3000 BCE]. 50 And Terah took a wife and her name was Amthelo the daughter of Cornebo; and the wife of Terah conceived and bare him a son in those days [1977 BCE]. 51 … and Terah called the name of his son that was born to him Abram, because the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his princes that were with him.

The garments of Nimrod made him invincible and are possibly linked to a different genetic composition. It would seem they are used here as a clue or symbol of Nimrod’s Nephilim hybrid status. Note the one tongue, or language of the earth. Noah and his family spoke the same language and all the grandsons and so forth did the same. 

This is how in large part Nimrod was able to have successful domination over all of Noah’s descendants and why when Nimrod is purported to have built the tower at Babel that the prime target for sabotage of it, was the language. In the Book of Jubilees 8:6-7 we read: ‘… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed, his father’s [Arphaxad] brother… And she bare him a son… and he called his name Eber: and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was Azurad, the daughter of Nebrod…’ 

As Nebrod is considered the Greek form of Nimrod, we have serious questions regarding the lineage of Arphaxad’s line. Is it coincidental that as Canaan was inserted as the father of Shelah which is improbable and a descendant of Nimrod is inserted as the mother of Peleg and Joktan. Nimrod a descendant of Asshur, has his daughter included in Arphaxad’s line making Nimrod an indirect ancestor of Abraham? There is a serious question mark, over the authenticity of such a situation and adds to the already dubiousness of Nimrod being a blood related son of Cush.

Regardless, Nimrod lived and ruled within Shem’s inheritance and not in Hamite territory. He fought the enemy of Shem – who had been predicted to enlarge and dwell with him – Japheth [Genesis 9:27]. Nimrod elevated Terah from Arphaxad’s and Shem’s line for loyalty – why not someone from Ham’s line? The reason being that it was people from Shem, Nimrod’s subjects and kin who had participated in the military offensive and war against Japheth. Recall the future conflict between the ships from Kittim – son of Javan, son of Japheth – and the Assyrian, King of the North.

The land of Shinar and southern Mesopotamia anciently included Sumer and its people, the Sumerians. This culture is viewed as the oldest and originators of civilisation in the region. Sumer etymologically, is linked to Shumer, to Shum and to Shem. The link between this region and Nimrod supports his being white and not black skinned and if so his bloodline in part descended from Asshur and not Cush.

We have discussed the Nephilim producing males, with no reference to female Nephilim and by extension Elioud. Yet if true, Nimrod had a daughter Azurad, a first generation Elioud and one quarter angelic. This would infer that Nimrod’s mother was an Angel as proposed earlier and not a Nephil. The status and exploits of Nimrod are considerably more impressive than any other Nephilim descended giants on the earth post-flood and are more reminiscent of the Nephilim prior to the flood. This supports the theory that a. Nimrod was a Nephil and b. that he was the only one of his kind to be born after the flood. Whereas all other Nephil, for instance Anak had crossed over and were survivors of the flood. 

A profound and vital key that has been missed by most and misinterpreted by those few who have understood, is that Nimrod mirrors the man of lawlessness. Some incorrectly teach that Nimrod is a type of the Antichrist, thus ascribing to him the identity of the first Beast. The truth is that Nimrod actually represents the entity who is is the second beast, the one who is called the false Prophet in scripture. The following verses in the book of Thessalonians eerily parallel Nimrod. 

2 Thessalonians 2:1-12

English Standard Version

Now concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered together to him, we ask you, brothers, 2 not to be quickly shaken in mind or alarmed, either by a spirit or a spoken word, or a letter seeming to be from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, 4 who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God. 

5 Do you not remember that when I was still with you I told you these things? 6 And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time.For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way. 8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming. 9 The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan with all power and false signs and wonders, 10 and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 Therefore God sends them a strong delusion, so that they may believe what is false, 12 in order that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

The apostle Paul warns not to be fooled about a ‘false end time’ for the false Prophet needs to appear first; yet it is the false Prophet that may well produce ‘apostolic evidence’ to show Christ has already returned [Revelation 13:11-18]. During Paul’s ministry he speaks about two mysteries. One of which is the hidden agenda of the Serpent, stemming from the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 and is ‘already at work.’ Paul very curiously says the man of lawlessness is being restrained until ‘his time.’ This certainly precludes a human being. How could they be restrained for two thousand years? The ‘coming of the lawless one’ is by direct orchestration of Satan the Serpent. The man of lawlessness can only be a spirit being and not a mortal human being.

It is the belief of some that Nimrod is the Antichrist and that he will re-appear in the future. We will study the identity of the first Beast, though as an idea it is not to be summarily dismissed. I would therefore amend the theory to Nimrod being rather the false Prophet, the second beast instead. In the next chapter we will investigate the Nephilim more fully, though it is enough to be said for now that as they eventually lose their physical, corporate bodies at physical death their non-corporal spirit lives on. Thus, Nimrod re-incarnating as a human is a possible prospect and not as far-fetched as it may first sound. Nimrod did not die, he eventually lost his physical body to the corruption and disintegration caused by old age – if he was not murdered, physically before hand. As a direct offspring of an Angel, his spirit would not end when his physical body did.

This future religious Potentate, either channels the same rebellious spirit and self-exalting opposition exhibited by Nimrod… or is actually Nimrod. We have learned that Assyria is a future and final King of the North. Could its leader be the Beast – the son of destruction? And could the false Prophet be someone with ties to ancient Assyria… say, someone like Nimrod? 

An article from New Dawn online – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Igor Nikolaevich Panarin (born 1958), dean of the Russian Foreign Ministry’s school for future diplomats, is a geopolitical analyst, political scientist and media commentator, with significant influence on Russian thinking. An examination of his views and public pronouncements is therefore important in discerning the outlook of Russia’s leading academic and political circles, as well as considering what influences are shaping Russian national consciousness. Panarin is a former officer of the KGB. In 1991 he reached the rank of colonel in the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information, then the Russian equivalent of the US National Security Agency. Dr. Panarin believes Russia’s destiny is Eurasia. He proposed his own version of the Eurasian Economic Union, ‘Eurasia-Rus’, an interstate formation modelled after the European Union. Panarin has called attention to the messianic legacy of Russia as the ‘Third Rome’, the centre of a new civilisation based on a sacred mission that is an inherent part of the Russian soul. This is an attitude one can discern in much of what Vladimir Putin says. The United States’ opposition to a revived Russia can thus be understood as part of a clash of world outlooks. This messianic outlook endures in Russia regardless of the outward mode of political expression.’ 

Regarding Russia’s future role, one of the world’s most accurate psychics, Edgar Cayce predicted that Russia would be a ‘force of light’ in preventing a World War from occurring, amidst the global turmoil we experience today. His predictions were made nearly ninety years ago in a series of World Affairs Readings about the future of world finance, world leadership, collective spirituality and the significant role Russia would play on the world’s stage.

Excerpt from Waking Times, 2015 – emphasis theirs, bold mine:

‘When asked in 1932 about political and economic trends in Europe Cayce zeroed in on Russia: 

Europe is as a house broken up. Some years ago there was the experience of a mighty peoples being overridden for the gratification and satisfaction of a few, irrespective of any other man’s right. That peoples are going through the experience of being born again, and is the thorn in the flesh to many a political and financial nation in Europe, in the world… 

Q: What is the name of that nation referred to? A: Russia!

70 years after the defeat of the Axis powers, Russia has been reborn, but the rest of the world is now largely under the thumb of the Western globalist banking cartel. This cartel is organized as the IMF, the World Bank, the Bank for International Settlements, and the global network of central banks, reserve banks, development banks, and investment banks that hold the world’s elected governments in perpetual receivership and the world’s people in bondage to mathematically impossible to pay debt. 

In 2013 the US was attempting to invade Syria under obviously false pretences. Vladimir Putin prevented US involvement by threatening to intervene militarily…

With the deliberate destruction of Ukraine by the George Soros funded color-revolution destabilization team then the advances of the IMF to debt-conquer Ukraine with tens of billions of dollars in forced development loans, Putin’s Russia emerged as the singular force capable of checking the banking cabal’s global advance, and is refusing to allow Ukraine and Crimea to fall into the hands of Western backed forces.

Cayce spoke of Russia’s role as being the ‘hope of the world’ in a coming time such as this: 

In Russia there comes the hope of the world, not as that sometimes termed of the communistic, or Bolshevik, no; but freedom, freedom! That each man will live for his fellow man! The principle has been born. It will take years for it to be crystallised, but out of Russia comes again the hope of the world.(Edgar Cayce, 1944)

Even before WWII, Cayce appears to have foreseen the need for Russia to evolve spiritually in some manner so that it would be able to rise in opposition to the decaying moral values of the capitalist West and play its part as the great hope of the world. 

Cayce was asked, “What should be the attitude of so called capitalist nations toward Russia?

On Russia’s religious development will come the greater hope of the world. Then that one, or group, that is the closer in its relationships, may fare the better in the gradual changes and final settlement of conditions as to the rule of the world. 

Six months later, additional information was presented which helped to clarify this earlier prediction. 

Out of Russia, you see, there may come that which may be the basis of a more world wide religious thought or trend… 

When Hugh Lynn asked Cayce about the Russian situation in June 1938, he was told: 

A new understanding has and will come to a troubled people. Here, because of the yoke of oppression, because of the self indulgences, has arisen another extreme. Only when there is freedom of speech, the right to worship according to the dictates of the conscience – until these come about, still turmoils will be within. 

Essentially Cayce appears to be referring to Russia after the trials under Soviet rule and the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the need for the world to return to humanistic values in order to free itself from the oppression of the Zionist cartels which have been organizing against the human race for centuries. Cayce is saying that some sort of much needed spiritual leadership will come from Russia in this time, some kind of attitude that will make it possible for a transition of this calibre to occur without having to experience the guaranteed destruction of any World War III. 

And what would spiritual leadership look like in a world gone mad, anyhow? At first it would appear as common sense. Of course. 

Aristotle even goes as far as to say that common sense is where consciousness originates. So if a society is lacking in common sense, and there’s little to no conscience, morality, empathy, consciousness, creativity, taste, discernment or love, how does one propose to govern such a population?

Did Edgar Cayce somehow know that Russia would take the common sense gap between spiritual leadership and the guaranteed destruction of World War III… Speaking on the current state of US and Russia relations at a recent summit, Putin said, regarding America: 

“You must rise above the endless desire to dominate. You must stop acting out of imperialistic ambitions. Do not poison the minds of millions of people; like there can be no other way but imperialistic politics.” – Vladimir Putin. 

Cayce also made comments about America’s future moral decay: In the final World affairs reading given on June 22, 1944, less than six months before Edgar’s death, he addresses the spirit and “the sin of America.” 

What is the spirit of America? Most individuals proudly boast “freedom.” Freedom of what? When ye bind men’s hearts and minds through various ways and manners, does it give them freedom of speech? Freedom of worship? Freedom from want?… In the application of these principles… America may boast, but rather is that principle being forgotten… and that is the sin of America.

Did Edgar Cayce foresee Putin’s interfering role in the Western cabals plan to overtake the world through financial domination, political destabilization, and all out world war, order out of chaos? Cayce also predicted the possibility of a THIRD World War. He spoke of strifes arising… in Libya, and in Egypt, in Ankara, and in Syria; through the straits around those areas above the Persian Gulf.

Whether or not you believe in the power of the human mind to connect with Source and withdraw information about the future, things are lining up in such a way that Cayce’s prophecies regarding Russia are proving quite prescient now, giving us a clue that at least we shouldn’t hold on too tightly to any preconceived notions about what will happen in coming years… [while] in a vacuum of any common sense or humanistic leadership from the present powers that be…’

Perception would dictate that these prophecies are being directed to a future leader of Russia and not to the current President, Vladimir Putin. If seen in this light, then the support for a powerful, charismatic, profoundly influencing leader to emerge from Russia is heightened. Mikhail Gorbachev was a charismatic leader of Russia, that was able to court the western leaders, gaining the respect and trust of Ronald Reagan of the United States and Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom. How much more could a leader achieve that has guidance, strength and composition of a wily spiritual nature. 

Book of Enoch 7:1-6

“1. And all the [other sons of God] together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments [black magic], and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants [witch craft]. 2. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants [Nephilim]… 3. Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, 4. the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 5. And they began to… devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 6. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.”

The first generation of Nephilim were completely out of control and did not manage their hybrid genetic composition well at all. The myths and legends of giants, cannibalism and vampirism are born from reality, in an epoch over twenty thousand years ago. As it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be the same at the end of our age. Notice the chilling phrase ‘lawless ones’ specifically relating to the Nephilim. The future ‘man of lawlessness’ is highly likely to be of Nephilim descent. To understand Nimrod and the false Prophet better, it would be beneficial to study the adversary to the true Christ, the Beast; as well as the origins of the Nephilim.  

Daniel 7:25-26

English Standard Version

[The Beast] shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the [sacred] times [the calendar] and the [special] law [the Sabbath]; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time [42 months of 30 days – Revelation 13:5; Daniel 11:11-12]. But the court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end.

Book of Enoch 8:1-2

Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony [‘a brittle, lustrous, white metallic element… used chiefly in alloys and in compounds in medicine’], and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings,Armaros the resolving [banishment] of enchantments, Baraqijal, (taught) astrology, Kokabel [“a great angelic prince who rules over the stars”] the constellations [astronomy], Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds [weather], and Sariel [associated with fertility of the earth, the spring equinox in March, the martial zodiac sign of Aries the Ram and was invoked for protection against the malefic power of the Evil, Eye] the course of the moon [the lunar calendar for horticulture and agriculture]. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven…”

The Book of Enoch describes two hundred fallen, dark Angels, in groups of twenty with a leader for each group descending to our realm. A third rebellion against the Creator. The first when the Dragon was originally cast out of Heaven. The second when the Serpent seduced Eve in the Garden of Eden. The third, when Satan the Devil – or his personal, real name as we shall learn, Samael – sought to finish what had been started in Eden, in corrupting mankind even further as another attempt to sabotage the Creator’s plans for humankind and a continuation of the Genesis 3:15 war. 

Semjaza or Samyaza, is the head of the rebellious Angels and of the other nine leaders, though confusingly, it is Azazel, second of the ten leaders that is the main instigator in teaching and corrupting humanity. Samyaza means: ‘the (or my) name has seen’ or ‘he sees the name.’ The name is associated with an infamous rebellion.

It was while researching Azazel that I thought he was one and the same as Azrael. Though I soon realised that they are two different beings. In the process, I found that outside the Book of Enoch, it is Azrael – and not Azazel – that is described in likeness of Samael, as an angel of death – one who is responsible for the death and therefore the prescribed time allotted to humans. Azrael is depicted as a grim reaper and thus the angel in the scriptures referred to by the term, angel of death, may well be Azrael either working on Samael’s behalf, or ultimately fulfilling the Creator’s plan.

Azrael also known as Azriel or Asriel means: ‘Angel of God’, ‘Help from God’, ’God’s help’, ‘God is my help’ or ‘helper of the Divine.’ The idea of rather serving the Eternal is supported in his name’s definition and may extend to his even being the mysterious Angel of the Lord. Islam and certain Jewish sources contrastingly perceive Azrael as ‘an embodiment of evil’ and therefore a fallen angel, even an Archangel of death. It is not conclusive that Azrael is evil. One of the leading sinful angels listed in the Book of Enoch is Sariel and some translations link the name with Azrael. There is no evidence they are one and the same entity.

It was this similarity of relationship in as far as a role, that opened the possibility that a certain being might actually be the son of Samael. And that being is Azazel as the most likely candidate. There is reason to consider, they are related as father and son. As we progress, a case will form to support this hypothesis. At the least, it appears strongly that Azazel is, or has become, Samael’s second in command. Samael means: ‘God has heard’ or ‘heard by God’ and then as if a transformation occurs, through rebellion perhaps in that his name also means, ‘venom of God’, ‘poison of God’ and ‘blindness of God.’ 

Samael is the deceitful ‘light bringer’ as well as the chief ‘adversary’ – Ha-Satan of many rebellious angels – the Satan. Samael has a powerfully corrupt agenda that concentres his time and effort as an accuser of the brethren [the true body of believers], a seducer of mankind [the whole world is held unwittingly captive] and a destroyer of the cosmos [perverts the innocent and good of the Eternal’s creation].

The meanings of Samyaza and Samael are similar in an indirect way. It is suspicious how Samyaza, though leader of the two hundred Watchers, takes a place in the shadows and allows Azazel [his son?] to be the focus of attention. Why wouldn’t the Creator’s adversary descend to earth and be involved in the plan to thoroughly corrupt mankind. The earth is the centre of the battle between both forces and the tactics used by Samuel are outright guerrilla warfare. This would include under cover infiltration with Samael’s most trusted minions. Samael, the Serpent, takes a role in the shadows, when he gives ‘all power and authority’ to the first Beast.

Job 1:6-7

English Standard Version

6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them. 7 The Lord said to Satan, “From where have you come?” Satan answered the Lord and said, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking up and down on it.”

Notice, Satan slips in with the other sons of God… and Satan…Satan also… camein among them. And, also, among, three words all alluding to Samael’s – possible reluctance at having to report in, though also – contentment to be in the shadows, waiting for the Lord to speak first.

Revelation 13:1-9

English Standard Version

13 And I saw a beast rising out of the sea… And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast. 4 And they worshiped the dragon [Samael], for he had given his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who can fight against it?” 5 And the beast was given a mouth uttering haughty and blasphemous words, and it was allowed to exercise authority for forty-two months. 6 It opened its mouth to utter blasphemies against God, blaspheming his name and his dwelling, that is, those who dwell in heaven. 7 Also it was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. And authority was given it over every tribe and people and language and nation, 8 and all who dwell on earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written before the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who was slain. 9 If anyone has an ear, let him hear…

If the mysterious Beast, that is given power by the Dragon was his son, then many pieces of the biblical end time prophecy puzzle, would become clear. Notice the similarity of complete control over humanity in the vein of Azazel who originally corrupted the whole pre-flood world. Also mirrored are Nimrod’s early attempts at one-world-government. 

In the Apocalypse of Abraham, in Chapter 23:7, Azazel is described as having seven heads, fourteen faces and ‘hands and feet like a man’s [and] on his back six wings on the right and six on the left.’ The Bible describes a being with six wings as a Seraph, literally a ‘flying fiery serpent’ or simply, a dragon

A key aspect of the the delusion sent from the Lawless One, is receiving his mark.

Revelation 13:16-18

English Standard Version

16 Also it [the second beast] causes all, both small and great, both rich and poor, both free and slave, to be marked on the right hand or the forehead, 17 so that no one can buy or sell unless he has the mark, that is, the name of the beast [G2342 – therion: a wild, savage, ferocious and venomous beast] or the number of its name. 18 This calls for wisdom: let the one who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man [G444 – anthropos: man-faced, male sex, body and soul], and his number is 666.

There is much speculation and conjecture on what the mark is and what the number means. The two main clues are that one, the mark is restrictive in that without it functioning in society will either be difficult or impossible. A ‘cashless’ society, replaced with a digital, micro-chipped currency would make orthodox purchasing impossible, for those without the mark. The second is that the mark is also the name of the beast. The name in turn has a number. The beast is described like a serpent, yet also as a man. The Beast is suspiciously like a fallen Seraph that has incarnated as a human. The mark then, may be a transformation of a similar kind, though in reverse.

The mark is presumably not visible or unsightly, but under the skin or even not just inside the body, but within and part of a human being. The beginning of bar-codes on products was popular in conspiracy circles; being encoded in some way is probably accurate. The hand and forehead are symbolic of our humanity and what separates us from other mammals and animals. That is, our possession of a thumb and ability to hold, control and build and the reasoning powers of intellect situated in our frontal lobe. 

A controlling manipulation of  human DNA to alter Homo sapiens sapiens to something new, Homo novus, or engineered, Homo machinus is not so far fetched. The agenda  in the antediluvian era was to thwart the Creator’s original plan for man. It has remained the unseen program of His adversaries and will accelerate again ‘as in the days of Noah’ in the latter days. 

Interestingly, the Carbon-12 atom in humans – one of five elements in our DNA – is composed of six protons, six electrons and six neutrons. The book of Revelation says 666 is a number of a man; yet the Word is called the Son of Man as the false Prophet is called the Man of Lawlessness. Yet both are spiritual creatures and not fully human. The number belongs to the Beast and its mark could be a form of corruption of what makes us human albeit with a spiritual origin and design.

An unknown internet source states – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Carbon-12 is the most abundant of the two stable isotopes of the element carbon, accounting for 98.89% of carbon. Its abundance is due to the Triple-alpha process… by which it is created in stars, and as Carl Sagan had once said, “we’re made of star stuff.” The English name carbon, comes from the Latin carbo for coal and charcoal, whence also comes the French charbon, meaning charcoal… in the bible… Isaiah 6:6 – “Then one of the seraphim flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar.” The name Seraphim meaning “the burning ones”, are the first hierarchy of angels… that were Cherubim…

The Latin word corresponding to Greek Phosphorus is “Lucifer.” Phosphorus (Greek Phosphoros), a name meaning “Light-Bringer…” When combined with oxygen and hydrogen, carbon can form many groups of important biological compounds, including sugars, lignans, chitins, alcohols, fats, aromatic esters, carotenoids and terpenes. With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulfur it also forms antibiotics, amino acids, and rubber products. With the addition of phosphorus to these other elements, it forms DNA and RNA, the chemical-code carriers of life, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important energy-transfer molecule in all living cells.

Nucleotides are biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Each nucleotide has three components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. The phosphate groups and the sugars form the backbone of each strand of DNA or RNA. The phosphate is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Phosphorus (Lucifer) is just the ‘spark’ in our DNA that makes us fire. When the 666 of Carbon is combined with the elements above and mixed with Lucifer… Phosp-Horus, we get a combination or reaction of chemical elements that forms DNA and RNA. 

This magical god given chemical-code carrier is the very code for all life, and of course, it is the number of a man; his number is 6 neutrons, 6 protons, and 6 electrons, Six hundred threescore and six (666). Various chemical elements when combined with Carbon, forms our very material reality, or what some may call, the Matrix. The number 666 may be the sequence of DNA genetic signals or DNA fragments necessary for successful cloning. Man was created on the sixth day. The number 6 represents man and is not a perfect number. Therefor 666 is “man’s” number, and stops short of the perfect number seven.’

The number six has historically been assigned to man and it was Homo neanderthalensis that was created on the Sixth day or epoch, as re-counted in Genesis chapter one. Genesis chapter two, runs a parallel account of creation that reveals Adam and Eve, Homo sapiens or Cro-Magnon man, were created on the Eighth day

Manly P Hall said: ’We are the gods of the atoms that make up ourselves, but we are also the atoms of the gods that make up the universe.’ 

Computer chips are being implanted in humans. They are for recording and filing data more than anything else, as well as the novel switching on and off of electronic items. Any kind of genetic manipulation would probably come in the form of an injection, or a pill. The covid 19 event is suspiciously the type of scenario, whereby additives in a ‘vaccine’ could be administered unsuspectingly to a very wide audience.

A means to reduce the world’s population by sterilisation, is an example of a covert  inoculation agenda. Ultimately, a compound that alters our DNA, may be highly attractive in the short term, if it were to extend our lives or open up psychic abilities. Though not in the long term, if it changes our genetic make-up, making us less than human, while transforming into a hybrid that affects our spiritual future and eternal salvation. For further information on the mark, please refer to Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega.

Man is more than a body which acts as a vehicle for the soul, that animates it. There is a spirit in man that the Creator has imparted to humanity. We read earlier, of the Holy Spirit that emanates from the Ancient of Days; His divine essence and creative force [refer Chapter One Noah]. From His spirit has come the spirt in man. The above quote said Lucifer – the Devil – is the [spiritual] spark in our DNA. Regardless of the source, the physical manifestation of the spirit that gives life and acts as an ignition, is the flow of electrical current though the body’s nervous system circuitry, which drives the engine of our metabolism and with the lungs breathing in oxygen and our beating hearts that pump oxygenated blood through our network of arteries and keeps us all alive.

1 Thessalonians 5:23

English Standard Version

Now may the God of peace himself sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit  [G4151 – pneuma: of the wind, breath, human spirit, ‘the vital principal by which the body is animated’ and ‘the power by which [a] human being feels, thinks, decides’] and soul  [G5590 – psuche: ‘the soul as an essence differs from the body’, a living being, that in which there is life] and body [G4983 – soma: a living body or dead corpse of a man or animal] be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The three components of a human being and until science acknowledges this fundamental understanding of our composition; the laws governing our combined physical and spiritual attributes, their endeavours to fully understand the human mind will forever be limited.

Job 32:8

English Standard Version

But it is the spirit in man, the breath of the Almighty, that makes him understand.

The spirit in man empowers our mind to be more advanced than animal life; to think, to reason, to question, to plan and to formulate answers.

Ecclesiastes 12:7

English Standard Version

… and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.

As the spirit in man is given by the Creator, it returns to Him upon death. Our body decomposes and our soul – what makes us, us – is kept by the Creator in a state of sleep, until the appointed time.

Job 14:14

New Century Version

Will the dead live again? All my days are a struggle; I [Job] will wait until my change [relief] comes.

1 Corinthians 15:35-49

English Standard Version

35 But someone will ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?” 36 You foolish person! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. 37 And what you sow is not the body that is to be, but a bare kernel, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain. 38 But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body. 39 For not all flesh is the same, but there is one kind for humans, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. 40 There are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is of one kind, and the glory of the earthly is of another. 41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars [angels]; for star differs from star in glory.

42 So is it with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable; what is raised is imperishable. 43 It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. 44 It is sown a natural [physical like an animal] body; it is raised a spiritual [divine] body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam [Christ] became a life-giving spirit. 46 But it is not the spiritual that is first but the natural, and then the spiritual. 47 The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so also are those who are of the dust, and as is the man of heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. 49 Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image [likeness] of the man of heaven.

The apostle Paul speaks in verses 38-39, of the difference between fish, birds, animals and humans. Each genetic make up for each kind [or class] is unique. One did not evolve from the other as in macro-evolution. Again, until scientists admit the existence of a spiritual realm and dimensions, having also created the physical world, they will repeatedly fall short in comprehending the true nature of the universe, our galaxy, our solar system, our earth and ourselves. Verse 41 is speaking of heavenly hosts and the stars are types of angels. The angels differ in their roles, responsibilities, gifts and abilities. Verse 44 highlights the change that Job was seeking. To be fully spirit and leave the physical behind forever. Verse 47 shows the Son of Man is a man from heaven. Hence the number of the Beast is in reference to itself and not mankind specifically, though undoubtedly it will impinge on humanity and thus the dire warning not to believe in the lie of the Man of Sin [his mystery of iniquity], no matter what is promised.

Ecclesiastes 3:18-21

English Standard Version

18 I said in my heart with regard to the children of man that God is testing them that they may see that they themselves are but beasts. 19 For what happens to the children of man and what happens to the beasts is the same; as one dies, so dies the other. They all have the same breath, and man has no advantage over the beasts, for all is vanity. 20 All go to one place. All are from the dust, and to dust all return. 21 Who knows whether the spirit of man goes upward and the spirit of the beast goes down into the earth?

Humans are similar to animals, in that we are both physical flesh and die. The difference being – apart from being different kinds or kingdoms – is the fact that animals live once and the plan for them ends there. Their spirit returns to the Creator, though it is described as going down to the earth to show its end. The spirit in man goes upward, to reveal that people will live again.

1 Corinthians 2:14

English Standard Version

The natural person [unbeliever] does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly [foolish, simple] to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. 

There is a an animal spirit, a spirit in man, an angelic spirit and the prime spirit these three have been born from, the Holy Spirit of the Ancient of Days. Following on from I Corinthians 15, it is difficult for a person to comprehend the matrix of our pseudo-reality beyond a certain point if they do not acknowledge that it is an image, a simulation, an advanced computer program that has been deliberately designed. Engineered by spirit beings – dark, fallen Angels, including the Watchers – who do not have our welfare at heart and use the physical world to keep humanity captive and imprisoned. 

Revelation 13:11-15

English Standard Version

11 Then I saw another beast rising out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb and it spoke like a dragon [seraphim]. 12 It exercises all the authority of the first beast in its presence, and makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose mortal wound was healed. 13 It performs great signs, even making fire come down from heaven to earth in front of people, 14 and by the signs that it is allowed to work in the presence of the beast it deceives those who dwell on earth, telling them to make an image for the beast that was wounded by the sword and yet lived. 15 And it was allowed to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast might even speak and might cause those who would not worship the image of the beast to be slain.

The second beast is linked with the first, in that they receive their power from the Dragon. Their status as human is seriously in doubt and only the Son of Man is referred to as the Lamb, thus this beast has a religious role – as a false prophet – in deceiving the world that it is the saviour with the first Beast. 

Matthew 7:15

English Standard Version

“Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves.

2 Corinthians 11:13-15

English Standard Version

13 For such men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. 14 And no wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. 15 So it is no surprise if his servants, also, disguise themselves as servants of righteousness. Their end will correspond to their deeds.

Matthew 24:9-14

English Standard Version

9 “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations for my name’s sake. 10 And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. 12 And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. 13 But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.

2 Timothy 3:1-8

English Standard Version

But understand this, that in the last days there will come times of difficulty. 2 For people will be lovers of self, lovers of money, proud, arrogant, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3 heartless, unappeasable, slanderous, without self-control, brutal, not loving good, 4 treacherous, reckless, swollen with conceit, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5 having the appearance of godliness, but denying its power. Avoid such people… always learning and never able to arrive at a knowledge of the truth. 8 Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so these men also oppose the truth, men corrupted in mind and disqualified regarding the faith.

2 Timothy 3:12-15

English Standard Version

12 Indeed, all who desire to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted, 13 while evil people and impostors will go on from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived. 14 But as for you, continue in what you have learned and have firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it 15 and how from childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.

Some scholars propose the two horns symbolise two religions being unified and in the Beast’s control – Catholic and Protestant? Christianity and Islam? The false Prophet would hold more credibility if it was not associated with either religion. The false prophet is more likely to form a syncretism of beliefs or to not uphold any religion including Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism and teach an entirely new way. Whatever the outcome, the feet of Nebuchadnezzar’s statute are partly of iron and partly of clay; only melding together a short time. A short time being the final seven year period, cut in two parts by the Abomination of Desolation, with the final three and one half years fulfilling the great Tribulation and the time of Jacob’s Trouble. 

