Issachar, Zebulun, Asher & Naphtali – the Antipodean Tribes

Chapter XXXII

We have learned the identities of half the sons of Jacob. So far, all have been located in the British and Irish Isles.  The other half have migrated to the New World and beyond. It is recommended that Chapter XXX Judah & Benjamin, and Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad are read prior to this chapter. We have also addressed the over defining of the sons of Jacob by researchers in concluding Joseph as all the English speaking peoples and then attributing the other tribes to nations in northwest Europe. Yet these nations are invariably the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, Lot or even Ishmael. Certain tribes were prophesied to not live in the north and west from Canaan as the British and Irish do today. Two were predicted to live in ‘the midst’ of the earth, one was to live in ‘the southwest’ and another was described as a ‘great southern land.’  

Historically, identity adherents have been consistent in identifying Zebulun, Issachar’s younger brother and twin of Dinah as the Dutch of the Netherlands. The description of ports, ships and trade has led to this conclusion. We have addressed the Netherlands previously [refer Chapter XII Canaan, Chapter XXIII Aram and Chapter XXVII Abraham], as the Dutch descend from Abraham’s son Midian. Issachar has been linked to Switzerland due its landlocked position and watch making expertise, though the predominant identification for Issachar has been with Finland. As we learned in Chapter XXIV Arphaxad, Finland is not descended from Abraham or his two brothers, let lone Jacob; but rather possibly from Joktan, the brother of Peleg or more likely judging by Haplogroups, from Arphaxad’s other sons Anar and Ashcol. The Swiss are descended from Haran, Abraham’s brother [refer Chapter XXVI Moab & Ammon]. A key point we will find in identifying Issachar is that they are geographically next to Zebulun and therefore to be found together. A further pairing to add to those we have highlighted already with Judah and Benjamin; Simeon and Levi; Reuben and Gad. Thus, wherever one is located the other will be next to them. The Netherlands and Finland – likewise the Netherlands and Switzerland being separated – are very far apart and could not fulfil this requirement, geographically, genetically or linguistically. Identity expert Yair Davidy comments: 

‘Finland was settled by peoples from the Israelite tribes of Gad [Ireland], Simeon [Wales], and especially Issachar. The earliest written histories of Finland repeat the tradition that they were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Descendants of several Israelite tribes are to be found in Switzerland [Haran]. Issachar judging from tribal names and national characteristics prevails.’ 

Asher has been historically attributed principally with Belgium – because of the blessing of good food or pastries – and more recently as Scotland and Ireland. Naphtali has been attributed to Sweden – because of a love of freedom – as well as with Norway. Yair Davidy adds: ‘Norway was colonized by Naphtalite Huns and other groups of Naphtali.’ We will discover that Yair Davidy is correct initially and that these Naphtalites continued their migration in to Britain and Ireland and then beyond. 

Location of the Tribes of Israel, Herman Hoeh, circa 1950 – capitalisation his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Issachar is compared to a “large-boned ass,” Jacob continues: “For he saw a resting-place that it was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and he BOWED HIS SHOULDER TO BEAR, and became a SERVANT UNDER “ASSWORK.” (Genesis 49:14-15.) An ass is not the most intelligent of animals, but it is a willing worker. Such is Finland. Finland is the ONLY nation that has voluntarily taken the full responsibility of her debts. She is today paying off a huge indemnity to Russia. Her land is pleasant and good, not extraordinarily rich. According to Deuteronomy 33:19 she derives wealth from fishing and from hidden treasures of the sand gigantic peat bogs and the finest sand for glass-making. Issachar is not a colonizing people they dwell pastorally “in tents,” said Moses.’

Not the most gracious of comments, though the intent is correct. But, we are searching for a British and Irish descended, or Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples that have shouldered a burden of some kind. They will also be living with Zebulon.

‘Zebulun settled in Holland (The Netherlands). Zebulun dwell at the “shore of the sea, and he shall be a shore for ships, and his flank shall be upon Zidon” a Gentile country. Moses said: “rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out.” She takes also treasures from the sea and the sand, Zebulun, then, is a colonizing people. She is not a pillaging people as Benjamin.’ 

Hoeh is accurate on the colonising aspect of Zebulon as well as drawing attention to their dwelling by Zidon. Recall, we spent time looking at the connection between the Kenites, the Hivites, the Midianite Dutch and their ancient Phoenician association with the city of Sidon. We have now located Zebulun and Issachar. By a strange twist of irony, the very identity ascribed to Zebulun by identity researchers is Holland and it is the Dutch and tribes of Zebulon and Issachar who are in fact entwined. Thus Zebulun comprises the British element, with Issachar of South Africa – and Issachar is also within Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia. In the Bible, this territory that includes Canaanites, Midianites, Issachar and Zebulon is called Sidon [refer Chapter XII Canaan and Chapter XXIII Aram] and is fulfilled in modern day South Africa. 

‘Asher “his bread shall be fat and he shall yield royal dainties” (Genesis 49:20). 

This peculiar expression could have reference alone to Belgium and the kindred state Luxembourg. From Belgium have come the finest Flemish paintings, the royal tapestries which graced the halls of kings, fine cut diamonds, porcelain and Belgian lace. Belgium and Luxembourg are blessed above many [other sons] of Jacob “Blessed be Asher above sons; let him be the favoured of his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil” prosperity. 

Iron and brass shall [be] thy bars; and as thy days, so shall they riches increase. Because of uranium, Belgium’s prosperity will continue to grow.’

Hoeh is correct to highlight Asher’s blessing being disproportionate to his brothers; though after Jospeh and Judah the birthright and sceptre recipients. The blessings are far more, than the nation of Belgium possesses. The people of Belgium being descended from Abraham’s grandsons Sheba and Dedan [refer Chapter XVII Abraham].  

‘Nepthali represents Sweden “satisfied with favor, full with the blessings of the Lord.” She is compared to a prancing hind or deer and “giveth goodly words” (Genesis 49:21). From Sweden, with a well-balanced economy, come the Nobel prizes in token to great world accomplishments. Sweden, during two world wars and the recent trouble in Palestine, sent her emissaries to speak words of conciliation and peace. 

The promise by Moses to possess “the sea and the south” is applicable both to ancient Nepthali and modern Sweden: notice the position of the Sea of Galilee and Baltic relative to the position of this tribe. (It may be of interest to note that the word translated as ‘west’ regarding Napthali is also defined as roaring sea, which is how Herman Hoeh explained it. Sweden is basically on the west border of the Baltic Sea).’

Both Hoeh and Nickels who comments in the parentheses, have missed the reference to the south and west is from Canaan’s perspective. Therefore, the Baltic is a far cry from fulfilling this clue. Naphtali is the nation of New Zealand and Asher is Australia

Genesis 49:13-15

English Standard Version

13 “Zebulun shall dwell [H7931 – shakan: lodge] at the shore of the sea; he shall become a haven for ships, and his border[H3411 – yrekah: flank, quarters, recesses] shall be at [unto] Sidon

Regarding Jacob’s prophecy, the New English Translations says that the verb ‘shakhan means “to settle,” but not necessarily as a permanent dwelling place. The tribal settlements by the sea would have been temporary and not the tribe’s territory.’ This is significant as since 1994 and the handing over of White control of South Africa’s political process to all South African’s, the British descended peoples of Zebulun in particular, have begun to migrate en mass to North America, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and other countries.* We will shortly learn that this was predicted. 

StatsSA, July 2012:

‘…provided a breakdown of demographics, including the estimated shifts among different racial population groups. Black South African estimates increased… the country’s coloured population grew… [and] The Asian/Indian population group… South Africa’s white population, however, declined by 17,311 people between 2020 and 2021… Notably, while South Africa’s white population still maintains its proportionate make-up of the overall population, at 7.8%, this has steadily declined over the years, from 7.9% in 2019, 8.1% in 2016, and 9.0% in 2011. Stats SA pointed to emigration as a key factor in this declining trend.’

South Africa has a population of 60,799,352 people, thus the White population equates to 4,742,349 people. Of which an approximate sixty/forty split divides the Afrikaan speakers from the English as a first language. The British descended people account for approximately 1,896,939 people, less those who have left South Africa and Zimbabwe. In the past, the total White population was nearer eight million people and closer to fifteen to twenty percent of the population. 

British Red Ensign used in South Africa until 1928

The Cape of Good Hope was a welcome stop in any journey going past Africa, east or west. The cape originally was called the Cape of Storms by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in the 1480s.

14 “Issachar is a strong donkey, crouching between the sheepfolds [saddle bags or two burdens]. 

15 He saw [H7200 – ra’ah: perceive, vision] that a resting place was good, and that the land was pleasant, so he bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a [tributary] servant at forced  [slave] labor.

The New English Translation comments – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The verb forms in this verse {“sees,” “will bend,” and “(will) become”} are preterite; they is used in a rhetorical manner, describing the future as if it had already transpired. The oracle shows that the tribe of Issachar will be willing to trade liberty for the material things of life. Issachar would work (become a slave laborer) for the Canaanites, a reversal of the oracle on Canaan [refer Chapter XI Ham].’

The descendants of Issachar have in the main, chosen to stay in the Republic of South Africa; with many having fled from Zimbabwe. The two burdens are the Black Canaanite peoples and the Afrikaans Hivites, descended from Midian and the Kenites [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].  

South African flag 1928 to 1994. The flags in the centre are the Union Jack, The Orange Free State 

and the South African Republic flags. The main flag is based on the flag of the Netherlands, 

before the orange was changed to red.

The connotation is that as Zebulun chose to live by the Sea, such as in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban; Issachar has chosen to dwell inland and landlocked, like most of the Dutch Afrikaans in Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Johannesburg, Zimbabwe and so forth. 

Ezra 3:7

English Standard Version

So they gave money to the masons and the carpenters, and food, drink, and oil to the Sidonians [South Africa] and the Tyrians [Brazil] to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea, to Joppa, according to the grant that they had from Cyrus king of Persia.

Deuteronomy 33:18-19

English Standard Version

18 And of Zebulun he said, “Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out* [H3318 – yatsa’: depart, pull out, spread], and Issachar, in your tents [at home]. 

19 They shall call peoples to their mountain [H2022 – har: hill country]; there they offer right [H6664 – tsedeq] sacrifices; for they draw [H3243 – yanaq: to suck] from the abundance [H8228 – shepha: resources] of the seas and the hidden [H2934 – taman: conceal, bury, secretly] treasures [H8226 – saphan: valuable, covered] of the sand.” 

Flag of South Africa 

Notice Issachar and Zebulun are included together in both verses and are not receiving separate prophecy’s; just different futures within the same oracle from Moses. Much of South Africa is high above sea level. Johannesburg is some 5,600 feet above sea level on a plateau, where the air is thinner than the coast and it apparently takes an egg one minute longer to boil. The Hebrew word for right, tsedeq means ‘righteousness’ but also ‘just, justice’ and a ‘righteous cause.’ Particularly linked with ‘government’ and a ‘vindication’ against ‘controversy’ and ‘victory’ or ‘deliverance’ to bring about an ‘ethically right’ result. This remarkably parallels the monumental political changes in South Africa since 1994. The reference could also be pointing to a Messianic fulfilment.

Matthew 4:13-16; Isaiah 9:1-2, 4.

English Standard Version

13 And leaving Nazareth [Christ] went and lived in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, 14 so that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled:

But there will be no gloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he has made glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations.

15 “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, 16 the people dwelling in [deep] darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling [and walking] in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned [shone].”

For the yoke of his burden, and the staff for his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, you have broken as on the day of Midian.

The Messiah is speaking of Himself as a light in revealing the gospel of the Kingdom of God and He is also speaking of His return. Thus, we learn that at the time of the Son of Man’s second coming, either the earth has spun on its axis and the magnetic north and south poles have reversed or the Lamb approaches earth from the south. For this is where Zebulun [33.9249 S] and Naphtali [36 50’54.4596 S] reside today at a similar latitude in the southern hemisphere of the globe. It is another coincidence that Midian is mentioned in verse four of chapter nine of Isaiah. Not only does Zebulun dwell with a branch of the Midianites in South Africa; New Zealand was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and named after the Dutch province of Zeeland, from Sea-land in 1642.

Southern Rhodesia flag 1924 to 1964

The prediction of mineral wealth from the soil is incredible in its fulfilment and not something that could be attributed to the Netherlands or Finland. Of the world’s top mineral producing countries, South Africa is number one and a mining powerhouse. South Africa’s geographic location is in a continent that is considered the richest in biodiversity and natural resources and it abounds with mineral reserves that are estimated to be worth over $2.5 trillion dollars, according to World Mining Statistics

Flag of Rhodesia 1968 to 1979

This dominant African nation is the largest producer and exporter of important and high in demand minerals and gems in the world, such as platinum [nearly 50% of world production], diamonds of gem quality – as opposed to industrial quality of which Australia, Russia, Zaire and Botswana produce more – chrome, manganese, vanadium and vermiculite. It is the second largest producerof ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. It is also the world’s third largest coal exporter and fifth in the world for gold. South Africa is also a huge producer of iron ore. In 2012, it overtook India to become the world’s third-biggest iron ore supplier to China; the world’s largest consumer of iron ore.

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in South African global shipments during 2021.

  1. Gems, precious metals: US$35 billion 
  2. Ores, slag, ash: $18.6 billion 
  3. Vehicles: $10.7 billion 
  4. Mineral fuels including oil: $10.3 billion 
  5. Machinery including computers: $6.6 billion 
  6. Iron, steel: $6.3 billion 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $4.5 billion 
  8. Other chemical goods: $2.1 billion 
  9. Aluminum: $1.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $1.7 billion

Gems and precious metals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 75.3% from 2020 to 2021. In second place for improving export sales was iron and steel which rose 58.9%. South Africa’s shipments of mineral fuels including oil posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 49.51% year over year.’ 

Flag of Zimbabwe

Judges 5:14-15

English Standard Version

14… from Machir marched down the commanders, and from Zebulun those who bear [H4900 – mashak] the lieutenant’s staff [H7626 – shebet]; 15 the princes [chiefs, rulers] of Issachar came with Deborah, and Issachar faithful to Barak [from the tribe of Naphtali, Judges 4:6]; into the valley they rushed at his heels…

When the majority of Israelite tribes – though not all as we have discovered earlier – aided the Judge Deborah in her war against Jabin the King of the Canaanites, both Zebulun and Issachar were enthusiastic in their support on the battlefield. The Hebrew word mashek means, ‘to draw’ as in a bow, ‘to march’, ‘to be tall.’ The Hebrew word shebet means, a ‘rod, staff, club, sceptre’ as in a ‘mark of authority’ and a ‘shaft of’ a ‘spear’ or ‘dart.’ Its wider application a ‘literally a stick for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling’ and ‘walking.’ The verse could be paraphrased as: ‘… from Zebulon, those with military authority and competency.’ 

Rhodesian Coat of Arms 1924 to 1981

Notice two symbols on the Rhodesian Coat of Arms. Firstly, the prominent Lion of England and Thistles of Scotland, showing the common familial tie with Judah and Benjamin. Even more significant is the pick axe, a tool used for digging and also representative of mining; while indicative of Issachar’s servitude.  

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘As a loyal British colony, Southern Rhodesia called up 5,500 young white men – a significant proportion of that age group in the country at the time – and sent them to fight for Britain on the Western front in France. During World war II, double that number served in the British forces, with eleven Rhodesian Air Force pilots given “ace” status… 

Rhodesia’s superb fighting force was never defeated militarily [raids against Mozambique and Zambia guerrilla forces], but this helped little when the demographic war had been lost.’

We have discussed the significant pairing of Jacob’s sons. Some between blood brothers like Simeon and Levi and now Issachar and Zebulon and other pairings between half-brothers such as Judah, Benjamin, Reuben, Gad and also Asher and Naphtali. The final pairing are the sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim. The odd one out is Dan.

2 Chronicles 30:18

English Standard Version

For a majority of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the Passover otherwise than as prescribed. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, “May the good Lord pardon everyone…”

2 Samuel 24:6-7

English Standard Version

Then they came to Gilead, and to Kadesh in the land of the Hittites; and they came to Dan, and from Danthey went around to Sidon and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites and Canaanites… 

1 Chronicles 12:38-40

English Standard Version

38 All these, men of war, arrayed in battle order, came to Hebron with a whole heart to make David king over all Israel. Likewise, all the rest of Israel were of a single mind to make David king. 39 And they were there with David for three days, eating and drinking, for their brothers had made preparation for them. 40 And also their relatives, from as far as Issachar and Zebulun [2 Chronicles 30:10] and Naphtali, came bringing food on donkeys and on camels and on mules and on oxen, abundant provisions of flour, cakes of figs, clusters of raisins, and wine and oil, oxen and sheep, for there was joy in Israel. 

Coat of Arms of Zimbabwe 

These verses confirm the closeness of Zebulon and Issachar as one people; albeit spread in part over two countries. The third passage highlights that in the past as it is today, that Zebulon and Issachar, with Naphtali once lived furthest north in Canaan and today – South Africa and New Zealand are – furthest south below the equator. An interesting verse regarding Issachar.

1 Chronicles 12:32

English Standard Version

32 Of Issachar, men who had understanding [H998 – biynah: ‘wisdom, knowledge’] of the times [H6256 – eth: ‘season, occasion’], to know [H3045 – yada: ‘percieve, understand’] what Israel ought to do [H6213 – asah: ‘offer, prepare’]… 

Former South African Coat of Arms

Notice the more Dutch or Midianite looking Lion than an English one; though there is homage to seafaring and trade represented by the figure of Britannia and the anchor. The Hebrew word for understanding means, ‘discernment, perfectly.’ The word for know means, ‘to discriminate, distinguish’ ‘to make known, declare.’ The Hebrew word for ought means, ‘to attend to, put in order, to observe, celebrate, appoint, ordain’ and ‘institute.’ The Tribe of Issachar were given the responsibility and skills to perform the function of regulating the calendar, so that the dates for the Holy Days, Sabbaths and new Moons were observed correctly. This was a function that in time, the Levite priesthood took over responsibility. 

Remarkably, in Cape Town there is the southern suburb of Observatory where the world renowned South African Astronomical Observatory [SAAO] is located and where the McClean Dome is situated. Another dome onsite houses the Victoria telescope, built in 1897. The Southern African Large Telescope [SALT] has the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere based in Sunderland – some two hundred and fifty miles to the north – though they conduct research in astronomy and astrophysics at SAAO. In the library are two clocks. The first shows normal South African time and the second shows sidereal time – ‘based on the Earth’s rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars – something like the time kept by a sundial, so roughly four minutes slower than an average day.’

South Africa’s current Coat of Arms, including observations on its symbols

Genesis 30:17-20

English Standard Version

17 And God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son [1742 BCE]. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my wages because I gave my servant [Zilpah] to my husband.” So she called his name Issachar [there is reward, there is recompense]. 19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son [1740 BCE]. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good endowment; now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” So she called his name Zebulun [honour, dwelling].

Genesis 46:13-15

English Standard Version

13 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puvah, Yob [Job], and Shimron

14 The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, together with his daughter Dinah [Zebulun’s twin]…

Recall in Chapter XXIX Esau, how Job’s second wife was possibly a descendant of Dinah. And here we see that Job is a family name in Dinah’s brother’s line. The name is also listed in Genesis 10:29 as a son of Joktan. The Book of Jasher also refers to this Jobab of Genesis 10:29 and to the Job [Iob] listed here. 

Book of Jasher 45:5-7: 

5… Issachar went to the land of the east, and… took [for himself a wife from]… the daughters of Jobab the son of [Joktan], the son of Eber; and Jobab the son of Yoktan had two daughters… and the name of the younger was Aridah. 6… Issachar took Aridah, and… came to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house… 7 And Aridah bare unto Issachar Tola, Puvah, Job [Iob or Jashub Numbers 26:24, 1 Chronicles 7:1] and Shomron, four sons; 

Job married an equivalent of an eastern European. The identity of Jobab is not clear, though an example of a Czech may not be far amiss* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Recall, Levi also married Aridah’s elder sister. The Book of Jubilees records Issachar’s wife’s name as Hezaqa.

Book of Jubilees 34:20-21

And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives… the name of Issachar’s wife, Hezaqa: and the name of Zabulon’s wife, Ni’iman… and the name of Naphtali’s wife, Rasu’u, of Mesopotamia… and the name of Asher’s wife, ‘Ijona

The Book of Jasher continues regarding the wives of Naphtali, Asher and Zebulun.

Book of Jasher 45:9-10, 12-20

9… Naphtali went to Haran and took from thence [a daughter] of Amuram the son of Uz, the son of Nahor… 10… the name of the elder was Merimah… and Naphtali took Merimah… and brought [her] to the land of Canaan, to their father’s house. 11 And Merimah bare unto Naphtali Yachzeel, Guni, Jazer and Shalem, four sons…

12 And Asher went forth and took Adon the daughter of Aphlal, the son of Hadad, the son of Ishmael,for a wife, and he brought her to the land of Canaan. 

