Arphaxad, Joktan & Eastern Europe

Chapter XXIV

Shem’s third son is Arphaxad. He is a mysterious figure in the shadow of his four brothers. The reason, because unlike Elam, Asshur, Lud and Aram, who all had singular, distinct nations descend from them [Aram had three and a half], Arphaxad is the progenitor of the most nations in the world from a diversity perspective and the second highest in sheer number, after Canaan. He is not though, the direct ancestor of one nation; but is the indirect ancestor of a great number. By elimination, it is now obvious that the remaining European peoples in Europe and the New World, descend form Arphaxad.

To add to Arphaxad’s enigmatic aura, the meaning of his name is baffling. Two proposed are boundary of the Chaldeans and stronghold of the Chaldees. The Chaldeans did descend from Arphaxad, but quite a few generations later; as the Hebrew word that Chaldee is derived from is Chesed [Kesed], a son of Nahor – Abraham’s brother.

A H Sayce confirms the difficulty in defining Arphaxad, page 64:

‘In the tenth chapter of Genesis Arphaxad is the brother of Aram. He is placed next to Asshur with whom therefore he would have been in geographical contact. Now Arphaxad is written in the original Hebrew Arpha-Chesed, the Arpha of Chesed. What Arpha means is doubtful. Professor Schrader connects it with the Arabic urfak and accordingly renders the name the territory of Chesed. Up to the present no light has been cast on the word by the Assyrian texts.’

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘… In Greek this name is spelled… Arphaxad… The name Arpachshad is probably extremely old and from a language that’s long since gone. And thus the original meaning of this name is unclear. BDB Theological Dictionary suggests that it is a combination of ‘rp (not in Hebrew but in cognate languages) meaning extent, border…

The name Arpachshad is difficult to interpret. Since both (a-r-p) and (k-sh-d) do not exist in Hebrew, we should look for a possible combination of smaller words: The Hebrew word is used once, as a contraction of the word (the Nile; Amos 8:8), which in turn may be derived from (‘or), light. 

It may even be a contraction of (‘arar), curse. Or (‘ara), pluck or gather, with derivative (‘ari), lion… (pak)means flask or vial, from the root (pkk), an unused root that probably means trickle… (puk) denotes a black powder that was used as eye make-up (Jeremiah 4:30, 2 Kings 9:30)… (ke) means as if, but never occurs as a particle. For the sake of brevity (Arpachshad is already an unusually long name)… may be a contraction of (peh), mouth, or (poh), a particle denoting here or hither… (shed) is usually translated with demon, or the object of child sacrifice (Deuteronomy 32:17). (shod) means havoc(shad) means breast, bosom.

Whatever the name Arpachshad may mean, the meaning is deeply hidden.’

Gratitude to Abarim Publications for breaking the name down to its component parts. I have highlighted those that most closely resemble in my view, Arphaxad’s name: Or-pak-shad. For instance, ‘life from within the heart.’ Light gives life and warmth. The breast is connected with the closeness of an embrace, intimacy and the source of strong emotional feelings, to cherish and hold dear. Did Arphaxad have a warm heart? He certainly did, if he took young Canaan into his family and raised him as his own [refer Chapter XI Ham]. 

Previously, when studying Canaan we looked at the fact his people did not migrate all the way to the African continent like their brothers Cush, Phut and Mizra. They stopped in the high value real estate land that became known as the Land of Canaan. Canaan’s people may have been so familiar with Arphaxad’s family, that they felt comfortable dwelling near them. For it was Arphaxad’s descendants that founded both Akkadia and Sumer – in the Land of Shinar in southern Mesopotamia – northeast of Canaan. Though saying that, the Book of Jubilees chapter eight, describes something more sinister: 

1… in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu’eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam, and she bare him a son… and he called his name Kainam. 2 And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 3 And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven [astrology]. 4 And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. 

5 And… he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai, the son of Japheth, and… he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: ‘Truly I have been sent.’ 6… and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu’ak, the daughter of Kesed, his father’s brother… 7 And she bare him a son… thereof, and he called his name Eber: and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was ‘Azurad, the daughter of Nebrod [Nimrod]… 

8 And… she bare him son, and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of Noah began to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called his name Peleg. 9 And they divided it secretly amongst themselves, and told it to Noah.

We have addressed Kainam’s birth and his inclusion in Arphaxad’s family, even though he was born from the incest of Ham and Rasueja, Arphaxad’s wife. For Canaan to have found inscriptions regarding Watchers while seeking a city, he would have had to have been in the coastal strip later called Canaan. We have also addressed the plague of Nephilim in this area and their base at Mount Hermon.

The genealogy details have undeniably been tampered with as we have discovered. We know this for two reasons: 1. The line of Arphaxad would not have diluted so dramatically with a line of Ham so early and 2. nor would Arphaxad’s grandson, Eber have taken a Nephil as a wife. The possibility remains that Eber may have had more than one wife, or Azurad may have been a second wife. The main line of descent would not have been contaminated so early after the flood with Nephilim DNA. Though that was surely the Watcher’s plan.

The agenda by whomever has written these verses or who has edited them, has been to cast aspersion on the line that produced the promised seed that would ultimately defeat the serpents seed [Genesis 3:15]. Verses 1-4 are probable, though Canaan’s father being Ham, not Arphaxad and verses 5 – 8 possible. Shelah’s wife from Kesed, is either fabricated, or it was a different Kesed to the one born to Abraham’s brother, Nahor. Kesed is not included as a sixth son of Shem. Maybe he was another son and not listed because no known nation has proceeded from him [Genesis 10:11]. There is a similarity between Nimrod’s daughter Azur-ad and Assur, as it can be spelled without the h.

The Book of Jasher chapter seven lists three sons for Arphaxad, whereas the Bible concentrates on the eldest, Shelah:

16 … and the sons of Arpachshad were Shelach, Anar and Ashcol.