Remember too, it is the second beast – not the first – that instigates the mark of the first beast and with it, the ability to subsist or not. The second beast also mysteriously creates an image of the first Beast, somehow giving it life or reality in this realm. The image is an icon or idol of some kind; a physical representation of the angelic Spirit Azazel? 

End Time Headlines, Ricky Scaparo says: 

‘After this “Image” has been created, this False Prophet will somehow through supernatural demonic power actually be able to cause this image to have breath. What’s very interesting here is the word “breath” used is a word that means breath or life. It has the same connotation found in the Book of Genesis when God created Adam from the dust of the ground and “breathed” life into his nostrils and he became a living being. 

Satan will perform a counterfeit miracle as God did with the first man Adam by breathing life into him. The Bible tells us that this image will be able to speak and actually cause civilization to worship the Antichrist. If they refuse they will be killed according to the scripture.’

Revelation 17:3-8

English Standard Version

3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names…The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and jewels and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her sexual immorality. 5 And on her forehead was written a name of mystery: “Babylon the great, mother of prostitutes and of earth’s abominations.” 

We are introduced to a Woman in addition to the two beasts of Revelation chapter thirteen. We will investigate the identity of this Woman in the next chapter. Verse seven reveals that the woman is actually sitting astride the first Beast – with seven heads and ten horns – Revelation 13:1. Like the sealing of the 144,000 saints with the Holy Spirit on their foreheads and the mark of the beast, on the rest of the world’s foreheads – Revelation 7:3; 9:4 & 13:16 – the woman also has on her forehead, a mystery name written. Her name is Babylon the Great which is central to the mystery of lawlessness and the Man of Lawlessness discussed in Second Thessalonians 2:3, 7; who is described as the son of destruction or perdition. Perdition means: ’a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul, damnation, utter destruction or ruin.’ 

We have surmised that the man of lawlessness is the false Prophet, though the use of the term, son of destruction or perdition is remarkably similar to the same term used in verse eight of Revelation chapter seventeen, in reference to the Beast.

6 And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I marveled greatly. 7 But the angel said to me, “Why do you marvel? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 8 The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to rise from the bottomless pit and go to destruction… 18 And the woman that you saw is the great city that has dominion over the kings of the earth.”

Notice Babylon is in reference to a system not a city, an ancient system going all the way back to Nimrod and beyond. The great city in verse eighteen, is not the city of Babylon or its fulfilment today in the Vatican in Rome as some assume. It equates to the city of Jerusalem in the state of Israel today. A woman in scripture can signify true believers as in the Body of Christ and also here in this context, the false church as in the Queen of Heaven and the Mother of god, that has arisen to deceive humanity. 

The female entity described in these verses is part of the deception of 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12. She will be presented and consequently, humanity indoctrinated by the false prophet, who works in tandem with the Beast. 

The Beast is cryptically referred to as being in the past but not the present, yet will again in the future. There is a being who was – in the antediluvian age – then through rebellion and being placed in restraint [2 Peter 2:4, Jude 1:6], is not… though is about to rise from its place of restraint, the spiritual abyss or pit. 

It is worth noting that the the original disciple Judas Iscariot who forfeited a position as an apostle by betraying the Son of Man is the only other person to be called a son of perdition [John17:12]. As with the Beast, Satan took a personal interest in Judas, to ensure the job was done [Luke 22:3; John 6:70; Revelation 16:13]. Curiously, when the apostles were choosing between two men for a replacement for Judas, they said: “… to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place.” Acts 1:25, ESV. His own place being utter destruction, the same fate that will befall the Dragon, the Beast and the false Prophet – Revelation 20:10.

The constant reader will also recognise the consistent and frequent image of the Bull and its significance as Baal. In the next chapter we will study the shocking identity of Baal’s consort – her origin, her identity and her role.

Revelation 9:11

English Standard Version

They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit [G12 – abussos: unbounded]. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon [G3 – abaddon: destruction, ruin, destroying angel],and in Greek he is called Apollyon.

The name Apollyon is interesting, for like Abaddon meaning destruction, it means destroyer and it is this that researchers concentrate on, though we will focus on the first part of the name. The online Etymology Dictionary states: 

‘destroying angel of the bottomless pit… from present participle of Greek apollyein “to destroy utterly” (from apo “from, away from” + olluein “to destroy”); a translation of Hebrew Abaddon before vowels ap-, word-forming element meaning “of, from, away from; separate, apart from, free from,” from Greek apo “from, away from; after; in descent from,” in compounds, “asunder, off; finishing, completing; back again,” of time, “after,” of origin, “sprung from, descended from; because of,” from… root apo-off, away”…’

The significance of being separated and away from, is revealed in the name of a certain being that fits the criteria of being a. actually named in the Bible, b. part of the rebellious angels that came to Earth before the flood, c. those angels chained and placed in restraint in the pit and d. being released from the pit and arising from the abyss, is synonymous with both the appearing of Apollyon and the Beast [Revelation 9:1-2; 13:1]. An abyss by definition is a very ‘deep hole.’ Invariably, an abyss is associated with the sea for it is the earth’s oceans that yield the deepest depths. The Beast rises from the sea…

The Greek word for pit is translated in the Bible variously as ‘bottomless, deep’ an ‘abyss’ and one version has ‘eternal darkness.’ It also means, ‘the immeasurable depth’ and ‘of Orcus, a very deep gulf or chasm in the lowest parts of the earth as the common receptacle of the dead and especially as the abode of the demons.’ Orcus is both the god of Hades, the underworld and also a ‘plutino, a trans-Neptunian object that is locked in a 2:3 resonance with the ice giant Neptune, making two revolutions around the Sun to every three of Neptune’s.’ The bottomless pit is tantamount to a prison and not a place that spirit entities desire to dwell.

Luke 8:27-31

Amplified Bible

27 Now when Jesus stepped out on land, He was met by a man from the city (of Gerasa) who was possessed with demons. For a long time he had worn no clothes, and was not living in a house, but among the tombs. 28 Seeing Jesus, he cried out (with a terrible voice from the depths of his throat) and fell down before Him (in dread and terror), and shouted loudly, “What business do we have (in common) with each other, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me (before the appointed time of judgment)!” 

29 Now He was (already) commanding the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For it had seized him (violently) many times; and he was kept under guard and bound with chains and shackles, but he would break the bonds and be driven by the demon into the desert. 30 Then Jesus asked him, “What is your name?” And he answered, “Legion”; because many demons had entered him. 31 They continually begged Him not to command them to go into the abyss.

A Roman legion in the days of the republic consisted of 3,000 soldiers, or infantrymen. By the time of Christ and the Roman Empire, a legion of men comprised anywhere between 4,000 to 6,000 men.

There is compelling reason to believe, that Apollyon and Azazel are the same being. For the terms Abaddon and Apollyon are really descriptive names, whereas Azazel is his personal name. As the Serpent and Dragon describe what Samael is; with the Devil and Heylel [or light bringer] being descriptive names, of Samael. The Son of Man, the Lamb, Christ, Messiah and the Word are but descriptive names of the Son of God, whose real name is Immanuel – with Jesus, Joshua or more correctly, Yeshua being his temporary earthly name. 

Azazel – ‘the peacock angel’and his comrade fallen angels departed Heaven with the intent of destruction and destroying mankind; while also desiring to dwell on earth and partake of  forbidden earthly pleasures. They were bound here to earth, as punishment. Abaddon is mentioned six times in the Bible, linked to sheol or hell, though it means hell as in this earth, beneath Heaven – not a fiery hell, or hades. Abaddon’s true identity is Azazel, as discussed in the Book of Leviticus.

Leviticus 16:8-10

English Standard Version

8 And Aaron shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. 9 And Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the Lord and use it as a sin offering, 10 but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel [H5799 – aza’zel: goat of departure, entire removal, scapegoat].

Azazel means: ‘Strong [strength, rugged] of God’, ‘the strong god’, ‘god of victory’, ‘the goat god’ and ’she-goat to go away [of going away]’, ’remove completely.’ Notice the uncanny exact similarity with the word Apollyon, in going away [departure]and separated [removal]. The term scapegoat is unfortunately the one teachers focus on and use, particularly with regard to the Day of Atonement. It is the least accurate and gives the connotation that Azazel is an innocent victim, whereas he is a guilty perpetrator. Michael Howard adds:

‘Azazel was popularly believed to have a retinue of hairy he-goat demons known as the se’irim who, like the Watchers, lusted after human women. 

It cannot be a total coincidence that the Church imagined the Devil or Satan in the form of a hairy half-human he-goat with a massive erect phallus who had sexual intercourse with his female worshippers at the Witches Sabbath.’

Book of Enoch 10:4-8

4. And again the Lord said to Raphael [an Archangel]: “Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert… and cover his face that he may not see light. 6. And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire [as the Beast]. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. 8. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.”

A heavy accusation is levelled against Azazel in being responsible for the corrupting of mankind’s path and ascribing to him all sin. It makes sense why Azazel represents one of the goats on Atonement. The other goat pictures Christ taking on all the sin caused by Azazel and dying as the sin offering. Azazel meanwhile, though bound and in the spiritual wilderness of the abyss, lives to await his reprisal role as the Beast, to then later be put to death with the Dragon and the false prophet. 

Revelation 20:10

English Standard Version

… and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

Book of Enoch 13:1-2

1. And Enoch went and said: “Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth against thee to put thee in bonds: 2. And thou shalt not have toleration nor request granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.’

The fallen dark Angels left their first or spiritual estate and have been bound in restraint. All three beings, the Dragon, the Beast and the false Prophet are cast into an electrical firestorm. If the dragon is the Devil, Samael and the Beast is a devil, Azazel – a fallen Seraphim angel – then the false prophet, the most human of the three, must be partly angelic or Nephilim at the very least. 

Some scholars have conjectured that the antichrist, or first beast derives from either Esau and the Edomites, or the Tribe of Dan, a son of Jacob. A third option not considered is any link with Assyria and the King of the North. 

The fourth option of a supernatural entity seems to be completely overlooked and would negate all the three options; unless of course for those who believe a resurrected Nimrod is the antichrist. For in a bizarre accidental twist this would then make the third option presented plausible. If Azazel is the Beast, all are ruled out of contention, though Nimrod remains in contention as one of the three entities that comprise an unholy Trinity of Evil in the very latter days.

Digging Deep into the Revelation of Jesus Christ, page 114 – quoted by Michael Copple, emphasis & bold mine:

‘[Revelation] Chapter 13 introduces us to how Satan (the dragon) blasphemously sets up his own false trinity. Satan acts as the Father, the Antichrist as the Son, and the False Prophet as the Spirit who attempts to bring glory to the Antichrist. Satan appoints two great beasts… the first beast rising up out of the sea – the Antichrist and his empire – and the second beast out of the earth or land – the False Prophet…’

Scholars debate whether the beast and false prophet are governmental systems or two individual men. The answer: they are a fallen Angel and a Nephilim – as in the days of Noah, so shall it be when the Son of Man returns. This is why the deception is so grand and the evil so wicked.

Revelation 19:20

English Standard Version

And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur.

Revelation 16:13-14

English Standard Version

And I saw, coming out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs. For they are demonic spirits, performing signs, who go abroad to the kings of the whole world, to assemble them for battle on the great day of God the Almighty.

Exodus 8:1-3

English Standard Version

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 2 But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your country with frogs. 3 The Nile shall swarm with frogs that shall come up into your house and into your bedroom and on your bed and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls.

Revelation 16:13-14 reveals the spiritual composition of the Dragon, Beast and false Prophet. To call them human men is off the mark. Most readers will be familiar with the images of Grey Aliens. What stands out is their remarkable insect like resemblance to ants and bees with a hive mentality, their amphibious appearance, like tadpoles with their bulging eyes and under-developed foetus-like bodies, as well as their clinical, indifferent reptilian nature. Biblical researcher Gary Wayne summarises some of the points we have contemplated. 

The Genesis 6 Conspiracy, Gary Wayne, 2014, page 549-551 – emphasis & bold mine:

Abaddon… is the leader of the angels of the Abyss… This will undoubtedly be the destroyer Azazel, who introduced war and violence to the descendants of Cain, and the fallen one who will possess [be] the Antichrist… [who] will be glorified as… Orion… who the Great [Pyramid] and the Sphinx point to and honor. The beast… Osiris the sun god** … will permit each person the opportunity to decide what is right and what is wrong in what will be a solemn game of global situational ethics. The inhabitants of the world will be compelled to choose to worship and follow the Antichrist, [the Dragon], and their New Age religion or follow the alleged evil God of the Christians, [Jews] and Muslims. This duty bound choice will be punctuated by the forthcoming galactic war of rebellion to free the inhabitants of earth… The decision to follow the Antichrist and fight for [‘freedom’] will be sealed by the mark of the Beast, a sign of their new covenant and choice. Secret, spurious knowledge… will abound… The world will be vibrating with expectancy as it celebrates these fantastic discoveries… people sharing common consciousness through transcendental meditation [will] create a figurative conduit that is not restricted by the laws of physics; the web/matrix of the life force heals everything, creating world peace…humanity will anticipate ascension into godhood.’

The equation of Azazel being Apollyon, who in turn is the Beast is something I surmised prior to reading this passage. As Wayne has an abundance of salient arguments in his comprehensive research, it is encouraging to learn that what my research has proposed is plausible and not merely fantastical. Returning to Nimrod and the Tower of Babel.

Genesis 11:1-9 

English Standard Version

Now the whole earth had one language [speech] and the same words. 2 And as people migrated from the east, [Indus Valley] they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 

4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower [H4026 – migdal: pyramidal elevated stage] with its top [H7218 – ro’sh: summit, height of stars, (same word used for Gog the rosh of Meshech and Tubal] in the heavens [H8064 – shamayim: sky, abode of the stars], and let us make a name [‘memorial, monument’ that is ‘famous’ of ‘glory’ and ‘renown’, like as the ‘ancient heroes’ or Nephilim before the flood] for ourselves, lest we be dispersed [scattered] over the face of the whole earth.” 

5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built. 6 And the Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them

[Genesis 3:22 ESV – Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil. Now, lest he reach out his hand and take also of the tree of life and eat, and live forever – ”]

7 Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech.” 8 So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. 9 Therefore its name was called Babel [confusion – Aramaic Bab-el: ‘the gate of God’], because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth…

The peoples of the world spoke one language after the flood. This seems reasonable considering everyone on the earth had sprung from six people and a family of eight. Though the families would have multiplied quickly, we are dealing with possibly hundreds of thousand of people rather than millions. The tower if pyramidal is symbolic rather than literal in its ascent towards heaven. The mention of stars, a euphemism for angels, inclines towards including a spiritual motivation, task and threat with a physical one. It is worth noting that the Hebrew word for ‘height’ or ‘top’, is the same word used for the highly probable Nephilim descended demagogue [de-magog-ue] Gog, ruler of Magog [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech]. 

What I had never noticed before in reading this passage, is that the people were building the tower so that they could remain as one and not be divided or scattered. If the Lord deemed it to take the necessary steps ‘on the stairway’ to come down and visit the earth, then the threat to His plan, was of an extreme nature. It does not explicitly say that Nimrod heads this unified project in Genesis chapter eleven; though by putting it in context with the preceding chapter of the Bible, with extra-Biblical sources it is difficult to argue Nimrod was not involved.

Josephus wrote on the incident – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was… a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. 

He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to reach

And that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was.

It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before…’

An Islamic tradition holds that the original single language was Hebrew and that Eber was allowed to retain it for his descendants as he refused to take part in the building of the Tower – the same Eber who purportedly married Nimrod’s daughter. The ‘confusing’ of the language created seventy-two languages according to legend. This is remarkably close to the seventy nations in the Genesis Ten table of nations. 

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Book of Jubilees contains one of the most detailed accounts found anywhere of the Tower. And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. And they built it: forty and three years were they building it; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the height [of a brick] was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and [the extent of one wall was] thirteen stades [and of the other thirty stades]. (Jubilees 10:20–21, Charles’ 1913 translation). In Pseudo-Philo the direction for the building is ascribed not only to Nimrod, who is made prince of the Hamites but also to Joktan as prince of the Semites, and to Phenech son of Dodanim as prince of the Japhetites.

The phrase “Tower of Babel” does not appear in the Bible; it is always “the city and the tower” or just “the city”. According to the Bible, the city received the name “Babel” from the Hebrew verb (balal), meaning to jumble or to confuse. The Book of Genesis does not mention how tall the tower was. 

The phrase used to describe the tower, “its top in the sky” (verse 4), was an idiom for impressive height; rather than implying arrogance, this was simply a cliché for height. The Book of Jubilees mentions the tower’s height as being 5,433 cubits and 2 palms, or 2,484 m (8,150 ft)… or roughly 1.6 miles* high. The Third Apocalypse of Baruch mentions that the ‘tower of strife’ reached a height of 463 cubits, or 211.8 m (695 ft), taller than any structure built in human history until the construction of the Eiffel Tower in 1889, which is 324 m (1,063 ft) in height.

In his book, Structures: Or Why Things Don’t Fall Down (Pelican 1978-1984), Professor J. E. Gordon considers the height of the Tower of Babel. He wrote, “brick and stone weigh about 120 lb per cubic foot (2,000 kg per cubic metre) and the crushing strength of these materials is generally rather better than 6,000 lbs per square inch or 40 mega-pascals. Elementary arithmetic shows that a tower with parallel walls could have been built to a height of 2.1 km (1.3 miles)* before the bricks at the bottom were crushed. However, by making the walls taper towards the top they… could well have been built to a height where the men of Shinnar would run short of oxygen and had difficulty in breathing before the brick walls crushed beneath their own dead weight.”’

Alan Alford comments further – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Whilst the term “Gods” is full of awkward connotations for us, the Sumerians did not suffer from such problems, and referred to them as the AN.UNNA.KI, literally meaning, “Those Who from Heaven to Earth Came”. They also described them pictographically as DIN.GIR. What does the term DIN.GIR mean? The pictographic sign for GIR is commonly understood to mean a sharp-edged object, but an insight into its true significance can be gleaned from the sign for KA.GIR which appears to show the aerodynamically-shaped GIR inside a shaft-like underground chamber. The sign for the first syllable DTN makes little sense until it is combined with GIR to form DIN.GIR.

The two syllables when written together, make a perfect fit, representing, in Sitchin’s words: “…a picture of a rocket-propelled spaceship, with a landing craft docked into it perfectly – just as the lunar module was docked with Apollo 11.” 

As with the Apollo [link with Apollyon and the Sun god**] rockets, three sections can be seen in the pictographic sign DIN.GIR – the lowest stage propulsion unit with the main thrust engines, the middle stage containing supplies and equipment and the upper stage command module. The full meaning of DIN.GIR, usually translated “Gods”, is conveyed more fully by Sitchin’s translation as “The Righteous Ones of the Blazing Rockets”. (The name Sumer was literally written as KI.EN.GTR, meaning “the Land of the Lords of the Rockets”, but it also had the connotation “Land of the Watchers”, the latter term virtually identical to the term neter by which the Egyptians referred to their Gods). 

Zecharia Sitchin’s study also identified a second, different type of aerial vehicle. Whilst the GIR appeared to describe the rocket-like craft required for journeys beyond Earth’s atmosphere, another vehicle known as a MU was used to fly within the Earth’s skies. Sitchin pointed out that the original term shu-mu, meaning “that which is a MU”, later became known in the Semitic language as shem (and its variant sham).Drawing on the earlier work of G. Redslob, he pointed out that the terms shem and shamaim (the latter meaning “heaven”) both stemmed from the root word shamah, meaning “that which is highward”. Because the term shem also had the connotation “that by which one is remembered”, it came to be translated as “name”. 

Thus an unchallenged translation of an inscription on Gudea’s temple reads “its name shall fill the lands”,” whereas it ought to read more literally as “its MU shall hug the lands from horizon to horizon”. Sensing that shem or MU might represent an object, some scholars have left the word untranslated. The Bible, too, has translated the term shem as “name” and thus disguised the original meaning of the text. A particularly important example of this, as highlighted by Zecharia Sitchin, is the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel.

If we substitute the literal meaning of shem as “sky vehicle”, the unintelligible tale in Genesis (the significance of which has always puzzled scholars) begins to take on a new meaning: Then they said, “Come let us build ourselves a city with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a sky vehicle and not be scattered over the face of the whole Earth.”’

Recall we looked at the Sun god briefly whilst  studying the Philistines and the Minoans [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor].

‘A classic example [mistranslation] is the confusion which has arisen concerning the worship of a Sun God, both in ancient Egypt and the Near East. According to Greek legend, Hellos was a Sun God** who traversed the skies in a chariot [or rocket]. The Greeks renamed the sacred Egyptian city of Leopolis in his honour, as Heliopolis – the “City of Hellos”. In the Near East, the same name Heliopolis was given by the Greeks to the city of Baalbek. Historians dismiss the ancient belief in these two sacred sites as a primitive form of Hellos/Sun worship. However, let us take a closer look at where the legend of Hellos the Sun God came from. Both Heliopolises were important sites for the Gods… and both were associated with a God known to the Akkadians as Shamash. Sumerian texts called him UTU, a God who controlled the sites of the shems and the “eagles”. The name Shamash, when spelled Shem-esh, literally means “shem-fire” and is thus often translated as “He Who is Bright as the Sun”. The Sumerian name UTU indeed meant “the Shining One”, whilst Mesopotamian texts described Utu/Shamash as rising and traversing the skies. It is not difficult to see how the accounts of these journeys could subsequently be misconstrued as the daily movement of the Sun!’

Further to the veneration of the Sun, is the importance of the first day of the month of May. “It was May 1st when the ancient druids honored their great Sun God and Goddess with an uninhibited festival complete with initiations, sex orgies, drunken revelry, and human sacrifice. Aleister Crowley… taught that the Great Work (is) the ‘transformation of humanity’… we are told that the Great Work ‘may only be begun in the spring, under the signs of Aries, Taurus [May 1st], and Gemini…” (Marrs, page 230).’

We do not know exactly what the tower constituted, though it was serious enough for the Creator to stop the endeavour in its tracks. As the Creator said nothing would be withheld from humanity, it must be presumed that the structure was linked to mankind gaining access to what had been denied to them in Eden. Was it a star-gate entrance and portal route to heaven and immortality, as well as a safe guard against another flood? Are the pyramids a replica in some way of the original tower. The great Pyramid of Gizeh, has an internal mechanism no one has been able to explain definitively. Some scholars have concluded the tower was more than just an extremely tall building; rather, a portal and doorway between dimensions, a gateway in accessing spiritual realms. Observe how the Great Pyramid once looked – gleaming white, with a diamond or gold apex – and how it looks today after its pristine white limestone casing has been stolen over the centuries.

The tower of Babel incident occurred circa 6755 BCE, some 4,000 years after the flood and well before the birth of Abraham in 1977 BCE. 

Genesis 10:25

English Standard Version

To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan.

The time of Peleg – born in 7727 and he died in 4737 BCE – included the tower of Babel and the subsequent changing of one language to many and then the dispersal of the many nations and races of Japheth, Ham and some of Shem. This then had an impact on humanities gene pool in assisting the diversity produced through Noah’s sixteen grandsons to continue diversification and not blend as it would, if all nations had remained in the Near and Middle East.

Unknown source – emphasis & bold mine:

‘This actually happened at Babel [the] imposition of separate languages created instant barriers. Not only would people tend not to marry someone they couldn’t understand, but groups that spoke the same language would have difficulty relating [too] and trusting those that did not. Thus, they would move away from each other, into different environments. 

The dispersion at Babel broke up a large interbreeding group into small inbreeding groups. The resultant groups would have different mixes of genes for various physical features. By itself, this dispersion would ensure, in a short time, that there would be certain fixed differences in some of these groups, commonly called ‘races’. In addition, the selection pressure off the environment would modify the existing combinations of genes so that the physical characteristics of each group would tend to suit their environment. 

There has been no simple-to-complex evolution of any genes, for the genes were present already.The dominant features of the various people groups result from different combinations of previously existing created genes, plus some minor degenerative changes, resulting from mutation (accidental changes which can be inherited). The originally created (genetic) information has been either reshuffled or has degenerated.’ 

Scientists present dates for the major expansions of key Haplogroups that amazingly  correspond to the birth of Noah in 16,837 BCE, the birth of his three sons in 11,837 BCE and would you credit it, the time of the diffusion of humanities races during the time of Peleg and the tower of Babel, circa 6755 BCE.

Different traditions state Shem, Abraham or Esau may have murdered Nimrod. An unconventional chronology would dictate that Abraham and Esau both lived too late, though Shem died some time after the Tower of babel incident and would fit a chronology of two ‘men’ who were still living great lengths of time. 

Shem, because he was from the antediluvian age and Nimrod because of his Nephilim birth. Nimrod was born anywhere between 9,000 to 8,000 BCE, presuming his father Kish was Asshur’s son. If he died during the tower of Babel incident circa 6755 BCE, he would have been between 1,000 to 2,000 years old. Shem who had been born a thousand years prior to the flood, did not live the phenomenal amount of time his father Noah had, thought it was still a staggering 6,120 years, with his death circa 5717 BCE.

Nimrod is linked to the following names and identities: Gilgamesh and Baal as already discussed, Bacchus, Mithras, Ra, Adonis, Dionysis, the Nephilim related Osiris and Orion and the intriguing association with the Greek god, Apollo. For the Angel of the Abyss, Apollyon is one and the same as the Greek destroyer Apollo.

Apollyon, the Greek Destroyer, Venus Satanas, 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… Apollyon was the same name of the god of the Sun known to the Greeks, known as Apollo or Apollon. The god Apollo acted as the destroyer of evil, but he was also a bringer of doom. He was also known as a god of purification, who was associated with the sun for his ability to be omnipotent.

Apollo was also known as a god of prophecy, as many would bring their sacrifices to him at his temple at Delphi to have their oracle read. The Greeks received oracles from Apollo at Delphi for matters of daily life, and also for military purposes as well. For example, within the poetry of the Iliad, the god Apollo sends a plague of destruction on the Achaians which could only be stopped through prayers and sacrifices to Apollo. The practice of offering sacrifices to Apollo lasted well into the third century, and in some places the cult of Apollo lasted until the 6th century CE.

It was also known that Apollo had a holy day each seventh day of the month. The seventh day of each month is holy to Apollon, and, of course, the same tradition is used in the Christian calendar where the 7th day is named after the sun (Sunday) and is considered holy, and as a day of rest

In Greek myth, Apollo was the son of Zeus, a sky-god and the Twin of Artemis, goddess of the hunt and of the moon. Just like Artemis, he carried a bow and arrow which he used to cause destruction. As the goddess Athena watched over Apollon at the battle of Troy, she titled Apollon as the Striker From Afar. This is similar to the Biblical John’s writing that tells how Apollyon is from a bottomless pit of destruction. Apollo was known as the twin of Artemis and he had also been referred to as the Striker from Afar (as found in the Hymn to Apollon).

A god is demonized by a new religion as a way to make the public turn from their old ways. When the worship of Apollo was Romanized, adopted by the roman people, he took on an additional title of Apollon Luciferos… to denote [his power] of being a light-bringer. The public worship of Apollo in the Mediterranean was in direct competition with the development of Christianity… during the time that John wrote [the Book of Revelation] . The use of the name Apollyon within the bible, as the ‘Angel of the Pit’ was a direct association with this Greek god Apollo as a Satan, an adversary to Christianity.’

Notice the consistent association of the Sun, the Sun god and sun [day] worship, with Azazel, the Beast, Apollyon or Apollo. The Beast changes ‘times and laws’ associated with the calendar. We will study the Gregorian-Julian calendar, the Jewish calendar and the Sacred calendar for they are all different. The fact that Apollo is linked to the seventh day, which is in fact the Sabbath, or Saturday – not Sunday – is profound, for his motive for changing the calendar is to hide the truth of the Sabbath, which has root meaning of hidden

Azazel has a father as discussed and we will investigate his family including his twin sister, and his Mother… in the next chapter. Apollo or Apollon being titled ‘striker from afar’ is fascinatingly similar to Apollyon’s name of far away and Azazel’s name of going away.

Much has been written about Nimrod’s wife; identified mainly with Ishtar, stemming from Easter or Semiramis and their son, Tammuz or Marduk. Nimrod purportedly married his own mother, as did his Elioud son. We will look into the subject of Nimrod’s mother and her being a dark Angel; accounting for both Nimrod’s Nephil ancestry and the evilness attributed to Nimrod. 

The key piece of information remains that Nimrod was not descended from Ham’s son Cush but rather from a grandson of Shem called Kish, descended from Asshur. The word Kish was a city and also used as a kingly title in ancient Sumer. This is significant with regard to Assyria, for as we have learned, Asshur has played, does play and will play, a significant role in human affairs and world history in fulfilment of the latter day King of the North.

So what do you think should be done to those who do not respect the Son of God, who look at the blood of the agreement that made them holy as no different from others’ blood, who insult the Spirit of God’s grace? Surely they should have a much worse punishment.

Hebrews 10:29

New Century Version

Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven people, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. And whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.

Matthew 12:31-32

English Standard Version

“But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven, but is guilty of an eternal sin”

Mark 3:29

New English Translation

“When great changes occur in history, when great principles are involved, as a rule the majority are wrong.” 

Eugene V Debs 

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Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia

Chapter XX

The second son born to Shem was called Asshur. The land that Asshur dwelt, became known as Assyria and it is this word that is used in the Bible. Historians also use the word Assyria to refer to the ancient peoples of Asshur and their ruling dynasties. Asshur is mentioned repeatedly throughout the Old Testament. Its relationship with the sons of Jacob was tempestuous at best and catastrophic at worst. The vying for centre stage and influence has been waged between the two most prominent sons of Shem, Asshur and Arphaxad from the beginning and continues to the present day.