13 And Adon the wife of Asher died in those days: she had no offspring; and it was after the death of Adon that Asher went to the other side of the river and took for a wife Hadurah the daughter of Abimael, the son of Eber, the son of Shem. 14 And the young woman was of a comely appearance, and a woman of sense, and she had been the wife of Malkiel the son of Elam, the son of Shem. 15 And Hadurah bare a daughter unto Malkiel, and he called her name Serach, and Malkiel died after this, and Hadurah went and remained in her father’s house. 16 And after the death of the wife [of] Asher he went and took Hadurah for a wife, and brought her to the land of Canaan, and Serach her daughter he also brought with them, and she was three years old, and the damsel was brought up in Jacob’s house. 17 And the damsel was of a comely appearance, and [Serach] went in the sanctified ways of the children of Jacob; she lacked nothing, and Yahweh gave her wisdom and understanding. 18 And Hadurah the wife of Asher conceived and bare unto him Yimnah, Yishvah, Yishvi and Beriah; four sons.

19 And Zebulun went to Midian, and took for a wife Merishah the daughter of Molad, the son of Abida, the son of Midian [the son of Abraham and Keturah], and brought her to the land of Canaan. 20 And Merushah bare unto Zebulun Sered, Elon and Yachleel; three sons.

Naphtali like his half brother Gad, married from the line of Nahor [Italian] as his father Jacob and his grandfather Isaac had done. Asher took a first wife from Ishmael [German] who died childless and Asher’s second wife Hadurah was descended from Eber, which could mean Peleg or Joktan* [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad]. Fascinatingly, the strong link between Zebulon and Midian – the British and Dutch South Africans – continues, with Zebulon taking his wife Merishah from the line of Abraham’s son Midian [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham].

Numbers 1:28-31, 41, 43

English Standard Version

28 Of the people of Issachar, their generations, by their clans, by their fathers’ houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, every man able to go to war: 29 those listed of the tribe of Issachar were 54,400.

31 those listed of the tribe of Zebulun were 57,400… 41 those listed of the tribe of Asher were 41,500… 43 those listed of the tribe of Naphtali were 53,400.

1 Chronicles 7:1-5

English Standard Version

The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron, four. 2 The sons of Tola: Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their fathers’ houses, namely of Tola, mighty warriors of their generations, their number in the days of David being 22,600. 

3 The son of Uzzi: Izrahiah. And the sons of Izrahiah: Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah, all five of them were chief men. 4 And along with them, by their generations, according to their fathers’ houses, were units of the army for war, 36,000, for they had many wives and sons. 5 Their kinsmen belonging to all the clans of Issachar were in all 87,000 mighty warriors, enrolled by genealogy.

Strangely, further sons or grandsons for Zebulon are missing from the 1 Chronicles genealogical lists. 

Genesis 30:7-13

English Standard Version

7 Rachel’s servant Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a second son [1742 BCE]. 8 Then Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she called his name Naphtali[wrestlings of God, my struggle, cunning].

9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her servant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife… 12 Leah’s servant Zilpah bore Jacob a second son [1744 BCE]. 13 And Leah said, “Happy am I! For women have called me happy.” So she called his name Asher[happy, happy one].

Genesis 46:17, 24

English Standard Version

17 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, with Serah their sister. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel… [1 Chronicles 1:31-32: who fathered Birzaith. Heber fathered Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua…]

24 The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. 

Australian Flag

In Asher’s family there is the family name of Heber [Eber, Hebrew, Iberia, Hiberi, Hibernia, Hebrides] and Naphtali has a son, Jahzeel similar to Zebulon’s son Jahleel.

Genesis 49:20-21

English Standard Version

20 “Asher’s food shall be rich [H8082 – shaman: plenteous, lusty, robust], and he shall yield  [be granted or permitted] royal [H4428 – melek: (fit for a) king] delicacies.

21 “Naphtali is a doe [deer] let loose [H7961 – shalach: let free], that bears [granted, given] beautiful [beauty, goodness] fawns [(offspring) or confusingly, ‘he gives beautiful words’].

Australian Coat of Arms

Notice the strong link with the tribe of Judah in the symbols of Crowns, Lions and the St Georges Cross. The Good News Translation for Asher says: ‘Asher’s land will produce rich food. He will provide food fit for a king.’ Australia is one of the bread basket nations of the world, with the market opening up to its neighbours in East Asia infinitely. A more helpful paraphrase of verse 21: ‘Naphtali is a female deer running free, that has been bestowed beauty and goodness.’ This verse explains itself for anyone who has been able to visit New Zealand.

Deuteronomy 33:23-29

English Standard Version

23 And of Naphtali he said, “O Naphtali, sated with favor [H7522 – ratsown: pleasure, delight], and full of the blessing [prosperity] of the Lord, possess [inherit] the lake and the south [H3220 – yam: west (47 times KJV), south (1)].”

24 And of Asher he said, “Most blessed of sons [or blessed with children] be Asher; let him be the favorite [acceptable, a pleasure, delight] of his brothers, and let him dip [plunge] his foot in oil.

25 Your bars shall be iron and bronze, and as your days, so shall your strength be.

It is clear from these verses that Asher considerably and Naphtali in large part, have been granted special favour above their brothers – aside from Joseph and Judah. Both Australia and New Zealand regularly make the top ten lists for best or safest countries to live in. The CEV says: ‘The Lord is pleased with you, people of Naphtali. He will bless you and give you the land to the west and the south.’ The nation furthest from the original land of Canaan – as well as from the British and Irish Isles – in a southwest direction is, New Zealand. It is also separated by vast oceans and sea. Even taking its name from the word Sea-land inherited from the Netherlands and Denmark before that. 

The original Hebrew says that Asher would be blessed with children, a favourite amongst his brothers and possess immeasurable wealth beneath his feet. After North America and England, Australia has the highest population of the sons of Jacob with 26,077,567 people. It is a very popular destination to visit or emigrate and has a high level of wealth relative to its population. Though Belgium is a blessed nation, it does not match the oracle as given by Moses, like Australia does. Australia has the highest average wealth in the world, passing Switzerland in 2018. 

Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world with a GDP of $1.40 trillion in 2019.Australia combines an open domestic economy, with an extensive network of free trade arrangements with trading partners principally around the Asia-Pacific Rim. Australia ranks at number ten in the nations with the most natural resources. Australia, which is similar in size to the continental United States, is known for its large reserves of coal, timber, copper, iron ore, nickel, oil shale and rare earth metals. Australia is also one of the world leaders in uranium and gold mining. The country has the largest gold reserves in the world, supplying over fourteen percent of the world’s gold demand and forty-six percent of the world’s uranium demand; while being the top producer of opal and aluminum. 

If that wasn’t enough, it is number three in the world for mineral producing nations. It is interesting that Australia is called the ‘lucky country’ especially as this if the meaning of his blood brother’s name, Gad. The link with Ireland doesn’t stop there. Some thirty percent of Australians claim Irish descent and they share a love of the unique yet similar sports of either Gaelic football and Australia or Aussie Rules football. 

The nation continent of Australia has approximately $737 billion worth of seaborne ore reserves alone. It also houses massive reserves of important minerals, such as bauxite – twenty-three percent of the world’s total reserves – and nickel, with some thirty-five percent of the world’s total reserves. It may not exceed the scale of South Africa and Russia in terms of mineral reserves, but Australia is more popular among international mining investors due to its government’s credibility and track record of performance in protecting the mining industry. As Russia [2] and the Ukraine [4] are top five mineral powers, the counter balance to the mighty Assyrians and Orphir of Joktan, is Sidon-Midian-Zebulon, South Africa and Asher, Australia. 

A coincidence is that Asher of Jacob and Asshur of Shem have similar names and both possess enormous countries of mineral wealth, with allies also possessing huge reserves.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Australian global shipments during 2021.

  1. Ores, slag, ash: US$132.1 billion 
  2. Mineral fuels including oil: $91 billion 
  3. Gems, precious metals: $20.7 billion 
  4. Meat: $11.6 billion 
  5. Cereals: $10.1 billion 
  6. Inorganic chemicals: $6.4 billion 
  7. Machinery including computers: $4.8 billion 
  8. Aluminum: $4.7 billion 
  9. Copper: $3.9 billion 
  10. Electrical machinery, equipment: $3.7 billion 


Cereals was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 164.1% since 2020. In second place for improving export sales was aluminum which was up by 52.6%. Australia’s shipments of ores, slag and ash posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 45.6% year over year. The most modest advance among Australia’s top 10 export categories was for gems and precious metals thanks to its 5.6% gain.’

Judges 5:17-18

English Standard Version

17 … Asher sat still at the coast of the sea, staying by his landings. 18 Zebulun is a people who risked their lives to the death; Naphtali, too,on the heights of the field.

Judges 4:10 

English Standard Version

And Barak called out Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh. And 10,000 men went up at his heels, and Deborah went up with him.

We learn that Asher like Reuben, Dan, Gad, Simeon, Levi and Judah was reticent to get involved in a war that didn’t directly impinge on their territory. Meanwhile, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin, Zebulon, Issachar and Naphtali took part. With Zebulon, Naphtali was the most courageous. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘ANZAC [Australia and New Zealand Army Corps] Day is still celebrated on April 25th each year to honour New Zealand’s military dead. An astonishing 103,000 New Zealander’s served in the armed forces during the First World War – out of a total population of one million. Of this number, 16,697 were killed. This meant that 1.6 percent of all New Zealanders died in the conflict… the highest death [rate] per capita of any country in the war. An even greater number of New Zealanders served in World war II. Some 140,000 soldiers fought overseas in Europe, North Africa, and in the Pacific… 11,928 were killed, or just under 1 percent of the total population… in 1939.’

It can be no small coincidence that the two greatest Rugby Union teams in the world consistently for over one hundred years with three Rugby world cups each out of a possible nine are the New Zealand All Blacks and the South African Springboks. For what is rugby, but a battle without the weapons or result of death. Blood and injury though are par for the course in the most brutal sport in the world outside of cage fighting, boxing and American Football. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, Hitler’s commander in North Africa during World War II insightfully said about the Australians and New Zealanders after facing their infantry divisions [ANZACs]: “If I had to take hell, I would use the Australians to take it and the New Zealanders to hold it.”

Judges 7:23

English Standard Version

And the men of Israel were called out from Naphtali and from Asher and from all Manasseh, and they pursued after Midian.

When the Judge Gideon fought the Midianites, his main allies apart from his own tribe of Manasseh, were Naphtali, with their neighbour Asher, in the far north of Canaan.

Joshua 19:24-29

English Standard Version

24 The fifth lot came out for the tribe of the people of Asher according to their clans. 

25 Their territory included Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, 26 Allammelech, Amad, and Mishal. On the west it touches Carmel and Shihor-libnath, 27 then it turns eastward, it goes to Beth-dagon, and touches Zebulun and the Valley of Iphtahel northward to Beth-emek and Neiel. Then it continues in the north to Cabul, 28 Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, as far as Sidon the Great. 29 Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre…

The inheritance of Asher in Canaan is described in the Book of Joshua. It is interesting, as it a condensed description of their current neighbours today. Zebulun and Sidon equating to South Africa in the African continent to their west, separated by a vast expanse of sea and similarly to the west; Tyre equates to Brazil in the South American continent [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. A curious prophetic verse is in the Book of Isaiah, which describes where certain tribes of Israel were dispersed.

Isaiah 49:12

Christian Standard Bible

See, these will come from far away, from the north and from the west, and from the land [H776 – ‘erets: land without return (under) [the] world] of Sinim.

We know the north and west relates to the British and Irish Isles. The counterpoint to that is Sinim, which is inferred as the opposite direction of, southwards [and far away]. Some researchers propose that Sin-im relates to China [as the Arabs called the Chineses Sin(a)] or to Canaan’s son Sin; but both these options are an incorrect interpretation. The Jerome translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible for Isaiah 49:12 says: ‘ecce isti de longe venient et ecce illi ab aquilone et mari et isti de terra australi.’ The key phrase being: isti de terra australi. 

By a strange turn, the word Australia is derived from the Latin word australis, meaning ‘southern.’ Australia has been colloquially referred to as Oz, slang for Aus’ since the early twentieth century. It is the ‘land down under’ and literally the great ‘southern land.’ Australia has been called ‘the Oldest Continent’, ‘the Last of Lands’ and ‘the Last Frontier.’ Australia is the last of lands, in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica to be explored by Europeans. 

The term Terra Australis Incognita, or an ‘unknown land of the South’ dates back to Roman times. After European discovery, names included Terra Australis. An online quote: 

‘The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in “A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt”, published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name “Tierra Austral del Espíritu Santo” (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit) for an island in Vanuatu. The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. 

Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur. Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771.’  

The name Sinim [סינים siyniym] occurs nowhere else in the Bible and it is evident that it is a remote country; remarkable in that it is the only such land specified by name in the Bible. The Chaldee also interprets it as Jerome has done: of the south. Whereas the Syriac has not translated it but retained the name Sinim… In Origin, Yair Davidiy adds:

‘The Egyptians referred to the southernmost known area of land as “sin-wur”. This corresponds to the Land of “Sinim” meaning Australia. There are reports of Egyptian and Phoenician remains being found in Australia.’ 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Another large mass of people, the Yue­chi, was being pushed out of inner Asia toward Scythia and Parthia. Early Chinese chronicles record that the “Ephthalites” were one of the tribes of the Yue­chi. The Ephthalites were also called “White Huns” because they were “fair­skinned” (indicating a Semitic origin). 

Other names for the Ephthalites include the “Hephthalites” or “Nephthalites,” although the Encyclopaedia Britannica adds that “the initial N… is believed to be a clerical error.” It should be easy for anyone with a knowledge of biblical history to identify this tribe as the Israelite tribe of Naphtali! The consonants of Ephthali (or Nephthali) precisely match Naphtali, one of the ten tribes of Israel.’ 

New Zealand Coat of Arms

‘It is interesting that the Encyclopaedia Britannica observed that the ancient historians who recorded that this tribe’s name began with an “N” are “believed… (to have made) a clerical error.” No evidence is offered to support a claim that it was a clerical error, but it is “believed” to be one. Why? The reader must realize that “establishment” histories have a strong bias against “finding” any of the “lost” ten tribes of Israel (doing so would draw interest toward the Bible). While many Israelite tribal names can be found in Asia, this similarity between the “Nephthalites” and an Israelite tribe (the Naphtalites) is glaringly obvious.

The presence of a tribe in Asia bearing a Hebrew name unchanged from biblical times is an academic “hot potato”! A “belief” that the “N” is an ancient “clerical error” helps to obscure the Israelite nature of this tribe. Indeed, if establishment histories were to examine Scythian or Parthian history in much depth at all, their identity as the ten tribes of Israel would be impossible to miss. Perhaps that is why their history (prominently cited by Greek and Roman historians) is mostly ignored in the modern world. 

The fact that the Ephthalites were “fair­skinned” further verifies their identification as Israelites (since the Israelites were of the Semitic, or “white” race). The fact that the Ephthalites were called “White Huns” indicates that while they came out of Asia, they were differentiated from the rest of the Huns, who were not fair­skinned or white. Indeed, the Encyclopaedia Britannica itself refers to the Sakas (or Sacae Scythians), the Yue­Chi and the Ephthalites as being related “Indo-Scythian” tribes. 

In chapter eight, it was documented that the Nephthalites were undoubtedly the Israelite tribe of Naphtali which went into Asia in 741 B.C. as captives of the Assyrians. Since the tribe of Naphtali did not go into captivity in a piecemeal fashion, but rather in one complete mass (II Kings 15:29), they retained their original Israelite tribal name longer than the other tribes. 

The Ephthalites waged war on the Sassanian Persians (which was natural since the Ephthalites were kinsmen of the Parthians and Scythians). As late as 484 A.D., the Ephthalites defeated the Persians and extended their control into India, establishing a capital as Sakala (which bore the name of Isaac). 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica cites the Greek writer, Procopius, as stating the Ephthalite Huns were “far more civilized than the Huns of Attila.” Ephthalite power in Asia was not broken until 557 A.D. when they were beaten by the Persians and Turks… the Ephthalites, as a whole, simply disappeared from Asia. Where did they go? They were likely pushed toward Europe, arriving in a later migration. This would make the tribe of Naphtali one of the first to go into Asia and the last to leave it.’ 

Origin, Yair Davidiy – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In the very far east of Scythia in what is now eastern Siberia and western China a good portion of the Naphtalite horde had remained. In the 450-500 CE period the Naphtalites began to move west eventually entering Scandinavia in the 500’s and 600’s CE. The Naphtalites themselves settled mainly in Norway.’ 

As we have discussed in the previous two chapters, the waves of invaders into Britain and Ireland match the sons of Jacob and their tribal groupings. Though ultimately the twelve sons became fourteen tribal splits, they were to form ten nations in the modern world. The tribal divisions being Reuben, Gad, Benjamin, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Ephraim, the half tribe of West Manasseh and the half tribe of East Manasseh. 

These fourteen tribes became the ten English speaking nations of England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States of America. Levi was scattered which leaves thirteen. Issachar and Zebulun are together as one, which leaves twelve. Ephraim and the half tribe of West Manasseh are together as one and are called either Ephraim or Joseph in the Bible, which leaves eleven… and Dan the enigma, remains unidentified until later, which leaves ten. 

The waves of invaders also follows the pattern of ten, rather than fourteen arrivals. They are the Britons, the Cruithni, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha de Dannan, the Hiberi or Goidels, the Jutes, the Frisians, the Angles, the Norsemen and the Danes. Sandwiched in between those are the Royal Milesians who were a branch of Judah from Zarah and the Normans who were predominantly a branch of Judah from Pharez. 

The ancient Britons were the Cymru and are the Simeon Welsh; the Cruithni from Benjamin were Picts and became Scottish; the Fir Bolg became the Ulaid and Reuben Northern Ireland; the Dannan are simply the tribe of Dan; the Goidels or Gaedhals of Gad became Gaels and are now the Irish; the Jutes from true tribe of Judah are the English; the Frisians from Zebulun and Issachar became the British South Africans and Rhodesians; the Angles – to be yet revealed – became known as Americans and Canadians; the Norsemen or Norwegians from Naphtali, became New Zealanders [notice all the Ns]; and the Danish Vikings became Australians from Asher. 

Just as the Norwegians, Danes and Normans were known as Vikings and the earlier tribes to arrive were called Celts, so too were the tribes of Jutes, Angles and Frisians collectively known as Saxons. The term ‘Anglo-Saxon’ is made up and is somewhat misleading as it implies two separate peoples, when in fact the Angles were Saxons. It is interesting to note that the first letter of many of Jacob’s son’s names have survived either to the present day or at least until their arrival in Ireland or Briton. Especially noticeable, with the tribe of Naphtali. 

Both Collins and Davidy’s comments are informative regarding Naphtali who had remarkably, kept his identity for some fifteen hundred years. An important point to understand is that as peoples migrated they pushed against those in front of them and in turn were pressed from behind. The Naphtalite Huns made their way to Scandinavia as had many of the tribes before them. They with the Danes and the Normans were the last to vacate Scandinavia. The Normans had dwelt in Brittany and Normandy for two centuries before they invaded Kent and Sussex. Meanwhile, the Danish Vikings had the numbers to establish a capital at York and to inject their royal line into the British Saxon kings. The Norwegian Vikings raided and then settled the north of England, Scotland and Ireland. Though there is some overlap between the two Viking peoples.

A handful of interesting similarities are that the Vikings were expert sailors and navigators who had designed practical yet fast open going vessels, known as longboats. This interest and ability is mirrored today by the Australians and New Zealanders in the love of sailing and yachting. The biggest city in New Zealand, Auckland is known as the City of Sails, as there are more yachts per head of population than anywhere else in the world. Both Australia and New Zealand have shook up the most famous Yachting regatta in the world, the America’s Cup in recent decades, with New Zealand leading the innovation within the competition. 

The Vikings were known for living near water outlets and on the coast. Today Australians and New Zealanders live principally within striking distance of a beach and have built their largest cities all on the coasts. An interesting correlation is just as the Vikings either established or grew the five main coastal cities of Ireland: Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick and Cork; they then went onto Australia and built the famous and thriving five cities of Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. 

Though Norwegian and Danes today claim to be Vikings, they in reality as descendants of Abraham and Keturah have inherited the name. The true vikings have either been assimilated within Britain and Ireland as the the Norman aristocracy, or ventured on to Australia and New Zealand, the Danes and Norsemen now Aussies and Kiwis. 

The United Tribes of New Zealand flag from 1834 to 1840

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel… Found! Steven M Collins, 1992 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Phoenicians also mined tin and other ores in Britain, and exported them to other nations in the Mideast. George Rawlinson states: 

“The Phoenicians had one more colony towards the west… Phoenician ships from Gadeira… crossed the mouth of the English Channel… to the Scilly Isles and conveyed thither a body of colonists who established an emporium. The attraction which drew them was the mineral wealth of the islands and of the neighboring Cornish coast… It is reasonable to suppose that the Phoenicians both worked the mines and smelted the ores.”

Historical evidence points to the Israelite tribe of Asher as being directly involved with the mining of tin in early Briton. William Camden, a British historian who lived from 1551 to 1623, states in his historical work, Britannia, that: 

The merchants of Asher worked the tin mines of Cornwall, not as slaves, but as masters and exporters.” A British historian of the nineteenth century, Sir Edmund Creasy, also noted that: “The British mines mainly supplied the glorious adornment of Solomon’s Temple.”