Genesis 11:10-13

English Standard Version

10 These are the generations of Shem. When Shem was 100 years old, he fathered Arpachshad two years after the flood. 11 And Shem lived after he fathered Arpachshad 500 years and had other sons and daughters. 12 When Arpachshad had lived 35 years, he fathered Shelah. 13 And Arpachshad lived after he fathered Shelah 403 years and had other sons and daughters. 

We learn that Arphaxad had other sons and daughters. Added to the account in the Book of Jubilees, these extra sons and brothers comprised those peoples that would establish the early cities in the lower Mesopotamian delta plain region. Akkadia, from the word Arphaxad in the north west and Sumer, from the word Shem in the south east. The descendants of Arphaxad’s great grandsons Peleg and Joktan, constituted the dominant peoples of Akkadia and Sumer respectively. 

The aging process changed after the flood, so that Noah and his sons lives were shorter than if the antediluvian atmosphere and climatic conditions had remained. Whether DNA manipulation was involved is conjecture, though cannot be dismissed. The ages after the flood were still yet impressive and beyond our comprehension. They did not settle into what we know today until approximately beginning with Abraham, who lived to one hundred and seventy-five years of age and his grandson Joseph who lived to one hundred and ten.

Reading Genesis 10:10-13 based on an unconventional chronology – and the rounded numbers in the biblical account – would read as the following:

These are the generations of Shem. When Shem was 1,120 years old, he fathered Arpachshad 120 years after the flood. And Shem lived after he fathered Arpachshad 5,000 years and had other sons and daughters. When Arpachshad had lived 1,070 years, he fathered Shelah. And Arpachshad lived after he fathered Shelah 4,030 years and had other sons and daughters. 

Arphaxad was born in 10,717 BCE, his son Shelah in 9647 BCE, his son Eber in 8747 BCE and his son Peleg in 7727 BCE. Nimrod was born circa 8700 BCE and the Tower of Babel, with the confounding of the single language into many and all the peoples dispersing from the Middle East was approximately 6755 BCE. It was circa 6000 BCE that Sumerian civilisation suddenly appears fully formed with extensive records. 

Staggeringly, Noah lived until 7337 BCE. Shem died 5717 BCE and Arphaxad died in 5617 BCE. Abraham’s father Terah, was born 4077 BCE. We have read how Terah may have worked for Nimrod. Nimrod if still alive would have been about 5,700 years old. Quite possible, as he was not only a first generation Nephilim; but possibly would have lived this long as a full human being, for Arphaxad lived for 5,100 years. It wasn’t until 1977 BCE that Abraham was born and so accounts of Abraham fleeing from Nimrod or slaying him are not reliable.

Abarim Publications explain Arphaxad’s son Shelah’s name, with two interpretations.

‘There are two completely different Hebrew names in the Bible that are commonly both translated with Shelah. But they’re spelled different and they mean different things. We’ll call them Shelah I and Shelah II:

The name Shelah I… Meaning Missionary, Emissary From the verb (shalah), to send. The only Shelah I (probably more properly pronounced as Shelach) of the Bible is a son of Arpachshad, son of Shem… (Genesis 10:24). This Shelah was an ancestor of Christ and is mentioned by Luke (Luke 3:35). The prophet Nehemiah makes mention of a Pool of Shelah in Jerusalem (3:15), which refers to Shiloah or Siloam in Greek.

The verb (shalah) means to send; to send whatever from messengers to arrows. It may even be used to describe a plant’s offshoots or branches. Noun (shelah) refers to some kind of weapon, apparently a kind of missile. Plural noun (shilluhim) means a send-off; a sending away or parting gift. Noun (mishlah) describes an outstretching of one’s hand (i.e. an undertaking, or referring to the place where the letting go takes place)…the name Shelah may mean Sent Out, Branch or Javelin.

The name Shelah II… Meaning Extracted… Prosperity, Request, Petition… From the verb (shala), to extract or de-employ. From the verb (sha’al), to ask or request… Shelah, a son of Judah with the unnamed daughter of Shua (Genesis 38:5). This Shelah became the progenitor of the Shelanites (Numbers 26:20). The town of Shiloh… The verb (shalal) means to extract, mostly in the sense of to plunder. Adjective (sholal) means barefoot. Noun (shilya) means afterbirth. Perhaps a second verb (shala) means to be at rest and prosper… Nouns (shalu) and (shalwa) mean prosperity. Adjectives (sheli) and (shalew) mean quiet, private or prosperous.

The name Shelah means all of the above, but would probably be interpreted to mean either Prosperity or Booty. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names disagrees with all these obvious similarities, and takes the name Shelah to… meaning request or petition [such as by Prayer]…’

Shelah’s son was Eber and Abarim Publications say the following – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Eber: Meaning The Region Beyond, One From Beyond, He Who Passed Over, From the verb (‘abar), to pass over [and also ‘to cross over’]. There are five Ebers mentioned in the Bible: The father of Peleg… (Genesis 10:24). A Gadite chief (1 Chronicles 5:13). A son of Elpaal of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:12). A son of Shashak of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:22). The chief of the Levitical family of Amok when Joiakim was high priest in post-exilic Israel (Nehemiah 12:20).

The first Eber marks an important point in the Biblical genealogies, as of Shem it was said that he was the father of ‘all the children of Eber’. And in the days of Peleg, the son of Eber, ‘the earth was divided’ (Genesis 10:25). The sons of Joktan, Peleg’s brother, are the last mentioned Shemite generation before the tower of Babel was built. Peleg became the ancestor of Abraham, who was the first to be called Hebrew, a word that is highly similar to the name Eber. The name Eber comes from the verb (abar) meaning to pass through: The important verb (‘abar) means to pass or cross over (a river, border, obstacle or terrain). The derived noun (‘eber) describes what or where you end up when you do the verb: the other side or region beyond.’

It is interesting to note that in Genesis chapter ten, before any of Shem’s sons are listed, Shem is listed first, as the father of all the children of Eber. It is from Eber that the term Hebrew came from and refers principally to the the sons of Jacob, who became known as Hebrews. We will learn later that derived words from Eber are located in Europe and help trace some of the sons of Jacob.