As disclosed when discussing Madai [refer Chapter IV Madai] and his relationship with Elam or Turkey, Asshur is the ancestor of the peoples of Russia. As we have seen, scripture [Zephaniah 9.13] describes that he was to ultimately live in the north, where other nations of the north are located, such as Magog and Togarmah – Northern China and the two Koreas. Most identity aficionados are familiar with Asshur and his prominence in the Bible. They with secular Assyriologists, share a passion for all things Assyrian, yet do not truly understand which modern people they actually have a fascination for. Nor are they aware of the considerably greater threat posed by Asshur as Russia, compared to the nearly universal erroneous belief within the identity community that Germany is Assyria. One wonders if the fascination is more with Germany than it is for Asshur. It would be flippant to say Russia backwards spells Aissur, though in essence this highlights exactly how many identities are based on nonsensical assumptions, often lacking a thorough line of reasoning.

Russia is a land of superlatives, a country stretching over a vast expanse nearly twice  the size of the territory of Canada, the world’s second largest nation. Extending across the whole of northern Asia and the eastern third of Europe, spanning eleven time zones; incorporating deserts and semiarid steppes to deep forests and Artic tundra. Russia contains Europe’s longest river the Volga, its largest lake Ladoga and the world’s deepest lake, Baikal. 

The first modern state in Russia was founded in 862 CE by King Rurik of the Rus, who was made the ruler of Novgorod. The Rus King Oleg later conquered the city of Kiev and started the kingdom of the Kievan Rus in 882. During the tenth and eleventh centuries the Kievan Rus became a powerful empire, reaching its peak under Vladimir the Great in 980 and Yaroslav I the Wise in 1015. In 1237, the Mongols led by Batu Khan, overran the region and scattered the Kievan Rus. 

In its wake, the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Ivan III in 1462 rose to power and became the head of the Eastern Roman Empire, driving out the Mongols in 1480. Ivan IV or the Terrible, crowned himself the first Tsar of Russia in 1547 and began the exponential expansion of Russian lands. Tsar etymologically denotes a name for Caesar, for the Russians called their empire the Third Rome. In 1613, Mikhail Romanov established the Romanov dynasty – lasting until 1917. Under the rule of Tsar Peter the Great [1689-1725], the Russian empire continued to expand. 

It became a major power and the capital was moved again, by Peter the Great from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 1713.  As the Russians have moved their capitals from Novgorod, Kiev, St Petersburg [also called Leningrad] and Moscow; the Assyrians had a proclivity to do the same with their capitals of Ashur, Calah and Nineveh respectively.

In 1762, Tsar Peter III was assassinated and his wife Catherine II, a German assumed the crown. She ruled for thirty-four years in what would be called the Golden Age of the Russian Empire. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia unsuccessfully. During the nineteenth century, the influence of Russian culture was at its peak. Artists and writers, Dostoyevsky, Tchaikovsky and Tolstoy became famous throughout the world. 

In 1853 the Crimean War began, which Russia eventually lost to an alliance of France, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and Sardinia. In 1867, Russia sensationally sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million dollars. In 1897, the Social Democratic Party was established. It would later split into the Bolshevik and Menshevik parties. In 1904, Russia went to war against Japan in Manchuria and decisively lost. 

In 1917 Vladimir Lenin – who was half Tatar – led the Bolshevik Party in revolution overthrowing the Tsar. Civil war broke out in 1918 and eventually the communist Soviet Union was born in 1922. After Lenin died in 1924, Joseph Stalin – who was half Georgian – seized power. Under Stalin, approximately 20 – 40 million people ultimately died, in concentration camps, executions and famines in the great purge beginning in 1934. During World War II, Russia initially allied with the Germans; however, the Germans invaded Russia in 1941. In 1942, the Russian army defeated the German army at the Battle of Stalingrad. This was the major turning point in World War II. From 1949, an arms race developed between Russia and the United States and the Cold War ensued.

In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary. He instituted freedom of speech and openness of the government [Glasnost] as well as a restructuring of the economy [Perestroika]. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred in December 1991. The preeminent empire of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union [U.S.S.R], became an independent country, now called the Russian Federation.  

The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ – commonly known as the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood – is illuminated at night in St. Petersburg, Russia

Origin of the Nations, Herman Hoeh, 1957 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘The children of Abraham called Asshurim received that name as a result of migrating to the land of Assyria or Asshur. We shall know where the Asshurim are if we first locate the modern day descendants of Assyria or Asshur.’

This would appear to be a reasonable line of reasoning, yet Abraham and Keturah’s children did not live anywhere near Asshur. We have seen duplication of names already with children from Japaheth, Ham and Shem. The duplication shows a different people with the same name and may mean an amalgamation or it may not. In this instance we will learn it is the latter.

‘Asshur means “strong” or “powerful”. Asshur was a brother of Arphaxad (Genesis 10:22). The Assyrians – who came from Asshur – settled along the Tigris River around the city of Nineveh (Genesis 10:11). None of the sons of Asshur are mentioned in the Bible, but history gives us several of their names. Some of the sons of Asshur are these: Kharmen, or Germanni – meaning men of war; Khatti; Akkadians; Almani, or Halmani; and Kassites, or Cossaei. (For these names see any article on “Assyria”, or these separate names, in Biblical encyclopaedias).’

The Germani, Khatti, Akkadians and Kassites are not Assyrian names, but rather neighbours from different ancestors in different eras.


‘Where are these tribes today? They are no longer in ancient Assyria! Where did they go? The entire tenth chapter of Isaiah pictures the power that Asshur – the Assyrians – shall wield in these latter days. But where shall we look for them? First of all the Assyrians were driven from their land shortly after their fall in 610 B.C. Pliny, the Roman historian of the time of Christ, says the “Assyrians were north of the Crimea in Russia (NATURAL HISTORY, book IV, section xii). About 300 years later Jerome writes that “Asshur is also joined with the tribes invading Western Europe ALONG THE RHINE” (Letter CXXIII, section 16, from NICENE AND POST-NICENE FATHERS).

So the Assyrians migrated to Central Europe! Notice the tribes coming into Central Europe – into Germany and Austria: the Khatti (the ancient name for Hessians – see ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANICA article “Germany” ): the Quadians (Latin for the Akkadians); the Germanni from which the word German” comes today; the Chauci (the Cossaei of ancient Assyria); and the Allemani (the Latin name for the ancient Alman tribe of Assyria ). CERTAINLY HERE ARE THE TRIBES OF ASSYRIA! Germany is Assyria in prophecy! The North Germans, basically, are therefore the sons of Asshurim of Keturah. The remainder of the Germans and Austrians are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians or Asshur.’

Peoples migrated and their names did not always travel with them. The Khatti [Hessians] are linked with Italy. The Germanni dwelt throughout much of Western Europe and beyond. The Asshurim though settling close to Germany are not in Germany today. Asshur did not travel into western Europe as a Germanic tribe. They are an eastern people; genetically, culturally and geographically linked to the Slavic peoples.

‘The ancient Assyrians deified their ancestor Asshur. In the Indo-Germanic language the name Asshur was spelled Athur (ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANICA article “Mesopotamia”, section Persians). And when the Assyrians are next found in Central Europe they are still worshipping Athur as Thur or Thor! And we still commemorate Asshur by the name Thursday – Asshur’s day! The name Asshur or Athur is still preserved among the Thuringian Germans.’

A H Sayce says in The Races of the Old Testament, page 59-60 and 136-137 – emphasis and bold mine:

‘Asshur, or Assyria… belonged both in race and language to the Semitic stock. The features of the Assyrian, as portrayed upon his monuments, are of a typical Semitic cast, and his mental and moral characteristics were those of the Semitic race. The country of Assyria took its name from the old capital Assur, or Asshur, now represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat, a little to the north of the junction of the Tigris with the Lower Zab. The founders of the city of Asshur and the kingdom of Assyria had moved northward from Babylonia. The Semitic language of Babylonia differed from that of Assyria only as the dialect of Middlesex differs from that of Oxfordshire. 

It was from Babylonia that the Assyrians had brought their religion, their customs, their art of writing, their science, and their traditions. Their gods were the gods of Babylonia, with the sole exception of the supreme Assur. They built their houses of brick in a land of stone and raised their temples and palaces on lofty platforms, because this had been necessary in the alluvial plain of Babylonia, where stone did not exist and protection had to be sought from the floods of winter. It was the ambition of those Assyrian kings who aimed at empire to be crowned in Babylon. Only so could their right to dominion out side the boundaries of Assyria itself be recognised and made legitimate. To become king of Babylon and the adopted child of the Babylonian Bel was to the Assyrian monarch what coronation in Rome [the Vatican] was to the mediaeval German prince. 

the Assyrian… favourite occupations were commerce and war. But the Assyrian remained to the last merely a conquering caste. His superiority, physical and mental, to the older population of the country had made his first invasion of it irresistible, and the iron discipline and political organisation which he subsequently maintained enabled him to preserve his power. He has been called the Roman of the East, and in many respects the comparison is just. Like the Roman he had a genius for organising and administering, for making and obeying laws, and for submitting to the restraints of an inexorable discipline. The armies of Assyria swept all before them, and the conception of a centralised empire was first formed and realised by the Assyrian kings.’

The Assyrians had the advantage of a larger population, considerable intellect, with the ability to control their people as a organised militaristic unit. Some would offer the same could be said about the Germans. The difference being that Germany exhibits these tendencies sporadically, whereas Russia possesses them continually. We will learn that the Russians do actually have a connection with the Romans, specifically the later empire of the East and that it can be no surprise that Asshur was foremost in having a centralised, totalitarian and militaristic society to build empires. The history of Asshur and Russia is replete with examples of this parallel behavioural endeavour. 

Before continuing with an article on Assyria, it would be beneficial to list the main Assyrian Kings during the period we will study the most closely. There are multiple king lists that differ prior to Ashur-dan I. He began his reign in 1178 BCE and the king lists are identical in their contents from this date. Ashur-dan I was a king of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The next era we will be most interested, is the Neo-Assyrian epoch of 912 – 609 BCE. This line of Assyrian kings ended with the defeat of Assyria’s final king Ashur-uballit II by the combined efforts, of the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Median Empire in 609 BCE.

The Adaside dynasty:

Shalmaneser IV:      783 – 773 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

Ashur-dan III:          773 – 755 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

Ashur-nirari V:         755 – 745 BCE – son of Adad-nirari III

The Pre-Sargonid kings:

Tiglath-Pileser III: 745 – 727 BCE – claimed to be the son of Adad-nirari III, though actually a General who usurped the throne from Ashur-nirari III

Shalmaneser V:        727 – 722 BCE – son of Tiglath-Pileser III

Sargonid dynasty kings:

Sargon II:            722 – 705 BCE – claimed to be the son of Tiglath-Pileser III and usurped the throne from his [brother?] Shalmaneser V

Sennacherib:             705 – 681 BCE – son of Sargon II

Esarhaddon:                  681 – 669 BCE – son of Sennacherib

Ashurbanipal:               669 – 631 BCE – son of Esarhaddon

Ashur-etil—ilani:          631 – 627 BCE – son of Ashurbanipal

Sinsharishkun:              627 – 612 BCE – son of Ashurbanipal 

Sin-shumu-lishir:   626 BCE – General of Ashur-etil-ilani who rebelled against Sinsharishkun, attempting to claim the throne for himself

Ashur-uballit II:  612 – 609 BCE – unclear relationship, possibly the son of Sinsharishkun 

The following article is primarily about Germany and linking it with Assyria, though there is valuable material we can recall when we study the identity of Germany. There are also interesting sections worth highlighting with regard to Assyria.

The History of Germany, Stephen Flurry, 1997 – capitalisation his, emphasis and bold mine:

‘For several years now… we have taught that modern-day Germany descended from the people the Bible refers to as the Assyrians. In this article, we will prove this fact from the Bible and other historical sources. 

As Noah’s family multiplied exceedingly, many migrated… to a plain in the land of Shinar… (modern-day Iraq). Genesis 10 gives only the briefest account of this occurrence, mainly by just listing the lineages of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. But God does draw special attention to Nimrod… Nimrod’s name means “he rebelled” – against God, that is. Nimrod established the kingdom of Babylon. Babylon means confusion, which is what happened when God confounded their language at the tower of Babel. Aside from Nimrod, Genesis 10 also draws special attention to Asshur. “Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah.” (Genesis 10:11). 

As the margin suggests, a better translation of this verse would reveal that Asshur and Nimrod went out of the land of Shinar to build Nineveh and other cities. There is strong evidence to indicate that Asshur worked with Nimrod, probably in the military field, and helped to build Babel and Nineveh, as well as other cities.’ 

We will study Nimrod in depth in the next chapter, after Asshur. According to an unconventional chronology, Arphaxad was born circa 10,717 BCE, thus Asshur as the second son of Shem would have been born slightly before Arphaxad, circa 10,750 BCE. Nimrod was apparently the second generation after the flood. The Tower of Babel instigated by Nimrod, ended c. 6755 BCE. The descent from the ark to the Indus Valley, building a civilisation there and then migrating to Mesoptamia would likely mean that the cities built in Shinar and Assyria would have taken place circa 8000 BCE. 

‘Now notice verse 22: “The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.” Notice that Arphaxad is listed in this verse as the third son of Shem. Now read Genesis 11:10: “These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood.” Neither of Shem’s first two sons, Elam or Asshur, are mentioned! That’s because they were rejected as the heirs of Shem’s inheritance. If they were working alongside Nimrod, you can see why Shem (and God) rejected them! Asshur parted with his father and raised up the Assyrian Empire.’

There is debate over whether Arphaxad was born or conceived two years after the flood. According to the following four verses, Shem’s son Arphaxad would have been born on the ark: Genesis 5:32, Genesis 7:11, Genesis 11:10 and Genesis 8:13. However, according to Genesis 8:15-19 and Genesis 9:18-19, no children left the Ark. The only way to resolve this mathematical conundrum is to say the wording applies to conception rather than birth. This would be the only way to fit the three sons of Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad in a very busy two year period for Shem’s wife.

If on the other hand, the sexagesimal Sumerian counting system is correctly applied  as per an unconventional chronology [and not the mis-leading Biblical edited interpretation], then Arphaxad was actually born 120 years after the flood.

‘Notice what the historian Josephus recorded concerning Asshur: “Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons… Ashur lived at the city of Nineveh; and named his subjects Assyrians, WHO BECAME THE MOST FORTUNATE NATION; BEYOND OTHERS.” (Antiquities, I, vi, 4). Assyria quickly became the most prosperous, powerful nation of the day. 

… in Genesis 14:1-2: “And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal KING OF NATIONS; That these made war…” These four kings in verse 1 were allied as a gigantic Assyrian empire, as Josephus points out: “At this time, when the Assyrians had the dominion over Asia, the people of Sodom were in a flourishing condition… the Assyrians made war upon them; and, dividing their army into four parts, fought against them. Now every part of the army had its own commander; and when the battle was joined, the Assyrians were conquerors; and imposed tribute on the kings of the Sodomites, who submitted to this slavery twelve years… but on the thirteenth year they rebelled, and then the army of the Assyrians came upon them, under their commanders, Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer, and Tidal. These kings had laid waste all Syria, and overthrown the offspring of the giants.” (Antiquities, I, ix, 1). 

… Lange’s Commentary says, “According to Ktesias and others, the Assyrians were the first to establish a world-dominion.” (vol.1, p.403). The last king listed in Genesis 14:1 is Tidal, the “king of nations”. He ruled in the region of Asia Minor. The word Tidal comes from a Hebrew word which means “to fear, make afraid, dreadful and terrible.” For centuries, Assyria caused many nations GREAT FEAR! These four Assyrian generalscame to make war with the kings in Canaan because of their rebellion (GEN 14:4). The Assyrians routed the people of Canaan, including the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Genesis 14:17 says that Abram also killed the four top leaders of the Assyrian Empire, mentioned in verse 1. It was a complete rout! The power of Assyria was smashed in one night! Think about how the course of history was changed at this point.’ 

We have learned in the preceding chapter regarding Chedorlaomer, how this was a period of Elamite ascendancy and that these were four Kings of separate city-states, not four Generals of one state. Flurry has made some very big assumptions not supported by the Biblical account. Though he may be forgiven for ascribing Assyria to Tidal and Arioch, the Bible clearly states the king of Elam, Asshur’s elder brother and the king of Shinar which included Akkad and Sumer and their main cities Babylon and Uruk. These peoples were descended from Asshur’s younger brother Arphaxad. Assyria was a region at this time in northern Mesopotamia; it had no jurisdiction over southern Mesopotamia that incorporated the Land of Shinar – Akkadia and Sumer – or Elam to the far southeast. Josephus states the kings had ‘laid waste all Syria’. The Guti, Hurrian, Mitanni and Chatti states were predominantly Syrian or Aramean regions – allied with peoples from Haran and Nahor – to the north and west of Shinar and Asssyria. We also know that only Arioch of Ellasar [Larsa], the giant possibly died. Genesis 14:17 reveals Abraham defeated Chedorlaomer’s forces during his ambush night attack; not who died in the confrontation. The Assyrians were neither involved or decimated; nor was the cause of history changed for Assyria.

‘James McCabe, author of History of the World, says the Assyrians were a “fierce, treacherous race, delighting in the dangers of the chase and in war. The Assyrian troops were notably among the most formidable of ancient warriors… They never kept faith when it was to their interest to break treaties, and were regarded with suspicion by their neighbors in consequence of this characteristic… In organization and equipment of their troops, and in their system of attack and defence and their method of reducing fortified places, the Assyrians manifested a superiority to the nations by which they were surrounded.” (vol.1, pp.155, 160). 

Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote, “Ancient Assyria was the greatest war-making power in all history” (January 1963, Plain Truth, “Germany in Prophecy!”). 

James Hastings wrote, “The Assyrians of historic times were more robust, warlike, ‘fierce’, than the mild industrial Babylonians. This may have been due to the influence of climate and incessant warfare; but it may indicate a different race…The whole organization of the State was essentially military.”(Dictionary of the Bible, article “Assyria and Babylonia”). 

Leonard Catrell in Anvil of Civilization, wrote: “In all the annals of human conquest, it is difficult to find any people more dedicated to bloodshed and slaughter than the Assyrians. Their ferocity and cruelty have few parallels save in modern times.” (It’s interesting that Catrell can only compare their ferocity with those “in modern times.” By far, the Germans have been more dedicated to bloodshed than any other nation in this century.)’

The unfortunate reality as borne out by the figures of the dead, is that Russian rule has been more fierce than the Germans, responsible for the deaths of many, many millions more. Comparisons have been made between Hitler’s and Stalin’s regimes by historians, with Stalin clearly the more diabolical, terrorising and blood-thirsty.

‘C. Leonard Woolley described what these people looked like in his book, The Sumerians: “In the Zagros hills and across the plain to the Tigris, there lived a… fair-haired… people akin to the Guti (Goths) who… remained in what was afterwards Assyria.” (p.5). 

Here is what Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote in “Germany in Prophecy!”: “When the ancient Greek writers wanted to distinguish the Assyrians from the Arameans or Syrians, the Greeks called the Assyrians, ‘Leucosyri’ – meaning ‘whites’ or ‘blonds’ as distinct from the very brunette Syrians… ” (Plain Truth, January 1963, page17). 

By the time of Christ, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder recorded that the Assyrians were now dwelling north of the Black sea (Natural History, IV, 12, p.183). By this time, they had moved north. Much was written about the early German tribes which poured into Europe during the first and second centuries A.D., thanks in large part to the writings of the Roman historian Tacitus, who lived at that time. Among the most significant of these early German tribes are the Chatti… Chatti means “to break down by violence; to make afraid or terrify.” The ancestors of this German tribe, before migrating, lived mostly in Asia Minor, and were called the Assyrian Chatti. 

Many of these early German tribes were in constant conflict with the Roman Empire which is why the Romans collectively labeled them Germani, meaning “war men”. These early tribes migrated into Central Europe, as historians verify. The Romans labeled all of them “war men”. But from where did they come? Smith’s Classical Dictionary answers: “There can be NO DOUBT that they [the Assyrians]… migrated into Europe from the Caucasus and the countries around the Black and Caspian seas.” (article “Germania”, page 361).’ 

Modern Germany has inherited the name ‘Germany’. The Germans do not call themselves by that name. They are known by different names in different languages. They call themselves Deutsch, far removed from German. The quote from Smith’s Classical Dictionary does not include ‘the Assyrian’, this has been added as an assumption. We will study the Chatti [Hatti] – as there are two different nations [a former and a latter peoples] who were known by that name  – later in detail.

‘Some have argued that the Assyrian people spoke a Semitic language, not Indo-Germanic, and therefore the Germans could not be the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. Yet there is a passage in the Bible which clearly reveals how and why most of the ancient Assyrians acquired a new and different language. In the days of Nimrod, a tower was constructed at Babel which was to be the capital city of a world-ruling dictatorship, under which, God’s truth would have been completely stamped out. Concerning the rebellious people of Nimrod’s day, God said, “Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.”(GENESIS 11:6). 

To keep civilization from progressing to a point of self-destruction so soon, God had to “confound their language” (v.7). This miraculous intervention by God was the origin of differing languages. This was when most of the Assyrians acquired the Indo-Germanic tongue and other related languages. Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote in his article, “Germany in Prophecy!”: “European scholars have thoroughly studied the language of the land of Hatti – the ancestors of the Hessians. They found it to be an Indo-Germanic tongue – numerous words of which were akin to Old High German!… 

The language of the Hatti was the language of the West Assyrians… Scholars admit that for centuries the language of the people who inhabited Assyria was not merely Semitic.” (Plain Truth, January 1963, page 27).’ 

The later Hatti are associated with the Germans and the link with High German we will explore. These Hatti became known as Hittites and were linked to Assyria, living to their west in ancient Anatolia. These Hatti or Hittites were a distinct, separate people allied to Assyria. A similar relationship has existed in more recent history, which we will cover. The language of the Hatti, was not ‘the language of the West Assyrian,’ in that the Hatti were not Assyrian. This is a stretch, as is also saying the Assyrians went from a Semitic language to Indo-Germanic at the time of Peleg – we do not know this. Those scholars who profess Semitic speaking Asshur could not be the ancestor of the Indo-Germanic speaking Germans are correct. 

‘On the banks of the Mosel River in western Germany, just six miles from the Luxembourg border, sits the ancient German city of Trier. The Romans claim to be the founders of this ancient city. But German tradition, and even the name of the city, suggests otherwise. 

“On the Rotes Haus (Red House) beside the Steipe, there is a text in Latin boasting that Trier, or Treves, is older than Rome, thirteen hundred years older in fact. That is when Trebeta, son of Semiramis, is said to have founded the town.” That’s what it says in the opening paragraph of the Trier Colorphoto Guide to the Town. Josef K.L. Bihl writes in his German textbook, In deutschen Landen, “Trier was founded by Trebeta, a son of the famous Assyrian King Ninus” (page 69). The biblical name for Ninus is Nimrod

Semiramis was married to Nimrod, the founder of Babylon (Genesis 10:8-10… Genesis 10:11 says that Asshur and his descendants went out of Babylon and constructed the Assyrian capital – Nineveh. But as the margin correctly indicates, it was Nimrod who led Asshur out of Babylon and who actually supervised the construction project in Nineveh. Early on, the Bible indicates a close alliance between Nimrod and Asshur.’

Two important points from Stephen Flurry’s comments. If Ninus is Nimrod and Ninus is an Assyrian king, how does this square with Nimrod supposedly being a son of Cush? Secondly, if Nimrod led Asshur himself or Asshur’s people out of Babylon in the land of Shinar to build Nineveh, the future main city and capital of Assyria, how does this equate with Nimrod being from Cush? Was a descendant of Cush really ruling Shinar and Asshur? Was Nimrod actually descended from Ham’s son Cush? We shall return to these very important questions.

Asshur in Hebrew means: ‘level plain, step, happy, just.’ Derived from the verb asher, ’to go (straight) on’, or yasher, ‘to be level, straight up, just.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘There are two men and one empire called Asshur (=Assyria) in the Bible, and the names of all of these probably derive from the similarly named primary deity of Assyria. Asshur, Assyria and the Assyrians are not to be confused with:

  • The name Aram, the country directly north of Israel, which in Greek times became known by its present name of Syria. Its capital has been Damascus since ancient times. Even though Syria and Assyria are different countries, the Greeks called them both [the same], which isn’t all that strange since several cities and regions in Assyria are known by names that contain Aram; see for instance the names Aram-naharaim and Paddan-aram.
  • The quite different name Ashhur, belonging to the head [leader] of Tekoa (1 Chronicles 2:24)
  • The quite similar name Asher, which belonged to the eighth son of Jacob and second of Zilpah (Genesis 30:13).
  • The Asshurim, who were a people descending from Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:3).

The lesser known man named Asshur is mentioned in the genealogy of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:24), and has no further role in the Bible. The other man named Asshur was a son of Shem… (Genesis 10:22), and, on the Biblical stage, from him sprang the people called the Assyrians, who lived in Assyria, which in the Bible is known simply as Asshur. Its capital city Nineveh was built by Nimrod, according to the Bible (Genesis 10:11).

In the demographical record, the country Assyria started out as a small settlement named Assur, “built on a sandstone cliff on the west of the Tigris about 35 kilometers north of its confluence with the lower Zab River” (says The Oxford Companion to the Bible). It became an empire in the 19th century BC, but soon dwindled, reemerged in the 14th century during which it even took control over Babylon to its south, but quickly faded again.

Under Tiglath-pileser I (1115-1076 BC) the empire experienced brief and extensive success, but succumbed to the invasion of the Arameans. In 935 BC Assyria began to reconquer its territories lost to Aram, which brought them in range of Canaan, and also created the formidable Neo-Assyrian empire that we hear so much about in the Bible.

The foundations of the Neo-Assyrian empire were laid by king Ashurnasirpal II (884-859 BC), who built the city of Calah, which is also known as Nimrud (in the Bible personified as Nimrod), and expanded the (up to then marginal) town of Nineveh. Ashurnasirpal’s son Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) fought at the battle of Qarqar (853 BC), which entailed a clash between the Assyrian imperial army and a coalition of eleven states headed by king Hadadezer of Damascus, and which included the Arameans… and Israel under king Ahab. The Bible omits this battle and we know about it from the Kurkh monoliths, which were found in 1861 in Iraq. These monoliths contain the only (possible) reference to Israel in Assyrian and Babylonian records. At Qarqar the progression of the Assyrian empire was checked and in the years that followed its power diminished.

In 745 BC, a revolt in Calah led to the assumption of the Assyrian throne by the vigorous Tiglath-pileser III… who spent his career in conflict intervention all over the broader region. Even king Ahaz of Judah called upon the intervention of this imperial sheriff, when he found his kingdom besieged by kings Rezin of Aram and Pekah of Israel (2 Kings 16:7). He embellished his request with a gift made of silver and gold from the temple of YHWH, and Tiglath-pileser responded by capturing Damascus, exiling its people to Kir and executing Rezin (2 Kings 16:9). Still, the Chronicler wryly asserts that Tiglath-pileser’s assistance didn’t help Ahaz all that much (2 Chronicles 28:21). As part of the same campaign, Tiglath-pileser also invaded the land of Naphtali in the north of Israel and apparently also the territories of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh on the east (1 Chronicles 5:6, 5:26), and deported* the people in what became known as the First Deportation (1 Kings 15:29). King Pekah of Israel was murdered and succeeded by Hoshea, son of Elah, who was made to pay an annual tribute to the king of Assyria.

After six years of paying taxes to Assyria, king Hoshea figured he could get away from it by allying Israel with Egypt. Tiglath-pileser’s son Shalmaneser V (727-722) didn’t think so, marched on Samaria, besieged it for three years and finally captured it. He imprisoned Hoshea and deported the city’s population (2 Kings 17:4-6). His successor was the usurper Sargon II (722-705 BC), who is mentioned only once in the Bible, in Isaiah 20:1 in reference to the battle of Ashdod. But it was he who deported the rest of Israel in what is known as the Second Deportation. This action effectively ended the northern kingdom of Israel and virtually wiped out the tribes other than Judah and the two nationally absorbed tribes of Levi and Simeon.

Sargon’s son Sennacherib (705-681 BC) sacked Babylon, deported its population and besieged Jerusalem in the fourteenth year of the reign of king Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:13). King Hezekiah initially bought him off with a tribute of 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold (2 Kings 18:14) but Sennacherib wanted Jerusalem’s submission. He sent Rabshakeh and a division of his army to negotiate Jerusalem’s peaceful surrender but king Hezekiah wouldn’t budge (18:36). Hezekiah sent his chief of staff Eliakim to the prophet Isaiah, who told him that the Lord had said that Jerusalem would not fall to the Assyrians (19:7, 19:20). When Rabshakeh went to report Hezekiah’s refusal to surrender to Sennacherib, he found his king engaged in battle with the army of Libnah and realized that the heat was off Jerusalem (19:8). Then one night the Lord decimated the Assyrian army by undisclosed means, and Sennacherib went home. He was killed by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer in the temple of the god Nisroch, and his son Esarhaddon became king in his place (681-669 BC).

King Esarhaddon died of an illness and was succeeded by the great Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC), who expanded the Assyrian empire to its record size. In the Bible he’s mentioned only as the king who brought people from outside to Samaria (Ezra 4:10). After his death his empire succumbed to civil war and was left without central reign. Finally, a man named Sin-shar-ishkun (approximately 623-612) took the throne, but within a decade the empire was invaded by a coalition of Medes and Babylonians, who captured the central provinces. 

The last king of Assyria was Ashur-uballit II (612-609), who ruled in Haran, in the empire’s remaining western territories. He had support from Egypt but lost his lands to the Babylonians. The Assyrian empire and its vibrant culture remained forgotten until archeologists of the modern age revived it.

The name Asshur is highly similar to the Hebrew name Asher but is spelled with a waw before the resh… [the]verb (‘ashar) covers a decisive progression or a setting right, and is often applied to describe happiness and prosperity…’

We learn of two sons born to Asshur in the Book of Jasher 7:16

And the sons of Ashar were Mirus and Mokil

In Isaiah 66:19 ESV, we read the verse in connection with Tarshish, Lud, Tubal and Javan. Pul is mentioned and commentators sometimes define Pul as Phut or Put. 

… and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish [Japan], Pul [H6322 – Puwl: distinguishing], and Lud [Iran], who draw the bow, to Tubal [Southern Coastland China] and Javan [Archipelago South East Asia], to the coastlands [Gomer, continental SE Asia] far away, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations.

In 2 Kings 15:19 ESV, we learn:

Pul the king of Assyria came against the land, and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that he might help him to confirm his hold on the royal power.