Notice the tribe of Asher were involved in mining, just as Australians are heavily involved today. The tribe of Asher took on the Danish name which may or may not have derived from the name of Jacob’s son, Dan as discussed previously. By coincidence the peoples today now called Danes in Denmark are the descendants of Me-dan. The Denes or Danes are thought to have had a female leader called Danu or Dana, that they worshipped the Goddess Dana, or that Dan is the legendary founder of the ancient Danish kingdom, as he is mentioned in medieval Scandinavian texts. 

Unrest in Scania led to war and a new order, represented by the Scyldings and the Healfdena. They led the migration of Danes from Sweden into the Cimbric Peninsula, thus putting pressure on the Jutes in the north. This may have resulted in feuds and local power struggles, which would have in turn impacted the sizeable tribe of the Angles. In 420 CE a man named Hoc seemed to be allied to the Scyldings by blood or marriage. The Danish side of his parentage is covered by the epic poem, Beowulf, which describes him as the son of Beowulf the elder, while the other side is probably Jutish or Anglian. 

New Zealand Flag

In 448 CE Hnaef a prince of a group of Danes called the Hocingas, and as a Sæ-Dene [Sea Dane], is involved in the struggle for power in the North Sea. His family is likely to have settled in modern Jutland. Hnaef winters with his elder sister, Hildeburh, who is married to Finn, king of the Frisians. Fighting appears to be sparked by a feud between the Jutish allies of either side, as those with the Frisians are angry that some of their people have sworn loyalty to the Danes who are ‘stealing’ Jutish territory. 

Hnaef is killed during the Freswæl, the ‘Fight at Finnesburg’. Finn is then killed in revenge by Hengist, Hnaef’s Jutish comrade in arms. As his duty is done to his deceased lord Hnaef, Hengist with his brother Horsa leads his people to Britain to take up temporary service under another lord, the high king of Britain, but this soon turns into a conquest of the southeastern territory of England in 455 CE. Large numbers of Jutes and Angles follow Hengist and this has the effect of leaving Jutland almost deserted for the incoming Dene. 

The Danish migration was complete by about the sixth century, but a single, fully unified kingdom took approximately three more centuries to emerge. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Danes, along with the Norwegians, became the scourge of Britain and Ireland. The Danes staged a major invasion of the English kingdoms during 879 to 880 CE, conquering a swathe of eastern and northern territory Britain. The Danish army under Guthrum formalised its rule under the Peace of Wedmore in 879. Guthrum secured the Danish kingdom of East Anglia, which was founded to exist alongside the Scandinavian kingdom of York. 

By 918 CE the failure to apply a concentrated force meant that the Danes were defeated. They lost a large number of men, particularly at Bedford, where the besieged English garrison inflicted a severe defeat upon them, putting their army to flight. The Danish kingdom in England fell to Edward the Elder of Wessex, as he began to unify the country under one king. At the very end of the tenth century a Danish dynasty took the English throne, heralding a new Anglo-Scandinavian period which was ended with the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and the arrival of the other Scandnavians, the Normans. The Danes also settled in Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. 

The Frisians as Issachar and Zebulun and being a smaller tribal unit are invariably lost as part of the larger Saxon tribe of the Angles from an historical perspective. This is not surprising as in the Bible, Issachar and Zebulun are often quoted with Ephraim and Manasseh. Zebulun and Issachar are also the younger brothers of Judah and so their close association with the Jutes explains the Jutish, Angle and Frisian triangular nucleus of the Saxon peoples. 

The word viking became associated with someone who goes on a ‘pirate raid’, a predatory ‘sea robber’ but this is a later interpretation of the word based on their reputation for attacking the medieval kingdoms of England and France. The word was originally used to denote a trader. Indo-European languages contain cognates of the root word for trader, such as the Latin vic [vicus: village, habitation], along with the Saxon wic and the Germanic wich.

All of these relate to the Scandinavian vik, from theOld Norse, vikingr. A Vikingr or Viking was someone who went on expeditions, usually abroad and usually be sea and usually in a group with other Vikingar [plural] to wics or wichs to trade. Norway is called the North Way as it was the north way or sea path. Without roads the only reliable travel was by water, so trading centres would be sited in protected inlets. The use of vik became transferable from the trade location or village to its location on inlets. In England, this double usage did not apply, but many Saxon villages still retain their trading names, such as Harwich, Ipswich, and Norwich, while Hamptonwic was modified to Southampton. 

The Norse feminine vik, means an inlet, small bay or creek. As the Vikings dwelt beside creeks that fed to the sea, the name also incorporates the fact that viking means a ‘creek dweller.’ The origin of this interpretation though may go back to earlier etymology that derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, meaning ’sea mile’. This was originally ‘the distance between two shifts of rowers’, from the root weik or wik, as in the Proto-Germanic verb wikan, meaning ‘to recede’ and the Proto-Nordic verb, meaning ‘to turn’, The Old Icelandic equivalent is vikja, meaning ‘to move, to turn’, with a nautical usage. 

Linguistically, this explanation is probable as the term predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of Northwestern Europe, as the Old Frisian spelling Witsing or Wising shows that ‘the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before…’ If such is the case, that the tired rower moved aside for the rested rower on long sea journeys, a vikingr would originally have been a rower; so that the ‘word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas.’ 

When the Norsemen were invaded by the Roman Catholic soldiers, they asked the people who their king was, and they replied “Viking,” which means; “We’re King.”  A very antipodean response. Coincidently, the Vikings were known as Ascomanni, or ash-men’ by the Germans for the Ash wood of their boats. The Gaels called them Lochlannaich, ‘people from the land of lakes’, the Saxons called them Dene and the Frisains called them Northmonn

As mentioned previously, most Australians and particularly New Zealanders do not live very far from water. In Australia, Vickers and Vickermans are popular surnames. The Vikings imprint on history is less piratical raider and more, sea-faring traders, fishermen, farmers and craftsmen; with their own laws, art and architecture. 

Dutch explorer Captain Willem Janszoon landed in Australia in 1606, though it was in 1770 when Captain James Cook maps the eastern coast and claims the continent for Great Britain. The first British settlement was founded in 1788. In 1824 the Island is called Australia, changed from New Holland – coined by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 – at the request of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. 

In 1841, New Zealand became its own colony separate from Australia. The year 1868 saw the end of convicts being sent to Australia. Some one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were shipped to Australia between 1788 and 1868.

Six colonies were formed in Australia: New South Wales, 1788; Tasmania, 1825; Western Australia, 1829; South Australia, 1836; Victoria, 1851; and Queensland, 1859. These same colonies later became the states of the Australian Commonwealth. In 1911, the Northern Territory became part of the Commonwealth and the city of Canberra was founded. It was named as the Australian Capital Territory or ACT. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 and a national flag was adopted. Even though it was adopted one year before New Zealand, the New Zealand flag of 1902 had originally been designed earlier in 1869. 

In 1986, Australia became fully independent from the United Kingdom. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and the biggest island, though as it is officially a continent, Greenland is deemed the biggest island in the world. In 2021, Australia signed a significant security treaty with the United Kingdom and the United States [AUKUS] aimed at countering the growing threat of China in the region. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Australian and New Zealand participation in the disaster of the Gallipoli Campaign – which was an attempted invasion of the Turkish mainland during World war I – forged the antipodean nations into a heightened sense of national consciousness [and camaraderie]. The brutality of the battle… ended in an Allied defeat…’ 

New Zealand is called by the indigenous Maori: Aotearoa, translated as ‘land of the long white cloud.’ Maori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Maui, ‘the fish of Maui’ for the North Island and Te Waipounamu, ‘the waters of  greenstone’ or Te Waka o Aoraki, ‘the canoe of Aoraki’ for the South Island. New Zealand also has some seven hundred smaller islands, covering an area of 103,500 square miles and a population of 4,900,310 people. 

By comparison, Japan has an area of 145,937 square miles and a population of one hundred and twenty-five million people. The area of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland is 93,628 miles with a population of sixty-eight million people. Naphtali was prophesied to be free as a deer let loose and so it is for the small population of New Zealand compared to its area. Saying that, there are still two nations in the world who could increase their population sizes dramatically as they have enough land – unlike Australia say, that has a vast interior of desert and only coastal regions suitable for the bulk of their population – to be able to sustain them satisfactorily. Those nations are New Zealand and Canada; both of which are under-populated and have potential for massive growth. We will look more into this when we study Canada in the next chapter. 

Due to their remoteness, ‘the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable landmass to be settled by humans.’ Approximately 1000 CE, Maori had become the dominant Polynesian culture and society. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted and officially recorded New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, declaring British sovereignty. A year later, New Zealand became a colony of the British Empire and by 1907 it had become a self-governing dominion. New Zealand gained full independence in 1947, with the British Monarch remaining head of state. 

In 1951 the United Kingdom increasingly focusing on its European interests, led to New Zealand joining Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty. A variety of ethical conflicts, particularly New Zealand’s nuclear free policy led to the United States’s suspension of ANZUS obligations. The treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend of close political cooperation, free trade agreements and mutual citizen rights between the two nations, so that citizens can visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. 

New Zealander’s, consistent with their identity as Naphtali have been involved and contributed man power in many conflicts – including: Vietnam, the two World Wars, the second Boer War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has also contributed forces to numerous several regional and global peacekeeping missions since World war II. 

New Zealand has an advanced market economy, ranked 14th in the Human Development Index and 3rd in the Index of Economic Freedom. New Zealand is identified as one of the world’s most stable and well governed nations. As of 2017, the country was ranked fourth in the strength of its democratic institutions and first in government transparency and lack of corruption. 

It was the ascent of Mount Everest by New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay in 1953 that was one of the defining moments of the 20th century. Hillary stated: “In some ways, I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.”

The British diaspora in Sub-Saharan Africa includes British and Irish descended people not just in South Africa but also in lesser numbers in counties such as Zimbabwe, Namibia [formerly South West Africa, a German colony and then administered by South Africa from 1946 to 1966], Kenya, Botswana and Zambia. 

Though Great Britain had settlements and ports along the West African coast to facilitate the Atlantic slave trade, British settlement in Africa began in earnest at the end of the eighteenth century, at the Cape of Good Hope and following the second British occupation of the Dutch Cape Colony in 1806. 

British settlers were encouraged to Albany [Settler Country], in 1820 to bolster the Cape’s eastern frontier against the Xhosa. Natal was added as a colony in 1843. After defeating the Boers in 1902, Britain also annexed the Boer Republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.

Map showing population density of the Black Africans in South Africa

The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand in 1886 after diamonds in Kimberly in 1866, encouraged additional settlement not just by the British but also Australians, Americans and Canadians. Mining magnate and empire builder, Cecil Rhodes [1853-1902] envisioned a British Africa linked from Cape Town to Cairo in Egypt. Cecil Rhodes was the founding chairman of the board of directors of De Beers Mining Company, funded by Nathaniel, the first Lord Rothschild. 

Rhodes foundered the British South Africa Company in 1889 which controlled the territory named after him from 1895 to 1911 and then as Southern – first used in 1898 – Rhodesia from 1911 to 1964. The region had originally been known as Zambesia. Later called Rhodesia from 1964 to 1979 and then finally Zimbabwe. Northern Rhodesia is now known as Zambia. Meanwhile, British East Africa became Kenya. In 1923, the company’s charter was revoked and Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. 

With the exception of South Africa, the British populations of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Kenya are relatively small, with approximately 30,000, 40,000 and 32,000 people respectively. These peoples may or may not be descended in part from Issachar. 

Zimbabwe is next to South Africa and large numbers of Zimbabwean British White people have left, especially to live in South Africa. The Republic of Zimbabwe shares a one hundred and twenty-five mile border on the south with South Africa. 

Map showing population density of White Africans in South Africa

The rapid decolonisation of Africa in the 1950s and 1960s alarmed a proportion of Southern Rhodesia’s white population. In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, the white Southern Rhodesian government issued its own declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965. At first seeking recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth, it instead reconstituted itself into a republic in 1970. Hostility between Black political factions and the White government, led to war weariness, diplomatic pressure and an extensive trade embargo imposed by the United Nations. These pressures prompted Rhodesian prime minister Ian Smith to concede to majority rule in 1978. 

Rhodesia was once known as the Jewel of Africa for its great prosperity. The name Zimbabwe derives ‘from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city (Masvingo) in the country’s south-east whose remains are now a protected site.’ Zimbabwe may stem from ‘dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as “houses of stones”. Archaeologist Peter Garlake says that Zimbabwe represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means venerated houses in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs’ houses or graves.’ 

The modern equivalent of the Aramean Phoenicians discovered Southern Africa in 1488, when Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. It was many years later in 1652, when the modern equivalent of the Midianite Phoenicians via the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Dutch Cape Colony; with the intent to be a small port town for ships traveling to India, that eventually became a full settlement of German, French, Dutch and British settlers [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. 

The Dutch Colony in 1795 was occupied by British forces after the Battle of Muizenberg. In 1802, the Dutch regained control of Cape Colony with the Peace of Amiens agreement. Then in 1806, the British again gained control after the Battle of Blaauwberg. By 1814, the Dutch formally agreed that the colony was to be part of the British Empire. 

The British outlawed slavery in 1833 and so began the Great Trek inland by the Dutch Boers, who founded two republics. The republic of Transvaal formed in 1856 was annexed by the British in 1877, sparking the first Boer War in 1880. The Boers won and gained independence for Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1889, the Second Boer War began, with the British winning and taking over Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In 1910 the Union of South Africa was formed – within the British Empire – from the four colonies of Cape Colony; Natal Colony; Transvaal Colony; and the Orange Colony. In 1912, the African National Congress (ANC) party was formed. 

In 1931, the Union became fully sovereign from the United Kingdom. Three years later, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United party. They sought reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speaking White people. Then in 1939, the party split over the entry of the Union into WWII as an ally of the United Kingdom; as the National Party followers strongly opposed the decision. 

In 1948 the ethnic Afrikaners of the National Party were voted into power and they initiated the apartheid policy of separating White people and Black people based on their race and entrenching a system of segregation in the land. 

Many of the British diaspora had voted ‘No’ in a 1960 referendum on South African independence, but it was approved by a narrow margin. The Natal majority voted against the republic and some residents called for secession from the Union after the referendum. In 1961, South Africa was declared a republic and became a fully independent nation, ending the British Monarch as the head of State with Queen Elizabeth II losing the title Queen of South Africa. Pressured by other Commonwealth nations, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961, to later rejoin in 1994. 

It is at this time that ANC leader Nelson Mandela formed an armed branch of the ANC to fight against apartheid. He was arrested in 1962 and jailed. Mandela was incarcerated for twenty-seven years while fighting for equal rights; becoming a worldwide symbol against apartheid. 

Frederik Willem de Klerk was elected president in 1989. He immediately began to work to end apartheid, with Public facilities desegregated. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison. Subsequently, Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and by 1994 Apartheid had been fully repealed. Equal rights were attained and Black people voted; electing Nelson Mandela as South African president. 

Constant readers will appreciate this is the point where we study the Y-DNA and mtDNA Haplogroups. As mentioned in the previous chapter [refer Chapter XXXI Reuben, Simeon, Levi & Gad], the assumption by geneticists is that the White Celtic-Saxon-Viking peoples of the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, are composite peoples of the English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish and Ulster Scots. In other words, their Haplogroups will be the same as these five antecedent lines from Britain and Ireland. Though they will be similar, the contention proposed here is that the percentages for R1b, I1, I2a1, I2a2 and R1a will be slightly different as these five nations are individual, separate and distinct tribes descending from different sons of Jacob. 

The Biblical identity community has also arrived at the same erroneous conclusion as scientists, in that these nations are all the descendants of Joseph and hence the exact same peoples. The difference in facial features, national characteristics, social mores, administrative processes, spoken accents, cultural and sporting interests seems to have completely bypassed everyones attention and perception to see and acknowledge the differences that clearly point to different family members, of the same family group. As there are no studies known to this writer to enlist as support, we will look at some of the individual demographics and statistics for each tribe. As it is possible that Issachar and even Zebulun have spilled over into Rhodesia we will include the British White people from Zimbabwe. 

Of significance amongst the White community of Rhodesia was its transience. Settlers were as likely to leave Rhodesia after a few years as permanently settle. For example, of the seven hundred British immigrants who were the first white settlers in 1890, only fifteen were still living in Rhodesia in 1924. As the white population of Rhodesia had a low birth rate [18 per 1,000 people] it was dependent upon immigration, which accounted for sixty percent of the growth of the white Rhodesian population between 1955 and 1972. 

American historian Josiah Brownell noted: ‘the turnover rate for white residents in Rhodesia was very high, as Rhodesia took in a total of 255,692 white immigrants between 1955 and 1979 while the same period a total of 246,583 whites emigrated.’ During the boom of the late 1950s Rhodesia took in an average of ’13,666 white immigrants per year, mostly from the United Kingdom and South Africa’ but conversely, an average of 7,666 whites emigrated annually.  Between 1961 and 1965, Rhodesia took in an average of 8,225 white immigrants per year, yet lost more people each year with an average white emigration of 12,912 people. 

Most people arriving were uninterested in settling in Rhodesia permanently and did not apply for Rhodesian citizenship, despite a 1967 campaign urging them to do so.Brownell explains that ‘patriotism in the white community was “shallow” due to its essentially expatriate character.Brownell also claimed that the majority of white immigrants in the late 1960s and early 1970s were unskilled laborers who competed with the country’s black African workforce and did not contribute badly needed technical or professional skills to the country. He argued that this was due to a government policy aimed at making white immigration as “unselective as possible” and guaranteeing every white immigrant a job.’ 

White Zimbabweans make up about 0.22% the total population today and are mostly of British origin, though there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch enclaves. The white population peaked at around 278,000 people, or 4.3% of the population in 1975, though it was 7.3% of the population in 1960 with some 223,000 people. What is interesting is that in 1890 the Black population was only about 150,000 people, yet in fifty years it had exploded into the millions. This was due to what the White settlers brought: food, medicine and employment. In 1921, Rhodesia had a total population of 899,187 people, of which, 33,620 were European, 1,998 were mixed race, 1,250 were Asiatic and 761,790 were Bantu natives and 100,529 people were Bantu aliens [not native to the territory]. Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom, then South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique,Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 

White South Africans are split in two from a descent, linguistic, cultural and historical perspective, into the Afrikaans speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company’s original settlers the Afrikaners and the Anglophone descendants of the colonial Britons. White Afrikaners trace their ancestry to the mid-seventeenth century, developing a separate cultural identity and distinct language; whereas the English speaking South Africans trace their ancestry to the settlers of 1820. The remainder of the White South African population consists of immigrants who arrived later from Europe, including Germans, Italians, Greeks and Jews, of which many left when apartheid was abolished. Portuguese immigrants arrived after the collapse of the Portuguese colonial administrations in Mozambique and Angola. 

In 1911, White people comprised 22.7% of the population. By 2020, they numbered just 7.8% of the total population. Just under a million white South Africans also live as expatriate workers abroad, the majority of South Africa’s brain drain. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016:

‘Australia and New Zealand were unique among the European colonies because they were the only areas of the New World where nonwhite slaves were never imported as part of the colonization process. The result of this significant difference was that the new colonies in Australia and New Zealand were homogenous in their early years and for this reason, established a record for stability and progress virtually unmatched in history.  

[Their] racial history… is therefore focused on the interaction between the white immigrants and the native populations of the Aborigines… and the Maori… It was only in the last part of the twentieth century that significant numbers of nonwhites… entered… [and] that development, even more… [is altering] the racial dynamics of Australia and New Zealand – and not in favour of the Europeans.’

Australians of European – including Celtic-Saxon-Viking – descent are the majority, estimated at seventy-six percent of the population. The vast majority of early settlers came  from their own free will, with the convict – and prison guard – element very much the minority; some twenty percent, while the majority were of British and Irish descent. Many of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands, the North of England and Ireland; then from the southeast and the southwest of England and also Scotland. 

In 1888, sixty percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. From the remaining forty percent, thirty-four percent had been born in the British isles and six percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia. In the 1840s, Scottish born immigrants constituted twelve percent of the Australian population. The European population grew from 0.3% of the population of the continent in 1800 to 58.6% in 1850. Germans constituted the largest non-British community for most of the nineteenth century. ‘The census of 1901 showed that [98%] of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins, and [were] considered as “more British than Britain itself”.’ 

During the 1950s, Australia was the destination of thirty percent of Dutch emigrants and the Netherlands born became numerically Australia’s second largest non-British group. ‘Abolition of the White Australia Policy in 1957 led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, primarily from Asia and the Middle East. This is ironic as the White Australia policy was enacted after gold was discovered in the 1850’s bringing an influx of peoples, including Chinese. With them came Triad gangs, smuggling and other crimes that led to public agitation and eventually the State of Victoria in 1856 passed a law forbidding Chinese to enter. The exclusion law was then adopted by every other colony. 

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia. Chinese Australians constituted 5.6% of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8% at the 2016 census. In 2019, 30% of the Australian resident population, were born overseas. 

New Zealand is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Most European New Zealanders have British or Irish ancestry, with smaller percentages of other European ancestries such as Germans, Poles [historically noted as ‘Germans’ due to partitions of Poland], French, Dutch and Scandinavians. Lesser minorities include: Greek, Turkish, Italian, Lebanese, Arab and South Slavs. 

The ethnic makeup of the New Zealand population is undergoing a process of change because of waves of immigration, higher birth rates and increasing interracial marriages which are resulting in the New Zealand population of Māori, Asians and Pacific Islanders growing at a higher rate than those of solely European descent. Over one million New Zealanders recorded in the 2013 Census were born overseas. 