Herman Hoeh says: 

‘Notice Arphaxad first. He is a son of Shem. He is mentioned in Genesis 10:22 and I Chronicles 1:24. Arphaxad had a grandson named Eber. The name Eber mens a “migrant,” one who comes from the ‘region beyond.” The sons of Eber are properly known as “Hebrews” – and there are about 400 million of them on earth today! Yet almost no one really knows who the sons of Eber – the Hebrews – are at this time!

Eber had two sons reckoned to him. It was in their day, about 100 years after the flood, that God “divided the earth” as an inheritance for the different family groups (Genesis 10:25 and Deuteronomy 32:8). From Peleg, one of these two sons, came Abraham. God promised Abraham that his descendants would be as numerous as the dust of the ground. The Jews are certainly not as numerous as the dust. Only a tiny fraction of Abraham’s descendants are known as Jews today! Where are the others?’

Eber’s second son Joktan, or possibly Peleg’s twin due to phrasing, represents a major division within Arphaxad’s line and today is represented by those nations we term Eastern Europe. Joktan had thirteen sons listed in Genesis. The peoples of Eastern Europe fall into two main categories; those more related to the Russians [Asshur] and those more similar to Turkey [Elam]. As there are more than thirteen nations in Eastern Europe, we will endeavour to identify thirteen variations in their Haplogroups. 

Genesis 10:25-30

English Standard Version

25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one [H259 – ‘echad: the other, another. Not word used for first] was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s [H251 – ‘ach: half-brother] name was Joktan

26 Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 

30 The territory in which they lived extended from Mesha in the direction of Sephar to the hill country of the east [the Arabian Peninsula].

Notice, there is a Sheba and a Havilah. The same names we have already seen as sons of Cush; the northern Indo-Aryan Indians of India and the Bengalis of Bangladesh respectively [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. There is an Uz-al, similar to the Uz of Aram, Southern Italy [refer Chapter XXIII Aram]. The four names in bold are the sons mentioned in the Bible outside of Genesis Ten and I Chronicles One. 

It is probable that these four are the biggest or most prominent brothers, as the Bible tends to give air time to the most influential or well known nations in the family group – particularly, from an interaction with the sons of Jacob perspective. Jobab is a family name replicated in Edom’s descendants [refer Chapter XXIX Esau]. Ophir was once famously renowned for its trade and wealth in the ancient world.

The children of Joktan before migrating to the Arabian Peninsula, originally dwelt to the east of Arphaxad’s other children descended from Peleg. Anciently, Sumer was southeast of Akkadia and today, Joktan lives to the east of Peleg’s descendants. Both peoples descended from Arphaxad and both originally spoke Sumerian. Scholars have proposed that Akkadia, or Babylon spoke Chaldee which was a branch of Aramaic. Chaldee was introduced later, with the arrival of the Chaldee ruling elite. Prior to that, the primeval language of Babylon and for all the Land of Shinar was Sumerian; a language with no certain affinity to any other known language. 

A detailed Map of the ancient Middle East showing the locations of Shem’s descendants. Notice Joktan’s region and specifically the land of Ophir.

A number of researchers have either thought that the reference to the east, coupled with so many sons indicates that Joktan must be China; or that other references in the bible stating Arabia and Ishmael are a link to the Arabic world. Both are incorrect summations as we have already seen regarding the identities for China and the Arab peoples [refer Chapter X Magog, Tubal & Meshech and Chapter XIV Mizra].

Abarim Publications – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The name Joktan, meaning: He Will Be Small from the verb (qaton), to be small.

Joktan is a son of the famous Eber, his brother being Peleg, the forefather of Abraham (Genesis 10:25). The name Joktan is the active form of the verb (qaton) meaning to be small or insignificant: Adjectives (qatan) and (qaton) mean small, young or insignificant. Noun (qeton) refers to the little finger.

For a meaning of the name Joktan, NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads He Will Be Made Small. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads He Will Be Small. A name of similar meaning is Paul.’

Hitchcock’s Bible Names dictionary says for Joktan: ‘small dispute’ or ‘contention’ and ‘disgust.’ I think there must be no small irony in the name, as the peoples descended from Joktan are far from small in number. It could be argued that they are not as big a presence on the world stage as other nations. In this, the name is probably indicative of the peoples descended from Joktan. 

Historically, the Slavs – argued as deriving from Slaves – Balts and the south eastern Europeans have been trodden underfoot by the bigger aggressor nations to their east, west and south; that is, Russia, Germany and Turkey.

The twenty-two modern nations of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and the peoples of the former Yugoslavia – Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo – comprise Joktan today.

What has to be remembered is that according to the Bible and the Book of Jasher, Arphaxad had other sons, Anar and Ashcol and thus the surplus of nations – exceeding the number thirteen – could be more closely related to these sons and not from Joktan. For now, we will assume they are all descended from Joktan. All these countries singularly have smaller populations of ten million people or less – the exceptions being Ukraine, Poland and Romania – with the smallest being Montenegro with 628,198 people.

Genesis 25:17-18

English Standard Version

17 (These are the years of the life of Ishmael: 137 years. He breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people.) 

18 They settled from Havilah to Shur [to be raised, wall, fort, bull], which is opposite Egypt in the direction of Assyria.He settled over against [in hostility towards] all his kinsmen.

This verse has major clues to where Ishmael is living today, which we will look into further. The Havilah mentioned in this verse, is not Havilah of Bangladesh. In 1 Samuel 15:7, Havilah is mentioned in connection with Esau’s grandson, Amalek. Another major clue, that will become clearer later in our study. 

Havilah is associated with gold [Genesis 2:11-14]. In Chapter XIII Cush & Phut, Havilah of Cush was considered as being referred to in this passage about Eden. Researchers, myself included, do not normally link Havilah with Joktan’s son of the same name. Yet the reference to gold is a big clue. Bangladesh is not known for gold. A handful of eastern European nations are. It would seem then, that the Havilah described with Cush and Assyria is actually the son of Joktan and not from Cush.