1 Chronicles 5:26

English Standard Version

So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser [745-727 BC] king of Assyria, and he took them into exile*, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day [time of writing].

Pul is not Phut, but rather a king of Assyria; either Tiglath-pileser III himself, or a successor. Isaiah could well be referring to a future ruler. I would lean towards the spirit [or mind] of Tiglath-pileser being moved to take Israel captive. In Hebrew, Pul means: ‘distinctive, discerner’ or ‘darkling.’ From the verb palal, ‘to distinguish’ or ‘discern.’ Related names via the verb are amazingly, Amraphel the alternate name we discovered for Hammurabi, [former ally then enemy of Chedorlaomer] and also the Nephilim, which we will discuss in the chapter following Nimrod. 

Abarim Publications, bold mine:

‘The name Pul is assigned to one human male and one country:

  • Pul the man is the same as Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria. 
  • Pul the country is mentioned by the prophet Isaiah… Since the other lands that Isaiah lists are all well known, commentators nowadays believe that this otherwise unmentioned Pul is the same as the better known Put. This obviously remains conjecture.

It’s been a long surviving mystery where the name Pul might have come from. In Context of Scripture (2002), William W. Hallo submits: “Today we know that Tiglath-pileser III was Pul, though there is still some discussion among Assyriologists concerning the etymology and use of the name Pul”. Barry J. Beitzel writes in Biblica — The Bible Atlas (2007): “For centuries it was assumed that Pul and Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria were separate kings, as implied by the account in 2 Kings. It is now known that “Pul” is a diminutive form of Tiglath-pileser, presumably from the middle portion of the name from where it may have been associated in folk etymology. Pul or Pulu is a well-known Assyrian name, meaning “limestone (or block of limestone)””.

There aren’t many ways to write Pul in Hebrew, but it appears that his name was really Pulu… also associated to the words for Wonderful, Judge and Gloom. NOBSE Study Bible Name List appears to go with the old tradition and reads Strong.’

In Ezekiel 27:23 ESV, we see Assyria linked in trade with Tyre, other European nations and the Medes: 

Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur [Russia], and Chilmad traded with you.

Abarim Publications: 

‘The name Chilmad occurs only once in the Bible, namely in Ezekiel 27:23, where it is listed among the many nations that traded with Tyre. Unlike most of the other names of this list, it’s not clear where Chilmad might have been located. Some scholars… have proposed that Chilmad isn’t really a name but simply means “all Media”… Since it’s not clear where Chilmad might have been it’s also not clear from which language this name comes, let alone what it might have meant. It’s not even certain that Chilmad is really a name, or was ever intended as one. Ancient Hebrew scribes often transliterated foreign names into barely recognizable forms, often to make a point or pun.

…we surmise that our “name” may have originated as a compressed version of, “all measure” or “all sorts”, in the vein of the similar phrase, “all wealth”, (Ezekiel 27:12 and 27:18), and the phrases, “all spices”, and, “all stones” (both 27:22). The first part of our “name” looks like the noun (kol), meaning all or the whole… And the second part of our name looks like it has to do with the name for Media, namely from the verb (madad), to measure… It’s unclear what the name Chilmad means, but among a Hebrew audience there might have been a creative few who heard Of All Sorts or In Every Measure or even All Disease.’

In Psalm 83:4-8 ESV, we read of a past alliance or at least a list of the main adversaries against Jacob’s sons and Asshur’s powerful military involvement or presence. We will return to this passage when we have studied all the identities listed. All the identities apart from Assyria, are usually identified as being in the Middle East or the Islamic world, which is not correct. 

4 They say, “Come, let us wipe them out as a nation; let the name of Israel be remembered no more!” 5 For they conspire with one accord; against you they make a covenant – 6 the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites, Moab and the Hagrites,Gebal and Ammon and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;Asshur also has joined them; they are the strong arm of the children of Lot

Isaiah 31:5-9

English Standard Version

5 Like birds hovering, so the Lord of hosts will protect Jerusalem; he will protect and deliver it; he will spare and rescue it.” 6 Turn to him from whom people have deeply revolted, O children of Israel. 7 For in that day everyone shall cast away his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your hands have sinfully made for you. 8 “And the Assyrian shall fall by a sword, not of man; and a sword, not of man, shall devour him; and he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be put to forced labor. 9 His rock shall pass away in terror, and his officers desert the standard in panic,” declares the Lord, whose fire is in Zion, and whose furnace is in Jerusalem.

This event occurred in part, when Sennacherib’s army was decimated prior to their planned attack circa 701 BCE on Jerusalem, the capital of the Kingdom of Judah [Tribes of Judah and Benjamin, (Simeon & Levi)]. It is principally revealing a future event, as the young men of Asshur were not taken as slaves in Sennacherib’s defeat.

Isaiah 30:31

English Standard Version

The Assyrians will be terror-stricken at the voice of the Lord, when he strikes with his rod.

The Assyrians are used to being the Rod of the Creator’s anger, not at the end of it.

Isaiah 10:4-8, 11-16, 24-27

New Century Version

4… God Will Punish Assyria. 5 God says, “How terrible it will be for the king of Assyria. I use him like a rod to show my anger; in anger I use Assyria like a club [rod]. 6 I send it to fight against a nation that is separated from God. I am angry with those people, so I command Assyria to fight against them, to take their wealth from them, to trample them down like dirt in the streets. 

But Assyria’s king doesn’t understand that I am using him; he doesn’t know he is a tool for me. He only wants to destroy other people and to defeat many nations. 8 The king of Assyria says to himself, ‘All of my commanders are like kings… 11 As I defeated Samaria and her idols, I will also defeat Jerusalem and her idols.’”

12 When the Lord finishes doing what he planned to Mount Zion and Jerusalem, he will punish Assyria. The king of Assyria is very proud, and his pride has made him do these evil things, so God will punish him. 13 The king of Assyria says this: “By my own power I have done these things; by my wisdom I have defeated many nations. I have taken their wealth, and, like a mighty one, I have taken their people. 14 I have taken the riches of all these people, like a person reaching into a bird’s nest. I have taken these nations, like a person taking eggs. Not one raised a hand or opened its mouth to stop me.”15 An ax is not better than the person who swings it. A saw is not better than the one who uses it. A stick cannot control the person who picks it up. A club cannot pick up the person! 16 So the Lord God All-Powerful will send a terrible disease upon Assyria’s soldiers. The strength of Assyria will be burned up like a fire burning until everything is gone.

24 This is what the Lord God All-Powerful says: “My people living in Jerusalem, don’t be afraid of the Assyrians, who beat you with a rod and raise a stick against you, as Egypt did. 25 After a short time my anger against you will stop, and then I will turn my anger to destroying them.” 26 Then the Lord All-Powerful will beat the Assyrians with a whip as he defeated Midian at the rock of Oreb. He will raise his stick over the waters as he did in Egypt. 27 Then the troubles that Assyria puts on you will be removed, and the load they make you carry will be taken away…

Matthew 12:41

English Standard Version

The men of Nineveh [capital of Assyria, equating to Moscow today] will rise up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah… 

The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In 721 B.C. Assyria swept out of the north, captured the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and took the ten tribes into captivity. From there they became lost to history. Assyria, named from the god Ashur (highest in the pantheon of Assyrian gods), was located in the Mesopotamian plain. It was bordered on the west by the Syrian desert, on the south by Babylonia, and on the north and east by the Persian and Urarthian hills. This area today is primarily the nation of Iraq.

“[The Assyrians] took their common language and their arts from Sumeria, but modified them later into an almost undistinguishable similarity to the language and arts of Babylonia. 

Their circumstances, however, forbade them to indulge in the effeminate ease of Babylon; from beginning to end they were a race of warriors, mighty in muscle and courage, abounding in proud hair and beard, standing straight, stern and solid on their monuments, and bestriding with tremendous feet the east-Mediterranean world. Their history is one of kings and slaves, wars and conquests, bloody victories and sudden defeat.” (Will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, The Story of Civilization, 1:266.)

Assyria’s ascent as a formidable power in the Near East was due in large measure to strong kings who increased her borders and subjected other nations as tributaries. Assyria first became an independent nation between 1813 and 1781 B.C. under Shamshi-Adad. Under [their] kings Assyria reached its greatest apex of power, controlling the area that included not only Assyria but also Babylonia, Armenia, Media, Judea, Syria, Phoenicia, Sumeria, Elam, and Egypt. This empire “was without doubt the most extensive administrative organization yet seen in the Mediterranean or Near Eastern world; only Hammurabi and Thutmose III had approached it,and Persia alone would equal it before the coming of Alexander” (Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, 1:270).

The most vital part of the Assyrian government was its army. Warfare was a science to the leaders of Assyria… cavalry [was] introduced by Ashurnasirpal to aid the infantry and chariots, [as were] sappers, armor made from iron, siege machines, and battering rams [which] were all developed or perfected by the Assyrians. Strategy and tactics were also well understood by the Assyrian officers. But it was not just Assyrian effectiveness in warfare that struck terror to the hearts of the Near Eastern world. They were savage and brutal as well. 

“A captured city was usually plundered and burnt to the ground, and its site was deliberately denuded by killing its trees. The loyalty of the troops was secured by dividing a large part of the spoils among them; their bravery was ensured by the general rule of the Near East that all captives in war might be enslaved or slain. Soldiers were rewarded for every severed head they brought in from the field, so that the aftermath of a victory generally witnessed the wholesale decapitation of fallen foes. Most often the prisoners, who would have consumed much food in a long campaign, and would have constituted a danger and nuisance in the rear, were dispatched after the battle; they knelt with their backs to their captors, who beat their heads in with clubs, or cut them off with cutlasses. Scribes stood by to count the number of prisoners taken and killed by each soldier, and apportioned the booty accordingly; the king, if time permitted, presided at the slaughter. The nobles among the defeated were given more special treatment: their ears, noses, hands and feet were sliced off, or they were thrown from high towers, or they and their children were beheaded, or flayed alive, or roasted over a slow fire. …”

“In all departments of Assyrian life we meet with a patriarchal sternness natural to a people that lived by conquest, and in every sense on the border of barbarism. Just as the Romans took thousands of prisoners into lifelong slavery after their victories, and dragged others to the Circus Maximus to be torn to pieces by starving animals, so the Assyrians seemed to find satisfaction – or a necessary tutelage for their sons—in torturing captives, blinding children before the eyes of their parents, flaying men alive, roasting them in kilns, chaining them in cages for the amusement of the populace, and then sending the survivors off to execution. Ashurnasirpal tells how ‘all the chiefs who had revolted I flayed, with their skins I covered the pillar, some in the midst I walled up, others on stakes I impaled, still others I arranged around the pillar on stakes…”

“As for the chieftains and royal officers who had rebelled, I cut off their members.’ Ashurbanipal boasts that ‘I burned three thousand captives with fire, I left not a single one among them alive to serve as a hostage.’ Another of his inscriptions reads: ‘These warriors who had sinned against Ashur and had plotted evil against me… from their hostile mouths have I torn their tongues, and I have compassed their destruction. As for the others who remained alive, I offered them as a funerary sacrifice… their lacerated members have I given unto the dogs, the swine, the wolves… By accomplishing these deeds I have rejoiced the heart of the great gods.’ Another monarch instructs his artisans to engrave upon the bricks these claims on the admiration of posterity: ‘My war chariots crush men and beasts… The monuments which I erect are made of human corpses from which I have cut the head and limbs. I cut off the hands of all those whom I capture alive.’ Reliefs at Nineveh show men being impaled or flayed, or having their tongues torn out; one shows a king gouging out the eyes of prisoners with a lance while he holds their heads conveniently in place with a cord passed through their lips.” (Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, 1:271, 275–76.)

Under the reign of Tiglath-pileser II, Assyria began consolidating its power in the western part of the empire. Around 738 B.C. he demanded and received tribute from Damascus, the capital of Syria, and Samaria, the capital of Israel (2 Kings 15:19-20). But four years later, the two… states rebelled, and once again Tiglath-pileser moved in. Damascus was conquered, as was part of the territory of the Northern Kingdom, and the people were carried off into captivity (2 Kings 15:29). It seems to have been Tiglath-pileser who originated large-scale deportations of conquered peoples. By deporting a conquered people en masse to a foreign land, Tiglath-pileser hoped to break their unity and destroy their national identity. The practice of large deportations continued under Shalmaneser and later Sargon II, successors to Tiglath-pileser who also played an important role in the history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.’

I am reproducing almost in its entirety the entry for Assyria located on Britannica. The casual reader may skim or miss; those readers with a special interest in Asshur and Assyria, may find much value if they have not read the article previously.

‘Strictly speaking, the use of the name “Assyria” for the period before the latter half of the 2nd millennium BCE is anachronistic; Assyria – as against the city-state of Ashur – did not become an independent state until about 1400 BCE. In contrast to southern Mesopotamia… written sources in Assyria do not begin until very late, shortly before Ur III [Neo-Sumerian Empire 2100 BC]. In the early 2nd millennium the main cities of this region were Ashur (160 miles north-northwest of modern Baghdad), the capital (synonymous with the city god and national divinity)… [and] Nineveh, lying opposite modern Mosul… 

In Assyria, inscriptions were composed in Akkadian from the beginning. Under Ur III, Ashur was a provincial capital. The inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia called Assyria Shubir in Sumerian and Subartu in Akkadian; these names may point to a Subarean population that was related to the Hurrians.’

 ‘The Assyrian dialect of Akkadian found in the beginning of the 2nd millennium differs strongly from the dialect of Babylonia. These two versions of the Akkadian language continue into the 1st millennium. In contrast to the kings of southern Mesopotamia, the rulers of Ashur styled themselves not king but partly issiakum, the Akkadian equivalent of the Sumerian word ensi, partly ruba’um, or “great one.” Unfortunately, the rulers cannot be synchronized precisely with the kings of southern Mesopotamia before Shamshi-Adad I.

Aside from the generally scarce reports on projected construction, there is at present no information about the city of Ashur and its surroundings. There exists, however, unexpectedly rewarding source material from the trading colonies of Ashur in Anatolia. The texts come mainly from Kanesh (modern Kultepe, near Kayseri, in Turkey) and from Hattusa (modern Bogazkoy, Turkey), the later Hittite capital. In the 19th century BCE three generations of Assyrian merchants engaged in a lively commodity trade (especially in textiles and metal) between the homeland and Anatolia, also taking part profitably in internal Anatolian trade. Clearly these forays by Assyrian merchants led to some transplanting of Mesopotamian culture into Anatolia. Thus the Anatolians adopted cuneiform writing and used the Assyrian language.

From about 1813 to about 1781 [1652 – 1620 BCE] Assyria was ruled by Shamshi-Adad I… Shamshi-Adad’s father – an Amorite, to judge by the name – had ruled near Mari. The son, not being of Assyrian origin, ascended the throne of Assyria as a foreigner and on a detour, as it were, after having spent some time as an exile in Babylonia. He had his two sons rule as viceroys, in Ekallatum on the Tigris and in Mari, respectively, until the older of the two, Ishme-Dagan, succeeded his father on the throne. Through the archive of correspondence in the palace at Mari, scholars are particularly well informed about Shamshi-Adad’s reign and many aspects of his personality. Shamshi-Adad’s state had a common border for some time with… Babylonia… Soon after Shamshi-Adad’s death, Mari broke away, regaining its independence under an Amorite dynasty that had been living there for generations; in the end, Hammurabi conquered and destroyed Mari. After Ishme-Dagan’s death, Assyrian history is lost sight of for more than 100 years.

Very little can be said about northern Assyria during the 2nd millennium BCE. Information on the old capital, Ashur, located in the south of the country, is somewhat more plentiful. The old lists of kings suggest that the same dynasty ruled continuously over Ashur from about 1600. All the names of the kings are given, but little else is known about Ashur before 1420. Almost all the princes had Akkadian names, and it can be assumed that their sphere of influence was rather small. Although Assyria belonged to the kingdom of the Mitanni [Hurrians] for a long time, it seems that Ashur retained a certain autonomy. Located close to the boundary with Babylonia, it played that empire off against Mitanni whenever possible. Puzur-Ashur III concluded a border treaty with Babylonia about 1480, as did Ashur-bel-nisheshu about 1405. Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (c. 1392–c. 1383) was even able to obtain support from Egypt, which sent him a consignment of gold. 

Ashur-uballit I (c. 1354 – c. 1318) was at first subject to King Tushratta of Mitanni. After 1340, however, he attacked Tushratta, presumably together with Suppiluliumas I of the Hittites. Taking away from Mitanni parts of northeastern Mesopotamia, Ashur-uballiṭ now called himself “Great King” and socialized with the king of Egypt on equal terms, arousing the indignation of the king of Babylonia. Ashur-uballiṭ was the first to name Assyria the Land of Ashur, because the old name, Subartu, was often used in a derogatory sense in Babylonia. He ordered his short inscriptions to be partly written in the Babylonian dialect rather than the Assyrian, since this was considered refined. 

Marrying his daughter to a Babylonian, he intervened there energetically when Kassite nobles murdered his grandson. Future generations came to consider him rightfully as the real founder of the Assyrian empire. His son Enlil-nirari (c. 1326–c. 1318) also fought against Babylonia. Arik-den-ili (c. 1308–c. 1297) turned westward, where he encountered Semitic tribes of the so-called Akhlamu group.

Still greater successes were achieved by Adad-nirari I (c. 1295–c. 1264). Defeating the Kassite king Nazimaruttash, he forced him to retreat. After that he defeated the kings of Mitanni, first Shattuara I, then Wasashatta. This enabled him for a time to incorporate all Mesopotamia into his empire as a province, although in later struggles he lost large parts to the Hittites. Adad-nirari’s inscriptions were more elaborate than those of his predecessors and were written in the Babylonian dialect. In them he declares that he feels called to these wars by the gods, a statement that was to be repeated by other kings after him. Assuming the old title of great king, he called himself “King of All.” He enlarged the temple and the palace in Ashur and also developed the fortifications there, particularly at the banks of the Tigris River. He worked on large building projects in the provinces.

His son Shalmaneser I (Shulmanu-asharidu; c. 1263–c. 1234) attacked Uruatru (later called Urartu) [refer Chapter XVII Lud] in southern Armenia, which had allegedly broken away. Shattuara II of Hanigalbat, however, put him into a difficult situation, cutting his forces off from their water supplies. With courage born of despair, the Assyrians fought themselves free. They then set about reducing what was left of the Mitanni kingdom into an Assyrian province. The king claimed to have blinded 14,400 enemies in one eye – psychological warfare of a similar kind was used more and more as time went by. The Hittites tried in vain to save Hanigalbat. Together with the Babylonians they fought a commercial war against Ashur for many years. Like his father, Shalmaneser was a great builder. At the juncture of the Tigris and Great Zab rivers, he founded a strategically situated second capital, Kalakh (biblical Calah; modern Nimrud).

His son was Tukulti-Ninurta (c. 1233–c. 1197), the Ninus of Greek legends. Gifted but extravagant, he made his nation a great power. He carried off thousands of Hittites from eastern Anatolia. He fought particularly hard against Babylonia, deporting Kashtiliash IV to Assyria. When the Babylonians rebelled again, he plundered the temples in Babylon, an act regarded as a sacrilege, even in Assyria. The relationship between the king and his capital deteriorated steadily. For this reason the king began to build a new city, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, on the other side of the Tigris River. Ultimately, even his sons rebelled against him and laid siege to him in his city; in the end he was murdered. His victorious wars against Babylonia were glorified in an epic poem, but his empire broke up soon after his death. Assyrian power declined for a time, while that of Babylonia rose. Assyria had suffered under the oppression of both the Hurrians and the Mitanni kingdom. Its struggle for liberation and the bitter wars that followed had much to do with its development into a military power. 

In his capital of Ashur, the king depended on the citizen class and the priesthood, as well as on the landed nobility that furnished him with the war-chariot troops. The breeding of horses was carried on intensively; remnants of elaborate directions for their training are extant. After a period of decline following Tukulti-Ninurta I, Assyria was consolidated and stabilized under Ashur-dan I [1178-1133 BCE] and Ashur-resh-ishi I (c. 1133–c. 1116). Several times forced to fight against Babylonia, the latter was even able to defend himself against an attack by Nebuchadrezzar I. According to the inscriptions, most of his building efforts were in Nineveh, rather than in the old capital of Ashur. His son Tiglath-pileser I (Tukulti-apil-Esharra; (c. 1115–c. 1077) raised the power of Assyria to new heights. 

First he turned against a large army of the Mushki that had entered into southern Armenia from Anatolia, defeating them decisively. After this, he forced the small Hurrian states of southern Armenia to pay him tribute. Trained in mountain warfare themselves and helped by capable pioneers, the Assyrians were now able to advance far into the mountain regions. Their main enemies were the Aramaeans… whose many small states often combined against the Assyrians. Tiglath-pileser I also went to Syria and even reached the Mediterranean, where he took a sea voyage. After 1100 these campaigns led to conflicts with Babylonia. Tiglath-pileser conquered northern Babylonia and plundered Babylon, without decisively defeating Marduk-nadin-ahhe. In his own country the king paid particular attention to agriculture and fruit growing, improved the administrative system, and developed more thorough methods of training scribes.

Three of his sons reigned after Tiglath-pileser, including Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1074–c. 1057). Like his father, he fought in southern Armenia and against the Aramaeans with Babylonia as his ally. Disintegration of the empire could not be delayed, however. The grandson of Tiglath-pileser, Ashurnasirpal I (c. 1050–c. 1032), was sickly and unable to do more than defend Assyria proper against his enemies. Fragments of three of his prayers to Ishtar are preserved; among them is a penitential prayer in which he wonders about the cause of so much adversity. Referring to his many good deeds but admitting his guilt at the same time, he asks for forgiveness and health. According to the king, part of his guilt lay in neglecting to teach his subjects the fear of god. After him, little is known for 100 years.

State and society during the time of Tiglath-pileser were not essentially different from those of the 13th century. Collections of laws, drafts, and edicts of the court exist that go back as far as the 14th century BCE. Presumably, most of these remained in effect. One tablet defining the marriage laws shows that the social position of women in Assyria was lower than in Babylonia or Israel or among the Hittites. A man was allowed to send away his wife at his own pleasure with or without divorce money. In the case of adultery, he was permitted to kill or maim her. Outside her house the woman was forced to observe many restrictions, such as the wearing of a veil. It is not clear whether these regulations carried the weight of law, but they seem to have represented a reaction against practices that were more favourable to women. 

Two somewhat older marriage contracts, for example, granted equal rights to both partners, even in divorce. The women of the king’s harem were subject to severe punishment, including beating, maiming, and death, along with those who guarded and looked after them. The penal laws of the time were generally more severe in Assyria than in other countries… The death penalty was not uncommon. In less serious cases the penalty was forced  labour after flogging. In certain cases there was trial by ordeal. One tablet treats the subject of landed property rights. Offences against the established boundary lines called for extremely severe punishment. A creditor was allowed to force his debtor to work for him, but he could not sell him.

The greater part of Assyrian literature was either taken over from Babylonia or written by the Assyrians in the Babylonian dialect, who modeled their works on Babylonian originals. The Assyrian dialect was used in legal documents, court and temple rituals, and collections of recipes – as, for example, in directions for making perfumes. A new art form was the picture tale: a continuing series of pictures carved on square stelae of stone. The pictures, showing war or hunting scenes, begin at the top of the stela and run down around it, with inscriptions under the pictures explaining them. These and the finely cut seals show that the fine arts of Assyria were beginning to surpass those of Babylonia. Architecture and other forms of the monumental arts also began a further development, such as the double temple with its two towers (ziggurat). Colourful enameled tiles were used to decorate the facades.

The most important factor in the history of Mesopotamia in the 10th century was the continuing threat from the Aramaean[s]. Again and again, the kings of both Babylonia and Assyria were forced to repel their invasions. Even though the Aramaeans were not able to gain a foothold in the main cities, there are evidences of them in many rural areas. Ashur-dan II (934–912) succeeded in suppressing the Aramaeans and the mountain people, in this way stabilizing the Assyrian boundaries. He reintroduced the use of the Assyrian dialect in his written records.

Adad-nirari II (c. 911–891) left detailed accounts of his wars and his efforts to improve agriculture. He led six campaigns against Aramaean intruders from northern Arabia. In two campaigns against Babylonia he forced Shamash-mudammiq (c. 930–904) to surrender extensive territories. Shamash-mudammiq was murdered, and a treaty with his successor, Nabu-shum-ukin (c. 904–888), secured peace for many years. Tukulti-Ninurta II (c. 890–884), the son of Adad-nirari II, preferred Ninveh to Ashur. He fought campaigns in southern Armenia. He was portrayed on stelae in blue and yellow enamel in the late Hittite style, showing him under a winged sun – a theme adopted from Egyptian art. 

His son Ashurnasirpal II (883–859) continued the policy of conquest and expansion. He left a detailed account of his campaigns, which were impressive in their cruelty. Defeated enemies were impaled, flayed, or beheaded in great numbers. Mass deportations, however, were found to serve the interests of the growing empire better than terror. Through the systematic exchange of native populations, conquered regions were denationalized. 

The result was a submissive, mixed population in which the Aramaean element became the majority. This provided the labour force for the various public works in the metropolitan centres of the Assyrian empire. Ashurnasirpal II rebuilt Kalakh, founded by Shalmaneser I, and made it his capital. Ashur remained the centre of the worship of the god Ashur—in whose name all the wars of conquest were fought. A third capital was Nineveh. [Recall the Russians have moved their capitals from Novgorod, Kiev, St Petersburg (Leningrad) and Moscow].

Ashurnasirpal II was the first to use cavalry units to any large extent in addition to infantry and war-chariot troops. He also was the first to employ heavy, mobile battering rams and wall breakers in his sieges. The campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II led him mainly to southern Armenia and Mesopotamia. 

After a series of heavy wars, he incorporated Mesopotamia as far as the Euphrates River. A campaign to Syria encountered little resistance. There was no great war against Babylonia. Ashurnasirpal, like other Assyrian kings, may have been moved by religion not to destroy Babylonia, which had almost the same gods as Assyria. Both empires must have profited from mutual trade and cultural exchange. The Babylonians, under the energetic Nabu-apla-iddina (c. 887–855) attacked the Aramaeans in southern Mesopotamia… Ashurnasirpal, so brutal in his wars, was able to inspire architects, structural engineers, and artists and sculptors to heights never before achieved. He built and enlarged temples and palaces in several cities. His most impressive monument was his own palace in Kalakh, covering a space of 269,000 square feet (25,000 square metres). Hundreds of large limestone slabs were used in murals in the staterooms and living quarters. [Recall Pul or Pulu, is a well-known Assyrian name, which includes the meaning ‘limestone’ or ‘block of limestone’].

Most of the scenes were done in relief, but painted murals also have been found. Most of them depict mythological themes and symbolic fertility rites, with the king participating. Brutal war pictures were aimed to discourage enemies. The chief god of Kalakh was Ninurta, a god of war and the hunt. The tower of the temple dedicated to Ninurta also served as an astronomical observaotory. Kalakh soon became the cultural centre of the empire. Ashurnasirpal claimed to have entertained 69,574 guests at the opening ceremonies of his palace.

The son and successor of Ashurnasirpal was Shalmaneser III (858–824). His father’s equal in both brutality and energy, he was less realistic in his undertakings. His inscriptions, in a peculiar blend of Assyrian and Babylonian, record his considerable achievements but are not always able to conceal his failures. His campaigns were directed mostly against Syria. While he was able to conquer northern Syria and make it a province, in the south he could only weaken the strong state of Damascus and was unable, even after several wars, to eliminate it. In 841 he laid unsuccessful siege to Damascus. Also in 841 King Jehu of Israel was forced to pay tribute. In his invasion of Cilicia, Shalmaneser had only partial success. The same was true of the kingdom of Urartu in Armenia, from which, however, the troops returned with immense quantities of lumber and building stone. 

The king and, in later years, the general Dayyan-Ashur went several times to western Iran, where they found such states as Mannai in northwestern Iran and, farther away in the southeast, the Persians. They also encountered the Medes during these wars. Horse tribute was collected.

In Babylonia, Marduk-zakir-shumi I ascended the throne about the year 855. His brother Marduk-bel-usati rebelled against him, and in 851 the king was forced to ask Shalmaneser for help. Shalmaneser was only too happy to oblige; when the usurper had been finally eliminated (850), Shalmaneser went to southern Babylonia, which at that time was almost completely dominated by Aramaeans. There he encountered, among others, the Chaldeans, mentioned for the first time in 878 BCE, who were to play a leading role in the history of later times; Shalmaneser made them tributaries.

During his long reign he built temples, palaces, and fortifications in Assyria as well as in the other capitals of his provinces. His artists created many statues and stelae. Among the best known is the Black Obelisk, which includes a picture of Jehu of Israel paying tribute. In the last four years of the reign of Shalmaneser, the crown prince Ashur-da’in-apla led a rebellion. The old king appointed his younger son Shamshi-Adad as the new crown prince. Forced to flee to Babylonia, Shamshi-Adad V (823–811) finally managed to regain the kingship with the help of Marduk-zakir-shumi I under humiliating conditions. As king he campaigned with varying success in southern Armenia and Azerbaijan, later turning against Babylonia. He won several battles against the Babylonian kings Marduk-balassu-iqbi and Baba-aha-iddina (about 818–12) and pushed through to Chaldea. Babylonia remained independent, however.

Shamshi-Adad V died while Adad-nirari III (810–783) was still a minor. His Babylonian mother, Sammu-ramat, took over the regency, governing with great energy until 806. The Greeks, who called her Semiramis, credited her with legendary accomplishments, but historically little is known about her. Adad-nirari later led several campaigns against the Medes and also against Syria and Palestine. In 804 he reached Gaza, but Damascus proved invincible. He also fought in Babylonia, helping to restore order in the north. Shalmaneser IV (c. 783–773) fought against Urartu [Lud], then at the height of its power under King Argishti (c. 780–755). He successfully defended eastern Mesopotamia against attacks from Armenia. On the other hand, he lost most of Syria after a campaign against Damascus in 773. The reign of Ashur-dan III (772–755) was shadowed by rebellions and by epidemics of plague. Of Ashur-nirari V (754–746) little is known.