Most New Zealanders are resident in New Zealand, though there is also a significant diaspora, estimated at around 750,000 people. Of these, around 640,800 live in Australia and others are heavily concentrated in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. In 1961 the European element in New Zealand comprised 92% of the population and the Maori 7%. By 2018 the Whites comprised 72% of the total, the Maori 17% and others 11%. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand’s immigrant population, with around a quarter of all overseas born New Zealanders born in the United Kingdom. Other major sources of New Zealand’s overseas born population include: China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa. 

Despite their reputation for raping the Vikings left little trace of their DNA, Mail Online, November 1, 2020 – emphasis & bold mine:

Analysis of thousands of DNA samples from the UK, continental Europe and Scandinavia revealed a surprising lack of Viking genes in England, despite the Norsemen once occupying much of the country. The international team led by scientists from Oxford University and the Wellcome Trust… [and their] research, published in the journal Nature, did not find any obvious genetic footprint from the Romans or Danish Vikings. However, this is not down to a lack of virility – merely that they were not here in large enough numbers to have had enough children for their genes to live on today. Study co-leader Sir Walter Bodmer said: 

“You get a relatively small group of people who can dominate a country that they come into and there are not enough of them, however much they intermarry, to have enough of an influence that we can detect them in the genetics… At that time, the population of Britain could have been as much as one million, so an awful lot of people would need to arrive in order for there to be an impact.”

‘His colleague Professor Peter Donnelly added: 

“Genetics tells us the story of what happens to the masses. ‘There were already large numbers of people in those areas of Britain by the time the Danish Vikings came so to have a substantial impact on the genetics there would need to be very large numbers of them leaving DNA for subsequent generations. The fact we don’t get a signal is probably about numbers rather than the relative allure or lack thereof of Scandinavians to English women.”

‘Others said that the Danes may actually have been more attractive to local women because their habit of washing weekly meant they were seen as cleaner. Even in Orkney, which was a part of Norway from 875 to 1472, the Vikings contributed only about 25 per cent of the current gene pool. It suggests that the Vikings mixed very little with the indigenous population they initially terrorised and then conquered.’

On the surface, this is a valid point it would seem, but the reality is that the vast bulk of ‘Danish Vikings’, the tribe of Asher – and probably some of Naphtali too, as many ‘Australians’ from Britain later moved to New Zealand had left the United Kingdom. As they are 1. related to the English, Welsh and Scots and 2. though a different tribe have left en masse; one would not expect to find genetic ‘evidence’ of them in the United Kingdom. 

It is not about size of people and impact. The Angles were the biggest tribe of Saxons, far outnumbering the Picts, Cymru, Frisians, Jutes, Norsemen, Danes and Normans. Their genetic footprint is also negligible. This only makes sense if the vast bulk left British shores. The Romans, mainly soldiers would have intermarried some and so their DNA is likely still in Britain. The key piece of information is that as the Romans are the Germans [refer Chapter XXVIII Ishmael], with similar Haplogroup sequencing, spotting their DNA is like looking for a needle in a haystack. It is there, but not going to be visibly distinct. 

‘The Vikings, from Norway, Sweden and Denmark, carried out extensive raids and occupations across wide areas of northern and central Europe between the eighth and late 11th centuries. Danish Vikings in particular took over large parts of England, eventually settling in an a region stretching from Essex to County Durham which was ruled by ‘Danelaw’. 

The findings support previous research from the University of Oslo suggesting that Viking men were family-orientated and not particularly bothered about the British women they conquered. Rather than Viking raiding parties consisting wholly of testosterone-charged men, researchers found that significant numbers of women, and possibly whole families, travelled on the longboats. DNA extracted from 45 Viking skeletons showed that women played an integral part in establishing settlements in the UK.’

The other salient point is that comparing DNA from the UK with ‘continental Europe and Scandinavia’ will not add anything useful as the original Vikings left Scandinavia and now live in Australia and New Zealand. Not only are the Antipodeans unlike the English, the Scots and Welsh they are also not the same as the Swedes, Norwegians and Danes who are children from Abraham and his second wife Keturah [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham]. Added to this, is that fact that the ‘Vikings’ that swarmed out of Sweden and colonised the vast tracts of Russia were not the same peoples as now in Britain or Scandinavia [refer Chapter XX Asshur]. 

Recall in Chapter II Japheth, we looked at the prophecy in Genesis chapter nine, verse twenty-seven regarding Japheth ‘dwelling in the tents of Shem.’  We also detailed the global agenda to ‘water-down’ the European nations in the drive towards eliminating particularly, the pure White stock of the nations of Israel [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. 

In Australia, between the years 1984 to 1995, forty percent of all migrants were of Asian origin. In 2003, a report revealed that fourteen percent of the residents of Perth were born in Southeast Asia, principally Vietnam. Demographic trends are that Australia will be twenty-seven percent Asian by 2025. Considering Third world reproduction rates and the natural shrinkage of the First World population, Australia will be close to a Third World majority population well before 2050. 

An example of an irony of the savage kind is that the largest mosque in Australia, located in Sydney, New South Wales is called the Auburn Gallipoli. This is in reference to the World War I battle where thousands of Australian troops were killed and defeated in an attempt to invade the Islamic Ottoman Empire [refer Chapter XVIII Elam]. 

The First World element of New Zealand’s population is projected to drop to less than sixty percent by 2026; with the Asian population set to increase by 145%, between 2001 and 2021. Predictions from the 2001 census include European children making up 63% of all children in New Zealand in 2021 compared with 74% in 2001. The 2006 census showed that the Asian ethnicity had overtaken the Pacific Polynesian peoples into third palace and that by 2026, they will overtake the second place Maori. These stats show that it is highly likely that New Zealand will lose its majority First World population status before the year 2050. 

March of the Titans, Arthur Kemp, 1999 & 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

The lesson of Rhodesia proves that no matter how technologically proficient, no matter how militarily-capable, no matter how determined, no minority can indefinitely resist the power of demographics… The White Rhodesians failed to understand the relationship between demographics and political power… Rhodesian whites were imbued with the nineteenth century white supremacist belief that they had a paternalistic right to rule over nonwhites “for their own good”… white rule caused an explosion in black numbers as Western medicine, education, and technology boosted black numbers way beyond their natural reproduction levels. As a result, white supremacism created a racial demographic time bomb which swept away all vestiges of Western rule. 

This reality underlines the truth that demographic replacement is the sole driver of cultural change and that the majority of the population determines the nature of the society. It is a lesson that the Western world, which has imported vast numbers of nonwhites through mass immigration policies which started in the last part of the twentieth century, must learn. Failure to do so will result in them sharing the same fate of the white Rhodesians.’

There is a time to look for something and a time to stop looking for it. There is a time to keep things and a time to throw things away… There is a time… to speak… The Teacher was very wise and taught the people what he knew. He very carefully thought about, studied, and… looked for just the right words to write what is dependable and true. Words from wise people are like… nails that have been driven in firmly… that come from one Shepherd. So be careful, my son, about other teachings. People are always writing books, and too much study will make you tired.

Ecclesiastes 3:6-7; 12:9-12 New Century Version

“The overwhelming majority of people never think and those who think never become the overwhelming majority. Choose your side.” 

Elif Shafak

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to Orion Gold

Aram & Tyre: Southern Italy, Spain, Portugal & Brazil

Chapter XXIII

The fifth son of Shem is Aram. Aram is the only son of Shem in the Bible, to list Shem’s grandsons. This signifies that they must be identifiable nations and peoples as we learned with the sons of Gomer, Javan and Cush. Though not as disparate or numerous as with Canaan with over forty nations of descent and Mizra with over thirty nations. It is recommended to also read Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor.

Genesis 10:23

English Standard Version

The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

Origin of the Nations, Herman Hoeh – capitals his, emphasis & bold mine:

‘Trouble is boiling up in the Middle East. Syria is now the focal point of intrigue [written in 1957]. Where is Syria mentioned in the Bible? Who are the Syrians? The Syrians are the descendants of Aram, a son of Shem. Everywhere in the Old Testament where the word “Syria” or “Syrian” appears in English, the word in Hebrew is Aram or Aramean. The Arameans were called Syrians by the Greeks because they once formed part of the Assyrian Empire dominated by Asshur, the Germanic [rather, Russian] people.’

As discussed, the nation of Syria is an Arab nation and they descend from Ham’s son Mizra. The words Aram and Aramean are translated as Syria and Syrian in the Bible. The sons of Aram, dwelt to the southeast of Asshur in northern Mesopotamia and hence the similar names of Assyria and Syria and some also dwelt to the southwest – near and on the coast of northern Canaan, in juxtaposition to the later Philistines on the southern coast. The sons of Jacob inherited the central coastal region.

‘Now we are about to find an unusual characteristic of the children of Aram. Aram had four sons listed in Genesis 10:23: Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash. Compare this with I Chronicles 1:17. Here the sons of Shem include “Aram, AND Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.” First, notice that the sons of Aram are raised to the level of brothers in I Chronicles 1 – they are on an equal footing with their uncles!* Further, the name Mash is changed into Meshech, because Mash became associated with Meshech, the son of Japheth!’

We will learn that Mash from Aram, is not associated with Meshech descended from Japheth of south central China [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech].

‘Why should these sons be elevated to the position of fathers of distinct peoples? Because the sons of Aram must have possessed extremely divergent characteristics. Here is the proof! Where are the sons of Meshech or Mash today? We ought to find them in Russia, since that is where Meshech the son of Japheth is! And indeed we do find them there! In the far north of European Russia dwell the little-known [contradiction]* Zyrians or Sirians or Syryenians – the name is spelled in half a dozen different ways.

They are related to numerous small tribes*scattered throughout European Russia. And where are the sons of Hul? According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Hul, the brother of Mash, founded Armenia, a land in the Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Sea (Book I, chapter vi, section 4). The Armenians are a very business-like people. Many have migrated to America. The name “Armenian”, like the word “Syryenian” (applied to Mash or Meshech) means a son of Aram, or son of Syria. The ending “-ian” means “son of” in the Armenian tongue!’

We have learned that Gomer and a number of other identities are ascribed to either Armenia or Turkey. So many identities cannot all be Armenian or Turkish. What this shows, is how many diverse peoples at different times, lived at this strategic east-west crossroads in Asia Minor before continuing to migrate. The Armenians and Turks are just the last to arrive and dwell in a region of high migratory activity.

‘Present-day Syria, on the Mediterranean, was founded by Uz, according to Josephus. As the descendants of Gether are nowhere mentioned in prophecy, their movements do not need to be included here. See Josephus’ ANTIQUITIES and the article on “Afghanistan” in the BRITANNICA for their present location. No wonder the sons of Aram were raised to the rank of distinct people. They are extremely divergent in national characteristics. Who would ever guess today that all these people had the same father, Aram?’

As it turns out, these divergent people are not all the sons of Aram. The people previously identified as Canaanites and Javan by Dr Hoeh are in fact Aram. Aram’s four sons are all distinct peoples today, though their Haplogroups reveal they are closely related and not as diverse as proclaimed. Finally, relying on Josephus at best has limited value as he addressed what he understood at the time of his writing and at worst, he fas been found to be less than reliable in numerous instances. Peoples and nations had a long way to travel in their respective migrations before a settled picture could come into somewhat clearer focus from circa 1600 when the American colonies were forming, more specifically by 1870 when the German and Italian states united to form nations and particularly from between 1918 to 1945 with the redrawing of European boundaries.

We have seen how the sons of Shem thus far, are located on the periphery of Europe proper: Lud is Iran, Elam is Turkey and Asshur is Russia. 

The four sons of Aram are similarly located on the outer edges of Europe, in Southern Italy of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, Spain and Portugal on the Iberian Peninsula and stretched across the Atlantic Ocean in Brazil, South America.

In Genesis 25:20, a wife was found for Isaac from Abraham’s brother’s family. This brother had a close association with Aram. Dwelling in the same territory as one of Aram’s sons Uz so that a shared name of Paddan-Aram describes them both. We find in Genesis chapter twenty-two a list of sons, where Uz and Aram are both shared family names. 

Genesis 25:20 

English Standard Version

and Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban [father of Leah and Rachel] the Aramean, to be his wife.

Genesis 22:21-23

English Standard Version

21 Uz [or Huz] his [Nahor’s] firstborn, Buz his brother, Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel.” 23 (Bethuel fathered Rebekah)…

The word Paddan in Hebrew means ‘a field’ or ‘a plain.’ Therefore, the field or plain of Aram. Both of the sons named Uz from Aram and from Nahor, are the firstborn of their brothers.

Jeremiah 25:19-22

English Standard Version

19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, his servants, his officials, all his people, 20 and all the mixed tribes among them; all the kings of the land of Uz [Italy] and all the kings of the land of the Philistines (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod) [Spanish speaking Central and South America]; 21 Edom, Moab, and the sons of Ammon; 22 all the kings of Tyre [Aram], all the kings of Sidon [South Africa}, and the kings of the coastland across the sea [South East Asia];

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Uz in Hebrew means, ‘Contemplation, Inner Strength’, from the verb (‘us), to create inner strength by contemplation.

The name Uz is assigned four times in the Bible:

  • A [firstborn] son of Aram, a son of Shem… (Genesis 10:23).
  • The first-born son of Nahor and Milcah (Genesis 22:21).
  • A descendant of Seir the Horite (Genesis 36:28)…
  • A location… where Job lived (Job 1:1).

The name Uz probably arose in a language other than Hebrew… but spelled as is, it is identical to the verb (‘us) meaning to counsel, regard:

Noun (‘osma) means strength… Adjective (‘asum) means mighty or numerous. Noun (ta’asuma) is a plural and intensive formmeaning might but a whole lot of it.

The very common noun (‘es) means tree (whose fruits proverbially show its “heart”). Collectively, trees are known as (‘esa)… [such as] the cedars of Tyre…

Probably a by-form of the previous, the verb (‘us) means to counsel or regard with deep inner contemplation. To a Hebrew audience the name Uz would have meant Counsel or Contemplation, an interpretation that is confirmed by Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, which reads Counsellor. NOBSE Study Bible Name List takes a different approach and goes possibly through the root (‘sh) that yields the noun (es) meaning tree, wood or timber. Hence NOBSE reads Firmness.’

We will study Italy separately; now looking at the remaining three sons of Aram. Hul, Gether and Mash who none are specifically mentioned again in the Bible, even though they are distinct nations as advocated by Dr Hoeh. Two of the three are prominent and are stated, though with different nomenclature. One is called Tyre throughout the Bible and the other sometimes as Aram or Syria, though invariably as Damascus. Damascus was the capital of Aram which included primarily the descendants of Gether and today  are the Spanish. Hul and principally Mash or Meshech, are associated with Tyre. 

Abarim Publications, bold mine:

‘Aram meaning: ‘Elevated, Citadel’ from the verb (rum), to be high.

Altogether, the name Aram or Syria occurs 12 times in the New Testament [Other] Biblical Arams are:

  • A son of Shemer, son of Heber, son of Beriah, son of Asher, the eighth son of Jacob and the second of Zilpah (1 Chronicles 7:34).
  • A district in Gilead (1 Chronicles 2:23).
  • … the King James and the Darby translations list an Aram in the genealogy of Christ, but this Greek Aram is due to an odd transliteration of the Hebrew name Ram. Modern English versions of the Bible speak of Ram (Matthew 1:3, Luke 3:33).

The name Aram comes probably from the common Hebrew verb (rum) meaning to be high, rise up: The verb (rum) means to be high or high up in either a physical, social or even attitudinal sense, and may also refer to the apex in a natural process: the being ripe and ready-for-harvest of fruits. Subsequently, our verb may imply a state beyond ripe (higher than ripe, overripe), which thus refers to rotting and being maggot riddled. This means that to the ancients higher did not simply mean better, and an arrogant political status that was higher than it should be equaled rot and worms (Acts 12:23).

Derived nouns, such as (rum) and related forms, describe height or pride. Noun (ramut) describes some high thing. The noun (‘armon) refers to a society’s apex: a citadel or palace. The noun (re’em) describes the wild ox, which was named possibly for the same reason why we moderns call a rising market a “bull” market. The similar verb (ra’am) means to rise.

The noun (‘armon), meaning citadel, is thought to derive from a root (‘rm), which, according to BDB Theological Dictionary, is probably a by-form of the Hebrew verb (rum) and which is identical to our name Aram. The name Aram, in fact, may derive from the idea of a global capital…’

The aspect of being high in altitude is reflected in Spain’s capital Madrid, which averages 646 metres above sea level. This is not necessarily high for a town or city, though it is the highest capital in the world. Parts of Madrid can be 750 meters above sea level. Some have made note of 666 metres for parts of Madrid and the correlation with the number of the Beast. A film incorporating Madrid as the birthplace of the Antichrist was made by Spanish film director Alex de la Iglesia called, The Day of the beast. Notice the reference to the bull, recalling its strong link with the Philistines and still within Spain today. Finally, the idea of a global capital is insightful; remember this when we study Italy in Chapter XXV. One source says Aram can mean a flaming fire. Aram’s capital – mirrored by Spain’s capital Madrid today – is represented by Damascus in the Bible and can also mean a sack of blood. The son of Aram that populates Spain is Gether.

Abarim Publications:

Gether meaning: ‘Winepress Of Vision’, ‘Circle Of The Winepress’ or ‘Fear.’

From (1) the noun (gat), winepress, and (2) the verb (ra’a), to see or understand… and… the verb (tur), to explore or survey… From the verb (gur), to fear. 

Jerome suggests that [Gether] consists of two elements.. The verb (yagan) probably meant to beat or press… The second part of the name Gether, according to Jerome, may come from the verb (ra’a), meaning to see: The verb (ra’a) means to see, and by extension to understand. It may mean to become visible (of, say, an angel) or to become understandable (of, say, a theory). Noun (ro’eh) means either seer, or prophetic vision, and noun (mar’a) means either vision as means of revelation, or mirror.’

The Spanish are known for their wine production.

‘The verb (garar) means to drag or drag away, mostly in a circular or repetitive* motion. The verb (gara) means to strive or agitate strife, obviously not by means of one singular assault but rather by repeated provocations and withdrawals. Noun (tigra) means contention or opposition. Nouns (gor) and (gur) both denote lion cubs. Perhaps young male lions were named after the verb (gur) because they are expelled from the pride and are forced to roam adjacent territories. Perhaps a third identical verb (gur) means to dread, but perhaps it describes dread that is built up over time and from many little threats and suspicions. Nouns (magor) and (megora) mean fear or terror…’

Judges 10:6

New Century Version

Again the Israelites did what the Lord said was wrong. They worshiped Baal and Ashtoreth, the gods of Aram, Sidon, Moab, and Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines. The Israelites left the Lord and stopped serving him.

Judges 18:7 

Bible in Basic English 

Then the five men went on their way and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, living without thought of danger, like the Zidonians, quiet and safe; for they had everything on earth for their needs, and they were far from the Zidonians [South Africa] and had no business with Aram [Spain].

2 Samuel 8:6

English Standard Version

Then David put garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought tribute. And the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.

Isaiah 7:8

New King James Version

For the head of Syria [Aram] is Damascus, And the head of Damascus is Rezin. Within sixty-five years Ephraim will be broken, So that it will not be a people.

Isaiah 9:12

English Standard Version

The Syrians [Spain] on the east and the Philistines [Central and South America] on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.

Isaiah 22:6 

Bible in Basic English

And Elam [Turkey] was armed with arrows, and Aram came on horseback; and the breastplate of Kir [wall of Moab] was uncovered.

2 Kings 16:10

English Standard Version

When King Ahaz [King of Judah] went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, he saw the altar that was at Damascus. And King Ahaz sent to Uriah the priest a model of the altar, and its pattern, exact in all its details.

Jeremiah 49:23

English Standard Version

Concerning Damascus: “Hamath [Nigeria] and Arpad [Ethiopia] are confounded, for they have heard bad news; they melt in fear, they are troubled like the sea that cannot be quiet.

Ezekiel 27:18-19

New Century Version

“‘People of Damascus became traders for you because you have many good things and great wealth. They traded your goods for wine from Helbon, wool from Zahar, and barrels of wine from Izal. They received wrought iron, cassia, and sugar cane in payment for your good things.

Amos 1:5

Amplified Bible

“I also will break the bar [of the gate] of Damascus, And cut off and destroy the inhabitant from the Valley of Aven (Wickedness), And the ruler who holds the scepter, from Beth-eden (Damascus); And the people of Aram [conquered by the Assyrians] will go into exile to Kir,” [Moab]  Says the Lord.

The reference to the gods of Aram, Baal and Ashteroth, as well as their altar, is the same religion of their neighbours or affiliated peoples. Today, the descendant religion of this ancient false system of worship is the universal church of Catholicism. Notice the Syrians and Philistines in the Bible are linked frequently, just as Spain and Spanish Central and South America are closely linked by history and religion. The Arameans have also had an influential role in the affairs of Ephraim and Judah. Damascus is highlighted as an economic power and Spain historically and today, is one of the biggest economies in the world.