Gold is a theme of two of the other three sons of Joktan mentioned in scripture. Of the twenty-two nations forming Joktan, four stand out in their current gold mining production or have large potential reserves to mine. Due to the geography described in these two verses; Poland equates with Havilah, the twelfth son of Joktan. The definition of Havilah is detailed in the section on Cush and Phut. Briefly, it means ‘tremble’ or ‘languish.’ The history of Poland has been severe, with both the Germans and Russians, being especially cruel. The population of Poland is 37,778,671 people.

Rare Gold Nuggets – emphasis mine:

‘The potential for undiscovered gold deposits to be found in Poland is still there, even though the country has been mined for centuries. The many deposits that are out there are signs of just how impressive the natural resources of this unique country truly are.’

Poland is the 21st largest economy in the world, with a 2019 GDP of $595.86 billion – and the leading economy of the sons of Joktan. Heavy industry, iron and steel production, machinery manufacturing, shipbuilding and coal mining, are all vital components of Polands’ economy. ‘Poland’s business friendly climate and sound macroeconomic policies allowed it to be the only EU country to avoid recession in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis.’

Ezekiel 27:18-21

Complete Jewish Bible

18 Because you [Tyre-Brazil] were so wealthy, with such a variety of valuable merchandise, Dammesek [Spain] traded wine from Helbon and white wool* with you. 19 V’dan [Dan or Eden] and Yavan [Greeks… H3120 – Yavan & H3196 – yayin: wine, winebibbers, banqueting, intoxication] from Uzal [H235 – ‘azal: to go away, to disappear, be gone (spent), fail, to go to and fro, gad about]traded ironwork, cassia^ and aromatic cane for your goods. 20 D’dan [Dedan (Abraham & Keturah)] traded with you for riding gear. 21 Arabia [Abraham & Keturah’s sons] and all the princes of K’dar [Ishmael] were your customers; for your goods they traded lambs, rams and goats.

Most translations are not faithful to the interlinear translation. The CJB renders it accurately. Uzal – the sixth son of Joktan – is usually not even named, but translated for instance, as ‘traversing back and forth’ in the New King James Version. The word Javan is interesting and has a double meaning as we have seen before with Javan in the book of Daniel. 

It is the only biblical identity used for Javan from Japheth and the modern territory of Greece. For example, we saw clearly that Cush and Ethiopia are not used this way in scripture [refer Chapter XIII Cush & Phut]. This verse is not clear in which Javan is intended. Clues point to both. The word for Javan has a root word and this word means wine. Greeks today drink far more wine, with thirty-five percent compared to beer, at five percent.

The phrasing is a clever clue to Uzal’s identity as it is like saying ‘Greece from Greece.’ The reference to ‘going to and fro’ in a trading context is indicative of modern Greece, which is synonymous with shipping and its most important industry, worth some $21.9 billion in 2018. Ancient Uzal is the modern day nation of Greece. Indonesia, a nation of Javan, Kitti on the other hand, is the worlds leading cinnamon producer, with 43% of the total world production in 2014. Cinnamon can be made from the cassia^ plant. 

Yechezkel 27:19

Orthodox Jewish Bible

Vedan also and Yavan (Greece) provided for your wares with fine* yarn; wrought iron, cassia, and cane, were among thy merchandise.

The OJB has translated Uzal as its identifying sign. This is valuable information, as Greece is ranked 18th in the world for wool production; while it is number one in Eastern Europe. Greece is 11th in the world for Cotton production and 7th in worldwide exports. The modern state of Greece should not be confused with the same people as the ancient Greeks. This is a good example of a people settling millennia later in a territory that still has the original name. In fact, the Greece before the ancient European Greeks, was originally the Greece of Javan. The population of Greece is 10,316,637 people.

Rare Gold Nuggets – emphasis mine:

‘Greece is a country that has good potential when it comes to finding gold. Many experts believe that Greece contains some very large gold reserves, many of which are virtually untapped. With that being said, Greek gold production is currently only producing a scant few thousand kilograms of gold per year.’

Ezekiel 27:21-24

English Standard Version

21 Arabia [Abraham & Keturah] and all the princes of Kedar [Ishmael] were your favored dealers in lambs, rams, and goats; in these they did business with you [Tyre-Brazil]. 22 The traders of Sheba and Raamah [India] traded with you; they exchanged for your wares the best of all kinds of spices and all precious stones and gold. 23 Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur [Russia], and Chilmad traded with you. 24 In your market these traded with you in choice garments, in clothes of blue and embroidered work, and in carpets of colored material, bound with cords and made secure.

The traders of Sheba in verse 23 are different from the ‘traders of Sheba’ in verse 22. The first are the Northern Indians; the second from Joktan.

Psalm 72:10,15

English Standard Version

10 May the kings of Tarshish [Japan] and of the coastlands [East and SE Asia] render him tribute; may the kings of Sheba [India H7614] and Seba [Sri Lanka H5434] bring gifts! 15 Long may he live; may gold of Sheba [H7614] be given to him… 

Similarly in these verses, two different Shebas are stated, even though it is the same Hebrew word for the exact same name, yet remaining distinct from the other name of  Seba with a different Hebrew word. 

Rare Gold Nuggets – emphasis mine:

Romania is home to the largest gold deposit in continental Europe. Romania is one of the poorer countries in Europe, but from a view of the resources available for mining it is actually one of the richest. There are a large variety of minerals that are commercially mined here. The potential for gold mining in Romania is strong and the history of mining in the country is extensive.’

Sheba – the tenth son descended from Joktan – is Romania. Like Greece, the Romanians have inherited the name of the ancient Romans; though they are not the Romans. Similarly, the Magyars in Hungary are not Huns, they simply have the appellation of the former peoples, by that name – the Turks [refer Chapter XVIII Elam & Chapter IV Madai]. The population of Romania is 19,026,300 people.