In Assyria the feudal structure of society remained largely unchanged. Many of the conquered lands were combined to form large provinces. The governors of these provinces sometimes acquired considerable independence, particularly under the weaker monarchs after Adad-nirari III. Some of them even composed their own inscriptions. The influx of displaced peoples into the cities of Assyria created large metropolitan centres. The spoils of war, together with an expanding trade, favoured the development of a well-to-do commercial class. The dense population of the cities gave rise to social tensions that only the strong kings were able to contain. 

A number of the former capitals of the conquered lands remained important as capitals of provinces. There was much new building. A standing occupational force was needed in the provinces, and these troops grew steadily in proportion to the total military forces. There are no records on the training of officers or on military logistics. The civil service also expanded, the largest administrative body being the royal court, with thousands of functionaries and craftsmen in the several residential cities.

The cultural decline about the year 1000 was overcome during the reigns of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III. The arts in particular experienced a tremendous resurgence. Literary works continued to be written in Assyrian and were seldom of great importance. The literature that had been taken over from Babylonia was further developed with new writings, although one can rarely distinguish between works written in Assyria and works written in Babylonia. In religion, the official cults of Ashur and Ninurta continued, while the religion of the common people went its separate way.

For no other period of Assyrian history is there an abundance of sources comparable to those available for the interval from roughly 745 to 640. Aside from the large number of royal inscriptions, about 2,400 letters, most of them more or less fragmentary, have been published. Usually the senders and recipients of these letters are the king and high government officials. Among them are reports from royal agents about foreign affairs and letters about cultic matters. Treaties, oracles, queries to the sun god about political matters, and prayers of or for kings contain a great deal of additional information. Last but certainly not least are paintings and wall reliefs, which are often very informative.

The decline of Assyrian power after 780 was notable; Syria and considerable lands in the north were lost. A military coup deposed King Ashur-nirari V and raised a general to the throne. Under the name of Tiglath-pileser III (745–727), he brought the empire to its greatest expanse. He reduced the size of the provinces in order to break the partial independence of the governors. He also invalidated the tax privileges of cities such as Ashur and Harran in order to distribute the tax load more evenly over the entire realm. Military equipment was improved substantially. In 746 he went to Babylonia to aid Nabu-nasir (747–734) in his fight against Aramaean tribes. Tiglath-pileser defeated the Aramaeans and then made visits to the large cities of Babylonia. There he tried to secure the support of the priesthood by patronizing their building projects. Babylonia retained its independence.

His next undertaking was to check Urartu [modern day Persians]. His campaigns in Azerbaijan were designed to drive a wedge between Urartu [Iran] and the Medes [Madai – Central Asian Republics]. In 743 he went to Syria, defeating there an army of Urartu. The Syrian city of Arpad, which had formed an alliance with Urartu, did not surrender so easily. It took Tiglath-pileser three years of siege to conquer Arpad, whereupon he massacred the inhabitants and destroyed the city. In 738 a new coalition formed against Assyria under the leadership of Sam’al (modern Zincirli) in northern Syria. It was defeated, and all the princes from Damascus to eastern Anatolia were forced to pay tribute. Another campaign in 735, this time directed against Urartu itself, was only partly successful. 

In 734 Tiglath-pileser invaded southern Syria and the Philistine territories in Palestine, going as far as the Egyptian border. Damascus and Israel tried to organize resistance against him, seeking to bring Judah into their alliance. Ahaz of Judah, however, asked Tiglath-pileser for help. In 733 Tiglath-pileser devastated Israel and forced it to surrender large territories. In 732 he advanced upon Damascus, first devastating the gardens outside the city and then conquering the capital and killing the king, whom he replaced with a governor. The queen of southern Arabia, Samsil, was now obliged to pay tribute, being permitted in return to use the harbour of the city of Gaza, which was in Assyrian hands.

The death of King Nabonassar of Babylonia caused a chaotic situation to develop there, and the Aramaean Ukin-zer crowned himself king. In 731 Tiglath-pileser fought and beat him and his allies, but he did not capture Ukin-zer until 729. This time he did not appoint a new king for Babylonia but assumed the crown himself under the name Pulu (Pul in the Hebrew Bible). In his old age he abstained from further campaigning, devoting himself to the improvement of his capital, Kalakh. He rebuilt the palace of Shalmaneser III, filled it with treasures from his wars, and decorated the walls with bas-reliefs. The latter were almost all of warlike character, as if designed to intimidate the onlooker with their presentation of gruesome executions. These pictorial narratives on slabs, sometimes painted, have also been found in Syria, at the sites of several provincial capitals of ancient Assyria.

Tiglath-pileser was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser V (726–722), who continued the policy of his father. As king of Babylonia, he called himself Ululai. Almost nothing is known about his enterprises, since his successor destroyed all his inscriptions. The Hebrew Bible relates that he marched against Hoshea of Israel in 724 after Hoshea had rebelled. He was probably assassinated during the long siege of Samaria. His successor maintained that the god Ashur had withdrawn his support of Shalmaneser V for acts of disrespect.

It was probably a younger brother of Shalmaneser who ascended the throne of Assyria in 721. Assuming the old name of Sharru-kin (Sargon in the Bible), meaning “Legitimate King,” he assured himself of the support of the priesthood and the merchant class by restoring privileges they had lost, particularly the tax exemptions of the great temples. The change of sovereign in Assyria triggered another crisis in Babylonia. 

An Aramaean prince from the south, Marduk-apal-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-Baladan), seized power in Babylon in 721 and was able to retain it until 710 with the help of Humbanigash I of Elam. A first attempt by Sargon to recover Babylonia miscarried when Elam defeated him in 721. During the same year the protracted siege of Samaria was brought to a close. The Samarian upper class was deported, and Israel became an Assyrian province. Samaria was repopulated with Syrians and Babylonians. Judah remained independent by paying tribute. In 720 Sargon squelched a rebellion in Syria that had been supported by Egypt. Then he defeated both Hanunu of Gaza and an Egyptian army near the Egyptian border. In 717 and 716 he campaigned in northern Syria, making the hitherto independent state of Carchemish one of his provinces. 

He also went to Cilicia in an effort to prevent further encroachments of the Phrygians under King Midas (Assyrian: Mita).

In order to protect his ally, the state of Mannai, in Azerbaijan, Sargon embarked on a campaign in Iran in 719 and incorporated parts of Media as provinces of his empire; however, in 716 another war became necessary. At the same time, he was busy preparing a major attack against Urartu. Under the leadership of the crown prince Sennacherib, armies of agents infiltrated Urartu, which was also threatened from the north by the Cimmerians. 

Many of their messages and reports have been preserved. The longest inscription ever composed by the Assyrians about a year’s enterprise (430 very long lines) is dedicated to this Urartu campaign of 714. Phrased in the style of a first report to the god Ashur, it is interspersed with stirring descriptions of natural scenery. The strong points of Urartu must have been well fortified. Sargon tried to avoid them by going through the province of Mannai and attacking the Median principalities on the eastern side of Lake Urmia. In the meantime, hoping to surprise the Assyrian troops, Rusa of Urartu had closed the narrow pass lying between Lake Urmia and Sahand Mount. Sargon, anticipating this, led a small band of cavalry in a surprise charge that developed into a great victory for the Assyrians. Rusa fled and died. The Assyrians pushed forward, destroying all the cities, fortifications, and even irrigation works of Urartu. They did not conquer Tushpa (the capital) but took possession of the mountain city of Musasir. The spoils were immense. The following years saw only small campaigns in Media and eastern Anatolia and against Ashdod, in Palestine. King Midas of Phrygia and some cities on Cyprus were quite ready to pay tribute.

Sargon was now free to settle accounts with Marduk-apal-iddina of Babylonia. Abandoned by his ally Shutruk-Nahhunte II of Elam, Marduk-apal-iddina found it best to flee, first to his native land on the Persian Gulf and later to Elam. Because the Aramaean prince had made himself very unpopular with his subjects, Sargon was hailed as the liberator of Babylonia. He complied with the wishes of the priesthood and at the same time put down the Aramaean nobility. He was satisfied with the modest title of governor of Babylonia.

At first Sargon resided in Kalakh, but he then decided to found an entirely new capital north of Nineveh. He called the city Dur-Sharrukin – “Sargonsburg” (modern Khorsabad, Iraq). Reminiscent of a certain Peter the Great, who moved his capital from Moscow to St Petersburg in 1713!

He erected his palace on a high terrace in the northeastern part of the city. The temples of the main gods, smaller in size, were built within the palatial rectangle, which was surrounded by a special wall. This arrangement enabled Sargon to supervise the priests better than had been possible in the old, large temple complexes. One consequence of this design was that the figure of the king pushed the gods somewhat into the background, thereby gaining in importance. Desiring that his palace match the vastness of his empire, Sargon planned it in monumental dimensions. 

Stone reliefs of two winged bulls with human heads flanked the entrance; they were much larger than anything comparable built before. 

The walls were decorated with long rows of bas-reliefs showing scenes of war and festive processions. A comparison with a well-executed stela of the Babylonian king Marduk-apal-iddina shows that the fine arts of Assyria had far surpassed those of Babylonia. Sargon never completed his capital, though from 713 to 705 BCE tens of thousands of labourers and hundreds of artisans worked on the great city. Yet, with the exception of some magnificent buildings for public officials, only a few durable edifices were completed in the residential section. In 705, in a campaign in northwestern Iran, Sargon was ambushed and killed. His corpse remained unburied, to be devoured by birds of prey. 

Sargon’s son Sennacherib, who had quarreled with his father, was inclined to believe with the priests that his death was a punishment from the neglected gods of the ancient capitals. Sennacherib (Assyrian: Sin-ahhe-eriba; 704–681) was well prepared for his position as sovereign. With him Assyria acquired an exceptionally clever and gifted, though often extravagant, ruler. His father, interestingly enough, is not mentioned in any of his many inscriptions. He left the new city of Dur-Sharrukin at once and resided in Ashur for a few years, until in 701 he made Nineveh his capital.

Sennacherib had considerable difficulties with Babylonia. In 703 Marduk-apal-iddina again crowned himself king with the aid of Elam, proceeding at once to ally himself with other enemies of Assyria. After nine months he was forced to withdraw when Sennacherib defeated a coalition army consisting of Babylonians, Aramaeans, and Elamites. The new puppet king of Babylonia was Bel-ibni (702–700), who had been raised in Assyria.

In 702 Sennacherib launched a raid into western Iran. In 701 there followed his most famous campaign, against Syria and Palestine, with the purpose of gaining control over the main road from Syria to Egypt in preparation for later campaigns against Egypt itself. When Sennacherib’s army approached, Sidon immediately expelled its ruler, Luli, who was hostile to Assyria. The other allies either surrendered or were defeated. An Egyptian army was defeated at Eltekeh in Judah. Sennacherib laid siege to Jersualem, and the king of Judah, Hezekiah, was called upon to surrender, but he did not comply. An Assyrian officer tried to incite the people of Jerusalem against Hezekiah, but his efforts failed. In view of the difficulty of surrounding a mountain stronghold such as Jerusalem, and of the minor importance of this town for the main purpose of the campaign, Sennacherib cut short the attack and left Palestine with his army, which according to the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings 19:35) had been decimated by an epidemic. The number of Assyrian dead is reported to have risen to 185,000. Nevertheless, Hezekiah is reported to have paid tribute to Sennacherib on at least one occasion.

Bel-ibni of Babylonia seceded from the union with Assyria in 700. Sennacherib moved quickly, defeating Bel-ibni and replacing him with Sennacherib’s oldest son, Ashur-nadin-shumi. The next few years were relatively peaceful. Sennacherib used this time to prepare a decisive attack against Elam, which time and again had supported Babylonian rebellions. The overland route to Elam had been cut off and fortified by the Elamites. Sennacherib had ships built in Syria and at Nineveh. The ships from Syria were moved on rollers from the Euphrates to the Tigris. The fleet sailed downstream and was quite successful in the lagoons of the Persian Gulf and along the southern coastline of Elam. The Elamites launched a counteroffensive by land, occupying Babylonia and putting a man of their choice on the throne. Not until 693 were the Assyrians again able to fight their way through to the north. Finally, in 689, Sennacherib had his revenge. Babylon was conquered and completely destroyed, the temples plundered and leveled. The waters of the Arakhtu Canal were diverted over the ruins, and the inner city remained almost totally uninhabited for eight years. 

Even many Assyrians were indignant at this, believing that the Babylonian god Marduk must be grievously offended at the destruction of his temple and the carrying off of his image. Marduk was also an Assyrian deity, to whom many Assyrians turned in time off need. A political-theological propaganda campaign was launched to explain to the people that what had taken place was in accord with the wish of most of the gods. 

A story was written in which Marduk, because of a transgression, was captured and brought before a tribunal. Only a part of the commentary to this botched piece of literature is extant. Even the great poem of the creation of the world, the Enuma relish, was altered: the god Marduk was replaced by the god Ashur. Sennacherib’s boundless energies brought no gain to his empire, however, and probably weakened it. The tenacity of this king can be seen in his building projects; for example, when Nineveh needed water for irrigation, Sennacherib had his engineers divert the waters of a tributary of the Great Zab River. The canal had to cross a valley at Jerwan. An aqueduct was constructed, consisting of about two million blocks of limestone, with five huge, pointed archways over the brook in the valley. The bed of the canal on the aqueduct was sealed with cement containing magnesium. Parts of this aqueduct are still standing today. Sennacherib wrote of these and other technological accomplishments in minute detail, with illustrations.

Sennacherib built a huge palace in Nineveh, adorned with reliefs, some of them depicting the transport of colossal bull statues by water and by land. Many of the rooms were decorated with pictorial narratives in bas-relief telling of war and of building activities. Considerable advances can be noted in artistic execution, particularly in the portrayal of landscapes and animals. Outstanding are the depictions of the battles in the lagoons, the life in the military camps, and the deportations. In 681 BCE there was a rebellion. Sennacherib was assassinated by one or two of his sons in the temple of the god Ninurta at Kalakh. This god, along with the god Marduk, had been badly treated by Sennacherib, and the event was widely regarded as punishment of divine origin.

Ignoring the claims of his older brothers, an imperial council appointed Esarhaddon (Ashur-aha-iddina; 680–669) as Sennacherib’s successor. The choice is all the more difficult to explain in that Esarhaddon, unlike his father, was friendly toward the Babylonians. It can be assumed that his energetic and designing mother, Zakutu (Naqia), who came from Syria or Judah, used all her influence on his behalf to override the national party of Assyria. 

The theory that he was a partner in plotting the murder of his father is rather improbable; at any rate, he was able to procure the loyalty of his father’s army. His brothers had to flee to Urartu.  In his inscriptions, Esarhaddon always mentions both his father and grandfather.

Defining the destruction of Babylon explicitly as punishment by the god Marduk, the new king soon ordered the reconstruction of the city. He referred to himself only as governor of Babylonia and through his policies obtained the support of the cities of Babylonia. At the beginning of his reign the Aramaean tribes were still allied with Elam against him, but Urtaku of Elam (675–664) signed a peace treaty and freed him for campaigning elsewhere. In 679 he stationed a garrison at the Egyptian border, because Egypt, under the Ethiopian king Taharqa, was planning to intervene in Syria. 

He put down with great severity a rebellion of the combined forces of Sidon, Tyre, and other Syrian cities. The time was ripe to attack Egypt, which was suffering under the rule of the Ethiopians [Cush] and was by no means a united country. Esarhaddon’s first attempt in 674–673 miscarried. In 671 BCE, however, his forces took Memphis, the Egyptian capital. Assyrian consultants were assigned to assist the princes of the 22 provinces, their main duty being the collection of tribute.

Occasional threats came from the mountainous border regions of eastern Anatolia and Iran. Pushed forward by the Scythians, the Cimmerians in northern Iran and Transcaucasia tried to gain a foothold in Syria and western Iran. Esarhaddon allied himself with the Scythian king Partatua by giving him one of his daughters in marriage. In so doing he checked the movement of the Cimmerians. Nevertheless, the apprehensions of Esarhaddon can be seen in his many offerings, supplications, and requests to the sun god. These were concerned less with his own enterprises than with the plans of enemies and vassals and the reliability of civil servants. The priestesses of Ishtar had to reassure Esarhaddon constantly by calling out to him, “Do not be afraid.” Previous kings, as far as is known, had never needed this kind of encouragement.

At home Esarhaddon was faced with serious difficulties from factions in the court. His oldest son had died early. The national party suspected his second son, Shamash-shum-ukin, of being too friendly with the Babylonians; he may also have been considered unequal to the task of kingship. His third son, Ashurbanipal, was given the succession in 672, Shamash-shum-ukin remaining crown prince of Babylonia. This arrangement caused much dissension, and some farsighted civil servants warned of disastrous effects. Nevertheless, the Assyrian nobles, priests, and city leaders were sworn to just such an adjustment of the royal line; even the vassal princes had to take very detailed oaths of allegiance to Ashurbanipal, with many curses against perjurers.

Another matter of deep concern for Esarhaddon was his failing health. He regarded eclipses of the moon as particularly alarming omens, and, in order to prevent a fatal illness from striking him at these times, he had substitute kings chosen who ruled during the three eclipses that occurred during his 12-year reign. 

The replacement kings died or were put to death after their brief term of office. During his off-terms Esarhaddon called himself “Mister Peasant.” This practice implied that the gods could not distinguish between the real king and a false one – quite contrary to the usual assumptions of the religion. Esarhaddon enlarged and improved the temples in both Assyria and Babylonia. He also constructed a palace in Kalakh, using many of the picture slabs of Tiglath-pileser III. The works that remain are not on the level of those of either his predecessors or of Ashurbanipal. He died while on an expedition to put down a revolt in Egypt.

Although the death of his father occurred far from home, Ashurbanipal assumed the kingship as planned. He may have owed his fortunes to the intercession of his grandmother Zakutu, who had recognized his superior capacities. He tells of his diversified education by the priests and his training in armour-making as well as in other military arts. 

He may have been the only king in Assyria with a scholarly background. As crown prince he also had studied the administration of the vast empire. The record notes that the gods granted him a record harvest during the first year of his reign. There were also good crops in subsequent years. During these first years he also was successful in foreign policy, and his relationship with his brother in Babylonia was good.

In 668 he put down a rebellion in Egypt and drove out King Taharqa, but in 664 the nephew of Taharqa, Tanutamon, gathered forces for a new rebellion. Ashurbanipal went to Egypt, pursuing the Ethiopian prince far into the south. His decisive victory moved Tyre and other parts of the empire to resume regular payments of tribute. Ashurbanipal installed Psamtik (Greek: Psammetichos) as prince over the Egyptian region of Sais. In 656 Psamtik dislodged the Assyrian garrisons with the aid of Carian and Ionian mercenaries, making Egypt again independent. Ashurbanipal did not attempt to reconquer it. A former ally of Assyria, Gyges of Lydia, had aided Psamtik in his rebellion. In return, Assyria did not help Gyges when he was attacked by the Cimmerians. Gyges lost his throne and his life. His son Ardys decided that the payment of tribute to Assyria was a lesser evil than conquest by the Cimmerians.

Graver difficulties loomed in southern Babylonia, which was attacked by Elam in 664. Another attack came in 653, whereupon Ashurbanipal sent a large army that decisively defeated the Elamites. Their king was killed, and some of the Elamite states were encouraged to secede. Elam was no longer strong enough to assume an active part on the international scene. This victory had serious consequences for Babylonia. Shamash-shum-ukin had grown weary of being patronized by his domineering brother. He formed a secret alliance in 656 with the Iranians, Elamites, Aramaeans, Arabs, and Egyptians, directed against Ashurbanipal. The withdrawal of defeated Elam from this alliance was probably the reason for a premature attack by Shamash-shum-ukin at the end of the year 652, without waiting for the promised assistance from Egypt. 

Ashurbanipal, taken by surprise, soon pulled his troops together. The Babylonian army was defeated, and Shamash-shum-ukin was surrounded in his fortified city of Babylon. His allies were not able to hold their own against the Assyrians. 

Reinforcements of Arabian camel troops also were defeated. The city of Babylon was under siege for three years. It fell in 648 amid scenes of horrible carnage, Shamash-shum-ukin dying in his burning palace. After 648 the Assyrians made a few punitive attacks on the Arabs, breaking the forward thrust of the Arab tribes for a long time to come. The main objective of the Assyrians, however, was a final settlement of their relations with Elam. The refusal of Elam in 647 to extradite an Aramaean prince was used as pretext for a new attack that drove deep into its territory. The assault on the solidly fortified capital of Susa followed, probably in 646. The Assyrians destroyed the city, including its temples and palaces. Vast spoils were taken. As usual, the upper classes of the land were exiled to Assyria and other parts of the empire, and Elam became an Assyrian province. Assyria had now extended its domain to southwestern Iran. Cyrus I of Persia sent tribute and hostages to Nineveh, hoping perhaps to secure protection for his borders with Media. Little is known about the last years of Ashurbanipal’s reign.

Ashurbanipal left more inscriptions than any of his predecessors. His campaigns were not always recorded in chronological order but clustered in groups according to their purpose. The accounts were highly subjective. One of his most remarkable accomplishments was the founding of the great palace library in Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), which is today one of the most important sources for the study of ancient Mesopotamia. The king himself supervised its construction. Important works were kept in more than one copy, some intended for the king’s personal use. The work of arranging and cataloging drew upon the experience of centuries in the management of collections in huge temple archives such as the one in Ashur. In his inscriptions Ashurbanipal tells of becoming an enthusiastic hunter of big game, acquiring a taste for it during a fight with marauding lions. In his palace at Nineveh the long rows of hunting scenes show what a masterful artist can accomplish in bas-relief; with these reliefs Assyrian art reached its peak. In the series depicting his wars, particularly the wars fought in Elam, the scenes are overloaded with human figures. Those portraying the battles with the Arabian camel troops are magnificent in execution.

One reason for the durability of the Assyrian empire was the practice of deporting large numbers of people from conquered areas and resettling others in their place. This kept many of the conquered nationalities from regaining their power. Equally important was the installation in conquered areas of a highly developed civil service under the leadership of trained officers. The highest ranking civil servant carried the title of tartan, a Hurrian word. The tartans also represented the king during his absence. In descending rank were the palace overseer, the main cupbearer, the palace administrator, and the governor of Assyria. The generals often held high official positions, particularly in the provinces. The civil service numbered about 100,000, many of them former inhabitants of subjugated provinces. Prisoners became slaves but were later often freed.

No laws are known for the empire, although documents point to the existence of rules and standards for justice . Those who broke contracts were subject to severe penalties, even in cases of minor importance: the sacrifice of a son or the eating of a pound of wool and drinking of a great deal of water afterward, which led to a painful death. The position of women was inferior, except for the queen and some priestesses. 

As yet there are no detailed studies of the economic situation during this period. The landed nobility still played an important role, in conjunction with the merchants in the cities. The large increase in the supply of precious metals – received as tribute or taken as spoils – did not disrupt economic stability in many regions. Stimulated by the patronage of the kings and the great temples, the arts and crafts flourished during this period. The policy of resettling Aramaeans and other conquered peoples in Assyria brought many talented artists and artisans into Assyrian cities, where they introduced new styles and techniques. High-ranking provincial civil servants, who were often very powerful, saw to it that the provincial capitals also benefited from this economic and cultural growth.

Harran became the most important city in the western part of the empire; in the neighbouring settlement of Huzirina (modern Sultantepe, in northern Syria), the remains of an important library have been discovered. Very few Aramaic texts from this period have been found; the climate of Mesopotamia is not conducive to the preservation of the papyrus and parchment on which these texts were written. There is no evidence that a literary tradition existed in any of the other languages spoken within the borders of the Assyrian empire at this time, except in peripheral areas of Syria and Palestine.

Culturally and economically, Babylonia lagged behind Assyria in this period. The wars with Assyria – particularly the catastrophic defeats of 689 and 648 – together with many smaller tribal wars disrupted trade and agricultural production. The great Babylonian temples fared best during this period, since they continued to enjoy the patronage of the Assyrian monarchs. Only a few documents from the temples have been preserved, however. There is evidence that the scribal schools continued to operate, and “Sumerian” inscriptions were even composed for Shamash-shum-ukin. In comparison with the Assyrian developments, the pictorial arts were neglected, and Babylonian artists may have found work in Assyria.

During this period people began to use the names of ancestors as a kind of family name; this increase in family consciousness is probably an indication that the number of old families was growing smaller. By this time the process of “Aramaicization” had reached even the oldest cities of Babylonia and Assyria. Apparently this era was not very fruitful for literature either in Babylonia or in Assyria. In Assyria numerous royal inscriptions, some as long as 1,300 lines, were among the most important texts; some of them were diverse in content and well composed. Most of the hymns and prayers were written in the traditional style. Many oracles, often of unusual content, were proclaimed in the Assyrian dialect, most often by the priestesses of the goddess Ishtar of Arbela. In Assyria as in Babylonia, the beginnings of a real historical literature are observed; most of the authors have remained anonymous up to the present.

The many gods of the tradition were worshiped in Babylonia and Assyria in large and small temples, as in earlier times. Very detailed rituals regulated the sacrifices, and the interpretations of the ritual performances in the cultic commentaries were rather different and sometimes very strange. On some of the temple towers (ziggurats), astronomical observatories were installed. 

The earliest of these may have been the observatory of the Ninurta temple at Kalakh in Assyria, which dates back to the 9th century BCE; it was destroyed with the city in 612. The most important observatory in Babylonia from about 580 was situated on the ziggurat Etemenanki, a temple of Marduk in Babylon. In Assyria the observation of the Sun, Moon, and stars had already reached a rather high level; the periodic recurrence of eclipses was established. After 600, astronomical observation and calculations developed steadily, and they reached their high point after 500, when Babylonian and Greek astronomers began their fruitful collaboration. Incomplete astronomical diaries, beginning in 652 and covering some 600 years, have been preserved. Few historical sources remain for the last 30 years of the Assyrian empire. There are no extant inscriptions of Ashurbanipal after 640 BCE, and the few surviving inscriptions of his successors contain only vague allusion to political matters. 

In Babylonia the silence is almost total until 625 BCE, when the chronicles resume. The rapid downfall of the Assyrian empire was formerly attributed to military defeat, although it was never clear how the Medes and the Babylonians alone could have accomplished this. More recent work has established that after 635 a civil war occurred, weakening the empire so that it could no longer stand up against a foreign enemy. Ashurbanipal had twin sons. Ashur-etel-ilani was appointed successor to the throne, but his twin brother Sin-shar-ishkun did not recognize him. The fight between them and their supporters forced the old king to withdraw to Harran, in 632 at the latest, perhaps ruling from there over the western part of the empire until his death in 627. Ashur-etel-ilani governed in Assyria from about 633, but a general, Sin-shum-lisher, soon rebelled against him and proclaimed himself counter-king. Some years later (629?) Sin-shar-ishkun finally succeeded in obtaining the kingship. In Babylonian documents dates can be found for all three kings. To add to the confusion, until 626 there are also dates of Ashurbanipal and a king named Kandalanu. In 626 the Chaldean Nabopolassar (Nabu-apal-uṣur) revolted from Urek and occupied Babylon. There were several changes in government. King Ashur-etel-ilani was forced to withdraw to the west, where he died sometime after 625.

About the year 626 the Scythians laid waste to Syria and Palestine. In 625 the Medes became united under Cyaxares and began to conquer the Iranian provinces of Assyria. One chronicle relates of wars between Sin-shar-ishkun and Nabopolassar in Babylonia in 625-623. It was not long until the Assyrians were driven out of Babylonia. In 616 the Medes struck against Nineveh, but, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, were driven back by the Scythians. In 615, however, the Medes conquered Arrapkha (Kirkuk), and in 614 they took the old capital of Ashur, looting and destroying the city. Now Cyaxares and Nabopolassar made an alliance for the purpose of dividing Assyria. In 612 Kalakh and Nineveh succumbed to the superior strength of the allies. The revenge taken on the Assyrians was terrible: 200 years later Xenophon found the country still sparsely populated.

Sin-shar-ishkun, king of Assyria, found death in his burning palace. The commander of the Assyrian army in the west crowned himself king in the city of Harran, assuming the name of the founder of the empire, Ashur-uballiṭ II (611–609 BCE). 

Ashur-uballiṭ had to face both the Babylonians and the Medes. They conquered Harran in 610, without, however, destroying the city completely. In 609 the remaining Assyrian troops had to capitulate. With this event Assyria disappeared from history. The great empires that succeeded it learned a great deal from the hated Assyrians, both in the arts and in the organization of their states.’

The double headed eagle, an ancient symbol of Assyria and their allies the Hittites  – top. Most famously associated with the Byzantine Empire – bottom. 

Czar Ivan III [1462-1505] instituted the black double-headed** eagle as an official emblem of the Russian state, for he was eager to create a link between Byzantium and Russia. 

It featured as a design motif in the regalia of the Russian Imperial Court until the fall of the monarchy in 1917. In 1992 the Russian Federation restored it to the state coat of arms. In Russia, the double-headed eagle was accompanied by another national symbol: a horseman slaying a serpent with a spear, portrayed on a shield. The horseman is a symbol of Russia’s capital, Moscow, and usually represents St. George the Victorious. Notice the small saltire in the tail feathers, reminiscent of Scotland’s state flag. It is worthy to note that the horseman slaying a serpent is in eerie contrast to the tribe of Dan, who are described as being a serpent who bites the horse’s heels and bringing its rider down [Genesis 49:17]. We will have much more to learn about the tribe of Dan.

The coat of arms has changed throughout history, with the eagle changing from gold to black, and then back to its current gold. It has gained and lost the crowns over its heads. Currently, each head is topped with another crown floating between them, which once more symbolizes unity. In its talons, the eagle holds an orb and a scepter – symbols of power and authority. The current interpretation of the coat of arms is quite similar to those used in the Russian Empire. After the monarchy was overthrown in 1917, the eagle became white; then the Bolsheviks gave the bird a rest for about 70 years, replacing it with the hammer and sickle.

Prior to Asshur’s re-appearance as the Rus and after their demise as the Assyrian Empire, the descendants of Asshur had another lengthy period of preeminence as the rulers of the early period of the Eastern Roman Empire. Parallels with their Assyrian empire, Byzantine and the Soviet Union are: The use of Tzar or Czar [Csar], for their kings and the etymological link with Caesar, the rulers of the Roman empire. The family name of Romanov in Russia derived from the word Roman. The Russian alphabet remarkably resembles the Greek alphabet and its letters used by Byzantium. Russia’s state religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the most similar too, yet still distinct from Roman Catholicism. Assyria had a parallel system of worship to ancient Babylon, substituting their god Assur for the Babylonian Marduk. 