Spain is located on the eastern Iberian Peninsula in south west Europe. The peninsula has witnessed a lot of activity over the centuries with the influx of numerous peoples and empires. The Phoenicians arrived in the ninth century BCE, followed by the Carthaginians, the Greeks and the Romans; with the Romans having a lasting impact on Spain’s culture, naming it Hispania. The invading Visigoths drove out the Romans circa 500 CE. In 711 the Moors, including returning Alans and Vandals [refer Chapter XV Casluh & Caphtor] came across the Mediterranean Sea from North Africa and re-conquered most of Spain, naming it al-Andalus – al-An[s] and -[V]Andal’s. They would remain there for hundreds of years until the Europeans retook Spain as part of the Reconquista. 

In 1137, the Kingdom of Aragon was formed and in 1139, the Kingdom of Portugal was established. In 1469, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon married. The infamous Spanish Inquisitions began in 1478 and a year later, the Kingdom of Spain was formed when Isabella and Ferdinand were made King and Queen uniting Aragon and Castile. In 1492, the Reconquista ended with the conquest of Grenada and Columbus [re]discovering the New World, while searching for India – hence the naming of the West Indies.

During the 1500s – the Age of Exploration – Spain became the most powerful country, in Europe and probably the world. Inspired by their North and South American colonies and the great wealth of gold they acquired. A turning point in 1588 was the battle of the world’s two greatest navies, with the British – led by Sir Francis Drake – defeating the Spanish Armada. 

In 1761 Spain joined the Seven Years’ War against their old nemesis Great Britain. In 1808 the Peninsular War was fought against the Napoleon led French Empire and the Spanish American wars of independence began. By 1833 the majority of the Spanish territories in America had gained their independence. The Allies won the Peninsular War in 1814, with Spain being freed from French rule. Spain later lost the Spanish-American war of 1898 and ceded huge territory in the continental United States as well as Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Spain became a republic in 1931 and in 1936, Spain endured a civil war. The nationalist forces won – beating the Republicans – with a General, Francisco Franco becoming leader and a dictatorship lasting until 1975. From 1959, the Spanish miracle, began; a period of economic growth and prosperity. Spain had a GDP of $1.39 trillion in 2019, making it the 14th largest economy in the world by GDP. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Spanish global shipments during 2020.

  1. Vehicles: US$50.3 billion 
  2. Machinery including computers: $22.3 billion
  3. Electrical machinery, equipment: $17.6 billion 
  4. Mineral fuels including oil: $14.4 billion 
  5. Pharmaceuticals: $14 billion 
  6. Plastics, plastic articles: $11.9 billion 
  7. Fruits, nuts: $11.2 billion 
  8. Meat: $9.8 billion 
  9. Vegetables: $8.1 billion 
  10. Articles of iron or steel: $7.4 billion 

Meat was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 23% since 2019. The leading decliner among Spain’s top 10 export categories was mineral fuels including oil which fell -29% year over year.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Hul meaning: ‘Circle, Writhing.’ From the verb (hul), to writhe.

The name Hul comes from the root group (hul I & II): Verb (hul I) denotes a whirling in circular motions.* It comes with quite a cluster of derivatives, most notably the noun (hol), meaning sand; the noun (hil), meaning pain so bad that it makes one writhe (specifically childbirth)… Verb (hul II) means to be strong, and the important derived noun (hayil) means might. A by-form of the previous: the verb (halam I) means to be strong.’

Hul’s meaning of strong is similar to Uz, of strength and Hul’s circular motion is the same as for Gether. Both Gether and Hul writhed in motion and gave ‘birth’ to nations. 

Hul identifies with Portugal and it gave birth to the nation Brazil. Brazil equates to the youngest of Aram’s four sons, Mash; specifically addressed as Tyre in the Bible. The Mash or Meshech from Aram does share with Meshech of Japheth, the trait of being part of or compressed with, a larger body of people. Meshech of China, with Tubal and Magog [refer Chapter X]; whereas Mash of Aram is possibly merged with Hul, it certainly has significant numbers of African and American Indian peoples. Prior to that, large numbers emigrated from Italy, their brother Uz to Brazil.

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Mash meaning: ‘Departed, Drawn Out’ From the verb (mush), to depart, or (masha), to draw out, or (mashak), to draw or drag.’

The definition of mash is highly relevant when viewed in the context of the formation of Brazil.

‘In Genesis 10:23, Mash is listed as a son of Aram, who is a son of Shem… In 1 Chronicles 1:17 the same genealogy occurs, although the various generations are now all listed as sons of Shem. And Mash is called (Meshech). Another man named Meshech is mentioned as a son of Japheth, who is another son of Noah (Genesis 10:2). He is mentioned about half a dozen times in the Bible… and it’s clear that these are the names of nations rather than individuals…

The name (Mash) does not occur as regular word in Hebrew, but it may be viewed as a contraction of the word (mush), meaning depart or remove (or rather: could be viewed as an expansion of an original): The verb (mashash) means to feel; to sense or search for tactilely. This verb has no derivatives but does show up in two alternate forms, namely (mush) and (mish). 

An assumed whole other verb (mush) or (mish) means to depart or remove… Perhaps these two verbs relate in the sweeping or scanning motion* that usually accompanies tactile reconnaissance. This same motion could be applied to describe [as] being footloose or untethered. Verb (nasa’) describes an upward motion, generally of something that is being pulled up and out so as to remove it.

Noun (nasi’) describes a lifted-up one, i.e. (1) a captain or chief, or (2) a mist or vapor. Noun (si’) means loftiness or pride [see Aram]. Noun (se’et) means dignity, swelling or outburst, a rising-up. This noun is spelled the same as (she’t), ruin or devastation, from the verb (sha’a), to be noisy or ruinous.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

Tyre meaning: ‘Rock‘ From the noun (sur), rock.

Tyre is the Greek/Latin name for the famous Phoenician city often mentioned together with Sidon (Joshua 10:29). It still exists today, being situated south on the coast of Lebanon,  just north of Israel. Famous Biblical Tyriansare Hiram, the builder of the temple of Solomon, and Jezebel the wife of king Ahab. Another famous Phoenician was Hannibal of Carthage, which was a Tyrian colony.

The name Tyre could be considered a Hebrew equivalent of the Greek name Peter, and when Jesus said that upon this “rock” he would build his church (Matthew 16:18), his original audience doubtlessly remembered how Solomon built the temple of YHWH on the rock of Phoenician knowledge and resources (1 Kings 5:1-12). In New Testament times the city of Tyre was still a booming town (spelled in Greek as, Turos). Jesus referred to it (Matthew 11:21), preached to visitors from it (Luke 6:17) and retreated to its region (Matthew 15:21). The apostle Paul spent seven days there while the ship he was travelling with was unloading…

The Semetic, and thus original, name for Tyre is pronounced Zor or Zur… scholars assume that the Hebrew name for Tyre, equals the regular word (sur) meaning rock (Jeremiah 21:13, Job 14:18). In Deuteronomy 32:31 the author compares the gods of the nations to the living God and says, “Indeed, their rock is not like our Rock”: Verb (sur II) means to confine, secure or besiege. Noun (masor) means siege and (mesura) means stronghold. Verb (sur III) means to be an adversary. Verb (sur IV) means to form or fashion. Noun (sura) means form and noun (sir)means image. Verb (sur V)… probably means to be sharp. 

The important noun (sur) means rock, and is equivalent to the Greek noun (petra), from which comes the name Peter. Verb (sarar I) means to bind… Adjective (sar) means narrow. Nouns (sar) and (sara) mean distress and yield denominative verb (sara), meaning to suffer^ distress. Verb (sarar II) means to show hostility and relates to verb (sur III). Noun (sar) means adversary. Noun (sara)means vexer or rival-wife. Verb (yasar) means to fashion or form… Verb (srh) probably describes the bleeding of an odoriferous tree. Noun (sari) denotes a kind of costly balsam.’

In the future, Tyre will be both powerful and problematic. Especially allied with the Philistines – the Spanish Latino descended nations of Central and South America, particularly Mexico – towards the United States.  

Joshua 19:29

English Standard Version

Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre. Then the boundary turns to Hosah, and it ends at the sea…

1 Kings 7:14

English Standard Version

He was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in bronze. And he was full of wisdom, understanding, and skill for making any work in bronze. He came to King Solomon and did all his work.

2 Chronicles 2:14

English Standard Version

… the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan [brother of Naphtali], and his father was a man of Tyre. He is trained to work in gold, silver, bronze, iron, stone, and wood, and in purple, blue, and crimson fabrics and fine linen, and to do all sorts of engraving and execute any design that may be assigned him, with your craftsmen, the craftsmen of my lord, David your father.

Psalm 87:4

New English Translation

I mention Rahab [Egypt] and Babylon to my followers. Here are Philistia [Spanish Central and South America] and Tyre [Brazil], along with Ethiopia [India]. It is said of them, “This one was born there.”

Isaiah 23:1,8

New King James Version

The burden against Tyre. Wail, you ships of Tarshish! [Japan] For [Tyre] is laid waste, So that there is no house, no harbor; From the land of Cyprus [Indonesia] it is revealed to them. Who has taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, Whose merchants are princes, Whose traders are the honorable of the earth?

Isaiah 23:15-17

Revised Standard Version

15 In that day Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, like the days of one king. At the end of seventy years, it will happen to Tyre as in the song of the harlot: 16 “Take a harp, go about the city, O forgotten harlot! Make sweet melody, sing many songs, that you may be remembered.” 17At the end of seventy years, the Lord will visit Tyre, and she will return to her hire, and will play the harlot with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. 

Jeremiah 47:4 

BBE

Because of the day which is coming with destruction on all the Philistines [Central and South America], cutting off from Tyre [Brazil] and Zidon [South Africa] the last of their helpers: for the Lord will send destruction on the Philistines, the rest of the sea-land of Caphtor.

Joel 3:4

English Standard Version

“What are you to me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the regions of Philistia? Are you paying me back for something? If you are paying me back, I will return your payment on your own head swiftly and speedily.

Zechariah 9:3 

BBE

And Tyre made for herself a strong place, and got together silver like dust and the best gold like the earth of the streets.

Acts 21:3

English Standard Version

When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left we sailed to Syria and landed at Tyre…

Brazil was born in the modern age in the year 1500, when Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral, with thirteen ships and twelve hundred men, discovered Brazil – thinking it was a large island – while on route to India; subsequently claiming the land for Portugal. In 1532, Sao Vicente was established as the first permanent settlement in Brazil by Portuguese explorer Martim Afonso de Sousa. The primary export was sugar. In 1565 the city of Rio de Janeiro was founded. The Dutch established a colony called New Holland on the northwest coast of Brazil in 1640; while Portugal declared its independence from Spain. The following year, Portugal officially took over the territory of New Holland from the Dutch. In 1727, the first coffee bush was planted in Brazil by Francisco de Melo Palheta. Brazil ultimately became the world’s largest producer of coffee. 

Slaves were imported from the Sub-Sahara Western Africa slave trade – as well as the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique in East Africa – to work the fields. Nearly three million slaves were brought from Africa during the three centuries from 1500 to 1800. The Portuguese during this time had defeated the French to re-take Rio de Janeiro and also took control of several Dutch and British outposts. In 1763, the capital city was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janiero.

In 1807, the Portuguese royal family escaped from Napoleon and fled to Brazil. In 1815, the once colony was elevated to a kingdom. Although the king, Dom Joao VI , returned to Portugal in 1821, his son Pedro, remained in Brazil, declaring Brazil’s independence in 1822; after annexing Uruguay as a province in 1821. Pedro I became emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil. In 1824, the first constitution of Brazil was adopted and the fledgling country was recognised by the United States. In 1888, slavery was abolished by the Golden Law – four million slaves being set free. 

In 1889, the short-lived monarchy was overthrown by a military coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca and replaced with a federal republic. Since then, the country has been ruled by elected presidents as well as enduring^ military coups and martial rule.

‘The following export product groups categorize the highest dollar value in Brazilian global shipments during 2020.

  1. Oil seeds: US$29 billion 
  2. Ores, slag, ash: $28.9 billion 
  3. Mineral fuels including oil: $24.7 billion 
  4. Meat: $15.8 billion 
  5. Sugar, sugar confectionery: $8.9 billion
  6. Iron, steel: $8.7 billion
  7. Machinery including computers: $8.7 billion 
  8. Vehicles: $6.8 billion 
  9. Cereals: $6.5 billion 
  10. Food industry waste, animal fodder: $6.5 billion 

Sugar plus sugar confectionery was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 64.9% year over year since 2019. In second place for improving export sales was the ores, slag and ash category which rose 14.2% led by iron ores and concentrates. Brazil’s shipments of oil seeds posted the third-fastest gain in value up by 9.8% year over year.’

Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world and is the dominant economic power in South America, with a GDP of $1.84 trillion in 2019. Brazil’s very ‘diversified economy runs the gamut from heavy industries, such as aircraft and automotive production, to mineral and energy resource extraction. It also has a large agricultural sector that makes it a major exporter of coffee and soy beans.’

Brazil has steadily grown in importance as a prime breadbasket of the world; exporting five of the world’s major crops. The country has two key agricultural regions; one in the Southern region which is fertile from higher rainfall and also a drier North Eastern region. The former is responsible for a big percentage of the nation’s grains, oil seeds and export crops while the latter produces its cocoa and tropical fruits. Other important agricultural products in the country include wheat, rice, sugarcane, corn, citrus and beef. Cattle farming in Brazil is massive with millions of tonnes produced yearly, so much so that deforestation of the Amazon Rain forest has become a critical issue. Nether-the-less, Brazil remains the world’s leading meat exporter. Brazil is also the leading sugarcane producer in the world with a total yield of about six hundred million tonnes every year. Amongst the world’s top soybean producers, Brazil is ranked second. The country also produces vast amounts of corn and is the world’s third largest exporter. 

Brazil also ranks highly at number six of the top ten countries with the most natural resources, one spot behind Russia. ‘Brazil possesses commodities worth $21.8 trillion, including gold, iron, oil and uranium. The mining industry focuses on bauxite, copper, gold, iron, and tin.’ Brazil impressively, contains the ‘largest gold and uranium deposits in the world and is the second-largest oil producer.’ Timber remains the country’s most valuable natural resource, which accounts for over 12.3% of the world’s total timber supplies. This has echoes of the Cedars of Lebanon, so important to the Phoenicians of Tyre and the Kingdom of Israel for ship building and subsequent mercantile and commercial trade routes throughout the Mediterranean and well beyond the Pillars of Hercules – the Straits of Gibraltar.

There are two distinct identities for Aram, apart from Uz that is incorporated within southern Italy. The Aram-Damascus component comprised of Gether in Spain and the Hul-Mash descendants of Portugal and Brazil. Aram-Damascus-Gether historically were arch rivals of the sons of Jacob and up until the modern age remained so. Tyre-Mash-Hul had an economic-trading relationship with Israel and that has been mirrored in recent history. We will look at Aram initially and then concentrate on Tyre. The further we go back into pre-history these two identities are blurred, then as we enter the time of Abraham around 2000 BCE, the two begin to become clearer as separate entities. One of the most distinctive identifying points of interest is language. Aramean was one of the most prominent languages amongst the descendants of Shem and today, the descendant romance languages are equally influential and widespread. 

2 Kings 18:26 

English Standard Version

Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebnah, and Joah, said to the Rabshakeh, “Please speak to your servants in Aramaic, for we understand it. Do not speak to us in the language of Judah  [Hebrew] within the hearing of the people who are on the wall.”

The top ten spoken languages in the world today include three romance languages of which Spanish and Portuguese are included. Some of the top ten are obviously included like China, India, the Arab nations, Russia and Indonesia which all have sizeable populations, or influence on near neighbours. Whereas, England, France and especially Spain and Portugal have much smaller populations. Their colonies though have contributed to the volume of people that speak their languages. The ancient world was no different. The ancestors of Spain and Portugal travelled the breadth of the world via mercantile trade and in so doing, spread the Aramaic and Phoenician languages.

World Atlas:

1. English – 1.13 Billion Speakers

2. Mandarin – 1.12 Billion Speakers [China]

3. Hindi – 615 Million Speakers [India]

4. Spanish – 534 Million Speakers

5. French – 280 Million Speakers

6. Standard Arabic – 274 Million Speakers

7. Bengali – 265 Million Speakers [Bangladesh]

8. Russian – 258 Million Speakers

9. Portuguese – 234 Million Speakers

10. Indonesian – 199 Million Speakers

Arameans were distinctively defined by their use of either the West Semitic Old Aramaic Language between 1100 BCE and 200 CE, written using the Phoenician alphabet and also a modified Aramaic alphabet. As early as 900 BCE, Aramaic competed with the East Semitic Akkadian language and script of Assyria and Babylonia; spreading throughout the Middle East. By 800 BCE, Aramaic had become the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire and also ‘during the Achaemenid period as Imperial Aramaic. Although marginalised by Greek in the Hellenistic period, Aramaic in its varying dialects remained unchallenged as the common language of all Semitic peoples of the region until the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the [seventh century CE], when it [was] gradually superseded by Arabic.’ 

The Phoenician language was a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic languages. Its descendant language spoken in the Carthaginian Empire was Punic. Their evolved language descendant surfaced as Latin, from which we derive Italian and French of course. Though it is Spanish, which is the biggest heir to ancient Aramaic; and it is Portuguese that comes from a direct line of descent from the original Phoenician – notice the letter P – from Phoenician to Punic and to Portuguese. 

Who were the Arameans? Is There a Connection Between the Amorites and the Arameans? Daniel Bodi – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In Sumero-Akkadian texts from the period from 2400 to 1600 BCE, Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian amurru occur as a geographical term… In OB times, the Amurru region embraced the great Syrian desert, the Orontes River valley, and the Amanus Mountains. In later Assyrian texts, Amurru was an established name for Syria-Palestine. 

While in the 24th century BCE, Eblaite sources refer to a “king (LUGAL) of Mar-tu,”… the specific reason why the Amorites began migrating to the south-east of Mesopotamia in the course of the 21st century BCE still eludes us. The period stretching from 2000 to 1595 BCE is sometimes called “The Amorite era,” with reference to the political influence assumed by the Amorites and their epigones. During the 17th century BCE the Amorite power began to decline with the final demise experienced under the attacks of the Hittite king Mursili I, around 1595. There is no surviving Babylonian account of the conquest of Babylon by the Hittites. After this date the Amorite kingdoms are replaced by the establishment of new entities directed by new ethnic groups like the Hittites, the Kassites and the Hurrites. In Late Bronze Age, the kingdom of Mittani… also known as Ḫanigalbat and as Nahrin “Rivers” occupied northern Syria, between the Tigris and the Euphrates.’ 

Geographically, the Amorites and the Aramean clans originally occupied the same region. 

Another valuable corpus of texts useful in the reconstruction of the geographic and linguistic continuity between the Amorites and the Arameans is provided by the so-called Suhu texts, from the MB period. Just as with the term Amorite, the term Aram can stand for a toponym, a geographic region in Syria, a conglomerate of tribes, and a language. The earliest attestation of the term Aramu appears as a toponym. The Ebla texts dating from the end of the 3rd millennium BCE mention a toponym a-ra-mu. The Aramean invasions of Mesopotamia from the west began at the latest during the late 2nd millennium BCE and are attested from the time of Tiglath-pileser I (1114-1076 BCE) of Assyria and Marduk-nadin-ahhe (1099-1082 BCE) of Babylonia. 

Ahlamu, forerunners of the Arameans, had been present in Mesopotamia in the Kassite period… The Amorites spoke a language belonging to the Northwest Semitic ones to which Phoenician, Aramaic… represent some chronologically more recent offshoots. There seems to exist a linguistic continuity between the Amorite and the Aramaic languages. R. Zadok has suggested that certain eastern members of the Amorite dialect cluster, which were spoken in the Djezireh and on the fringe of the Syrian desert, were the ancestors of the Aramaic language. 

In the Hebrew Bible there are two examples where two daughters are offered to the same man. First among the patriarchal stories, Laban offered Jacob two daughters for wives, Leah and Rachel, and later Saul offered David likewise his two daughters, first Merab then Michal. The coarse Jacob-Laban story in Genesis 29:26-28, narrates how the former obtained the two sisters Leah and Rachel for wives seems to serve the purpose of showing how the nemesis or divine retribution is at work. 

Jacob cheated his older brother Esau, now he gets cheated in turn by waking up in the morning finding himself in bed with the older daughter Leah while he desired Rachel, the younger one. This patriarchal tradition of incestuous marriages chronologically precedes the strict prohibition of a marriage to two sisters at the same time found in Leviticus 18:18. The law in Leviticus was formulated probably in the Persian times as a reaction to the incestuous marriages of the Persian Achaemenid royalty, where princes married their sisters. 

The ancestors of the Hebrew tribes issued from Laban’s sister Rebekah (with Isaac) and his two daughters Leah and Rachel (with Jacob, Rebekah’s son) lived in paddan-‘aram, an expression to be connected with Akkadian paddanu, padanu “the way, the path,” meaning in this case “the way of the Arameans” 

(Genesis 25:20 “Rebekah [Isaac’s wife], was the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean”; After marrying Rachel and Leah the daughters of Laban the Aramean, Jacob returned to Canaan: Genesis 48:7 [Jacob says] “for when I came from Paddan, Rachel to my sorrow died in the land of Canaan”). 