1 Kings 22:48

English Standard Version

Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir for gold, but they did not go, for the ships were wrecked at Ezion-geber.

1 kings 10.11

English Standard Version

Moreover, the fleet of Hiram [King of Tyre], which brought gold from Ophir [H211 – ‘Owphiyr: ‘gold region in the east’], brought from Ophir a very great amount of almug [H484 – ‘almuggiym: a tree from Lebanon (sandalwood?)] wood* andprecious stones.

Job 28:16

English Standard Version

It cannot be valued in the gold of Ophir, in precious onyx or sapphire.

Psalm 45:9

English Standard Version

 … daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor; at your right hand stands the queen in gold of Ophir.

Isaiah 13:12

English Standard Version

I will make people more rare than fine gold, and mankind than the gold of Ophir.

Ophir is mentioned in a number of verses throughout the Bible and always in context of its gold and mineral wealth. One would expect this nation to standout amongst Joktan’s descendants today, just by sheer size of either resources and or, its economy. The meaning of Ophir is contradictory as it can mean, ‘exhausted, depleted’ and ‘reducing to ashes’ – ‘which is what remains when all useful energy is extracted from a fuel’ – or conversely: ‘rich, abundance’ a ‘mark of wealth’ or a ‘coast of riches’ according to Abarim Publications.

Quora, Glenn Webb – emphasis & bold mine:

Excerpt from Peresopnytsia Gospel (Matthew 19:1) (1556) where the word ukrainy (оукраины) corresponds to ‘coasts’ (KJV Bible) or ‘region’ (NIV Bible). [T]he Ukrainian symbol is a trident and has a coastline to its south.

Rare Gold Nuggets – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Gold mining is still a young and growing industry in Ukraine. As with many regions in the world with a turbulent political history, the economic development in the mining industry has been limited… Ukraine holds large reserves of gold in several regions… some suggestions that there is as much as 3,000 tons of gold to be found all around Ukraine…’

This is the equivalent of 2,722 tonnes and would place Ukraine 5th in countries with the largest gold mine reserves, behind Australia at number one [10,000 tonnes], Russia [5,300], South Africa [3,200] and the United States [3,000].

‘… there are more than two hundred locations around Ukraine that gold is known to be found. The potential for gold… is amazingly vast… These are huge expectations for a huge country.’

Ukraine is Ophir, the eleventh son of Joktan. All the conflicting definitions of Ophir’s name are specifically accurate and parallel the split history and destiny of Ukraine as an unhappy partner of Russia. The verb even means ‘to desire or draw near’ exactly the relationship that ‘Little’ Russia has with ‘Great’ Russia. 

For the largest Russian diaspora in the world are the 8,334,100 Russian people living in Ukraine [2001 Census]. To complicate matters, a third of the Ukrainian population in the eastern part of the country identify as Russian, speaking Russian. Other Ukrainians also speak Russian and higher percentages of Russians live in the western and central regions of the nation in the industrialised city centres. The total population of Ukraine is 43,293,111 people and is the seventh highest in Europe.

Ukraine is the 4th biggest mineral producer in the world, behind South Africa in first, Russia and Australia. Ukraine has up to $510 billion in iron ore reserves alone. Apart from the presence of many mineral reserves, Ukraine is best known for its productive mining sector. There are over three hundred mining facilities actively operating across Ukraine. As an aside, both South Africa and Australia were predicted to be rich in natural resources and mineral powers.  

Europe’s second largest country, is a land of vast fertile agricultural plains and large pockets of heavy industry in the east. Ukraine is known as the ‘breadbasket’ of Europe and is amongst the top three exporters of grain in the world. It has some of the most fertile land on earth with rich black soil called chernozem – literally, ‘black dirt.’. This soil produces high agricultural yields due to its high moisture storage capacity and levels of humus; with more than seventy percent of the country comprising prime agricultural land. Parts of Russia and the United States of America also have rich soils with high organic content called mollisols. 

It is estimated that Ukraine can feed at least half a billion people. Its main crops including corn, soybeans, rye, oats, beets and barley. With Russia, Ukraine supply a quarter of the world’s wheat and half of its sunflower products. Ukraine is the fourth largest producer of potatoes in the world. 

‘The following export product groups represent the highest dollar value in Ukrainian global shipments during 2020…

  1. Cereals: US$9.4 billion 
  2. Iron, steel: $7.7 billion 
  3. Animal/vegetable fats, oils, waxes: $5.8 billion 
  4. Ores, slag, ash: $4.4 billion 
  5. Electrical machinery, equipment: $2.5 billion 
  6. Machinery including computers: $1.9 billion 
  7. Oil seeds: $1.8 billion 
  8. Food industry waste, animal fodder: $1.6 billion 
  9. Wood: $1.4 billion* 
  10. Articles of iron or steel: $877.8 million 

Ores, slag and ash was the fastest grower among the top 10 export categories, up by 23.1% from 2019 to 2020. The leading decliner among Ukraine’s top 10 export categories was oil seeds, thanks to a -28.1% drop year over year.’

The word Ukraine means literally, on the outskirts and from a Russian Empire perspective, that was true. It has been ‘the borderland’ for much of its existence and Ukraine has been a convergence point for east and west; partly including the territory once occupied by the Scythian peoples. Ukraine and Russia share common historical origins, particularly in the east; whereas the west of the country has closer ties with its European neighbours, especially Poland.

Early Germanic tribes from Jutland and surrounding environs migrated and in time some of them would filter down towards western Ukraine, including the mighty  Goths who would control a vast swathe of Ukraine for a couple of centuries. Following this, Ukraine was home to some of the earliest Slav states and notably, the grand principality of Kiev in the tenth and eleventh centuries made it a focus of East Slavic cultural development. The Cossack Hetmanate republic emerged in central Ukraine in the seventeenth century. The region only gained more permanent borders during the Soviet era and independence as a sovereign nation wasn’t until 1991 upon the collapse of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is a unitary republic governed under a semi-presidential system which has been moving increasingly towards strengthening ties with the rest of Europe outside Russia, until the 2022 invasion by Russia. 