Marduk is thought to be derived from amar-Utu, the ‘immortal son of Utu’ or ‘the bull calf of the sun god Utu.’ The double-headed** Sumerian sun god had the epithet Bel [Baal], meaning Lord. Marduk was also know as the storm god [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor]. Nimrod was revered as the god, Marduk. Salient points are that Marduk is associated with the planet Jupiter, also important in the Roman pantheon of gods. Marduk is often depicted as a man and his predominant symbol is the serpent dragon. Marduk ascended to great power after being chosen to lead the Annunaki gods during a cosmic civil war – the Angelic rebellion. Marduk was the god of the great Nebuchadnezzar II of Chaldea-Babylon.

Shamash was the Sumerian sun god, though Assur was also represented as the solar disc that appears frequently in Assyrian iconography. Typically, the symbol of Assur was a winged disc with horns and rippling rays either side a circle or wheel, suspended from wings, enclosing a warrior drawing a bow to discharge an arrow. 

A comment online states: ‘An Assyrian standard… has the disc mounted on a bull’s head with horns. The upper part of the disc is occupied by a warrior, whose head, part of his bow, and the point of his arrow protrude from the circle. The rippling water rays are V-shaped, and two bulls, treading river-like rays, occupy the divisions thus formed. There are also two heads – a lion’s and a man’s – with gaping mouths, which may symbolize tempests, the destroying power of the sun, or the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates. 

Jastrow regards the winged disc as “the purer and more genuine symbol of Ashur as a solar deity”. He calls it “a sun disc with protruding rays”, and says: “To this symbol the warrior with the bow and arrow was added – a despiritualization that reflects the martial spirit of the Assyrian empire.” Notice the depiction of Assur with an eagles head.  

In the past, Assyria kindled an allied relationship with the Hittites to their west in Anatolia; later replicating this relationship, with the western leg of the Roman empire – the original founding Romans. Russia in modern times has kept a covert relationship with the Hittites. Financing in part, the 1917 Revolution and lending support after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. In return, Russia has provided military technology to the modern day Hittites. 

The Byzantine Empire the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces, when its capital was Constantinople – formerly Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century CE and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military presence in Europe.

We learned with ancient Elam how its power faded, its people migrating and re-appearing as the Persians. Their original home and the people remaining, dwelling there are called Elam by historians, even though they were not originally Elamites. Similarly, portions of Asshur migrated northwards during the middle of the first millennium CE; gradually leaving their name Byzantium behind and re-surfacing as the Rus. The Russian peoples progressively growing bigger and stronger with subsequent waves of migrants, just as Byzantium grew weaker.

The name Byzantine Empire is a term created after the end of the realm, as its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire and to themselves as Romans. Though the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, historians confirm the difference in distinguishing Byzantium from its predecessor the Roman empire. For it was centred in Constantinople not Rome, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity not Roman Catholic.

Several events from the fourth to 6sixth centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire’s Greek east and Latin west diverged. Constantine I – whom we mentioned regarding the Council of Nicea and the Arian controversy – ruling from 306 to 337 CE, reorganised the empire, making Constantinople the new capital in 330 [again, an Asshurite proclivity] and legalising Christianity, giving it imperial preference. Under Theodosius I [379–395], Christianity officially became the formal state religion. In the reign of Heraclius [610–641], the Empire’s military and administration were restructured as was the adoption of Greek for official use in place of Latin.

The West had suffered more heavily from the instability of the third century CE and the distinction between the Hellenised East and the Latinised West persisted; becoming increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two Roman worlds. An early instance of the partition of the Empire occurred in 293 when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the  tetrarchy, to guarantee security in all endangered regions of the Empire. He associated himself with a co-emperor, Augustus and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior emperor. The tetrarchy was short-lived, collapsing in 313 with Constantine I reuniting the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus.

Theodosius I was the last Emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. In 391 and 392 he issued a series of edicts banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship.The last Olympic Games are believed to have been held in 393. In 395, Theodosius I bequeathed the imperial office jointly to his sons: Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, dividing Imperial administration. During the fifth century the Eastern empire was spared the difficulties faced by the West. It had a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, allowing it to placate invaders with tribute or pay foreign mercenaries. 

For instance, to fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. After the fall of Attila, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period of peace, while the Western Empire continued to deteriorate due to the expanding migration and invasions of the Germanic barbarians. The West’s end is usually dated 476 CE when the Germanic eastern Roman Foederati general Odoacer, deposed the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus.

Previously we have looked at the statue in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and the correlation of the Medes with the Turkic-Mongol peoples – of Central Asia [refer Chapter IV Madai]  – and the Persians with Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam] both representing the chest and two arms of Silver. In Daniel 2:33, 40-43 NET, it says:

33 Its legs were of iron; its feet were partly of iron and partly of clay. Then there will be a fourth kingdom, one strong like iron. Just like iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything, and as iron breaks in pieces all these metals, so it will break in pieces and crush the others. 41 In that you were seeing feet and toes partly of wet clay and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom. Some of the strength of iron will be in it, for you saw iron mixed with wet clay. 42 In that the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, the latter stages of this kingdom will be partly strong and partly fragile. 

43 And in that you saw iron mixed with wet clay, so people will be mixed with one another without adhering to one another, just as iron does not mix with clay.

It would be highly unusual to miss out the Assyrians, from the statue, as other major European powers are included as we shall discover. The two legs represent the division of the Roman Empire – as the two arms reflect the dual nature of the Medo-Persian empire. One leg is the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium and this leg are the descendants of Asshur – the modern Russians. We will also study the identity of the other leg. Some commentators believe the ten toes, represent a grouping of nations yet to occur, or ten rulers administering regions of the earth; even proposing a divisional split of nations from Western and Eastern Europe. The legs are of iron, being much stronger than the silver of the Medes and Persians, yet not as culturally sophisticated or resplendent. 

Only the toes are stated as iron and clay, a mix that cannot fully meld or last. Judging from Daniel chapter seven, the possibility exists that the mixing could be between flesh and spirit, humans and Nephilim or between humankind and Angelic kind. This would be a formidable mix, though ultimately flawed in any capacity to endure. The days of Noah are to be repeated in the latter days and so this scenario, is worthy of consideration.

The genesis of Rome and its end are split into different periods, dependant on what stage of its civilisation is being referred to. Rome was officially founded circa 753 BCE. Two brothers and demigods – Romulus and Remus – are credited with founding Rome and it was allegedly ruled by seven kings during the Roman Kingdom until 509 BCE. It was then that the monarchy was replaced with elected magistrates and is known as the Roman Republic, lasting until 27 BCE with the establishment of the Roman Empire by Octavius, appointing himself Augustus – the first emperor. The empire divided in 395 CE and the Western branch ended when it fell in 476 CE with the Eastern branch ending 1453. 

Arithmetically, it would seem that one leg is longer than the other in that the Roman Empire lasted from 27 BCE to 476 CE. Whereas the Byzantine Empire lasted from 395 to 1453 CE. If we compare the period of the Roman Republic and Empire from 509 BCE to 476 CE, it is 985 years. Similarly, if we consider the Byzantine Empire beginning when the Western fell from 476 to 1453 CE, we have 977 years. The legs would appear to actually match. Rome began its conquest of Greece at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BCE – the same year Rome defeated Carthage. 

Dan 7:7, 17-28

New English Translation 

7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions a fourth beast appeared – one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. It had two large rows of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns. 

17 ‘These large beasts, which are four in number, represent four kings who will arise from the earth. 18 The holy ones of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will take possession of the kingdom forever and ever.’ 

19 “Then I wanted to know the meaning of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others. It was very dreadful, with two rows of iron teeth and bronze claws, and it devoured, crushed, and trampled anything that was left with its feet. 20 I also wanted to know the meaning of the ten horns on its head, and of that other horn that came up and before which three others fell. This was the horn that had eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant things, whose appearance was more formidable than the others.21 While I was watching, that horn began to wage war against the holy ones and was defeating them, 22 until the Ancient of Days arrived and judgment was rendered in favor of the holy ones of the Most High. Then the time came for the holy ones to take possession of the kingdom.

23 “This is what he told me: ‘The fourth beast means that there will be a fourth kingdom on earth that will differ from all the other kingdoms. It will devour all the earth and will trample and crush it. 24 The ten horns mean that ten kings will arise from that kingdom. Another king will arise after them, but he will be different from the earlier ones. He will humiliate three kings. 25 He will speak words against the Most High. He will harass the holy ones of the Most High continually. His intention will be to change times established by law.The holy ones will be delivered into his hand for a time, times, and half a time. 

26 But the court will convene, and his ruling authority will be removed – destroyed and abolished forever! 27 Then the kingdom, authority, and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be delivered to the people of the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom is an eternal kingdom; all authorities will serve him and obey him.’ 28 “This is the conclusion of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts troubled me greatly, and the color drained from my face. But I kept the matter to myself.

Note the impact this prophecy had on a very righteous man, Daniel [Ezekiel 14:14]. The ‘changing times by law’ has been interpreted as manipulations of the calendar, so as to make it difficult for worshipers in keeping the true sabbath and holy days. We will study what the  possible ramifications mean, in an additional appendix. Each empire lasted a longer period of time than its may predecessor. The fourth empire lasted considerably longer than the other three, in fact longer than all of them combined. Each empire included territory greater in size than its predecessor. It is thought by most Biblical prophecy scholars that the fourth empire is a system that still exists today, or is continuance of the Holy Roman empire as exhibited through the last millennia and a half by the supremacy of the Church at Rome, a type of modern Babylon – for the Church has had influential control over governments of Europe and the crowning of its kings. 

The ten horns are viewed as successive rulers of the ‘Roman system’ with the little horn a future ruler. We will study this further in the following chapter. The fourth beast is certainly not like the ones before, such as the bear or ram of Medo-Persia. The fourth beast is more liken to a Tyrannosaurus rex or Xenomorph, something Daniel was not familiar with, yet inspired horror. 

If we are dealing with a supernatural intruder, the little horn may try to actually alter or revise time scales in latter day events, so as to thwart the Son of Man’s return. The little horn equates to the Son of Perdition and the Man of Lawlessness. This entity fulfils the role of the false prophet, the second beast that worships the first beast. We will discuss this relationship further, in the following chapter. 

2 Thessalonians 2:3-13

New Century Version

3 Do not let anyone fool you in any way. That day of the Lord will not come until the turning away from God happens and the Man of Evil, who is on his way to hell, appears. 4 He will be against and put himself above any so-called god or anything that people worship. And that Man of Evil will even go into God’s Temple and sit there and say that he is God.

5I told you when I was with you that all this would happen. Do you not remember? 6And now you know what is stopping that Man of Evil so he will appear at the right time. 7 The secret power of evil is already working in the world, but there is one who is stopping that power. And he will continue to stop it until he is taken out of the way. 

8Then that Man of Evil will appear, and the Lord Jesus will kill him with the breath that comes from his mouth and will destroy him with the glory of his coming. 9 The Man of Evil will come by the power of Satan. He will have great power, and he will do many different false miracles, signs, and wonders. 10 He will use every kind of evil to trick those who are lost. They will die, because they refused to love the truth. (If they loved the truth, they would be saved.) 11For this reason God sends them something powerful that leads them away from the truth so they will believe a lie. 12So all those will be judged guilty who did not believe the truth, but enjoyed doing evil.

13 Brothers and sisters, whom the Lord loves, God chose you from the beginning to be saved. So we must always thank God for you. You are saved by the Spirit that makes you holy and by your faith in the truth.

The term holy ones can refer to righteous angels as in Daniel 4:13, 17 and 23, the Creator as in Isaiah 6:3, as well as including true believers in the latter days.

1 Thessalonians 3:13

English Standard Version

so that he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints.

2 Thessalonians 1:10

New Century Version

This will happen on the day when the Lord Jesus comes to receive glory because of his holy people. And all the people who have believed will be amazed at Jesus. You will be in that group, because you believed what we told you.

1 Peter 1:15-16

New English Translation

… but, like the Holy One who called you, become holy yourselves in all of your conduct, for it is written, “You shall be holy, because I am holy.”

The Rus Grand Principality of Kiev began in 882 and lasted until 1239. Led by Rurik, the Rus Vikings had ruled the northern Slavs from Novgorod – a region between present day St Petersburg and Moscow. Kiev was captured – according to legend – by Askold and Dir, two Rus boyars of high nobility. The settlement was on the main north-south trade route that was used by the Vikings to reach the rich markets of Constantinople; conquering Kiev meant controlling trade. They were soon dispossessed by a Rus prince by the name of Oleg, a kinsman of Rurik who then moved the capital to Kiev from Novgorod. By the eleventh century the word Rus was associated with the Principality of Kiev, while the term Varangian was common as a term for Scandinavians traveling the river routes. 

The Rus are considered to have originated on the Roslagen or Rus-law seashore of Uppland. This is not universally accepted, though Roslagen adapted into Slavic easily becomes Rus. An alternative option for naming the Rus is that it may originate in the Proto-Finnic word for Swedish Scandinavians Ruotsi; a possible Finnic origin for Rurik’s name. Possibly this name was used by the Rus for themselves, or alternatively by the eastern Slavs who would soon be subjects of the Rus. Ruotsi is derived from ruskea, meaning light brown which is related to the old Russian rusi, for brown, hence the name Rus and also a Slavic word rusy – referring only to hair colour from dark ash-blond to light- brown – cognate with ryzhy, for red-haired.

The two main theories of origin are the Normanist, which places the Rus ancestrally as Northern Vikings trading and raiding on the river routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from the eighth to eleventh centuries and the anti-Normanist explanation which places their origins as autochthonous in the region of the Carpathian Mountains with subsequent political development. There is merit to both theories which can be reconciled as the Assyrian descended peoples would have travelled from Asia Minor to the Carpathian Mountains and then onwards to Scandinavia. The Russian Haplogroups are most similar to Slavic peoples and the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Baltic. 

There is some minor influence evidenced from Scandinavia and vice-versa. In the words of F Donald Logan: ‘… in 839, the Rus were Swedes; in 1043 the Rus were Slavs.’

The Primary Chronicle is a Slavonic language narrative account of Rus history compiled from a wide range of sources in Kiev at the start of the thirteenth century. Coincidently, the chronicle includes the texts of a series of Rus–Byzantine Treaties from 911, 945 and 971. The Rus–Byzantine Treaties give a valuable insight into the names of the Rus. Of the fourteen Rus signatories to the Treaty in 907, all had Norse names, though by the Rus-Byzantine Treaty in 945, some signatories of the Rus had Slavic names while the vast majority still had Norse names.  

Other possible origins for the name Rus include, three early emperors of the Urartian Empire [refer Chapter XVII Lud] in the Caucasus, north of Assyria from the eighth to sixth centuries BCE; their names being Russa I [733-714 BCE], II and III, documented in cuneiform monuments. The ancient Sarmatian tribe of the Roxolani, from the Ossetic, ruhs ‘light’; the Russian rusyje volosy, ‘light-brown hair’ or Dahl’s dictionary definition of rus: ‘world, universe’, literally ‘white world, white light.’ 

From the Old Slavic name that meant ‘river-people’, tribes of fishermen and ploughmen settled near and navigated the rivers Dnieper, Don, Dniester and Western Dvina. The rus root is preserved in the modern Slavic and Russian words ‘ruslo’ for river-bed and rusalka, ‘water sprite’. From one of two rivers in the Ukraine near Kiev and Pereyaslav, Ros and Rusna, whose names are derived from a postulated Slavic term for water, akin to rosa for dew. Lastly, a postulated proto-Slavic word for bear, cognate with Greek arctos and Latin ursus. This is interesting as we hear of Russia described, as the Russian Bear. 

A look at an atlas shows the outline of Russia and its likeness to a bear. The Russias were all the lands of the Rus, incorporating the principalities and states which had existed from the ninth century onwards.  

Ivan Vasilyevich [the Terrible] ruled from 1547 to 1584 and spent a great deal of his reign fighting the Livonian Wars in an effort to conquer Old Livonia and North Estonia; expanding his new empire westwards, though the forces of Sweden, Lithuania and Poland were able to check Ivan, keeping him out. Ivan IV, known as Grozny the Terrible was the first Car of all the Russias and was a descendant of Theodora, a daughter of Sartaq, Khan of the Golden Horde.

Descendants of Rurik of Novgorod ruled the Rus from the late ninth century. Their rule was ended in the early seventeenth century by an interregnum period of civil war following the murder of Czar Dimitri I and his successor being deposed by the Seven Boyars, or nobles. The same nobles invited Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania into Moscow in 1610 and elected his son, Wladyislaw as czar; but Wladyislaw was unable to take up the position due to his father’s opposition and the czarate continued to fight itself for three years without any czar as ruler at all. This was known by later generations as the Times of Troubles.

A prominent family, the Romanovs formed Russia’s second dynasty. Mikhail Romanov was descended from the mysterious Boyar, Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla. During the reign of Ivan IV, Koblya’s descendants via his son Feodor, became known as the Yakovlev family. A grandchild of one of them, Roman Yurievich Zakharyin-Yuriev, assumed a form of a clan name by adapting his first name, as the Romanovs or Romanoff [essentially meaning the clan or descendants of Roman]. Roman’s daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina would become the wife of Ivan IV in 1547, bringing the family great wealth and power. 

Following the expulsion of the Poles in 1612, the crown was offered to several Rurik and Gedimin princes whilst a number of pretenders also sought to claim the throne. In the end the son of the highly respected Filaret Romanov was asked – the sixteen year-old Mikhail Romanov I, who ruled from 1613 to 1645 and the nephew of Czar Feodor I. Once he had been persuaded to accept by his mother Kseniya Ivanovna Shestova, he pursued a policy of emphasising family ties with the Ruriks. 

Mikhail made sure that he sought the advice of the Assembly of the Land on important issues, thereby ensuring that the populace loved him and the nobility respected him. Michael ended the wars against Sweden and Poland-Lithunia, allowing the return of his father from exile. Filaret Romanov then assumed the administrative duties of Czar, without the trappings of power. Michael’s role was ceremonial until his father’s death in 1633. The direct line of Romanov rulers died out with Elizabeth Petrovna – the daughter of Peter the Great, she ruled from 1741 to 1762 – although the direct male line had already ended with the death of Peter II in 1730. A period of crisis followed her death until a suitable candidate was sought amongst various more distant relatives. In the end, a grandson of Peter I was found in the German House of Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the House of Oldenburg. 

Peter III [Karl Peter Ulrich] was the son from a marriage between Grand Duchess Anne, daughter of Peter I and Duke Charles-Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp. Acclaimed as a Romanov, the fact remains he began the line of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov which ruled Russia until 1917. As the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp he had an extra degree of interest in affairs in Germany – too much for some elements of the Russian nobility. Peter III planed an attack on Denmark in order to restore areas of Schleswig to his duchy, and  thereby withdrawing Russian troops from the Seven Years’ War. 

The former Soviet Union at the height of its power and territory, which in reality was a modern day Empire and reflective of the dictatorial and militaristic martial based civilisation of the mighty Assyrian Empires of the past.

In Europe, the Seven Years War was fought between an alliance of France, Russia, Sweden, Austria, and Saxony against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain from 1756 to 1763. The war had international interest, particularly as Britain and France were fighting one another for domination of North America and India. As such, it had been  originally referred to as the first world war.

The plot to depose Peter III was led by his own wife. He was transported to captivity at Ropsha, where he died after only six months on the throne, in mysterious circumstances. Catherine Yekaterina became Czarina and is known in history, as Catherine II and the Great, ruling from 1762 until 1796. Catherine casts a long shadow over neighbouring lands during her reign. In 1762, she tightened Russian control of Livonia or Estonia in 1775 and in 1764, the imperial province of Novorossiya or New Russia was formed along the central northern area of the Black Sea coast – which is now part of Ukraine. 

The province was a merging of several military districts and the Cossack Hetmanate in order to improve and increase Russian control of the region as part of the ongoing process of impinging on the Ottoman Empire. 

In 1767, all of Alania fell under the Russian Empire’s rule as part of Catherine’s thrust southwards through the Caucasus Mountains to remove territories from Turkey’s influence. During 1768 till 1774 the First Russo-Turkish War was part of Catherine’s desire to secure the conquest of territory on Russia’s southern borders. The most serious revolt during Catherines’s reign was the Ural Cossack rebellion of 1773 to 1775. Two battles fought back to back over four days at Kazan, eventually defeated the rebels. The second Russo-Turkish War occurred between 1787 and 1792, with Russia gaining from Turkish losses.

From 1791, Russia operated an area known as the Pale of Settlement. Initially it was small, but increased greatly from 1793 and the Second Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By the mid-nineteenth century it incorporated a substantial territory comprising modern Belarus [eastern Poland at the time], eastern Latvia, Lithuania, the province of Bessarabia [modern Moldova] and western Ukraine. Having formerly been citizens of the defunct commonwealth, the Jewish population of the Pale were restricted from moving eastwards into Russia. Catherine II died in 1796 after an eventful reign that greatly solidified and strengthened the Russian Empire. Her son Paul I reigned briefly [1796-1801]; killed in a palace coup.

The threads of Russia’s ties with Germany remained entwined when the new Bolshevik  government seized control in 1917. The new government, far from stable, badly handled what remained of Russia’s First World War effort, holding out for a beneficial peace agreement with Germany. Instead, Russia was forced to accept the harsh terms of the Brest-Litovsk treaty. As a result of that as well as too many reforms in too short a period, Russia lost control over many of its outlying states and provinces. Principally those which had been handed over to Germany under the terms of the treaty, Bessarabia, such as Byelorussia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Russina Poland, western Ukraine, the Crimea, the industrial Donetz basin and the Don. It took the collapse of Imperial Germany and three long years of civil war before the Russian empire could be reborn under Soviet control. 

Modern claims of sovereignty over the Russias included Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich Romanov to be the rightful heir to Czar Nicholas II, which was not disputed. However, since his death in 1992 the divided branches of the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov each put forward their own claimant as heir to the throne of the Russias. Prince Nicholas Romanovich is recognised by most of the family, bearing direct descent from the uncrowned successor to Nicholas II, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich. Meanwhile, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, the daughter of Grand Duke Vladimir, upholds her claim because her father issued a controversial decree recognising her as his successor. 

The most infamous claim was by Anna Anderson the supposed daughter Anastasia, of Czar Nicholas who had been able to escape, when her father, mother, brother and sisters had all been shot and their bodies amateurishly cremated. Even so, her claim as a pretender to any throne was redundant while a valid male heir lived.

This map shows the extent of the Soviet Union’s geo-political power and reach after World War II until 1991.  The apt term Iron Curtain was coined by Winston Churchill. The map is also significant as it shows the split between Western Europe and Eastern Europe – with the exceptions of Finland and Greece which should be orange and East Germany, blue – which we will discover is the family split of one of Shem’s sons – not including Turkey, Russia, Spain and Portugal.

Modern Russia is a federal, semi-presidential republic founded in 1991 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ‘Despite bearing the resemblance of a democratic state in terms of its offices and elections, it always manages to convey the impression that old habits die hard in terms of its tendencies towards strong centralist control.’ Russia lay at the heart of the CIS, the Commonwealth of Independent States; a voluntary organisation of republics that had once formed part of the original Soviet empire. 

Its creation had been principally masterminded by Boris Yeltsin the president of the Russian republic. The clever ploy had been carried out behind the back of Mikhail Gorbachev; leaving him with no other choice than to announce the dissolution of the Soviet state. 

Most of the Russian population is concentrated in the western European portion of the country, especially in the fertile region surrounding Moscow. Moscow and St Petersburg, formerly Leningrad are the two most important cultural and financial centres in Russia and are among the most picturesque cities in the world. Russians are also populous in Asia; beginning in the seventeenth century and particularly pronounced throughout much of the twentieth century, a steady flow of ethnic Russians and Russian speaking peoples migrated eastward into Siberia, where cities such as Vladivostok and Irkutsk flourish today. 

Russia is a multinational state with over one hundred and ninety ethnic groups within its twenty-two republics; all with unique languages and cultures. The population is 146,030,890 people of which eighty-one percent are ethnic or Slavic Russian. It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth most populous country in the world. Russia’s population density stands at only nine inhabitants per square kilometre, or twenty-three per square mile. Russia has one of the oldest populations in the world, with an average age of 40.3 years and a projected population by 2030 of 139,599,000 people. 

The Russian economy can be fragile at times, though still ranks as one of the world’s biggest economies by nominal GDP. Russia is the world’s eleventh largest economy, with a GDP of $1.70 trillion as of 2019, 1.3% higher than in 2018.Russia has moved toward a more market-based economy over the three decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union, though government ownership of and intervention in business, is still common. As a leading exporter of oil and gas, as well as other minerals and metals, Russia’s economy is highly sensitive to swings in world commodity prices. 

Austrian statesman Klemens Furst von Metternich aptly noted: “Russia is never as strong as she appears, and never as weak as she appears.” 

Its expensive mineral and oil reserves have made it one of the world’s largest producers of gas and oil; using its power in this area as an economic weapon. Therefore, Russia is an energy superpower. The country has the world’s largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves and the eighth largest oil reserves. Russia is the world’s leading natural gas exporter – which gives it immense control over much of Europe – and the second largest oil exporter. Added to these impressive statistics, Russia is the fourth largest electricity producer and the ninth largest renewable energy producer in the world. Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world’s first nuclear power plant. In 2019, nuclear energy generated twenty percent of the country’s electricity.

Russia’s land offers a massive source of crops and its Chernozemie region in Central Russia makes it one of the major bread basket nations of the world with China, Brazil, Canada and the United States. This region is renowned for its rich soil known as Black Earth. The soil contains a high humus percentage and other soil enriching nutrients such as ammonia and phosphorous. It is also deep and its clay like qualities give it water retaining properties. This makes the area an agricultural powerhouse of Russia. Main crops include grains, particularly wheat and sunflowers, corn, soy beans, peas, rapeseed and barley. 

Of the top ten Countries with the most natural resources, Russia is ranked number five in the world; behind India at four and ahead of Brazil at six. Also, Russia is positioned at number two behind South Africa of the world’s top five mineral producing powers. Russia’s total estimated natural resources are worth $75 trillion [US dollars]. The country boasts the biggest mining industry in the world, which is a driving force in its national economy; producing substantial volumes of mineral fuels, industrial minerals, and metals. Russia is a leading producer of aluminum, arsenic, cement, copper, magnesium metal, as well as compounds like nitrogen, palladium, silicon, and vanadium. The nation is the second-largest exporter of rare earth minerals and accounts for up to 20% of nickel and cobalt production in the world and 7 % of global iron ore and coal exports.

Of the top ten technological nations in the world, Russia is at number six, ahead of the United Kingdom at seven and behind Germany at five. Russia led the space race with space exploration and moon landings. It is a leading producer and inventor of weapons technology and defence systems; being a major exporter of its equipment worldwide.

The richness of resources has not translated into an easy life for most of the country’s people; much of Russia’s history has been a grim tale of the very wealthy and powerful few, ruling over the great mass of their poor and powerless compatriots. An uncompromising parallel with the ancient Assyrians and their martial driven society and warlike persona. Despite such weighty problems Russia shows potential promise of re-gaining its superpower status. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Russian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Mineral fuels including oil: US $141.3 billion
  2. Gems, precious metals: $30.4 billion 
  3. Iron, steel: $16 billion 
  4. Cereals: $9.5 billion 
  5. Machinery including computers: $8.3 billion 
  6. Wood: $8.2 billion 
  7. Fertilizers: $7 billion 
  8. Copper: $5.6 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $5.5 billion 
  10. Fish: $4.6 billion 

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 98.9% from 2019 to 2020 propelled by greater international sales of gold and platinum. In second place for improving export sales was cereals via a 20.4% gain led by wheat and barley. Russia’s shipments of copper posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 8.1%.

The leading decliner among Russia’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil thanks to a -36% drop year over year. That decrease traces back to lower revenues for crude and processed petroleum oils as well as gas and coal.’

Russia is listed at number five in the world for countries with the largest gold reserves. Russia possesses 2,295.4 tonnes which equates to 22.0% for foreign reserves. ‘The Russian Central Bank has been one of the largest buyers of gold for the past seven years and overtook China in 2018’ who is now sixth. ‘In 2017, Russia bought 224 tonnes of bullion in an effort to diversifyaway from the U.S. dollar, as its relationship with the West has grown chilly since the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in mid-2014. To raise the cash for these purchases, Russia sold a huge percentage of its U.S. Treasuries.’ 

As of 2017, the Russian military comprised over one million active duty personnel, the  fifth largest in the world.  It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces. A distant residue of the militaristic mindset of Assyria. Russia’s tank force is the biggest in the world, while its surface navy and air force are among the largest. The country has a huge and fully indigenous arm industry producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. It has been one of the world’s top supplier of arms since 2001, accounting for  about thirty percent of worldwide weapons salesand exporting weapons to about eighty countries. Russia is the third biggest exporter of arms behind the United States and China. 

  1. The state flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR] from 1922 to 1991
  2. The Russian Naval ensign adopted in 1712 and designed by Czar Peter I the Great, between 1692 – 1712, after proposing eight different designs. Inspiration taken from the Scottish Saltire of the same colours in reverse. 
  3. The current flag of the Russian Federation.

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Russian Federation has been suggested as a potential candidate for resuming superpower status in the 21st century… while others have made the assertion that it is already a superpower. In his 2005 publication entitled Russia in the 21st Century: The Prodigal Superpower, Steven Rosefielde, a professor of economics at University of North Carolina… predicted that Russia would… augur another arms race… Rosefielde noted that such an end would come with tremendous sacrifice to global security and the Russian people’s freedom.

Matthew Fleischer of the Los Angeles Times contends that Russia will not become a superpower unless climate change eats away at the permafrost that covers, as of March 2014, two-thirds of the country’s landmass. The absence of this permafrost would reveal immense stores of oil, natural gas, and precious minerals, as well as potential farmland, which would allow Russia to “become the world’s bread basket – and control the planet’s food supply.”