The incestuous practice of giving two daughters to the same man is attested among the Amorites as the Mari documents show. As R. Zadok suggests, the nucleus of some of the chronologically later Aramean tribes seems to have evolved from the previous conglomerate of the Amorite ones. They both occupied Northern Mesopotamia and thrived in the same geographical area. 

Moreover, scholars are becoming increasingly aware of the similarities in the marriage transactions between the Amorite semi-nomads and the ancient Hebrews. J. Sasson compares the way Isaac obtained Rebekah, Laban’s sister from the “city of Nahor” in Haran, as a spouse as described in Genesis 24:1-27, with the way the Sim’alite Amorite warlord Zimri-Lim negotiated his marriage with Sibtum, the daughter of Yarim-Lim from Ḫalab (Aleppo), by a proxy as described in several cuneiform letters from Mari ARMT XXVI 10; 11; 13. Both marriage transactions share numerous specific details which are best explained as being due to the conservatism of marriage customs in Northern Syria. They tend to confirm the continuity between the Amorite tribes and the Aramean ones… 

Rebekah’s and Sibtu’s betrothals share the following elements: long-distance negotiations by wise servants or ambassadors, rich gifts to the bride and the family of the bride, the veiling of the bride, her own acceptance of her new status, the attachment of maids to her person, the merging of two families, the anxiety of the bride’s family, the long trek back, and the preparation of a chamber for the new mistress of the house. In the case of Jacob being offered two sisters Leah and Rachel as wives, it reflects Laban the Aramean’s indelicate attempt to manipulate and control him. 

As a result of intensive scholarly research on ancient Amorite traditions, history and customs, it has become increasingly evident that there exists a connection and a geographical, historical and linguistic continuity between the OB Amorite nomadic tribes and the MB Aramean ones

The geographic area where the ancient Amorites settled corresponds to the area occupied by the Aramean tribes at the end of the second millennium BCE.’ 

I have included the author’s expose of Jacob and his wives as we will study the family he married into in Chapter XXV Nahor. It is well to remember that the Paddan-Aram of Nahor’s family are distinct from the Arameans of Aram. Abraham’s brother Nahor is represented by the peoples known as Mitanni, as well will uncover. The link between the Amorites of this period and the Arameans is supported in the fact that these Amorites are described in historical sources as including blonds. Therefore, they cannot be the original black peoples descended from Canaan, nor is it likely that they were all Nephilim of similar name. 

The Mitanni empire was composed of different smaller kingdoms spread throughout the land between Anatolia and Babylon [modern Turkey and Iraq]. The Mitanni took control of the Tigris and Euphrates basin after the fall of Amorite [Aramean] Babylon to the Hittite King Mursili I circa 1595 BCE and the Kassites in turn ruled the fallen Babylon. The Mitanni had good relations with the Kassites and Hurrians. The Hurrians we will learn, are descendants of Abraham’s other brother, Haran. Notice the word Hur-[ri]-an contains Haran, their original forefather within its spelling. We will explore this relationship further when we study Abraham’s brothers in Chapters XXV and XXVI. After the Battle of Megiddo circa 1482-1457 BCE, Egypt and the Mitanni fought each other relentlessly. This was mirrored, when the Visi-goths of Gether clashed with the Alans, Vandals, Moors of Casluh and Caphtor – the Philistines – centuries later.

Prior to this, the Hurrians had been based in the region surrounding Urkesh – northern Ur, not Ur in southern Mesopotamia near Babylon – and Arrapha. They appear to have formed a successful relationship with the Mitanni circa 1600 BCE. The Hurrian warrior nobility enabled the combined peoples to coalesce into a feudal state, that by 1500 BCE were dominating their neighbours. By 1420 BCE the domain of the Mitanni king Saustatar stretched from the Mediterranean all the way to the northern Zagros Mountains, in western Iran. Saustatar ‘sacked the Assyrian capital of Assur, and humiliated its inhabitants by sending the doors of the city’s famous temple to Wassukanni, the capital of Mitanni.’ This led to a cease fire between Egypt and the Mitanni kingdom and an alliance was forged between the next king of Mitanni, Artatama I who succeeded Saustatar and the Egyptians. 

Wassukanni is thought to be Tell al-Fakhariyeh in present day Syria. The pharaohs of Egypt called the Mitanni region, Naharina – also Nahrin and Maryannu – after the Assyro-Akkadian word for river. Notice the word Nahar-ina has Nahor, their original progenitor within its spelling. The Me-ta-ni region was also known as  Aram-Naharaim – Rivers of Syria. Assyrians, always referred to Mitanni as Hanigalbat or Hani-Rabbat and the Hittites – a related people – used the appellation Hurri. ‘The earliest attestation of the term Hanigalbat can be read in Akkadian within the “Annals of Hattusili I” (circa 1650-1620 BCE) along with the Hittite version mentioning “the Hurrian enemy”.’

The combined Hurrite-Mitanni kingdom was a regional power from circa 1500 – 1300 BCE. The Hurrians were gradually overshadowed by the Hittites on the west and the Assyrians to the east and weakened by internal strife; while the Mitanni kingdom was relegated to province status and a pawn within the Middle Assyrian Empire.The people of Mitanni have been incorrectly linked by some scholars with the Gutians, of Gether the previous millennia. 

We have spoken of the Guti previously, regarding the four king alliance with Chedorlaomer of Elam [refer Chapter XIX]. The fourth King, Tidal king of Nations was a king of the Gutium not of Assyria as some Biblical researchers propose. The Gutians early history is as mysterious as is the subsequent Mitanni’s. The Guti had lived in the Zagros Mountain range and had gradually settled in increasing numbers in Akkad and Sumer. Then circa 2200 BCE, had swept down in force; defeating the Akkadian Empire and subjugating most of Sumer, ruling for about a century before being driven west.

Going forward two thousand years, the ‘Germanic’ Visigoths were the Western Got-h-s,  the descendants of the Gut-i from Geth-er separated from their Ostrogothic brethren in the Italian Peninsula by the divisions of their peoples circa 270 CE. 

The Visigoth kingdom had been based north of the Danube, in the region of modern Bulgaria and Romania and was created with the consent of Rome. Later, falling out with Rome, the Goths after a sojourn via Scandinavia established their own kingdom with a capital in Tolosa, modern day Toulouse and the province of Gallia Aquitania in south western Gaul. The Goths then forced out the Alani and Vandali [Alans and Vandals] from the Iberian Peninsula, when they migrated southwards into Hispania. The Visigoth Kingdom lasted from 418-711 CE. In 507, they were defeated – and their King Alaric II was killed in battle – by the Franks, led by Clovis I. The Visigoths were then hedged in and limited to, Hispania – with the Kingdom of the Suebi in north eastern Iberia – remaining south of the Pyrenees. It is probable that the word Goth is a derivative name, for the Gut-ones, a people that migrated from Scandinavia as well as from Geth-er.

In the modern era, ‘Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, spawning a large cultural and linguistic legacy.’The origins of the Roman name Hispania and the modern Espana are presumed to have derived, from the Phoenician and Carthaginian reference to the region as Spania, or from the Iberian word Hispalis meaning ‘city of the western world.’ The root of the Phoenician term span means to forge metals, thus i-spn-ya would mean, ‘the land where metals are forged.’ Another plausible explanation is the the claim that Hispania derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning ‘edge, border,’ a reference to the Iberian Peninsula constituting the southwest corner of the continent of Europe.

In 1492, ‘the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781 year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.’ The Austrian Hapsburg monarchy that ruled Spain,was one of the leading world powers throughout the [1500s] and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world’s leading maritime power.’ Spain achieved the first circumnavigation of the world in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. ‘It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs – Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II  (1556–1598).’ 

The current population of Spain is 46,781,945 people. The PLVS VLTRA on the Spanish flag means ‘further beyond’ in Latin. In the context of the coat of arms of Spain, it means beyond the Straits of Gibraltar, referring to the Americas and the former Spanish territories and to go beyond.

The word Canaan, with regard to the land of [pronounced keinan since circa 1500, due to the Great Vowel Shift beginning in southern England] comes from the Hebrew knʿn and the Greek Χανααν, Khanaan. 

It appears as ki-na-ah-na in the Amarna Letters [14th century BCE], and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium. The etymology is uncertain, though the term derives from the Semitic root knʿ ‘to be low, humble, subjugated’ as studied in Chapter XII. Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of lowlands, in contrast with Aram, who was located further east inland at higher altitude, in the highlands. Ephraim Avigdor Speiser in 1936 alternatively suggests, the term derives from the Hurrian, Kinahhu, purportedly referring to the colour purple; thus Canaan and Phoenicia would be synonyms for the Land of Purple, as previously discussed. 

‘Tablets found in the Hurrian city of Nuzi in the early 20th century appear to use the term Kinahnu as a synonym for red or purple dye, laboriously produced by the Kassite rulers of Babylon from murex molluscs as early as 1600 BC and on the Mediterranean coast by the Phoenicians from a byproduct of glassmaking.’ The Purple cloth of Tyre was a renowned Canaanite export mentioned in the Book of Exodus and the Romans attached nobility and royalty to it.

‘In 2003, Christine Marie Thompson identified the Cisjordan Corpus, a concentration of hacksilber hoards in Israel and Palestine.’ The hoards are all silver dominant; with the largest hoard found at Eshtemo’a, present-day as-Samu and contained 26 kg of silver. In this geographical region that was part of Phoenicia, the hoards date to circa 1200–800 BCE. There is no other known concentration of silver hoards in the Mediterranean and its date range overlaps with the reigns of King Solomon of 970 to 930 BCE and  that of Hiram of Tyre between 980 and 947 BCE.

The Hacksilber objects in these Phoenician hoards, have lead isotope ratios that match ores in the silver producing regions of Sardinia and Spain. Anciently, the island of Sardinia was associated with metal trading and was also called by the ancient Greeks as ‘Argyrophleps nesos’, Island of the silver veins. The Hacksilber evidence confirms what Homer and the Greek historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus all stated; that the Phoenicians were exploiting the metals in the western Mediterranean and Atlantic, prior to making them permanent colonies. Before the Phoenicians, Tarshish had dwelt in the same Mediterranean locations and similarly traded [refer Chapter IX Tarshish].

For the Phoenicians to successfully travel and trade, they needed the best ships.* From 1200 BCEthe Phoenicians built large merchant ships and developed the Keel on the underside of the hull for ocean going stability. Pegged mortise and tenon joints proved  an innovative forefront adaption for hundreds of years. The Phoenicians were possibly the first to introduce the bireme – two decks of oars, around 700 BCE – also used by the Greeks and Assyrians. An Assyrian account describes Phoenicians evading capture with these ships. The Phoenicians are also credited with inventing the trireme; regarded as the most advanced and powerful vessel in the ancient Mediterranean world, again adopted by the Greeks and Romans.

The Phoenicians developed several maritime inventions. The amphora, a type of container used for both dry and liquid goods which became a standardised measurement of volume for nearly two thousand years. The remnants of self-cleaning artificial harbours have been discovered in Sidon, Tyre, Atlit and Acre.  

Carthage

The first example of admiralty law appears in the Levant at this time and the Phoenicians also contributed greatly to cartography in succeeding centuries. In modern times, the Portuguese and Spanish – ‘Phoenicians’ [Hul and Mash] and ‘Arameans’ [Gether] – were many decades ahead of the Dutch, French and British who also all developed successful merchant and military navies.

Thought Co, N S Gill, 2018 – emphasis & bold mine:

Phoenicians from Tyre (Lebanon) founded Carthage, an ancient city-state in the area that is modern Tunisia. Carthage became a major economic and political power in the Mediterranean fighting over territory in Sicily with the Greeks and Romans. Eventually, Carthage fell to the Romans, but it took three wars. The Romans destroyed Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War, but then rebuilt it as a new Carthage. Although Alpha and Beta are Greek letters that give us our word alphabet, the alphabet itself comes from the Phoenicians, at least conventionally. Greek myth and legend credit the dragon-teeth-sowing Phoenician Cadmus as not only founding the Boeotian Greek city of Thebes but bringing the letters with him. 

The 22-letter abecedary of the Phoenicians contained only consonants, some of which had no equivalent in Greek. So the Greeks substituted their vowels for the unused letters. Some say that without the vowels, it was not an alphabet. If vowels aren’t required, Egypt can also make a claim for the earliest alphabet. Were this the only contribution of the Phoenicians, their place in history would be assured, but they did more. So much, it seems as though jealousy prompted the Romans to set out to annihilate them in 146 B.C. when they razed Carthage and were [rumoured] to have salted its earth.’

The Phoenicians are also credited with:

  • Inventing glass.
  • The bireme (two tiers of oars) galley.
  • The luxurious purple dye… known as Tyrian.
  • Circumnavigating Africa.
  • Navigating by the stars. 

The Phoenicians were merchants who developed an extensive empire almost as a by-product of their quality merchandise and trading routes. They are believed to have gone as far as England to buy Cornish tin, but they started in Tyre, in an area now part of Lebanon, and expanded. 

By the time the Greeks were colonizing Syracuse and the rest of Sicily, the Phoenicians were already (9th century B.C.) a major power in the middle of the Mediterranean. The principal city of the Phoenicians, Carthage, was located near modern Tunis, on a promontory on the Northern Coast of Africa. It was a prime spot for access to all areas of the “known world.”

The people of Carthage seem more primitive compared to modern sensibilities than the Romans or Greeks for one main reason: They are said to have sacrificed humans, babies, and toddlers (possibly their first born to “ensure” fertility). Unlike the Romans of their time, the leaders of Carthage hired mercenary soldiers and had a capable navy. 

They were extremely adept at trade, a fact that allowed them to rebuild a profitable economy even after the setbacks of military defeat during the Punic Wars, which included a yearly tribute to Rome of almost 10 tons of silver. Such wealth allowed them to have paved streets and multi-story homes, compared with which proud Rome looked shabby. According to Polybius (born circa 204 B.C.), the Greek historian Timaeus of Tauromenion (circa 357-260 B.C.), dated the founding of Carthage to 814 or 813 B.C.’

The author raises two salient points that show the link between the Phoenicians and their descendants, the Portuguese of Portugal and Brazil. The correlation of Greek stemming from Portuguese has been replicated with Latin deriving from Phoenician-Punic and then giving rise to the Romance languages. We will discover that the Greeks modern day descendants also speak a Romance language and are bound in language to the Portuguese as they were anciently. The Phoenicians like the Portuguese after them, were adept traders and capable ship builders, even possessing a Navy, though they were not imperialistic militarily and did not maintain an army or seek to fight wars.  

The story of the Phoenicians is one of two halves, east and west. In the east with the rise of the merchant traders of Tyre and the other Phoenician coasals cities; then west, in Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain and particularly Carthage. Carthage was an excellent location for commanding Mediterranean mercantile trade routes. It was halfway along the North African coast, perfectly situated for facilitating the commercial and mining transactions in copper and silver between the rich mines of Spain or Britain and the empires of the Eastern Mediterranean. It is a glaringly obvious replication when twenty-three centuries later, we see the east to west transference again; from Portugal of the Iberian Peninsula to Brazil in South America.

The Phoenicians: Mysterious Merchant Mariners Whose Inventions Impacted the World Forever, Dhwty, 2019 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Phoenicians were an ancient people who once ruled the Mediterranean. Despite little being known about them as very few of their inscriptions have survived, their legacy has had an enormous impact on the world, which is still felt today.

Scholars have speculated that the Phoenicians referred to themselves as ‘Kena’ani’ (‘Kinahna’ in Akkadian, or ‘Canaanite’ in English). Interestingly, in Hebrew, this word also meant ‘merchant’, which is an apt description of the Phoenicians. The term ‘Phoenicians’, however, is commonly used today, as it was the Greeks who called these people by this name. The ancient Greeks referred to the land of the Phoenicians as ‘Phoiniki’, which is derived from the Egyptian ‘Fnkhw’, meaning ‘Syrian’. The Greek ‘Phoiniki’ is phonetically similar to their word for the color purple or crimson (‘phoinix’). This is due to the fact that one of the most valuable objects produced and exported by the Phoenicians was a dye known as Tyrian purple. Thus, the Phoenicians were known also as the ‘Purple People’.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Phoenicians were originally from the Red Sea area, but later emigrated to and settled along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. Archaeologists today, however, regard Herodotus’ account of the Phoenicians’ origins as a myth. In addition, there is a lack of evidence to support the claims that the Phoenicians emigrated to the eastern Mediterranean from other areas of the ancient world. Instead, it is accepted that the Phoenicians were originally from the eastern Mediterranean and may have developed from the Ghassulian culture, which is an archaeological stage in southern Palestine dating to the Middle Chalcolithic period, i.e. the 4th millennium BC.

The Phoenicians flourished during the 1st millennium BC. During that time, there were other Canaanite cultures inhabiting the region as well, and archaeologists are unable to differentiate between the Phoenicians and these other cultures in terms of material culture, language and religious beliefs. This is due to the fact that the Phoenicians were themselves Canaanites [as in inhabitants of the region not blood relatives of the original son of Ham, Canaan].’

There were other peoples and cultures in the densely populated and very popular land of Canaan. Other sons of Aram, the sons of Isaac, the sons of Lot and further sons of Abraham as well as the odd Elioud giant or two. None of these peoples – like the Phoenicians – were Canaanites by race, only by their residency in the land of Canaan. This is an extremely important point to comprehend. The belief that all these peoples were Canaanites, has blurred and blinded the endeavour to actually identify all these distinct peoples.

‘Glass was already being produced by other civilizations including the Mesopotamians and Egyptians. The glass produced by these civilizations was colored and it is speculated that the Phoenicians were the first ones to produce transparent glass. Yet another produce of Phoenicia was cedar wood, which the region is famous for, as far back as the Mesopotamian period. One of the main consumers of cedar wood during the 1st millennium BC was Egypt, as the demand for wood by the Egyptians was greater than the local supply. Therefore, cedar wood was imported into Egypt from Phoenicia. During the 14th century BC, for instance, the Phoenicians paid tribute to Egypt by offering cedar wood, as attested in the Amarna Letters. 

We do not know to whether the Phoenicians had a shared identity and if they considered themselves as a single nation. Nevertheless, we do know that they established city states which were politically independent. It seems that each city state was ruled by a monarch, whose power was limited by a powerful oligarchy. In addition, there is no evidence that the cities banded together into a federation. Instead, they operated independently. Among the most notable Phoenician city states were Tyre, Sidon and Byblos. 

Byblos (known today in Arabic as Jbail) is located about 30 kilometers (20 miles) to the north of modern day Beirut. Byblos is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world… Like Byblos, Sidon (known today in Arabic as Saida) was already an ancient city by the time it became an independent city state. Sidon was established during the 3rd millennium BC and prospered in the following millennium as a result of trade. On the other hand, Tyre (known today in Arabic as Sur) was probably originally founded as a colony of Sidon. In time, Tyre surpassed Sidon as the most important Phoenician city state as it traded and established its own colonies in other parts of the Mediterranean. According to tradition, the famous city of Carthage was established as a colony of Tyre in 814 BC. Both Sidon and Tyre are also mentioned frequently in the Old Testament. For instance, the king of Tyre, Hiram, is recorded as providing Solomon the materials required for building the temple in Jerusalem. 

One of the major battles of Alexander’s campaign against the Persian Empire was the Siege of Tyre, which occurred in 332 BC.’

The early history of Sidon is difficult to ascertain. It may have well founded Tyre. The important point is that in time, Sidon though ‘Phoenician’ was peopled by different people to the Arameans of Tyre. We have studied Sidon briefly in Chapter XII Canaan, regarding Canaan’s descendants. We will also investigate the British descended peoples  as well as the Dutch Afrikaners. It is these ‘Dutch’ ancestors that became the prominent peoples of Sidon and are also called ‘Phoenicians.’ Again, their primary endeavour as was Tyre’s was to create wealth through trade and not a conventional empire. This was replicated by the Dutch millennia later, just like the Portuguese. Spain tellingly on the other hand was intent on building an empire and derived its wealth accordingly. To be clear, the Phoenicians were the Hul-Mash line of Aram – Portugal and Brazil – and the Syrians of Damascus were the Gether line of Aram – Spain. The Uz line of Aram blended with Nahor’s children and we will investigate them separately.  

The southwest of Iberia was already a very old Roman province – founded in 27 BCE – when it was invaded in the fifth century. Named Lusitania after the Lusitani people, it comprised much of the southern half of modern Portugal and the westernmost parts of modern Spain. The peninsula was successively invaded by the Vandali – the Vandals and Alans of Caphtor and Casluh, the Philistines – and the Suevi from Hul and Mash of Aram and then by the Goths of Gether from Aram. 

Portugal itself first emerged as a march, border county of the kingdom of Asturias in 868 CE. It was one of the few areas not fully conquered by the Umayyad Moors; though Portugal became a vassal of the Kingdom of Leon. It slowly grew in strength and in 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal. Portugal subsequently broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia in 1095.

Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself King of Portugal in 1139. Eventually in 1179 a papal bull officially recognised Afonso I as king. The Algarve was fully reconquered from the Moors in 1249 and in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. In 1373 Portugal formed an alliance with England: 

‘… which is the longest-standing alliance in the world. Over time, this went far beyond geo-political and military cooperation (protecting both nations’ interests in Africa, the Americas and Asia against French, Spanish and Dutch rivals) and maintained strong trade and cultural ties between the two old European allies.’ 