Flags of Ukraine and Greece

Referring to the modern state as The Ukraine is incorrect both grammatically and politically, said ‘Oksana Kyzyma of the embassy of Ukraine in London. “Ukraine is both the conventional short and long name of the country.” The use of the article relates to the time before independence in 1991, when Ukraine was a republic of the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukrainians probably decided that the article denigrated their country (by identifying it as part of Russia) and abolished ‘the’ while speaking English… As well as being a form of linguistic independence in Europe, it is also hugely symbolic for Ukrainians.’ 

One nation we have not discussed, who descends from Joktan is Finland. Finland is ranked number 10 in the top ten technologically advanced nations, one behind China at nine. Finland is famously renowned as the creator of Nokia which ‘ruled the communication industry, for over a dozen years.’ Finland is proficient in high-tech projects and exhibits medical prowess. Finland’s core areas of focus are in biosciences, energy and environmental sciences. 

Ukraine Is the Most Important Country for the European Union… Ivan Dikov, 2019: 

‘Which is the most important “outside” country for the European Union at the present moment and for the foreseeable future… It’s Ukraine. The reason… Ukraine is the largest country that has the realistic potential, the desire, and a wide range of prerequisites to become a member state of the European Union… Of course, that is a very long shot: Ukraine hasn’t even been recognized as an official EU candidate country yet, and it’s not even sure when it will be, or even that it ever will be… Ukraine is the largest country that has the potential to become a member state of the European Union, and whose population seemingly has the desire to do so, and, what’s ever more important, whose society wishes to change correspondingly in the process. 

… Ukraine is what Poland was among the countries that joined the EU in the three “Eastern Enlargements” in the decade between 2004 and 2013… the great thing about the European Union is that it is a Union of “losers”: countries which either built empires to see them crashing down, or which were otherwise crushed, mauled, or severely threatened by empires… Ukraine… is quite big but not too big, so that… the Union as a whole… will be able to “swallow” its accession with relative ease. If or when Ukraine becomes a member of the EU, it would naturally assume a spot among the Big Six – which are now about to become the Big Five… (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Poland)… while this is still a very long shot, and Britain’s departure (which itself was a long shot for a while) is regrettable, but such a set up would bring a better East – West balance inside the EU… It would be very shrewd of the entire European Union to take notice of that fact.’

Any movement by Ukraine towards the European Union have been stopped in its tracks at time of writing; with Russian forces entering the Ukraine on the February 24, 2022, with a build up of troops in the Crimea from the formidable date of 22.02.2022. Events today were created centuries ago. Between 1772 and 1795, the Russian Empire and Hapsburg Austria as a result of the Partitions of Poland each had control of the territory that comprises modern day Ukraine for a hundred years or more. The Russian Revolution led to the Ukraine’s own civil war and then war with the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1921. In 1922, one hundred years ago, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was established. 

Leap ahead to 1954 and new Soviet leader Khrushchev who succeeded Stalin, being Ukrainian, transferred Crimea to Ukraine to mark the 300th anniversary of the Russian-Ukraine Union. When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, Crimea became independent. 

Late 2013 President Viktor Yanukovych, suspended preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union. This decision resulted in months of mass protests. The Ukrainian parliament impeached Yanukovych on 22 February 2014. On 22-23 February – exactly eight years previously – the Russo-Ukrainian War began when Russian forces entered Crimea. It was not an invasion as  such as Russia has a naval base in Sevastopol. A referendum in the largely ethnic Russian autonomous region of Crimea was held and with a ninety-five percent majority mandate, Crimea was de facto annexed by Russia in March 2014. 

The Crimean Peninsula has key strategic importance as the Black Sea region is pivotal to Russia, for it is the only gateway to the Mediterranean, Africa and beyond. Access is vital for shipping, oil and gas pipelines, as well as for military operations. Russia could and would never give up this most important warm water sea gate. 

It was during the Crimean War of 1853 to 1856 that a coalition of Britain, France and Turkey won Crimea from Russia. Russia’s mistrust of the West is reasonable and the threat of Ukraine joining the European Union and or Nato with possible foreign military presence on Russia’s border, has led to its preemptive strike on Ukraine, to topple a puppet regime with links and support from the West. Ukraine is already very unstable with its ‘debt-to-GDP ratio [doubling] and close to 60% of the people [living] below the poverty line. Its industries are crumbling, and pensions/social welfare have been deeply slashed. Neo-Nazi groups are on the rise, and 80% of young people are desperate to leave the country’ now with no end in sight.

The division between Eber’s sons Joktan and Peleg is supported not just by geography, language and culture but also genetically. A major clade of the Y-chromosome tree is the extensive Haplogroup R, which is mainly represented by two lineages – R1a and R1b. More than half the men of European descent belong to R1b. Haplogroup R1a, is currently found in central and western Asia, including India and in the Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

The Y-DNA map of Europe shows the principal Haplogroup division for Europe into, not just a north-south or east-west split but into quarters. Thus for northern Europe they are I1 and N1c1, for western Europe, R1b, for eastern Europe R1a and southern Europe I2 and J2.

A comparison of the main mtDNA [maternal] Haplogroups shows the diversity yet relatedness of the peoples of eastern Europe, stretching from Finland in the north to Greece in the south. Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo data not included. The four principal nations in the scriptures plus Finland compared and the other nations of eastern Europe in geographical order from north and west to east and south.