… in December 2013, Russian president Vladimir Putin denied any Russian aspiration to be a superpower. He was quoted saying: “We do not aspire to be called some kind of superpower, understanding that as a claim to world or regional hegemony. We do not infringe on anyone’s interests, we do not force our patronage on anyone, or try to teach anyone how to live [a dig at the United States].”

Forbes writer Jonathan Adelman… summarized the arguments against Russia’s superpower potential… Russia has a trade profile of a Third World country [for now], a GNP the size of Canada which is less than 15 percent of the United States GDP, no soft power, Silicon Valley, Hollywood, Wall Street or highly rated universities.” Former political journalist Peter Brown wrote that Russia “would like to reclaim the superpower status it held for nearly 40 years after World War II,” but in the 21st century “may lack the combination of economic and military power” to do so. He said that “Russia won’t be a superpower anytime soon,” citing Russia’s shrinking population, high levels of poverty and poor public health. 

In 2011, British historian and professor Niall Ferguson… suggested that Russia is on its way to “global irrelevance”. [The scriptures paint a different picture of the King of the North. A few decades can change the fortunes of a nation considerably, particularly after a major conflagration such as a Third World War]. Russia has, however, shown a slight population growth since 2012, partly due to immigration. The number of Chinese in the Russia’s Far East has been growing.’

In Chapters XVII Lud and XVIII Elam, we studied the two sons of Shem that have the most in common with regard to their mtDNA [maternal] and Y-DNA [paternal] Haplogroups. The Persian Iranians and Turks exhibit considerable admixture with the neighbouring Arab peoples or the shared past history with the Turkic-Mongol peoples, respectively. Underlying these factors though, is the fact they’re Haplogroup sequencing bears similarity. Comparing them with the Russians, it soon becomes obvious there is a marked difference between the latter and the former two peoples. 

What we will discover as we progress through all of Shem’s five sons is that some are more closely related to certain brothers than others. We will also find, especially towards the end how similar cousins can be to each other compared to their own siblings. It is quite common for cousins to be drawn to each other and get along better than with their own brothers or sisters. Haplogroups now reveal scientifically how and why this occurs. 

Asshur shares Haplogroups predominately with Eastern Europe, partially with Northern Europe and almost negligible with Southern Europe or Western Europe. Contrastingly, Aram shares Haplogroups split between Western Europe and Southern Europe and minutely small commonalty with either Northern or Eastern Europe. The remaining son of Shem, Arphaxad sits in the middle of these two geographically and bridges the gap between the two genetically.

The key mtDNA Haplogroups for the Russians in descending order. 

Russia: H [41.2%] – H1+H3 [15%] – U5 [ 10.4%] – J [7.8%] – T2 [6.5%] – 

H5 [4.9%] – HVO+V [4.2%] – U4 [3.9%] – K [3.7%] – T1 [2.7%] – U [2.2%] – 

I [2%] – HV [1.8%] – W [1.8%] – U2 [ 1.4%] – X [1.3%] – U3 [1.1%] – L [0.2%] 

The main Haplogroups shared with Turkey and Iran include H, J and T2. Haplogroup H is the most frequent Haplogroup throughout West Eurasia; J is a major European Haplogroup and T, a more recent though prominent European Haplogroup. 

The three Haplogroups that Iran and Turkey share higher levels, that Russia also possesses but in lower percentages include K, U and HV. Haplogroup K is higher in distinctive groups such as the Basque and Ashkenazi Jew and found in Central Asia as well as North Africa. In contrast to Haplogroup T, Haplogroup U is one of the oldest and most diverse of the European Haplogroups. Haplogroup HV is the ancestral group to both H and V and dominates Western European lineages.

The remaining Haplogroups that Russia has higher percentages in and that Turkey has but far lower and Iran has only one of the three in common, include H1+H3, U5 and H5.

                           H       J      T2     K       U      HV    H1+H3     U5     H5    

Russia              41       8       7       4        2       2          15         10       5

Turkey             31       9       4       6        6       5            5           3       2

Iran                  17      14       5       7      12       7                          3

Russia ostensibly has more in common with Turkey than Iran. We will learn that Russia in fact, has more commonality with the Northern Slavic and Baltic nations. Recall the  first and fourth points in the introduction. Peoples today invariably live next to those peoples they are most related to – with a few notable exceptions and Haplogroups provide the evidence that this hypothesis is a provable fact.

Khazaria, Russian Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Russians are the dominant ethnicity in Russia today. The Russian language belongs to the East Slavic family and is related to Ukrainian and Belarusian. The Russian people, too, are closely related to their Belarusian and Ukrainian neighbors, and also fairly close to Poles and Slovenians… We can genetically divide the Russian people into two* main types: Northern Russians and Southern Russians.’

Mitochondrial DNA variability in Poles and Russians, Annals of Human Genetics 66, multiple authors, 2002, pages 261-283. Excerpts from the summary:

“The main mitochondrial haplogroup of the Polish and Russian sequences is group H, which is the most frequent haplogroup in Europe and also common in the Near East. Haplogroup H comprises the majority of the Russian (42.3%) and Polish (45.2%) samples… The node designated as HV* is highly important in mtDNA phylogeny because two of the most frequent haplogroups in Europe, H and pre-V, descend from it. The haplogroup HV*, rare in European populations, was identified in Polish and Russian samples with low frequency (1% and 2%, respectively)…

Haplogroup J sequences in Poles and Russians are characterized by similar frequencies of 7.8% and 8%, respectively… Haplogroup U and K sequences, which are defined by a variant-12308HinfI, were found in 19.5% of the Polish mtDNAs and in 20.0% of the Russian mtDNAs.”

“The distribution of the subgroup U5a and U5b frequencies in Poles and Russians is approximately equal, with the U5a subgroup prevailing over U5b – 5.3% and 3.4% in Poles, and 7.5% and 3% in Russians. U4 (with CR motif 16356-195) is the next relatively frequent subgroup in the populations studied, being found at a frequency of 5% in Poles and 3.5% in Russians.”

Mitochondrial DNA variation in Russian populations… Genetika 38:11, multiple authors, 2002, pages 1532-1538. Excerpts from the abstract, translated into English:

“Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was examined in three Russian populations from the European part of Russia (Stavropol krai, Orel oblast, and Saratov oblast). This analysis showed that mitochondrial gene pool of Russians was represented by the mtDNA types belonging to haplogroups H, V, HV*, J, T, U, K, I, W, and X. A mongoloid admixture (1.5%) was revealed in the form of mtDNA types of macrohaplogroup M. Comparative analysis of the mtDNA haplogroup frequency distribution patterns in six Russian populations from the European part of Russia indicated the absence of substantial genetic differences between them. However, in Russian populations from the southern and central regions the frequency of haplogroup V (average frequency 8%) was higher than in the populations from more northern regions…”

The macrohaplogroup U structure in Russians, Human Genetics 53:4, multiple authors, 2017, pages 498-503. Abstract:

“The structure and diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) macrohaplogroup U lineages in Russians from Eastern Europe are studied on the basis of analysis of variation of nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes. In total, 132 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U1, U2e, U3, U4, U5, U7, U8a, and K are characterized. 

Results of phylogeographic analysis show that the mitochondrial gene pool of Russians contains mtDNA haplotypes belonging to subhaplogroups that are characteristic only of Russians and other Eastern Slavs (13.7%), Slavs in general (11.4%), Slavs and Germans* (17.4%), and Slavs, Germans, and Baltic Finns (9.8%). 

Results of molecular dating show that ages of mtDNA subhaplogroups to which Russian mtDNA haplotypes belong vary in a wide range, from 600 to 17000 years [birth of Noah 16,837 BCE]. However, molecular dating results for Slavic and Slavic-Germanic* mtDNA subhaplogroups demonstrate that their formation mainly occurred in the Bronze and Iron Ages (1000 to 5000 years ago). Only some instances (for subhaplogroups U5b1a1 and U5b1e1a) are characterized by a good agreement between molecular dating results and the chronology of Slavic ethnic history based on historical and archaeological data.”

Genetic studies show that modern Russians are closest to Belarussians, Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, Balts and Ukrainians. In an interesting twist, the Ethnographer Zelenin, affirms ‘that Russians overall are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians* are to northern Russians.’ 

A study found that ‘the genetic distances from the Russians to the European language groups indicate that the gene pool of present-day Russians bears the influence of Slavic, baltic, Finno-Ugric and, to a lesser extent, Germanic groups, as well as Iranian and Turkic groups.’ 

These findings ‘uphold the traditionally held genetic differentiation between Northern and Southern Russians, with the decisive ethnic element being the Finno-Ugric one, more important in the north, the southern population having substantial – generally unacknowledged in historical debates about Russian ethnogenesis – Germanic influence.’ 

The Russians as Asshur are a bridge genetically amongst the sons of Shem and this will be affirmed and become more apparent when we study his brothers, Aram and Arphaxad. Aram and the western half ofArphaxad are both similar, as Lud and Elam are to each other. Asshur stands between the two pairings, though leans towards the eastern half of Arphaxad’s descendants. The reason and evidence for these relationships will be supported once Arphaxad’s Haplogroup genetics are studied. 

In reiteration of point one on in the introduction, peoples today are living next to those people they are most related to. Even though Russia had interaction and some inter-marrying with Germanic and Finno-ugric peoples – as well as Turks and Iranians – their main association in shared history, culture and language has been with fellow Slavic peoples.

What historians and geneticists have not understood is that the Russians or the Rus, did not originate in the Carpathian Mountains nor from Uppland in Scandinavia. These were merely settlements along their northwestern route from the lands of Byzantium and before that Anatolia and originally from Assyria in upper Mesopotamia, north of Shinar. 

 The northward Russians, have similarity with the Finno-Ugric peoples as they have similarly high levels of Y-DNA Haplogroup N1c1. The southward Russians display higher levels of I1 and especially I2a1 like southeastern Europeans. Russians possess these two genetic splits, as does Arphaxad – yet geneticists and ethnologists seek to explain these Haplogroups as deriving from mixing alone. This would require considerable inter-marrying. If anything, the Haplogroup map of Europe shows that the R1a and N1c1 Haplogroups if they did not originate with the Russians as Asshur, they at least certainly appear to have influenced their near neighbours percentages. Ukraine, Belarus and Poland have suspiciously high levels of R1a like Russia. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland have high levels of N1c1, again like Russia.

 The Haplogroups of Russians match the northern Slavic and Baltic peoples they reside next to; whereas, the nation of Germany’s Haplogroups match their neighbours. That is, the people with which they are related to in West-central Europe. 

When we study the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe and the Germanic, Scandinavian, Celtic, Latin peoples of Western Europe, it will be self-evident that Russia identifies with Asshur. And, why Germany cannot be Assyria. 

Four of the five sons of Shem all live on the periphery of Europe, surrounding where Arphaxad’s descendants dwell. Asshur, Elam and Lud – Russia, Turkey and Iran – live in the East and to the Southeast of Europe. We will find that the sons of Aram also dwell in peripheral locations within and outside Europe. 

As a guide it is worth mentioning as we delve into the European peoples more fully that broadly speaking, their principle Y-DNA Haplogroups of R1, I1 and I2 signify the four quarters of Europe. Haplogroup R1b is prominent in the west; R1a in the east; I1 and I2a2 in the north [and west] and I2a1 in the south [and east]. Added to this, is N1c1 prominent in the north and in counter balance J1 and J2, which are common in southern Europe. 

Khazaria, Russian Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

The Y-DNA (paternal) haplogroup R1a and its offshoots are very common among Russian men. Some specific subgroups of R1a found among ethnic Russians in the “Russia-Slavic DNA Project” include R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1g, and R1a1a1g2. The “Russia-Slavic DNA Project” includes men who have the sub-types R1b1a2 and R1b1a2a1a1b… [and] the sub-types I2a and I2a2. The Y-DNA haplogroup N is also common among Russian men… N haplogroups are often signals of Finnic ancestry… N1c1 is a sub-type that’s found in Russia. E1b1b Y-DNA haplogroups (ultimately originating in northeastern Africa) are not very common among Russian men, but some do have them.’

Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context, American Journal of Human Genetics 82:1, multiple authors, 2008, pages 236-250. Excerpts from the abstract:

“… In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) [N] and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. 

The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps.

Excerpts from middle of the study: We collected 1228 DNA samples from 14 regional Russian populations. All sampled individuals identified their four grandparents as ethnic Russians, with their mother tongue being Russian. The rural areas and small towns were chosen for sampling so that the influence of more recent migrations could be minimized. Only individuals with all four grandparents born in the local area were sampled… The 1228 Russian Y chromosomes analyzed, all except 20 (1.6%) fall into seven major haplogroups (E, G, I, J, K2, N, and R1) characteristic to West Eurasian populations. 

Eleven samples could be classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K, and nine samples (0.7%) fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 that are specific to East and South Asian populations. At a higher level of molecular resolution, only eight subclades of these major West Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups are presented with their average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, [N1c1], [I1], R1b, [I2], J2, [N1b1], and [E1b1b]. Taken together, they account for 95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool. 

Every second Russian Y chromosome belongs to haplogroup R1a… within the boundaries of Europe, R1a is characteristic for Balto-Slavonic populations, with two exceptions: southern Slavs and northern Russians. R1a frequency decreases in northeastern Russian populations down to 20% – 30%, in contrast to central-southern Russia, where its frequency is twice as high…

The second frequent among Russians is haplogroup [N1C1, formerly N3], which is a typical haplogroup for Altaic and Finno-Ugric populations of Siberia and northeastern Europe… within the Russian area, the frequency of [N1c1] decreases significantly from north (>35%) to south (<10%)… The third most frequent haplogroup in Russians is [I1, formerly I1b], and its variation is also clinal… The remaining two haplogroups, J2 and [E1b1b, formerly E3b], exhibit spotty frequencies in Russians, expected for low-frequency haplogroups.”

A 2008 paper, sampling 1,228 people in Russia who self-identified as ethnic Russians, found the following top four Y-DNA haplogroups among the sample:

Hg R1a:  19.8% to 62.7%, with an average of 46.7%

Hg N:        5.4% to 53.7%, with averages of 21.6% for all regions

Hg N:      10% Central and South Russia

Hg I:          0% to 26.8%, with an average of 17.6% for all regions

Hg I:       23.5% Central and South Russia

Hg R1b:    0% to 14%, with an average of 5.8%

Y-DNA Haplogroups listed for Russia, Turkey and Iran. We have noted the similarities between Turkey and Iran.

Russia:  R1a [46%] – N1c1 [23%] – I2a1 [10.5%] – R1b [6%] – I1 [5%] – 

I2a2 [4.5%] – J2 [3%] – E1b1b [2.5%] – T1a [1.5%] – Q [1.5%] – 

G2a [1%] 

Russia:   R1a – N1c1 – I2a1 – R1b – I1 – I2a2 – J2 – E1b1b – T1a – Q – G2a – [N1b1 – F – K2 – R2]

Turkey:  J2 – R1b – G2a – E1b1b – J1 – R1a – N1c1 – I2a1 – T1a – Q – I1 – I2a2 – [L1c – F – K – C – R2 – H]

Iran:       J2 – R1a – G2a – R1b – J1 – E1b1b – L1c – Q – T1a – N1c1 – I – [F – K – H]

Turkey: J2 [24%] – R1b [16%] – G2a [11%] – E1b1b [11%] – 

J1 [9%] – R1a [7.5%] – N1c1 [ 4%] – I2a1 [4%] – T1a [2.5%] – 

Q [2%] – I1 [1%] – I2a2 [0.5%] 

Iran:  J2 [23%] – R1a [15.5%] – G2a [10%] – R1b [9.5%] – 

J1 [8.5%] – E1b1b [6.5%] – L1c [6.5%] – Q [5.5%] – 

T1a [3%] – N1c1 [1%] – I [0.5%]

From this comparison, we learn that Russia’s Y-DNA Haplogroups though similar, standout as different with those of Turkey and Iran, in sequencing and percentages. We will find that Asshur has a closer genetic relationship with his younger brother in Chapter XXIV Arphaxad. 

                            J      E1b1b      G        R1a      R1b

Iran                   31          7          12        14         10

Turkey              31        14           9         12        20

Russia                3          3            1        46          6

Viewing the table from the preceding chapters and adding Russia highlights the disparity between Russia and the other two in those Haplogroups more usually associated with North Africa, the Middle East and southern Europe of E1b1b, G2a, J1 and J2. 

The one surprise is the low level of R1b in Russians, though six percent is an average  and levels can be half way between Turkey and Iran in certain areas. What is more significant and shows Russia’s closer genetic ties with north and eastern Europeans is adding the percentages for R1b and R1a. Russia has 52% compared with 32% and 24% for Turkey and Iran respectively.

Selecting those key Haplogroups more closely associated with the majority of the European nations and Russia’s highest percentages also shows Iran’s and Turkeys similarity and Russia’s distinctiveness.  

                          R1a     R1b      I1      I2       J2       N1c1

Iran                   16        10                  1        23          1

Turkey                8        16        1        5        24         4

Russia              46          6        5      15         3        23

For those readers  interested in all things Assyrian or Russian, there is an excellent two volume historical novel that brings the ancient world of Assyria colourfully alive, called The Assyrian by Nicholas Guild, 1987 and its sequel The Blood Star, 1989.

If a wise man has a controversy with a foolish and arrogant man, The foolish man ignores logic and fairness and only rages or laughs… there is no peace… or agreement.

Proverbs 29:9 Amplified Bible

“… we must bear in mind that the cause of learning has often been promoted by scholars who are prepared to take a risk and expose their brain-waves to the pitiless criticisms of others.”

F F Bruce [1910 – 1990]

“All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.”

Arthur Schopenhauer

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Four Kings & One Queen

Interest in the Kings of the North and the South is well founded as the culmination of their prophetic roles signals the onset of the time of Jacob’s trouble and may well unravel a third of a millennia from now, near and a little beyond the horizon line of where the third century ends and the next begins [Jeremiah 30:7]. 

The Book of Daniel contains the single longest prophecy in the Bible, that chronicles thousands of years and on into the future. The early part of the chapter references Greece or Javan – somewhat confusingly – as it is not the son of Japheth but actually the Greco-Macedonian Empire and its confrontation with the existing, ruling Medo-Persian Empire ending in 331 BCE. 

The players of north and south, subtly change over the centuries. These identities of the past have been well researched, so I will not include them here. Then towards the end of Daniel chapter eleven, the Kings of the North and South shift from a Mediterranean – Middle Eastern – orientation to an imminent global power struggle. 

Though not stated as such in the Bible, there is of sorts, a King of the West. This nation is a behemoth on the world stage, though for not much longer. Within a sixty-five year period, the pride of its power will decline and fail and with that, it’s fall [Isaiah 7:8]. Its final demise will be spectacular, sudden, devastating and completed at the hands of the King of Assyria [Isaiah 7:17, Hosea 11:5]. 

The prevalent view amongst identity adherents and fundamentalist Christians has been that Asshur as ‘the instrument of God’s wrath’ in bringing true Israel to its knees in repentance – past and future – is the nation of Germany and the German peoples. Yet geography, history, migration with mtDNA and Y-DNA Haplogroups, show that the Germans are actually Ishmael [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael]. 

As the dominant nation of the descendants of Peleg – son of Eber from Arphaxad a son of Shem in Western Europe – centrally placed Germany is also the leading nation of Joktan’s descendants also from Eber, in Eastern Europe. In the future, a German led European Union will ally itself with the Assyrians. 

The prophet Balaam provides a future prophecy on these specific nations, including Kitti, son of Javan, from Japheth.

Numbers 24:24

English Standard Version

‘But ships shall come from Kittim and shall afflict [H6031 – anah] Asshur and Eber; and he too shall come to utter destruction.”’

It is in fact Russia who is Asshur and modern day Assyria [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. Russia is both the King of the North and the instrument of God’s wrath against Israel and Judah. The Hebrew word for afflict, means: ‘to afflict, abase’ or ‘humble (one self).’

Zephaniah 2:13

English Standard Version

‘And he will stretch out his hand against the north and destroy Assyria, and he will make Nineveh a desolation, a dry waste like the desert.’

Isaiah 10:5, 24-25

English Standard Version

‘5 Woe to Assyria, the rod of my anger; the staff in their hands is my fury… 

24 Therefore thus says the Lord God of hosts: “O my people, who dwell in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrians when they strike with the rod and lift up their staff against you as the Egyptians did. 25 For in a very little while my fury will come to an end, and my anger will be directed to their destruction.’

There are only two nations in the northern hemisphere that could at a certain point in the future, possess the military and economic wherewithal to inflict a captivity of this magnitude on the modern nations of true Israel and Judah [not the modern state called Israel]. The nation of Germany is not in the north.

Amos 6:8-9, 11, 14

English Standard Version

‘… declares the Lord, the God of hosts: “I abhor the pride of Jacob and hate his strongholds, and I will deliver up the city and all that is in it.”… And if ten men remain in one house, they shall die… and the great house shall be struck down into fragments, and the little house into bits. “For behold, I will raise up against you a nation, O house of Israel,” declares the Lord, the God of hosts; “and they shall oppress you…’

The other contender nation China, already has its own predetermination as we will learn. The Assyrians are given their mission as Israel’s punisher from the Creator, though as they relish the role, their demise is also predicted. 

We then read further, on the King of the North in Daniel. The whole of chapter eleven is worth reading, though for brevity the key verses are the following.

Daniel 11: 15, 18, 25, 29-31, 40, 42-44:

English Standard Version

‘Then the king of the north shall come… Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands and shall capture many of them… And he shall stir up his power and his heart against the king of the south with a great army. And the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army, but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him…’ 

The King of the North finds reason to attack the coastlands or isles which in the Bible are always associated with the far East. In this case, southeast Asia. Isaiah 66:19, ESV: ‘… to Tarshish , Pul, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the coastlands far away, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory…’ Pul, is not a mis-translation of Put [Phut]. It is a name of a king – a King of Asshur and a reference to Assyria. Russia then turns its attention to the King of the South and defeats them in their first encounter.

‘At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but it shall not be this time as it was before. For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw, and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant… and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the regular burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate [Matthew 24:15].’

The interlinear says: ‘For ships Chittim shall come…’ It does not include ‘of’ or ‘from’ in the Hebrew, though I consider the inference is from more than that of, Kittim. Sometimes translated unhelpfully, as ships from the west. Some have then mistakenly translated Kittim as Cyprus or Italy. Kitti today is Indonesia [refer Chapter VII Javan & Chapter VIII Kitti].

We learned earlier in Numbers 24:24, that ships from Kitti inflict a loss on Asshur and Eber – an alliance of Russia and a German led Europe. 

At some point, Kitti is either part of those nations amalgamated as the King of the South, and Indonesia’s military and naval power is formidable enough to fight Russia and Europe, or more likely, the verse is a veiled reference to a naval cavalcade, of various confederate nations travelling from a base in Kittim. It is plausible that Indonesia could accommodate a military and naval presence within its strategically positioned borders in southeast Asian waters. This enlargement of the King of the South alliance creates a powerful navy, that wins a confrontation against the King of the North, scaring them into retreat.

Modern navies since the last century have considerably more impact in any escalation than in the past, as they not only provide an effective means of transporting soldiers and military hardware, they include the critical strike potency afforded through the combined use of aircraft carriers and their jet fighter aircraft.

In wrathful response, the abomination of desolation is committed and marks the beginning of the great tribulation some thirty days later and a final three and one half year period [a prophetic 1260 days] before the Son of Man returns [Daniel 9:27, 12:11, Matthew 24:21-22].

At the time of the end, the king of the south shall attack him, but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships… He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt [Mizra] shall not escape. He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans [Phut] and the Cushites shall follow in his train. But news from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go out with great fury to destroy and devote many to destruction.’ 

The King of the North clashes for a third time with the King of the South, who this time is the aggressor – bolstered by winning the second exchange – attacking Russia with its allies. Notice the King of the North is prepared with ‘many ships’ and wins the third and final conflagration. Mizra are the Arab nations, led by Egypt, Phut is Pakistan and Cush is India [refer Chapters XIII Cush & Phut and XIV Mizra]. India though is not aligned with the King of the South. Russia gains control of Arab assets, for instance oil reserves. The threat from the northeast, is an East Asian alliance, led by China.

Ezekiel 27:10

New English Translation

‘Men of Persia [Elam], Lud, and Put [Pakistan] were in your army, men of war. They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.’

Lud a son of Shem, is associated with Elam and Phut geographically and militarily a number of times in the Bible. All the verses that mention them are connected with warfare. It is not a surprise therefore to discover that Lud is the modern militaristic state of Iran [refer Chapter XVII Lud]. Their relationship with Pakistan and Elam falls into place in the jig-saw of who comprises the King of the South; as Elam is the nation of Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam].

What is worth noting, from Ezekiel 27:10, is that Turkey, Iran and Pakistan are the heart and core of the future Islamic Alliance that is referred to in the Book of Daniel, as the King of the South. Peripheral players in this powerful confederacy, may well include other major Islamic nations of Egypt [Pathros from Mizra], Bangladesh [Havilah from Cush] and Indonesia [Kitti from Javan].

There are a handful of contender nations for leader of the Muslim world: population wise, Bangladesh and Indonesia; diplomatically wise as in gaining pan-Arab support, Egypt; militarily, Pakistan and critically, ideologically wise, Iran. The last two would appear favourites and Iran has the edge maybe, in religious zealotry and militancy compared with Pakistan. 

On the fringes because of its ostensibly more western footing is Turkey. How it would fit into an Islamic alliance is not as clear cut, unless economic clout is considered foremost. Potential leader can not be ruled out particularly as its economy [19th biggest GDP in the world], though marginally behind Indonesia [at 16th] and Saudi Arabia [at 18th], is growing to soon make it the dominant nation of the South.

Turkey is included in the Next Eleven countries that are projected to dominate the global economy in the middle of the twenty-first century. Other N-11 nations coincidentally, include Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran and Pakistan. Most of the group’s total gross domestic product derives from Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and yes, Turkey. These Islamic nations are the fastest growing major economies of the next generation along with the burgeoning economies of the BRIC nations of Brazil, India, China and forebodingly, Russia.

India is discussed in the Bible and has a vital role to play as the Queen of the South; a powerful counterpoint to the King of the South.

Matthew 12:42

Amplified Bible

‘The Queen of the South (Sheba) [Sheba & Dedan of Cush] will stand up [as a witness] at the judgment against this [last] generation, and will condemn it because she came from the ends of the earth to listen to the wisdom of Solomon; and now, something greater than Solomon is here [the Messiah].’

The term Queen of the South is a tantalising clue as it confirms the status of India on the world stage, while at the same time excluding it from the future union of Islamic nations incorporating the King of the South: Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt and their allies Indonesia and Bangladesh [refer Chapter XII Cush & Phut]. 

The alliance led by China, is mentioned in the Book of Revelation.

Revelation 16:12

English Standard Version

‘The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, to prepare the way for the kings from the east.’

The Kings of the East comprise China, North Korea – or sensationally, a united Korea – and much of continental southeast Asia, such as Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. At this juncture, after the King of the North has conclusively and systematically defeated the King of the South, the Queen of the South and having already dispatched the King of the West, China decides to impede Russia’s rush towards total global dominion.

Revelation 16:16

English Standard Version

‘And they assembled them at the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon.’

China is comprised of Japheth’s sons Magog, Meshech and Tubal [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech]. Magog, Tubal & Meshech are located in the North [Daniel 11:44] and in the East [Revelation 16:12]. Magog is described in Ezekiel chapters thirty-eight and thirty-nine and Revelation 20:1–10. Only one nation in the world could be the correct match.

Gog is a future ruler of Magog – quite literally, a de-magog-ue.

Definition of a demagogue: ‘a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people.’

This leader is suspiciously reminiscent of a Nephil.

There are in fact two wars predicted, involving Magog:

1. Towards the end of the Great tribulation at the battle of Armageddon, Magog with the Kings of the East, faces off against the King of the North

2. At the end of a millennial period of peace, Magog and its allies attack, not the present day state of Israel and the Jews, but rather true Israel descended from the sons of Jacob

We have previously discussed the Statue in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, with the Medes [Madai – Turkic-Mongols] and the Persians [Elam – Turkey] being the chest and arms of Silver. The head of gold synonymous with the Babylonian Chaldean Empire – from the descendants of Abraham’s brother Nahor – and the torso and thighs of bronze equating to the Greco-Macedonian Empire – the descendants of Abraham’s nephew Lot. Each descending metal, less valuable but more robust than the one previous. In Daniel 2:33, 40 NET, it says:

Its legs were of iron… Then there will be a fourth kingdom, one strong like iron. Just like iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything, and as iron breaks in pieces all these metals, so it will break in pieces and crush the others.’ 

The legs of iron, are much stronger than the bronze of the Greco-Macedonians, yet not as culturally sophisticated or resplendent. It would be unusually conspicuous if the Assyrians were missing from the statue, as other major European powers are included as we have investigated.

The two legs represent the division of the Roman Empire. One leg of iron is the Western Roman Empire centred in Rome and represents the descendants of Ishmael – the Germans. The other leg is the Eastern Roman Empire of Byzantium and this leg represents the descendants of Asshur – the Russians. [refer Chapters XX Asshur and XXVIII Ishmael].

Excerpt from an answer to questions asked on Quora: What is the meaning of Daniel chapter 11? and What does the Bible mean about “Queen of the South”?

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to orion-gold.com

Central Asia – Madai & the Medes

Chapter IV

Japheth’s third son Madai, is mentioned more frequently in the Bible than most of his brothers. This is due to a close relationship with a certain cousin from Shem.

Herman Hoeh discusses Madai in his 1957 article, Origin of the Nations – capitalisation  his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Herodotus mentions that the “Matienians” from the land of Rosh were associated with the people of Meshech and Tubal! (Thalia, 94.) And Pliny the Roman natural historian speaks of the “Matiani” as moving into Russia through the Caucasus (BooK VI, section xviii of NATURAL HISTORY). Not all Russians are Great Russians and White Russians. Some are called “Little Russians”. They live – in the Ukraine and the eastern parts of Romania and Poland. They are often called Ukrainians or Ruthenians. There are about 50 million of them! Who are these people? The MEDES! The sons of Madai! Here is the proof!