This alliance was ratified by the Treaty of Windsor in 1386 and has continued until the present day. When we study the identity of the four peoples of the United Kingdom, we will appreciate that it is more than a passing coincidence of the significance of this alliance between the modern Phoenicians and England. The early genesis of the Portuguese Empire began when the Portuguese Armada sailed to the rich Islamic region of Ceuta in North Africa in 1415. The decisive event though was when Portuguese explorer, Bartolomeu Dias discovered the southernmost part of Africa in 1487 – the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, modern day Sidon.

The Age of Discovery of European nations, venturing outside the Mediterranean began with Portugal, the modern day Phoenicians. During the 1400s and 1500s, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power, building a vast global maritime and commercial empire – economically, politically and culturally to rival England, France and Spain. Though Portugal was not a power within European affairs, its worldwide colonies and trade were supreme, founded on a strong thalassocracy.

A thalassocracy or thalattocracy meaning, a sea power:

‘… is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.Traditional thalassocracies seldom dominate interiors, even in their home territories. Examples of this were the  Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon and Carthage and the Italian maritime republics of Venice and Genoa. The Ancient Greeks first used the word thalassocracy to describe the government of the Minoan civilisation [Philistines], whose power depended on its navy. Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter* ship, the caravel, which could sail farther and faster,and, above all, was highly maneuverable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind.’

The Portuguese discovered the valuable Spice Islands of Indonesia and Malaysia in 1512, landing in China a year later. In 1513, Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, reaching the ‘other sea’ from the New World. Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one year span. ‘East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian [Spanish] expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and later by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastian Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world.’

Joao Rodrigues Cabrilho, was a Portuguese navigator who sailed for the Spanish Crown and was the first European to set foot in California, landing on the shore of San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542; claiming California for Spain. In 1543, the arrival of the Portuguese to Japan initiated the Nanban trade period, where the Japanese adopted several technologies and cultural practices, such as European styled ships. When the Chinese banned direct trade by Chinese merchants with Japan, the Portuguese filled this commercial vacuum as intermediaries between China and Japan.  

The Portuguese bought Chinese silk, selling it to the Japanese in return for Japanese mined silver. Silver was very highly valued in China, so that the Portuguese could use Japanese silver to buy even larger stocks of Chinese silk. By 1573, when the Spanish established a trading base in Manila, the Portuguese intermediary trade was ended because of China’s new source of incoming silver originating from the Spanish Americas.

By the 1600 and 1700s, Portugal retained most of its colonies, though had gradually lost its competitive edge in wealth as the Dutch, French and English, from 1495 entered and dominated the respective spice and slave trades. Portugal was progressively weakened by a series of events, beginning with Spain’s abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada; for Portugal was in an uncomfortable dynamic union with Spain and contributed many ships to the Spanish invasion fleet. The country  then suffered further setback when the destruction of much of its capital city occurred during an earthquake in 1755. The occupation by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent loss of its largest and prized colony Brazil, in 1822 was decisive. Finally, from the middle of the 1800s to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil or the United States. Today, Portugal has a declining population that currently stands at 10,151,779 people.

Many propose that Portugal derived its name from the Callaeci people of Calle. The Romans built a port at the mouth of the Douro, which they called Portus Calle in 200 BCE, after defeating the Carthaginians. Portus became Porto [Oporto] and Calle became Galle. Cale or Caileach was the name of a Celtic deity. Port of Cale became Portucale and by the seventh century, Portugale and finally by the eleventh century Portugal. The Celtic word cale or cala meant ‘port, an inlet’ or ‘harbour.’ It is probable that Galacia in Spain has derived from Callaeci and Gallaeci[a].

Some scholars ‘propose that the Celtic branches [P-Celtic and Q-Celtic] all share the same origin, and place names such as Cale, Gal, Gaia, Calais, Galatia, Galicia, Gaul… all stem from one linguistic root.’ Certain French scholars support the belief that the name may have come from Portus Gallus, the Port of the Gauls. In this, there may be the truth. Gael and Gaul may be linked as in the ‘Port of the Gael.’ It is very possible that the Callaeci or Gallae-ci were originally Gaels. The Gaels eventually left Portugal and migrated to Ireland. We will return to this journey in detail.

The word Brazil is linked with the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once was plentiful along the Brazilian coast.In Portuguese, brazilwood is pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology ‘red like an ember’, formed from brasa [ember] and the suffix -il [from -iculum or -ilium]. Brazilwood produces a deep red dye and was highly valued by the European textile industry. It was the ‘earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.’ Not a coincidence, that the Phoenicians were famous for their purple dye over 2,500 years earlier. Throughout the 16th century, huge amounts of brazilwood were harvested along the Brazilian coast. The official Portuguese name in original Portuguese records was the Land of the Holy Cross [Terra da Santa Cruz].Sailors and merchants called it simply the Land of Brazil [Terra do Brasil] due to the brazilwood trade. 

The Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in South America and in Latin America, with 214,915,961 people. Brazil is the world’s fifth largest country by area and the sixth most populous. The federation is composed of the union of twenty-six states. Brazil is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations in the world.

Brazil is a regional and middle power in international affairs. ‘On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging, potential superpower. A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be – or to have the potential to soon become – a superpower.’

The United States once a superpower is now a hyperpower – one that dominates all other states in military, culture, economy, technology and diplomacy. Several nation states are potential superpowers, though all have aspects that may hinder them attaining superpower status. They include the European Union and the BRIC economies of Brazil [Tyre-Mash-Aram], Russia [Asshur], India [Cush] and China [Magog, Tubal and Meshech]. Japan [Tarshish] is labeled a cultural superpower due to the large scale influence of Japanese popular culture. Its status as a potential superpower has eroded due to an ageing, declining population since the 1990s and lack of substantial economic growth since the 1980s. 

Brazil as Tyre in the bible will ultimately become an economic world powerhouse, if not necessarily a political or military superpower. An article in The Diplomatic Courier, by former British Ambassador to Brazil, Peter Collecott, ‘identifies that Brazil’s recognition as a potential superpower largely stems from its own national identity and ambition. Collecott points out that for the past two hundred years Brazil has sought to emerge as a serious global economic and political power, a position “that [Brazil] instinctively feels is her due.”’

A well known online Encyclopaedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘In his 2014 publication, The BRICs Superpower Challenge: Foreign and Security Policy Analysis, professor Kwang Ho Chun carefully assesses the likelihood of the BRICs countries [Brazil, Russia, India, China] attaining the status of superpowers. Regarding Brazil, Kwang Ho Chun highlights that the country possesses enormous and almost untouched “strategic” natural resources, including valuable minerals, a tenth of the world’s fresh waterand Earth’s largest remaining rainforest. Because of this, Kwang Ho Chun feels it is likely that Brazil could gain a dominant role in international relations, especially when it comes to environmental issues. This soft power influence is further enhanced by Brazil’s policy makers seeking to engage in as many international organizations as possible and forming alliances, most notably on social, diplomatic and economic issues.’

These traits and aspirations mirror ancient Tyre closely, as a state with considerable global economic influence and power. Brazil this century, could quite possibly challenge Germany, 4th; Japan, 3rd; and China for number two ranking of largest world economy.

‘Despite its economic potential and Brazil’s “self-image as a country with a great destiny,” Kwang Ho Chun believes that the country “falls far short of the levels required for a superpower.” Supporting his belief, he emphasises Brazil’s apparent lack of “traditional hard power” (i.e. military power and global security influence) as a major obstacle. Kwang Ho Chun writes that Brazil has “little incentive to invest in its military” as “the country developed in an environment with hardly any inter-state security threats”, therefore Brazil “may never be in a position to accumulate enough influence on global security matters to meet the criteria of being a superpower.”Instead, Ho Chun feels that Brazil will emerge as a great power with an important position in some spheres of influence but limited in others such as international security.’ 

This is insightful, as again it describes ancient Tyre. Its military was simply to defend its  ‘Rock-island’ isolation position. Tyre was not interested in becoming an imperialistic military empire, as Brazil seeks economic influence over military power.  

The motto of the Brazil flag: Order and Progress

According to the Brazilian National Research by Household Sample [PNAD] of 2008: 48.43% of the population, approximately 104 million people, described themselves as White; 43.80% or 94 million as Pardo or Brown; 6.84% or 15 million as Black; 0.58% or 1.2 million as Asian; 0.28% or approximately 599,000 people as Amerindian [officially called Indigena or Indigenous]; and 0.07% or approximately 150,000 people did not state their race.

It is probable that some people have self identified as white, when in fact they are mixed, even slightly and then a certain proportion of those who claim to be brown may be mixed in varying degree and are more white^^ than brown. Thus the figure for White people may be higher than forty-eight percent and for ‘Brown’ people lower than forty-three percent. As we have studied the Amerindian Haplogroups in Chapter II Tiras and the African in Chapter XII Canaan, we will concentrate on the people descended from Aram. 

It is challenging finding up-to-date comprehensive research on the White population of Brazil, though what is available shows they are unsurprisingly, most similar to the Portuguese and then southern Italians, though a closer inspection shows they also have common ground with the Catalonians of north eastern Spain.

The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages, multiple authors, 2000 – emphasis & bold mine:

Brazilians form one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world, the result of 5 centuries of interethnic crosses between peoples from three continents: the European colonizers, represented mainly by the Portuguese; African slaves; and the autochthonous Amerindians. When the Portuguese arrived, exactly 500 years ago, there were ~ 2.5 million indigenous people living in the area of what is now Brazil. The Portuguese-Amerindian admixture started soon after the arrival of the first colonizers. Mating between European men and indigenous women became commonplace and later (after 1755) was even encouraged as a strategy for population growth and colonial occupation of the country.’ 

‘The Amerindian tribes underwent a drastic demographic decline due to conflicts with the European colonizers and diseases to which they were not adapted. Today [2000] there are ~ 326,000 Amerindians in Brazil, living on land set aside for them by the federal government. Africans were introduced beginning in the middle of the 16th century, brought to Brazil as slaves to work on sugarcane farms and, later, in the gold and diamond mines and on coffee plantations. Historical records suggest that between 1551 and 1850 (when the slave trade was abolished), ~ 3.5 million Africans arrived in Brazil. As to the European immigration, it is estimated that ~ 500,000 Portuguese arrived in the country between 1500 and 1808. From then on, after the Brazilian ports were legally opened to all friendly nations, Brazil received increasing numbers of immigrants from several parts of the world.’ 

Portugal remained by far the most important source of migrants, followed by Italy, Spain, and Germany. In the 20th century, Asian immigration took place, mainly from Japan, as well as from Lebanon and Syria. According to Callegari-Jacques and Salzano(1999), 58% of the immigrants who arrived in Brazil between 1500 and 1972 were Europeans, 40% were Africans, and 2% were Asians. The question that arises is, How much did these different groups actually contribute to the gene pool of present-day Brazilians?’

Haplogroup Frequencies within the Three Continental Fractions of Brazilian mtDNA Pool


Frequency in brazil
HaplogroupOverallNorthernNortheasternSoutheasternSouthern
NativeAmerican:




A0.300.150.370.390.27
B0.290.310.270.300.27
C0.240.380.090.180.27
D0.160.150.270.120.18
Total1.001.001.001.001.00






African:




L1a0.100.180.060.17
L1b0.040.050.030.17
L1c0.190.290.090.230.17
L20.200.140.230.23
L3d0.060.090.33
L3e0.300.430.320.32
L3*0.040.050.06
U60.060.140.060.17
Total1.001.001.001.001.00






European:




H0.440.270.650.450.39
pre*V0.030.070.030.03
V0.060.060.130.03
HV*0.010.03
U0.160.130.180.160.15
pre*HV0.010.03
J0.110.200.060.030.18
T0.140.270.060.130.12
I0.010.07
X0.030.060.03
Total1.001.001.001.001.00

The Brazilian sample includes mtDNA lineages from almost all the familiar European haplogroups, except for some marginal ones, such as W and other quite-rare haplogroups related to haplogroup I. The frequency of the dominant haplogroup H (44%); in the European fraction is somewhat higher, on average, than that observed in Europe but is well within the range of western-European H frequencies… [and] suggests predominantly western-European ancestry. Considering that 30% of the European immigrants (including the Portuguese colonizers) to Brazil came from Italy, one can expect that a considerable number of mtDNA lineages in the Brazilian sample have Italian ancestry.’

The main mtDNA Haplogroups of Brazil, Portugal, Sicily, Spain, Catalonia and the Basque.

Brazil: H [44%] – U [16%] – T [14%] – J [11%] – V [9%] – HV [2%] –

X [3%] – I [1%] 

Portugal: H [43.9%] – H1+H3 [26%] – J [6.8%] – U5 [6.5%] – L [6.4%] –

T2 [6.3%] – K [6.1%] – HVO+V [4.8%] – T1 [3.3%] – U [3%] – I [2.2%] –

H5 [2.1%] – X [2%] – W [1.8%] – U4 [1.7%] – U2 [1.2%] –

HV [0.1%] – U3 [0.9%] 

Sicily: H [45.2%] – J [6.7%] – K [6.3%] – N1+I [6%] – HV [5%] – T2 [4.4%] –

X [3.7%] – U5 [3.3%] – T1 [2.7%] – HVO+V [2.3%] – U1 [2%] – U [1.7%] –

U4 [1.3%] – U2 [1%] – N2 +W [1%] – U3 [0.7%] 

Spain: H [44.1%] – H1+H3 [28%] – U5 [8.1%] – HVO+V [7.5%] – J [6.6%] –

T2 [6.4%] – K [6.3%] – H5 [2.6%] – L [2.4%] – T1 [2.1%] – U4 [1.9%] –

U [1.8%] – X [1.7%] – U3 [1.4%] – W [1.4%] – U2 [1.1%] – I [1.1%] –

HV [0.7%] 

Catalonia: H [29.5%] – U5 [10.1%] – K [10%] – T2 [7.6%] – HVO+V [7.5%] –

J [7%] – W [5%] – U [3.9%] – U4 [3.8%] – L [3.1%] – U3 [2.5%] – X [2.5%] –

T1 [1.3%] – U2 [1.3%] – I [1.3%] – HV [0.5%] 

Basque: H [49%] – H1+H3 [44%] – U5 [11.7%] – HVO+V [7.9%] –

J [7.6%] – T2 [6%] – K [5.3%] – H5 [2.8%] – X [2.3%] – U [1.9%] –

T1 [1.5%] – W [1.1%] – U2 [1%] – HV [0.8%] – U4 [0.8%] – I [0.6%] –

L [0.3%] – U3 [0.3%] 

When comparing the main mtDNA Haplogroups, the similarly between Portugal and Spain is surprisingly striking. Sicily is a closer match with Portugal and Spain than either Catalonia or the Basque, the two ancient enclaves of settlement within Spain. Even Catalonia and the Basque country are quite distinct from each other and appear the odd ones out in the group entirely.

                        H       J      T2      K      L      HV     H1+H3   U5     H5   HVO+V

Portugal            44      7       6        6       6      0.1         26           7        2          5

Spain                 44      7       6        6       2      0.7         28          8        3          8

Sicily                  45      7       4        6                   5                        3                    2                     

Basque              49      8       6        5    0.3     0.8        44          12       3          8

Catalonia          30      7       8      10       3      0.5                      10                    8

Brazil’s Haplogroup percentage sequence is unsurprisingly close to Portugal and Italy, where most of its White population has originated. A closer comparison shows that Brazil and Spain are fascinatingly marginally closer to each other than to either Portugal or Sicily.

                        H       U        T         J     HVO+V    HV      X      I    

Brazil                44      16       14       11          9             2         3      1     

Portugal           44      13       10        7          5          0.1         2      2       

Sicily                 45      10        7         7          2             5         4                  

Spain                44      14        9         7          8         0.7          2      1

Basque             49      16        8         8         8         0.8          2      1

Catalonia         30     22        9         7          8         0.5          3      1

The relatedness of these peoples highlights their common ancestry coupled with their cultures and language, all supporting these being the four sons of Aram and his descendants today. Identity experts have continually stated that these Latin nations are Canaanites from Ham or sons of Japheth’s son, Javan. The constant reader will now hopefully agree that these explanations are lacking solid support [refer Chapter VII Javan & Chapter XII Canaan].

                        H       J      T2      K           HV     H1+H3   U5     H5   HVO+V

Portugal            44      7       6        6            0.1         26           7        2          5

Spain                 44      7       6        6            0.7         28          8        3          8

Brazil                 44    11                                   2                                               9

Russia              41     8       7       4               2         15         10       5         4

Turkey             31     9       4       6               5           5           3       2      0.7

Iran                  17      14       5       7             7                        3                0.6

Comparing Portugal, Spain and Brazil with Russia, Turkey and Iran reveals that Lud, Elam, Asshur and Aram are clearly distinct from each other; though still also visibly related as cousins. If we compared their Haplogroups with India or China it is palpable that these nations are from the different line of Shem rather than Ham or Japheth. It also clearly delineates the similarity of Portugal, Spain and Brazil with each other as brothers.

R1b M343 / M415 

Eupedia, Phoenicians & Greeks – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The oldest city in Iberia is Cadiz, which was founded by the Phoenicians as Gadir or Agadir in 1104 BCE. The Phoenicians also founded Almunecar, Malaga, Cartaya and Huelva, and settled in other existing cities such as Tartessos and Carmona.

Based on the haplogroups found in modern Lebanon and in their former colonies, the Phoenicians seem to have carried a mixture of haplogroup J2a, J1, E1b1b, G, R1b-M269/L23, T, L, R1b-V88, R2 and Q1b, roughly in that order of frequency. It is not easy to assess the percentage of modern Iberian lineages of Phoenician origin because many other peoples brought similar haplogroups. The most uniquely Phoenician lineages, which were normally not found among the ancient Greeks and Romans, are Q1b, R1b-V88 and R2. And indeed all of them have been found, mostly in Portugal and south-west Andalusia, but only at trace frequencies (under 0.5%).’

It is the view of this writer that these three Haplogroups on the end are doubtful as being ‘Phoenician’; whereas the first five are spot on, with the exception of R1b which would be first. The article has the preconceived view that Phoenician equals North African or Arab, which is incorrect.

‘The island of Ibiza was another major Phoenician colony, which has the particularity of having been left in isolation for most of its subsequent history. It is therefore likely to have more Phoenician lineages than average. That is probably the case as Adams et al. (2008) found 17% of haplogroup T on Ibiza, by far the highest percentage in Europe for the Middle Eastern lineage, but also 13% of haplogroup G (more than anywhere else in Iberia) and 4% of E-M123 the Levantine variety of E1b1b.

Not surprisingly, the second highest percentage of haplogroup T identified in Iberia is in Cadiz (10%). Like haplogroup T, E-M123 is mostly found in Murcia, Andalusia, Extremadura and Portugal, suggesting that this is where the Phoenicians had the largest genetic impact. Not surprisingly haplogroups J1 and J2a also peak in these regions.

In 406, the Alans (who were not Germanic but of Iranic origin [nor were the Vandals]), the Suebi and the Vandals crossed the Rhine together, invading Gaul, then three years later, they crossed the Pyrenees into Roman Hispania. The Suebi migrated to the western half of Iberia, where they established the Kingdom of Gallaecia (409–585). The Vandals and the Alans went south to Andalusia, then crossed over the North Africa in 429, where they founded a kingdom that also comprised Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.

The Suebi… As a Germanic tribe, they would have brought haplogroups I1, I2a2a, (M223, formerly known as I2b1), R1b-U106 and R1a (L664, Z282 and Z283 subclades) to the Iberian peninsula, and indeed all of them except R1a are found essentially in the western half of the Iberian, especially in Portugal and Galicia. R1a is found in northern Castile, Asturias and Cantabria, and could… have been brought there by the Visigoths…

The Basques are indeed somewhat different genetically from other Spaniards. They have a bit more Northwest European ancestry [similar to France]… The absence of Red Sea and Southwest Asian admixture indicates that the Basques do not have any Phoenician [Aram], Jewish, Greek, Roman or Arabic ancestry. Looking at maternal lineages, the Basques also stand out from the rest of the peninsula, lacking many haplogroups… This is in perfect agreement with the fact that Basque language is non-Indo-European. What generally comes as a surprise is that 85% of Basque paternal lineages belong to the Proto-Celtic R1b-P312.

Interestingly the Catalans also lack the Southwest Asian ancestry, but do have some Red Sea and Caucasian genes. The Southwest Asian admixture is slightly more common in southern Portugal and Andalusia, which is consistent with the higher historical presence of Phoenician, Roman and Arabic people in that region. The Basques and the Catalans are the only Western European completely lacking genetic contribution from Southwest Asia. This is also translated in an extreme scarcity of Y-haplogroups J1, E-M34 and T, which are all typically Southwest Asian linages.’ 

Khazaria, Portuguese Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries – emphasis & bold mine

‘Varieties of R1b, a common Y-DNA haplogroup in western Europe, are found in abundance among Portuguese men. About 60 percent of Southern Portuguese and about 83 percent of Northern Portuguese belong to the subclade of R1b known as the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). There are even some areas in Portugal where the AMH is found in about 90% of men.

The mtDNA haplogroups H, U, and L were found in substantial numbers in the population of Portugal in ancient times (including the Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic eras) just as they are today. Millions of mixed-race (white/black/Amerindian) descendants of Portuguese live in Brazil today. Some Portuguese of Portugal themselves have a small portion of black ancestry as well. This is true of the mainland, in part since African slaves were brought to southwestern Portugal’s Alcacer do Sal region in the 1400s-1800s… Portuguese people occasionally match European Jews in the autosomal DNA databases as a result of having shared Sephardic Jewish ancestors.’  