Finland:    H [36.3%] – U5 [20.7] – W [9.6%] – HVO+V [7.3%] – J [5.9%] –

K [4.5%] – I [4.2%] – T2 [2.4%] 

Ukraine:   H [39%] – U5 [9.8%] – T2 [8.4%] – J [8.1%] – U4 [5.8%] –

K [4.9%] – HVO+V [4.3%] – HV [3.5%]

Poland:     H [43.9%] – U5 [10.1%] – J [7.9%] – T2 [6.9%] – U4 [5.2%] –

HVO+V [4.9%] – K [4%] – W [3.6%] 

Romania: H [37.2%] – J [10.5%] – K [7.9%] – U5 [7.2%] – T2 [5.1%] –

HVO+V [4%] – W [3.9%] – T1 [3.5%] 

Greece:     H [40.5%] – J [9.5%] – T2 [6.6%] – U5 [5.2%] – K [5.1%] –

X [4.2%] – U3 [3.8%] – T1 [3.5%] – HV [2.7%] 

Estonia:      H [45.8%] – J [10.7%] – T2 [7.6%] – U5 [ 13.3%] – U4 [5.7%] – W [3%] 

Latvia:        H [42%] – U5 [10%] – U4 [8.7%] – T2 [6.3%] – J [6%] – I [4.6%] 

Lithuania:  H [45.3%] – U5 [11.4%] – T2 [7%] – J 6.4%] – U4 [3.8%] 

Belarus:      H [39.1%] – U5 [9.1%] – J [8.9%] – U [6.6%] – HVO+V [6%] – T2 [5.1%] 

Czech R:     H [40.2%] – J [10%] – U5 [9.7%] – T2 [7.7%] – T1 [4%] – K [3.4%] 

Slovakia:     H [43%] – U5 [ 11.1%] – J [9.6%] – T2 [8.1%] – U4 [5.5%] – K [3.8%] 

Hungary:    H [39.2%] – J [10.1%] – T2 [8.7%] – U5 [7.4%] – K [6.8%] – W [5.2%] 

Bulgaria:     H [41.9%] – J [7.7%] – U5 [6.9%] – K [5.8%] – T2 [4.7%] – T1 [4.7%] 

Slovenia:     H [44.4%] – J [9.8%] – U5 [9%] – T2 [6.4%] – K [5.3%] – HVO+J [4.8%] 

Croatia:       H [41.1%] – U5 [10.3%] – J [9.7%] – T2 [5.8%] – HVO+V [5.1%] – K [5.1%] 

Serbia:         H [41%] – U5 [9.4%] – J [6.8%] – U4 [6.8%] – HVO+V [5.1%] – K [4.3%] 

Bosnia/H:   H [45.8%] – U5 [8.8%] – J [8.3%] – U4 [4.9%] – K [4.9%] – HVO+V [4.7%] 

Macedonia: H [45%] – U5 [8%] – J [7.5%] – K [5%] – HVO+V [4.5%] 

Albania:       H [47.9%] – J [7.1%] – U5 [6.4%] – T2 [5.5%] – K [5.2%] – T1 [4.3%] 

                           H       HVO+V      J          K       T2       U4       U5        W

Finland           36          7               6           5        2         1           21        10

Estonia           46           2             11           2        8        6           13          3

Latvia             42           3               6           2        6        9           10          4

Lithuania       45           5               6           2        7        4            11          2

Belarus           39          6                9           2        5        3             9          4

Ukraine          39          4                8           5        8        6           10          3

Poland            44          5                8           4        7        5           10          4

Czech R.         40           3              10           3       8        2           10          1

Slovakia          43          3               10           4       8        6           11          2

Hungary         39           5              10           7        9        3            7          5

Romania         37          4               11           8        5        3            7          4

Bulgaria          42          4                8            6       5        4             7         3

Slovenia         44           5               10           5       6        3             9         2

Croatia            41           5               10           5       6        2           10         3

Serbia              41           5                7            4       2        7             9         3

Bosnia & H.   46           5                8           5        4        5             9         3

Macedonia     45           5                8           5        4        2             8         4

Albania           48           3                7           5        6        3             6         3

Greece             41           2              10           5         7        3            6          1

Placing the data in a table does not show a clear result for thirteen main variations of mtDNA Haplogroups, as a reflection of Joktan’s thirteen sons; though eleven lines are discernible. What is more interesting, is the fact that groupings of nations are evident. Finland stands out as an outlier; even so, they are not related to Scandinavia [Sweden, Denmark & Norway], though a Nordic nation themselves. The three Baltic nations show a strong similarity as expected. Belarus and Ukraine are very similar to each other. Poland forms a link between the White and Little Russians with the Czechs and Slovaks, who also not unexpectedly, are very similar. In fact, one wonders regarding the splitting in half of the former Czechoslovakia, from an ethnic viewpoint.

A surprise for this writer was the very close similarity between Hungary and Romania. Bulgaria is not so far removed from their neighbouring southern Slavs of the former Yugoslavia. Albania and Greece remain distinct, yet obviously related to the rest of eastern Europe.

                          H        HVO+V      J           K          T2          U4           U5        W

Finland            36            7             6            5           2             1             21         10

Ukraine            39           4             8            5           8             6             10          3

Russia              41            4             8            4           7             4             10          2

Poland             44            5             8            4           7             5             10          4

Romania         37            4            11            8           5             3               7          4

Greece             41            2            10           5            7             3               6          1

Turkey             31            1              9           6            4             2               3          2

Comparing the five already highlighted nations, that also reflect the changing Haplogroups from north to south and east to west, with Russia and Turkey supports the contention that the descendants from Arphaxad’s great grandson Joktan, share strong similarity with two of their four uncles and their offspring who equate to cousins, Asshur and Elam as opposed to Lud and Aram. The mtDNA Haplogroups show that southern Europe as represented by Romania and Greece, are quite similar to the Turks. Conversely, there is no denying that northern Europe, as represented by Poland and especially Ukraine are strikingly similar with the Russians.

Eupedia – emphasis & bold mine:

‘99% [of Y-DNA Haplogroup] R1a people belong to subclades of R1a1a1 (R1a-M417), which is divided in the following subclades:

R1a-Z645 makes up the majority of R1a individuals from Central Europe to South Asia.