In Genesis 10:2 we have Madai, the son of Japheth listed. Now check in an exhaustive concordance. You will find the original Hebrew word translated into English as “Mede” or “Median” is always Madai. Madai is the father of the Medes. The Medes used to be associated with the Persians. You will read about them especially in the book of Daniel. But by the time of Nehemiah the Persians were much more prominent. Today there are no Medes left in Persia [Iran]. The Medes are gone. Certainly a great branch of the human family could not suddenly vanish from the earth!

Indeed they did not. Throughout South Russia – in the Ukraine – four centuries before Christ the Medes were beginning to settle. Here is what the historian Herodotus wrote of these people: “They say that they are a colony of the Medes. How they can have been a colony of the Medes I cannot comprehend; but anything may happen in course of time” (Terpsichore, 9). Herodotus, like many moderns, was prone to believe that the people who inhabited Mesopotamia and the “Bible lands” must be living there today. But they are not. The Arabs have taken their place! The fact that the Medes are the Little Russians today is further amplified by Pliny in his NATURAL HISTORY, Book VI, section xi. He mentions “the river Don, where the inhabitants are… said to be descended from the Medes”!’

Though Hoeh enthusiastically concludes the northeastern Slavic nations, lead by Ukraine are descended from Madai, we will learn that the sons of Madai, the Medes are of an Asian line of descent – albeit with some European admixture – and not eastern European. 

A H Sayce states on page 45:

‘Madai are the Medes, the Mada of the Assyrians. We first hear of them in the cuneiform records under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840, when their country was invaded by the Assyrian monarch. They were at that time settled in the Kurdish mountains, considerably to the east of Lake Urumiyeh. Some fifty years later, however, we find them in Media Rhagiana, where they are called no longer Amada but Mada. It was from the latter form of the name that the Greeks took the familiar Mede.’

Amazing Bible Time Line – bold mine: 

‘According to the Book of Jubilees [10:35-36], [Madai] married the daughter of Shem and pleaded with the three brothers of his wife [Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad] to let him live on their land instead [of] occupying an area in Japheth’s land[!] They gave him a spot to dwell on with his family and it was later… named Media. The capital city of Media was Ecbatana [Ezra 6:2]… Media flourished in the trade industry and was… blessed in the field of agriculture. Its lands were fertile…’ 

Recall Genesis 9:27 [refer Chapter II Japheth Orientalium] – the promise of Japheth dwelling with Shem – Madai has intermingled with Shem in extraordinary fashion and has also been blessed with fertile soil and mineral wealth in its modern location

The Book of Jubilees 8:5 states that a daughter of Madai named Milcah [Aramaic: Melkâ] married Canaan, Ham’s youngest son. Though mtDNA Haplogroups do not provide support for this proposition.

The Book of Jasher 7:5 

And the children of Madai were Achon, Zeelo, Chazoni and Lot. We will meet another, well-known Lot, later [refer Chapter XXVI The French & Swiss: Moab, Ammon & Haran].

A selection of verses – in chronological order – regarding the Medes of Media in the Bible and revealing their intricate relationship with not only Elam of Persia, but also Asshur of Assyria.

2 kings 17.6

English Standard Version

[Shalmaneser V]… the king of Assyria captured Samaria, and he carried the Israelites away to Assyria and placed them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

This occurred in 721 to 718 BCE [2 Kings 18:11]. Media though a powerful people, found themselves in the shadow of the Babylonian Empire and subject to the Assyrian Empire. The Persian Cyrus or Darius the Great, became King of Persia in 559 BCE. His father was King Astyages of Media, against whom he rebelled and desiring to remove Media’s dominance over Persia, annexed Media to the Persian Empire in 549 BCE. He was the first ruler of the Achaemenid Empire, which lasted over two hundred years. The Medes, though conquered, continued to be honoured in the new empire and were invariably referenced together with the Persians [Acts 2:9].

Isaiah 21:2

New Century Version

… Elam, attack the people! Media, surround the city and attack it! I will bring an end to the pain the city [of Babylon] causes. 

Cyrus conquered the Chaldean Empire in 539 BCE. This event was foretold long before by the prophets Isaiah [13:17] and Jeremiah [25:25, 51:11,28] and it occurred one year before Cyrus/Darius issued the decree that allowed remnants of the Kingdom of Judah to return to Jerusalem [Ezra 1:1-4].

Daniel 5:28

English Standard Version

Peres, your kingdom [the Chaldeans] is divided and given to the Medes and Persians.”

Daniel 5:31

New Century Version

So Darius the Mede became the new king when he was sixty-two years old.

Cyrus ruled until 530 BCE. There were two interim kings and then Darius came to the throne of the Medes and Persians in 522 BCE and ruled to 486 BCE. Darius was not a son of Cyrus, being a Mede not a Persian. 

Daniel 6:15

New Century Version

Then those men went as a group to the king. They said, “Remember, O king, the law of the Medes and Persians says that no law or command given by the king can be changed.”

Daniel 6:28

New Century Version

So Daniel was successful during the time Darius [the Mede] was king and when Cyrus the Persian was king.

Daniel had found favour and was a key figure in the Court of both kings for half a century or more. In 485 BCE Xerxes I, the son of Darius the Mede became king, ruling to 465 BC. His son Artaxerxes I or Ahasuerus, ascended to the throne, when his father was murdered, at the age of twenty-six in 465/464 BCE. This was the apex of the empire, inherited from his father and when we are introduced to the biblical character Esther. The second chapter of the Book of Esther reveals Esther’s rags to riches story. She was part of the returned captives originally from the Kingdom of Judah in 458/457 BCE. Esther descended from the Tribe of Benjamin and was beautiful in countenance and spirit [Esther 2:7]. She was placed in the King’s palace… 

Esther 1:1-4

New Century Version

This is what happened during the time of King Xerxes, the king who ruled the one hundred twenty-seven states from India to Cush. 

Literally from present day India all the way west, to the nation in east Africa now known as Ethiopia.

In those days King Xerxes ruled from his capital city of Susa [or Susan]. In the third year of his rule [482 BCE], he gave a banquet for all his important men and royal officers. The army leaders from the countries of Persia and Media and the important men from all Xerxes’ empire were there. The banquet lasted one hundred eighty days. All during that time King Xerxes was showing off the great wealth of his kingdom and his own great riches and glory.

Esther 2:16-18

English Standard Version

And when Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus, into his royal palace… in the seventh year of his reign [458/457 BCE], the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she won grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins, so that he set the royal crown on her head and made her queen instead of Vashti. 

Esther 1:19

English Standard Version

If it please the king, let a royal order go out from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes so that it may not be repealed, that Vashti is never again to come before King Ahasuerus. And let the king give her royal position to another who is better than she [Daniel 6:12].

Then the king gave a great feast for all his officials and servants; it was Esther’s feast. He also granted a remission of taxes to the provinces [including Jerusalem] and gave gifts with royal generosity.

About a third of the references to the name Madai, including Media and the Medes in the Bible, occur in the Book of Esther. 

The Medo-Persian Empire contained 44% [about 50 million people] of the world’s population within its borders, says Ehsan Yarshater in The Cambridge History of Iran – the highest such percentage for any empire in history.

To fully appreciate Madai’s identity, we will briefly touch upon Shem’s sons Elam and Asshur – with one defining biblical identification verse each – before returning to them in detail in their own sections.

The modern day descendants of Elam or ancient Persia are the Turks – the nation of Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. 

Jeremiah 49:36

New English Translation

I will cause enemies to blow through Elam from every direction like the winds blowing in from the four quarters of heaven. I will scatter the people of Elam to the four winds. There will not be any nation where the refugees of Elam will not go.

Footnote: Or more simply, “I will bring enemies against Elam from every direction. / And I will scatter the people of Elam to the four winds.” Or more literally, “I will bring the four winds against Elam / from the four quarters of heaven. / I will scatter….” However, the winds are not to be understood literally here. God isn’t going to “blow the Elamites” out of Elam with natural forces. The winds must figuratively represent enemy forces that God will use to drive them out.

We are provided an intriguing clue with regard to Elam’s location. It is vulnerable to attack from all sides: north, south, east and west. There are four points or directions on a compass and four winds, northerly, easterly and so forth. Turkey is literally at the crossroads of the earth. It sits, between the continents of Europe, Asia and the region of the Middle East geographically, politically and culturally – not quite a full member of either.

Cyrus the Persian, the Elamite King, was known as: ‘The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World.’

Elam or Persia historically was geographically near Madai or Media. Following points one, three and four in the introduction, we should expect to find a European and Asian peoples not only in geographic proximity today but also connected through history, language and inter-marriage, revealed by their respective Haplogroups.

Meanwhile, the modern day descendants of Asshur and Assyria dwell in Russia [refer Chapter XX Will the Real Assyria Stand Up: Asshur & Russia].

Zephaniah 2:13

English Standard Version

And he will stretch out his hand against the north [H6828 – tsaphown, meaning: northward, northern, (direction of), north side, north wind] and destroy Assyria, and he will make Nineveh [the capital] a desolation, a dry waste like the desert.

If you study a world map, Russia is as far north as you can travel. There it is; exactly where the Bible says. The Assyrians historically used their neighbour Media, as a foot stool. We will find a similar relationship has continued in modern times.

One can hear those readers with more than a cursory knowledge, gasping incredulously. Edward Hine, first proposed Germany was Assyria in the 1870s – with people guided by its adversarial relationship with Great Britain in following decades – the idea proceeded to cement firmly in people’s minds like reinforced steel concrete. When Edom was first linked with Turkey, is not exactly clear; though the reasons given hang by tenuous threads for both identities, with Haplogroups providing the knock out blow, as we shall discover.

Many will be thinking: then who are the Germans and where is Edom? We will look more closely at these two influential peoples in later chapters – including the intricate relationship between Madai and Elam. It would be very convenient if Madai and or Elam still lived in present day Iran… since Iranians call themselves Persian – but this does not mean they are Madai or Elam. Please refer to point number one and two in the introduction.

The cumulative evidence leads to Madai being the Turko-Mongol peoples of the Central Asian Republics and also the Tartars of Russia. Namely, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partially Tajikistan. Possibly including the Sami and Lapps of Russia, Finland and Scandinavia.

Madai from the verb madad, means: ‘measure, sufficient, enough’ or ‘judging’ and ‘as often as’, ‘middle land’, and ‘out of the abundance of.’ It could also be interpreted as: ‘My Measure[ment].’

For now, we will introduce the relationship Madai has with Elam; detailing a comprehensive study later when we discuss Elam [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. We will see support for the subservient relationship of Madai towards Asshur, present day Russia and the abundance Madai has been given in fulfilment of their name. If one looks at a map of the world, it is evident just how in the middle of the world, Madai truly is.

The five nations comprising Central Asia are former Soviet Republics, from the modern incarnation of the Assyrian Empire. They are referred to as ‘the stans’ – the Persian [Iranian] suffix meaning: land of.

The region historically connected the Silk Road, standing as the intersection for the movement of people, trade and philosophies between all parts of Asia and Europe. The population of the four principle nations is approximately 67 million people; not far off the Amerindian population of the Americas [refer Chapter III Tiras the Amerindian].

The people of Turkmenistan are known as Turkmen or Turkmen Turks. Turkmen also live in Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, Iran and Afghanistan. They speak the Turkmen language; classified as part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. 

Examples of other Oghuz languages include Turkish and Azerbaijani. In the early Middle Ages, Turkmen originally called themselves Oghuz and then later as Turkmen.

Flag of Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan – the nation with the largest population of the four – mines 80 tons of gold yearly; 7th highest in the world. Uzbekistan’s copper deposits rank 10th in the world, its uranium deposits 12th and the country’s uranium production ranks 7th globally. The Uzbek national gas company, Uzbekneftegas ranks 11th in the world in natural gas production and the country has significant untapped reserves of oil and gas.

The transcontinental Republic of Kazakhstan, the nation with the biggest land area of the four within Central Asia, has an additional smaller portion west of the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. It is the world’s largest landlocked country and the 9th largest country in the world, with an area of 1,052,100 square miles.Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region’s GDP, mainly through its oil and gas industries. It also possesses vast mineral resources.

The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, with Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uyghur, modern Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen and many other languages spoken in Eastern Europe, as well as Central and Eastern Asia. 

CountryPopulationArea (km²)GDP (nominal)
 Kazakhstan19,312,1652,724,900$196.4 billion
 Kyrgyzstan6,782,627199,900$6.4 billion
 Uzbekistan34,629,727447,400$52.0 billion
Turkmenistan6,242,581488,100$29.9 billion
Total66,967,100

Kazakhstan has the 2nd largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves; the 3rd largest manganese reserves; the 5th largest copper reserves; and ranks in the top ten in the world for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. 

Flag of Kazakhstan

Most significantly for its economic future, Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas in the world. There are three refineries in the country and not being capable of processing the total crude output, much of it is exported to Russia. Kazakhstan, while part of the Soviet Union was instrumental in the Russian Space Program; providing the launch sites for CCCP rockets.

Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan since 1997 and renamed from Aqmola in 1998

The Tatars are a collective of Turkic-speaking groups – nearly 7 million people – living in the Russian Federation. The Chinese referred to these nomadic tribes as ‘Ta-Ta or Da-Da’ – meaning dirty or barbarian. During the early thirteenth century, Ghenghis Khan united the nomadic tribes then living in Mongolia. One of his grandsons Batu Khan, led the Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey].

Web source – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The…Tatars were conquered by imperial Russian forces during the reign of Tsar Ivan IV in 1552… When the Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, the Tatars… formed their own home-land, the Idil-Ural State. The Soviet government… instead formed the Bashkir Autonomous Republic (Bashkortostan) and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tatarstan) on the same soil. When the Soviet government took over these regions, it redrew the boundaries and gave neighboring Russian provinces the best lands. By changing the boundaries, about 75 percent of the Tatar population found itself living outside the borders of Tatarstan.

Tatar culture was… affected… through the policy of Russification, where the Russian language and culture were legally forced on the Tatars and other ethnic groups… Tatars, of whom about 26 percent live in Tatarstan… is about the size of Ireland or Portugal. 

About 15 percent of all Tatars live in Bashkortostan, another ethnic homeland in the Russian Federation that lies just east of Tatarstan. There are also smaller Tatar populations in Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan… In 922, the Tatars’ predecessors, the Bulgars, converted to Islam, and the old Turkic script was replaced by the Arabic alphabet. 

A famous old Tatar… proverb is Tuzga yazmagannï soiläme, which means, roughly, “If it’s not written on salt, it’s wrong to even mention it.” The proverb refers to the ancient method of keeping records on plaques made of wood and salt, and commends the practicality of keeping written records.’

Recall ‘the Law of the Medes and Persians’, where a proclamation stood fast and could not be altered as discussed in the Books of Esther and Daniel.

The Analysis of the Genetic Structure of the Kazakh Population as estimated from mitochondrial Dnapolymorphism, Scientific Centre of Obstetrics, Genecology and Perinatology, Galina Berezina, Gulnara Svyatova & Zhanar Makhmutova, 2011 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The most closely related populations are the Kazakhs and Uighurs, they are accompanied by the Uzbeks and the nation(s) of the southern Altai on one level. The Kyrgyz and Bashkir [Tatar] nations formed an independent taxonomic group in this cluster. The contribution of [European]and[Asian] components in the formation of the anthropological type of the Kazakhs was proved… by Ismagulov (1970) on the basis of a comprehensive study of paleoantropological and craniological materials.’

The land of Kazakhstan has been a place of interaction of many ethnic layers during a historically long period. Mongolian tribes, Turkic-speaking populations from Siberia and Altai, Indo-Iranians from the Near East, as well as Slavs from Eastern Europe took part in the formation of the Kazakhs. Thus, it is possible to explain a high level of genetic variability of mtDNA, with a complicated ethnic history.

Khazaria, Kazakh Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

Kazakhs (Qazaqs, Kazaks) are a Turkic-speaking people living in several modern countries including (but not limited to) Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia. They are approximately 70% [Asian] and 30% [European]and this admixture explains why some Kazakhs have light European physical features in contrast to the majority who have black hair, brown eyes, and epicanthic eyefolds. 

The Kazakhstan DNA Project‘s Y-chromosome records show that among its male members are the Y-DNA haplogroups C3, C3*, C3c, G… O2, Q1a3, E1b1b1, N1c1, R1a1, R1b1b1, R2, J2a1, J2a, and J2. C3 [C2] (M217, P44) is not only common among Kazakhs but also frequent in Mongolia [and the Kyrgyz].

The analysis shows that Western Europe… and Eastern Europe… mtDNA lineages exist in the Kazakhs population. A high genetic diversity was observed in the Kazakhs population (h=0.996). “We have studied the relation between East Eurasian and West Eurasian lines in the gene pool of the Kazakhs using the data on polymorphism HVSI of mtDNA (frequencies of haplogroups). It was found out that the main contribution of East Eurasian lines (55% of the total gene pool) to the modern gene pool of mtDNA of the Kazakhs make haplogroups D, C, G and Z (36.2%), A and F (6.9%) and other haplogroups of Asian origin (11.9%).’ 

The complexity of the Kazakh genetic make up is due to their Haplogroups being split between Asian [64-70%] and European lineages [30-35%]; with their European genealogy being split further, between western [41%] and eastern European [55%] gene pools.  

‘West Eurasian lines (41% of the total gene pool) in the Kazakh gene pool are most frequently represented by the haplogroups H (14.1%), K (2.6%), J (3.6%), T (5.5%), U5 (3%) and others (12.2%).” We found that more than 64% of mtDNA lineages belong to Asian-specific haplogroups (M, C, Z, D, G, A, B, F, N9). Supercluster M was found with most high frequency (45%).’ 

Japheth’s son Tiras possesses the mtDNA Haplogroups in common with Madai of C, D, A & B [refer Chapter III Tiras the Amerindian]. Haplogroups C and D derive from super sub-Haplogroup M – itself from L3 – while Haplogroup A derives from super sub Haplogroup N and B from super sub-Haplogroup R.

Western-Eurasian specific haplogroups were observed in 35%(H, V, HV, J, T, U1, U2, U4, U5, U7, K, W, X)… the lineage of Hg U7, typical for all Levant, including Iran, was revealed in Kazakhs… East Asian hgs – A, B, F, N9 – make up about 18% in Kasakhs, like in all Central Asian populations, Altaics, Tuvinians and Bashkirs…

While those Kazak people who reside in China are mostly [Asian], just like Kazakhs in Kazakhstan, this study showed that 30.2% of their ancestry is western Eurasian. “In this study, we also find that all Turkic and Mongolic groups possess a common set of maternal haplogroups (C, D, G2a, H)…*

Kyrgyz (Kirghiz, Kirgiz) are a Turkic-speaking people living mostly in Kyrgyzstan but also in neighboring Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and China. They are descended from multiple different ancient peoples. Mongoloid (East Eurasian) ancestry represents between half and two-thirds of Kyrgyz ancestry. 

Kyrgyz living in Tajikistan and western areas of Kyrgyzstan have less Mongoloid ancestry and more Caucasoid ancestry than other Kyrgyz. Central and South Asian ancestry is the next most important element representing about one-fourth. West Eurasian (including European) represents about one-eighth. Ancestry from West Asia [Arab, Persian] is not significant in any Kyrgyz person and many have none of it.

The Kirgiz DNA-Project’s Y-chromosome records show that among its male members who are Kyrgyz from Kyrgyzstan are the Y-DNA haplogroups C-M217 (C3) [C2], I-M253 (I1), J-M172, N-M232, O-P201, R-M198 (R1a1a), R-M269 (R1b1a2), and R-M343 (R1b1a1). R1a1 (and its subtypes) is also found among Kazakhs, eastern Siberians, South Asians, East Slavs, and West Slavs.’

‘This study of Y-DNA includes Kyrgyz samples as well as samples from other Central Asian peoples like Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Karakalpaks, plus many other populations from elsewhere. M17 [R1a1] is suggested to be “a diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker”… “The exceptionally high frequencies** [63%] of this marker in the Kyrgyz, Tajik/Khojant, and Ishkashim populations are likely to be due to drift, as these populations are less diverse, and are characterized by relatively small numbers of individuals living in isolated mountain valleys.”’

The most prevalent mtDNA Haplogroups for the Kyrgyz, in order are: D, H and C.* D, C and G are indicative of Asian ancestry and H is reflective of European admixture in the maternal line. The main Y-DNA paternal Haplogroups for the seven million Kyrgyz are in descending percentage order: 

R1a [63.5%] – C2 [13.5%] – O [5.8%] – K [1.9%] – O2 [1.9%] – N1c1 [1.9%] – 

P [1.9%] – R1b [1.9%] – I1 [1.9%] – J2 [1.9%]

The Haplogroups, R1a, J2, R1b and I1 are indicative of European admixture. The Haplogroups C2, O, K, O2 and in this instance N1c1, are the core Asian lineage of the Kyrgyz. The very high frequency of R1a** is somewhat of an anomaly and reveals considerable admixture; for R1a is mainly associated with either the Eastern European peoples of Slavic descent, in eastern Siberia or southern Asia. 

J2 is typically a southern European Haplogroup and particularly associated with Turkey and Iran. R1b is the main identifying Haplogroup for western Europeans and both N1c1 and I1 Haplogroups originate with northern Europeans. What is important, is that Haplogroups O, C and K are key Asian Haplogroups. 

The main Amerindian mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C and D. The Kyrgyz and the Kazakhs have the same Haplogroups, though with different variations and percentages. Similarly, the American Indian has Y-DNA Haplogroups Q and C. They share C with the Kyrgyz and both C and Q with the Kazakhs.

Kazakhstan Soldiers

The following prevalent Asian mtDNA Haplogroups are found in the Kazakh population of nearly twenty million people: D, C, G, Z, followed by A, F and also B and N9. The supercluster M is found with the highest frequency of 45%. The main European mtDNA Haplogroups include, H at 14%, K, J, T and U5. These two sets are very similar to the Kyrgyz people. The main Y-DNA Haplogroups include:

C2 [40%] – K [10%] – O2 [8%] – J2 [8%] – R1a [7%] – N1c1 [7%] –

R1b [6%] – P – [3.3%] – Q1a3 [2%] – R2 [1%] – I1 [1%] 

This is where they differ, with the Kazakh’s showing less European admixture as shown by the predominant and distinct C, K and O Asian Haplogroups. It also highlights the main admixture has come from the maternal^ line, with Madai males taking Elamite wives, or in other words, Turko-Mongol males marrying primarily Turkish women. J2 is the main Y-DNA Haplogroup of the Turkish people with R1b and a lesser extent Ria and so the Kazakh and Kyrgyz possessing it is not a coincidence.

Decoding a Highly Mixed Kazakh Genome, multiple authors, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘We present the whole genome sequence and thorough genetic variant and admixture analysis of a Central Asian, Kazakh MJS. We found several SNVs associated with drug toxicity, metabolism, diseases, phenotypic features and identified recent and ancient admixtures. Both PCA and phylogenetic analyses confirm closer MJS and other Kazakh similarity to modern East Asians than Europeans and showed the overall closest genetic affinities are with other Central Asian populations, namely, Kalmyk, Uzbek and Kyrgyz. All populations with significant similarity to MJS genome could be backed up by historic migration events involving the Kazakh population and the major fraction of genomic variation could be attributed to fairly recent admixture with geographically close populations. However, MJS’s mitochondrial^ DNA [maternal] haplogroup is of European  [Turkish] or Near Eastern (West Asian) [Iranian] ancestry. It corresponds to the heterozygous SNPs associated with European phenotypic features and confirmed by admixture f3 statistics and all other Kazakh autosomal data showed very similar ancestral compositions to MJS’s. This highly heterozygous and admixed Kazakh genome provides insights into complex admixtures and can serve as a reference for mapping complex heterogeneity in Central Asian populations.’

The eight million Tajiks exhibit these main Y-DNA Haplogroups:

R1a [44.7%] – J2 [18.4%] – R2 [7.9%] – C2 [2.6%] 

Tajikistan shows little Oriental link with their near neighbours and could have mixed heavily or more likely, have more in common with their southern Asian neighbours of Afghanistan and Pakistan [refer Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut]. 

The six million people of Turkmenistan carry these Y-DNA Haplogroups: 

R1b [37%] – J2 [17%] – K [13%] – P [10%] – R1a [7%] – R2 [3%]

The Haplogroup R2a [M124] is typically associated with the southern Asian states of particularly India with 10%, Pakistan with 8%, western Asia, plus the Central Asian nations. 

The Turkmen on the other hand show strong admixture with the Turks as revealed by their R1b and J2 Haplogroup levels. The K and P Haplogroups are indicative of their Oriental ancestry. Haplogroup P derives from K and Q descends from P. Even though Y-DNA Haplogroups P and Q can be associated with Europeans in trace quantities, they are more consistently found in Asians.

The Y-DNA Haplogroups for the thirty million plus people of Uzbekistan: 

R1a [25.1%] – J2 [13.4%] – C2 [11.5%] – R1b [9.8%] – K [6.8%] – P [5.5%] – 

O2 [4.1%] – R2 [2.2%] – I1 [2.2%] – N1c1 [1.4%]

Uzbekistan like the smaller Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan has obviously mixed with a people not descended from Japheth but rather from Shem, though not as heavily and thus retains more of their core Oriental Haplogroups such as C, K and O. Their R1a, J2 and R1b Haplogroups again link them, as we will learn, with Turkey.                            

Seen together, their respective Y-DNA Haplogroups look like this: 

Tajikistan:           R1a – J2 – R2 – C2 

Turkmenistan:   R1b – J2 – K – P – R1a – R2

Kyrgyzstan:         R1a – C2 – O – K – O2 – J2 – N1c1 – P – R1b – I1 

Uzbekistan:         R1a – J2 – C2 – R1b – K – P – O2 – R2 – I1 – N1c1

Kazakhstan:        C2 – K – O2 – J2 – R1a – N1c1 – P – R1b – Q1a3 – R2 – I1

On the one hand they are all similar and on the other, there are differences highlighting the extent of the admixture experienced by Madai with essentially Elam, such as J2 and R1b.  Kazakhstan, the furthest north remains the closest to its genetic roots of C2, K, O2 and P. It is the nations of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan tucked underneath Kazakhstan to the south who are more mixed and it is Kyrgyzstan further east which remains purer than Uzbekistan in its core Haplogroups of C2, K, O2 and P. 

Meanwhile it should be no surprise that the nation the most southwards – Turkmenistan which is the closet to Turkey – exhibits the most genetic influence with Haplogroups J2 and R1b. Tajikistan is the most distant and has more in common with southern Asia than Central or East Asia. Of the two bigger populated nations, Uzbekistan reveals intermarriage levels similar to the others and only Kazakhstan is the nation that has mixed the least, thus retaining a truer Central Asian identity. 

Within the Haplogroup sequencing, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are more eastern orientated and Turkmenistan the most western oriented. Turkmenistan is geographically, linguistically and culturally more connected to Turkey [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey]. Uzbekistan bridges the gap between the other three. 

The Haplogroups C2, O2 and major sub-Haplogroups K and P are all indicative of these nations descending from Japheth and their close genetic relationship with northern and eastern Asians. 

A comparison of the principle Y-DNA defining marker Haplogroups for the North American Amerindian and Central Asia.

      C        O       K       P      Q

NA Amerindian     6                                    77

Kazakhstan           40        8      10       3      2

Kyrgyzstan            14         8       2        2

Uzbekistan            12         4       7        6    

Turkmenistan                           13      10

What does this table tell us? Noah would have carried Y-DNA Haplogroup B which mutated to C, DE and F and these were passed to all three siblings, including his eldest son Japheth. 

Japheth in receiving C and F from Noah, gave his seven sons the mutated Haplogroups deriving from C, DE and F. In this instance, Japheth gave K and P to his third son Madai, as well as group C. From major sub-Haplogroup K, NO derives and therefore Haplogroup O. Overall, the predominant Oriental Haplogroups for Central Asia being C, followed by K, P and finally O. 

Meanwhile, Japheth may also have passed Haplogroup C to his seventh son Tiras. It is not clear whether the Amerindian has received C from purely admixture or inherited  it. Some Indians possess none and others varying levels of Haplogroup C. More importantly, what we do know is that Japheth passed on the mutation deriving from P in the form of Haplogroup Q. In this, Tiras and his descendants stand out with their unique Y-DNA Haplogroup marker. 

For other Asian peoples only carry Q in small quantities. Those Europeans who carry it, also possess it in small percentages, hinting at admixture. 

The table [from Decoding a Highly Mixed Kazakh Genome] shows the genetic markers for comparing Asian populations. AM = America, CA = Central Asia, EA = East Asia, EUR = Europe, NA = North Asia, OC = Oceania, SA = South Asia, SEA = Southeast Asia and WA = West Asia. 

Interestingly, as expected, Tajikistan is not represented. The closeness between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan is confirmed as is between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and their westernisation; particularly Turkmenistan’s proximity to West Asia [Turkey and Iran]. Both Tiras the Amerindian, and Madai Central and North Asia, have had varying degrees of admixture as confirmed by the table. 

We will confirm that Japheth’s remaining five sons are all grouped in the bottom right hand corner of the table, incorporated within East Asia and Southeast Asia.

These findings correlate to what we should expect to find if the Turko-Mongol peoples are descended from Madai; an Asian people descended from Japheth, which have absorbed European DNA from Shem’s line. The variety of admixture may be accounted for by the following: 

  1. The historical alliance with the children of Elam, ancient Persia and the intermarriage of the two. 
  1. The Assyrian removal of captive Israelites to Media. There may have been relationships formed between the two peoples – with the possible subsequent introduction of R1b, I1 and R1a Y-DNA Haplogroups. 
  1. The Medes are in a unique position of migrating across the vast Asiatic continent, yet they did not remain and become far removed from their original homeland. The circuitous route via East Asia and Mongolia, meant the bulk of Madai ultimately returned to the middle of the world, merely settling a little northwards from their ancestral home in ancient Persia or modern Iran [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Turkey].

This central position meant they were also exposed to travellers travelling east and west and therefore the recipients of the resultant impact on their racial diversity and identity. We have only scratched the surface regarding Madai, their place in the world and their historical impact. We will revisit Madai, when we study Elam.

Words come again and again to our ears, but we never hear enough, nor can we ever really see all we want to see.

Ecclesiastes 1:8 New Century Version

“… being wrong can be dangerous, but being right, when society regards the majority’s falsehood as truth, could be fatal.” 

Thomas Szasz

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