Peter Ralph and Graham Coop. “The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe.” PLOS Biology (May 7, 2013). Excerpts:

“… Patterns for the Iberian peninsula are similar, with both Spain and Portugal showing very few common ancestors with other populations over the last 2,500 years. 

However, the rate of IBD [identical-by-descent] sharing within the peninsula is much higher than within Italy – during the last 1,500 years the Iberian peninsula shares fewer than two genetic common ancestors with other populations, compared to roughly 30 per pair within the peninsula – Italians share on average only about eight with each other during this period…”

“Genetic characterisation of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity.” American Journal of Human Biology 22:5 (September-October 2010): multiple authors, pages 588-595. Excerpts from the Abstract:

‘…in Pias, the Mediterranean influence might be traced to ancient contacts with Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians, who established important trading networks in southern Iberia.”’

“Relatedness among Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians studied by HLA allelic frequencies and haplotypes.” Immunogenetics 47:1 (1997): multiple authors, pages 37-43. Excerpts from the Abstract:

‘The results of the present HLA study in Portuguese populations show that they have features in common with Basques and Spaniards from Madrid…’ 

“Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula”, 2016, multiple authors: Excerpts from the Results section:

“…Within the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has overall higher values of haplotype diversity than Portugal… Nucleotide diversity has its highest value in the Mediterranean area, but it is also high in Portugal… The high frequency of haplogroup H in the North of Iberia spans all along the Portuguese territories, where frequencies range from 49% in the North to 45% in the South. Haplogroup U constitutes the second most frequent haplogroup in Iberia; its frequency is similar in the main Iberian regions; it reaches the highest frequency in North of Portugal (26%)…”

“Portuguese mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity – An update and a phylogenetic revision”, multiple authors, 2015. Excerpts from the Abstract:

“In general, a typical Western European haplogroup composition was found in mainland Portugal, associated to high level of mitochondrial genetic diversity. Within the country, no signs of substructure were detected.” 

“Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: Not a genetic edge of European variation”, Annals of Human Genetics 64:6, multiple authors, (November 2000): pages 491-506.
       

‘A study consisting of mitochondrial DNA samples from 100 Northern Portuguese, 82 Central Portuguese, and 59 Southern Portuguese. Portuguese people have more genetic diversity than some of their neighbors. They carry “all the most important European haplogroups…” They also carry the mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L, both of African origin. U6 is “restricted to North Portugal whereas L was widespread all over the country.”’

Catalonians and Gascons of France

Being Western Europeans, it is no surprise that the most common Y-DNA haplogroup among Catalans is a branch of the R1b haplogroup. R1b1b2a1 is nearly exclusive to western Europe, and the sub-haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2c is common among Catalans and Gascons.’

The Basques, Catalonians and Gascons have as much or more in common genetically with France than Spain. We will delve into this further when we study the French.

The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages, multiple authors, 2001 – emphasis & bold mine:

The Amerindians [Tiras] originally peopled South America… Centuries later (on April 22, 1500), the Portuguese “discovered” Brazil, by then inhabited by 2.4 million Amerindians… Colonization of the new country initially involved men only; the immigration of European women during the first centuries was insignificant… Thus, the first Brazilians arose by mating between European males and Amerindian females. During the period 1500–1808, 500,000 Portuguese, mostly men, arrived in Brazil. 

The most frequent Y chromosomes in white Brazilian males belonged to haplogroup 1 [R1b] (54%), which has been observed in high frequencies (40%–80%) in Europe and seems to be absent from Africa and Japan. Accordingly, this haplogroup was seen in 60% of the Portuguese tested. In Brazil, haplogroup 1 showed discrete regional variation, with the lowest frequency in the south. 

Second in frequency (18%) was haplogroup 2 [E1b1b], which has a rather wide geographical range that includes Europe, Africa, and Asia. This haplogroup was also the second most common among the Portuguese (13%) and is known to be especially frequent in Italy, from where 30% of the European immigrants to Brazil originated. Haplogroup 2 showed regional variation, having the highest frequencies in the south (29%) and in the northeast (18%). Its relatively high frequency in the south of Brazil is probably related to the large Italian immigration to this area. 

The same applies to haplogroup 3 [I1 & I2], geographically distributed in northeastern Europe and Asia, which was observed in 3.5% of the Brazilian males. The fact that it was seen almost exclusively in the south of Brazil suggests a European origin.

Haplogroup PN2 [J2] was the third in frequency, having been seen in 10% of Brazilians, with even regional distribution. This haplogroup is observed in 50% of the North Africans and in frequencies >29% in Egyptians, Greeks, Italians, and Lebanese. Haplogroup 21 has been shown to have a north-south cline in Portugal, climbing from a frequency of 10.6% in the north to 24.5% in southern Portugal. Haplogroup M34 [J1], defined by the M34 mutation, is a subtype of haplogroup 21 and, apparently, has a low frequency but a quite broad geographical distribution in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. It was seen in 3% of the Brazilians and 2% of the Portuguese samples.

The 12f2 deletion at DYS11 defines haplogroup 9 [G], the next most common Y-chromosome lineage observed in Brazil (8%). This haplogroup shows maximum frequency in Jews and other Middle Eastern populations, but it is also found in North Africans and Europeans. Portugal, where haplogroup 9 was seen in 6% of the individuals studied, seems to be the major source of these Y chromosomes in Brazil. There was a large Jewish population in Portugal until 1509, when Jews were deported during the Inquisition. To avoid expulsion, many Jews converted to Catholicism and became “New Christians,” many of whom immigrated to Brazil, carrying haplogroup 9 Y chromosomes. However, there were contributions from other populations. For example… haplogroup 9 shows the highest frequency (16%) in the north of Brazil. Intrigued by this observation, we searched the historical records and discovered that in the early 19th century there was a significant immigration wave of Moroccan Jews to the Amazon area, with eventual settlement in Manaus and Belem.

With the exception of an unknown number of colonizers who arrived during the Dutch 30-year domination of the northeast of Brazil in the 17th century, Portugal was the only significant source of European immigrants to Brazil until 1808. Starting in the mid-16th century and continuing until 1855, 4 million African slaves were sent to Brazil… In 1808 the Portuguese court, fleeing Napoleon’s army, moved to Brazil and opened its seaports to trade with all nations. This was soon followed by the arrival of settlers from other countries. During the period 1820-1975, 5,686,133 immigrants, mostly Europeans, arrived officially in Brazil… Portuguese and Italian immigrants arrived in almost equal numbers (comprising almost 70% of the total), followed by immigrants from Spain,Germany, Syria, Lebanon, and Japan.’

Brazil has been populated principally from the three other sons of Aram; Hul, Uz and Gether. The Portuguese element in Brazil descends principally from Mash, rather than from Hul of Portugal. It is probable that the peoples that migrated from Portugal, Italy and Spain are in part from Hul, Uz and Gether though predominantly from Mash. Mash like Meshech in China, is at once large and yet bound easily with other related peoples.

Now, after 500 years, it is worthwhile to ask about the genetic composition of the Brazilian population. We decided to try to partially answer this question by using lineage markers to ascertain the ancestry from different continents. In the first part of this project we analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs and were surprised to find the high Amerindian (33%) and African (28%) contributions to the total mtDNA pool of white Brazilians… 

In the present study, we analyzed Y-chromosome UEPs in 200 Brazilian males from four different regions in Brazil (a subset of the 247 individuals typed for mtDNA). Our data demonstrate that the vast majority^^ of Y chromosomes in white Brazilian males, regardless of their regional source, is of European origin, with a very low frequency of sub-Saharan African chromosomes and a complete absence of Amerindian contributions. Together, our results configure a picture of strong directional mating in Brazil involving European males and Amerindian and African females. This is in consonance with the known history of the peopling of Brazil since 1500.’

Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background, multiple authors, 2016 – emphasis & bold mine:

Brazil is a country of continental extension, and it is currently divided into five main geopolitical regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South) with diverse histories of colonization and settlement, a fact that is reflected in the genetic structure of the current Brazilian population. The sample from the Northern region presented the highest Native American ancestry (8.4%), whereas the more pronounced African contribution could be observed in the Northeastern population (15.1%). The Central-Western and Southern samples showed the higher European contributions (95.7% and 93.6%, respectively). The Southeastern region presented significant European (86.1%) and African (12.0%) contributions. 

The subtyping of the most frequent European lineage in Brazil (R1b1a-M269) allowed differences in the genetic European background of the five Brazilian regions to be investigated for the first time. Further studies using SNPs to increase the discrimination between lineages inside haplogroup R-M207 were performed in large samples from West Asian and European populations, revealing different gradients for R1b1a-M269 sub-clades inside Europe. The L11-derived allele (also known as S127) separates Western European from the Eurasian lineages. Inside R-M207, the frequencies of these sub-haplogroups were all investigated in each geopolitical region [of Brazil]. 

The haplogroup Q1a2-M346 and its sub-lineages, mainly Q1a2-M3, are almost completely restricted to Native American populations… haplogroups E1b1b-M123 and J-P209 present higher frequencies in Central-Western Brazil (4.1% and 16.0%, respectively) than in Portugal (1.2% and 10.4%, respectively). More than 50% of the Y chromosomes belong to the R1 branch, namely to the sub-lineage R1b1a-M269… Haplogroup R1b1a-S116*, which has its greatest frequency in Iberia was, by far, the most frequent haplogroup observed in our sample, representing 32.5% of the Y chromosomes investigated… the haplogroup R1b1a-S116* was the most frequent in the five geopolitical regions of the country emphasizing the strong influence of the early Portuguese colonization… Portugal was estimated to be the main source of the male European lineages to Central-West, Southeast and South Brazil. The North and the Northeast showed the highest contribution from France and Italy^, respectively… [and] the Northeast appears to have a higher Eastern European^ contribution than do other Brazilian regions. 

The highest migration rate from Lebanon was to the Central-West, whereas a significant migration from Germany was observed to the Central East, Southeast and South.

The sub-haplogroup R1b1a-U106 (S21)is more frequent in Central and Eastern Europe, reaching 66.8% in Germany, while R1b1a-S116, more frequent in the Western portion of the continent, is further subdivided into several haplogroups

The sub-lineage R1b1a-S116 is the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula

R1b1a-U152 is more frequent in France and Italy

and R1b1a-M529 has higher frequencies in England and Ireland

The sub-lineages R1b1a-M153 and R1b1a-M167 were described at high frequencies in Basque Country. R1b1a-M167 was also found at high frequencies in the Pyrenees [Catalonia].’

We will discover that the English and Irish are from the same specific familial line -that is, share the same father – and that the French and Italians [Northern and Central] are broadly related, in that their fathers were brothers. The peoples of the Iberian Peninsula share the same R1b-S116 with Brazil, confirming their shared status as brothers descending from the same father. 

The principal R1b sub-Haplogroups in Brazil. The L23 is of Eastern European origin. The following table shows the predominant R1b to be S116 which as mentioned, originates in the Iberian Peninsula from both Portugal and Spain. The extent of Italian and German immigration is shown by the levels of U152 and U106 R1b, respectively. Notice that the five geopolitical regions of Brazil are genetically closer to Portugal and Spain than any other nation of Europe. 

As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b  sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from western Europe eastwards with its epicentre in Central Europe. Turkey and Russia are the first two nations and both have lower levels of R1b, possessing higher levels of other Haplogroups, for instance for Turkey, it is Haplogroup J at 31% and for Russia it is Haplogroups R1a at 46% and N1c1 at 23%.

Turkey:   R-M269   14%   –  R-U106   0.4%

Russia:    R-M269   21%   –  R-U106   5.4%

Y-DNA distribution across Brazilian regions and an intriguingly high % of Y-DNA I, 2017 – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘I’ve just read this study (Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background) on the distribution of male lineages of Brazilians and there is something that struck me as very intriguing and, I think, difficult to explain… what do you think can explain this:

There is a surprisingly high percentage of haplogroup I, 8.9% as a whole and reaching a (for me) astounding 11.5% in the Northeast^ of Brazil, the region that least received the post-1830 non-Iberian immigration, and until the 1880s the most populous region (now the 2nd one). I thought I1 and I2 lineages would correlate a more Eastern/Northeastern European influx, but that definitely is not the origin of most Northeastern colonial immigrants from Europe as far as I know. 

Could the Dutch have left such a noticeable impact on Y-DNA when their Dutch Brazil in the northeast lasted less than 30 years, and also – according to their Portuguese defeaters, at least – they were expelled en masse from Brazil? There was also some short settlement and longer trading voyages by Frenchmen in the Northeastern coast. These hypotheses, though, wouldn’t solve the issue that I is also strong in the North (10%), never occupied by the Dutch or French.

I thought of a clear mistake in the analysis or a very skewed and misleading sample, but looking at the other Y-DNA percentage they look totally reasonable and explainable: highest E1b1a (8.2%) in the Northeast, the largest center for slaves in roughly ~1530-1780; highest R1(xR1b), i.e. mostly R1a, in the South (5.5%), by far the main destination of the Germans and Slavs; highest Q1a2 (8.1%) in the North, the last region to be effectively colonized outside the coastal region and still today with the largest Amerindian population. So, everything fits just right, except for that high I1+I2 percentage in the Northeast/North!

As an aside, I found it interesting that, even with the relatively minor contribution of non-Western European Y-DNA (Amerindians, Africans, other Europeans), the haplogroups E1b1b (10.9%), J (10.1%) and G (5.1%) are very present, adding to a full 26.1%, more than 1/4 of the male lineages. That really indicates how strongly the (traditionally/originally) non-IE lineages resisted in Portugal.

Another interesting finding, though maybe coincidental due to patterns of the demographic formation, is that the Y-DNA distribution of the Brazilian Northeast appears as the most Central European-shifted among the 4 regions (i.e. a bit closer to France and, [less of] Italy), while the Southeast has the Y-DNA makeup closest to Portugal’s, even though it’s received the largest and most diversified number of immigrants from 1860 to our days. I really don’t know what to make of those results, how to explain them fitting into Brazilian history. What would you suggest/hypothesize?

Judging from the article preceding, it would appear that the answer includes the presence of people from north eastern Europe. High percentages of Y-DNA Haplogroup I is present in certain Slavic nations from northern Europe and not just concentrated in south eastern Europe – for instance, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Keeping in mind as well that Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy and Sicily also have similar levels of Haplogroup I 

Brazil: R1b [54%] – E1b1b [10.9%] – J1/J2 [10.1%] – I1/I2 [8.9%] –

G2a [5.1%] – R1a [4%] – E1b1a1 [3%] – Q1a2 [2%]

Portugal: R1b [56%] – E1b1b [14%] – J2 [9.5%] – G2a [6.5%] – I2a2 [3%] –

J1 [3%] – T1a [2.5%] – I1 [2%] – I2a1 [1.5%] – R1a1a [1.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Southern Italy: R1b [27.5%] – J2 [21.5%] – E1b1b [18.5%] – G2a [10.5%] –

J1 [4%] – I2a1 [3.5%] – R1a1a [3%] – I1 [2.5] – T1a [2.5%] – I2a2 [1%]

Sicily: R1b [26%] – J2 [23%] – E1b1b [20.5%] – G2a [8.5%] – R1a [4.5%] –

T1a [4%] – J1 [ 3.5%] – I1 [3.5%] – I2a1 [3%] – I2a2 [1%] – Q [1%]  

Spain: R1b [69%] – J2 [8%] – E1b1b [7%] – I2a1 [4.5%] – G2a [3%] –

T1a [2.5%] – R1a1a  [2%] – J1 [1.5%] – I1 [1.5%] – I2a2 [1%] 

Catalonia: R1b [66.5%] – E1b1b [8.5%] – J2 [7.5%] – G2a [4.5%] –

I2a1 [3.5%] – I1 [2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – R1a1a [1.5%] – J1 [1.5%] –

T1a [1%]

Basque: R1b [85%] –  I2a1 [5%] – J2 [2.5%] – E1b1b [2.5%] –

G2a [1.5%] – I1 [0.5] – J1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Brazil:        R1b – E1b1b – J1/J2 – I1/I2 – G2a – R1a – E1b1a1 – Q1a2

Portugal:   R1b – E1b1b – J2 – G2a – I2a2 – J1 – T1a – I1 – I2a1 – R1a – Q 

Catalonia: R1b – E1b1b – J2 – G2a – I2a1 – I1 – I2a2 – R1a1a – J1 – T1a

S Italy:       R1b – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – R1a – I1 – J1 – I2a1 – T1a – I2a2

Sicily:         R1b – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – R1a – T1a – J1 – I1 – I2a1 – I2a2 – Q

Spain:        R1b – J2 – E1b1b – I2a1 – G2a – T1a – R1a  I1 – J1 – I2a2

Basque:     R1b –  I2a1 – J2 – E1b1b – G2a – I1 – J1 – Q

From a Haplogroup sequence perspective, particularly looking at the first key three to five Haplogroups for the four sons of Aram, Brazil and Portugal are more closely aligned, whereas Spain and Sicily – including southern Italy – are more closely paired. The strong regional identities of the Basque resemble the Spanish and Catalonia surprisingly, parallels Portugal – including Brazil.

Brazil:        R E J I G R 

Portugal:   R E J G I J 

Catalonia: R E J G I I

S Italy:       R J E G R I 

Sicily:         R J E G R T

Spain :       R J E I G T 

Basque:      R I J E G I

Abbreviating the Haplogroups, we see the close similarity between the Portuguese and Brazilians. It would be interesting to have more insight in how the Casluh and Caphtor, or Philistine element has shaped Spain’s genetic history and its current Haplogroup composition. Comments from a geneticist regarding Spain’s national genealogy would be welcome with regard to the impact on the Spanish Visigoths that reside on the Iberian Peninsula and those Spaniards who left for the New World – the Alans, Vandals and Moors.

                            R1b    E1b1b     J       I      G      R1a     T

Sicily                   26         21       27      8      9        5        4

S Italy                 28         19       26      7     11        3        3

Brazil                  54         11        10      9      5        4      

Portugal             56         14        13      7      7        2        3

Catalonia           67           9          9      7      5        2        1

Spain                  69           7        10      7      3        2        3

Basque               85           3          3      6      2                                         

What does this all mean? Well, the Y-DNA Haplogroup table explains why the Basques may not feel comfortable living as part of Spain and their desire to achieve independence as a separate state. In marked contrast are the 7,739,758 people in Catalonia who are in fact very similar to the rest of Spain in their Y-DNA Haplogroups. Spain would not be supportive of any independence claims by Catalonia as we witnessed in 2017. The impact on Spain’s economy would be enormous should Catalonia gain independence. This is in stark contrast to the mtDNA Haplogroups we saw earlier, that showed the opposite, in that the Basque though slightly removed were way more similar to the closely aligned Brazil, Portugal, Spain and Sicily. It was in fact the Catalonians, that stood out differently. 

The table also highlights the strong mixing the Ostrogoths have had with North Africa; E1b1b, J1 and T and with southern Europe, J2 and G. It confirms the expected strong similarity between Brazil and Portugal. It surprisingly shows just how close the Spanish and Catalonians are in their paternal lineage and just how different the Basque are to everyone else. It certainly confirms their isolation and non-mixing with neighbours over the centuries. We will investigate the Basque and Catalonians more fully when we study the French, as the surprises do not end here.

                            R1b    E1b1b     J       I      G      R1a     T       N1C1

Spain                  69           7        10      7      3        2        3

Portugal             56         14        13      7      7        2        3

Brazil                  54         11        10      9      5        4      

S Italy                 28         19       26      7     11        3        3

Turkey                16         11        33      6     11        8        3          4

Iran                     10          7        32       1     10      16       3           1 

Russia                  6           3          3    20      1       46                 23

A comparison of Aram’s descendants with those of Shem which we have studied so far, shows the difference of their inherited levels of Y-DNA Haplogroups as well as admixture. Iran and Turkey are J1 and J2 driven showing the intermixing with the Arabs and their genetic similarity with south eastern Europeans, respectively. They have lower levels of R1b and R1a, the key Haplogroups of either western or eastern Europeans. The Southern Italians show the result of strong admixture with increased levels of Haplogroups E1b1b, J and G compared to say Spain, as well as their lower percentage of R1b as a result. 

Russia is high in R1a, I and N1c1, which are low or non-existent – such as N, an exclusively northern European Haplogroup – in the Latin peoples. Haplogroup I1 is prevalent in northern and I2 in south eastern Europe and hence the lower levels in the Latin nations. Brazil, Portugal and Spain are all similar, though Brazil and Portugal reveal the admixture with sub-Saharan and Northern Africans in their higher levels of E1b1b. They exhibit low levels of R1a due to virtually no interaction with eastern Europe directly and only principally received through immigration of peoples to Brazil; plus, high levels of R1b, as is common with peoples throughout western Europe and the Americas. As Russia has much in common with Slavic eastern Europe genetically, the Spanish and Portuguese share a very similar genetic template with Italy and France.

People with good sense know what I say is true; and those with knowledge know my words are right.

Proverbs 8:9 New Century Version

“Most people believe most of the things they believe only because they believe that most people believe them.” 

Mokokoma Mokhonoana 

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