R1a-Z283 is the main Central & East European branch.

R1a-M458, primarily a [western] Slavic subclade, with maximum frequencies in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, but is also fairly common in southeast Ukraine and northwest Russia.’

‘Its subclade R1a-L260 is clearly West Slavic, with a peak of frequency in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and radiating at lower frequencies into East Germany, East Austria, Slovenia and Hungary.

R1a-Z280 is also an Balto-Slavic marker, found all over central and Eastern Europe (except in the Balkans), with a western limit running from East Germany to Switzerland and Northeast Italy. It can be divided in many clusters: East Slavic, Baltic, Pomeranian, Polish, Carpathian, East-Alpine, Czechoslovak, and so on. Its subclade R1a-L365 is a Pomeranian cluster found also in southern Poland.

In terms of observable haplogroups, Greece and Albania are quite alike. Although geographically close to Sweden and Norway, Finland looks genetically very different, having more similarities with places like Estonia and Lithuania.Bulgaria and Romania are extraordinarily similar to one another. The haplogroup compositions of the Czech Republic, Austria, and Hungary aren’t exactly identical, but very comparable. Greece’s genetic makeup has a lot in common with Turkey’s. Genetically speaking, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia are extremely similar.

The Balkans is likely the most genetically varied area of Europe. Haplogroup N3 is observable all over Eastern Europe, but it’s practically nonexistent in Western Europe. Haplogroup R1a is one of the most predominant haplogroups in Nordic regions and Eastern Europe. While in Western Europe the most prevalent haplogroup is clearly R1b. The farther north you go in Europe, the harder it is to detect Haplogroup J1 ([Askenazi] Jewish, Arabic).’

There is now strong evidence that both R1a and R1b people contributed to the diffusion of the A111T mutation of the SLC24A5, which explains approximately 35% of skin tone difference between Europeans and Africans, and most variations within South Asia. 

The distribution pattern of the A111T allele (rs1426654) of matches almost perfectly the spread of Indo-European R1a and R1b lineages around Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and South Asia. R1a populations have an equally high incidence of this allele as R1b populations. On the other hand, the A111T mutation was absent from the 24,000-year-old R* sample from Siberia, and is absent from most modern R2 populations in Southeast India and Southeast Asia. Consequently, it can be safely assumed that the mutation arose among the R1* lineage during the late Upper Paleolithic, probably some time between 20,000 and 13,000 years ago. [Birth of Noah and then his three sons]

… the genes for blue eyes were already present among… Europeans belonging to Y-haplogroup I. The genes for blond hair are more strongly correlated with the distribution of haplogroup R1a, but those for red hair have not been found in Western or Central Europe before the Bronze Age, and appear to have been spread primarily by R1b people.

Nowadays, high frequencies of R1a are found in Poland (57.5% of the population), Ukraine (40 to 65%), European Russia (45 to 65%), Belarus (51%), Slovakia (42%), Latvia (40%), Lithuania (38%), the Czech Republic (34%), Hungary (32%), Norway (27%), Austria (26%), Croatia (24%), north-east Germany (24%) Sweden (19%), and Romania (18%).’ 

‘Haplogroup N1c is found chiefly in north-eastern Europe, particularly in Finland (61%), Lapland (53%), Estonia (34%), Latvia (38%), Lithuania (42%) and northern Russia (30%), and to a lower extent also in central Russia (15%), Belarus (10%), eastern Ukraine (9%), Sweden (7%), Poland (4%) and Turkey (4%). N1c represents the western extent of haplogroup N, which is found all over the Far East (China, Korea, Japan), Mongolia and Siberia, especially among Uralic speakers of northern Siberia.’

‘Haplogroup I1 is the most common type of haplogroup I in northern Europe. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Finland, where it typically represent[s] over 35% of the Y chromosomes. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, I1 is found in all places invaded by ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings. After the core of ancient Germanic civilisation in Scandinavia, the highest frequencies of I1 are observed in other Germanic-speaking regions, such as Germany, Austria, the Low Countries, England and the Scottish Lowlands, which all have between 10% and 20% of I1 lineages.

Haplogroup I2 is the most common paternal lineage in former Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria and Sardinia, and a major lineage in most Slavic countries. Its maximum frequencies are observed in Bosnia (55%, including 71% in Bosnian Croats), Sardinia (39.5%), Croatia (38%), Serbia (33%), Montenegro (31%), Romania (28%), Moldova (24%), Macedonia (24%), Slovenia (22%), Bulgaria (22%), Belarus (18.5%), Hungary (18%), Slovakia (17.5%), Ukraine (13.5%), and Albania (13.5%). It is found at a frequency of 5 to 10% in Germanic countries.’

The principal Haplogroups for Eastern Europe fall into five major categories of those whose predominant first clade is either N1c1, R1a, I2a1, E1b1b or J2. One is indicative of northern inhabitants, two of southern Europe and two sit astride both. Higher percentages of the N1c1 group are found mainly in the Balts; the same for the I1 group which is found mainly in the northern Slavs. The I2a2 and E1b1b groups reflect southern Slavs and J2, Greece. Levels of R1a are typically stronger in western Slavs. 

As far as a neat split thirteen ways to indicate the thirteen sons of Joktan, the data could be manipulated a number of ways for the desired outcome.

What is interesting is that if one takes a Cold War map of Europe prior to 1991, there’re thirteen nations exactly in Eastern Europe. One which were not part of the Soviet Union – Greece, five that were part of the Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine – and seven that had Communist regimes under the heel of Moscow: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Yugoslavia. I have deliberately left out Finland. I have grouped the twenty-three peoples [22 nations] as it struck me and thirteen sub-groups appear plausible. One for N1c1, six for R1a, three for I2a1, two for E1b1b and one for J2.

Finland:    N1c1 [61.5%] – I1 [28%] – R1a [5%] – R1b [3.5%] – I2a2 [0.5%] –

E1b1b [0.5%] 

Estonia:     N1c1 [34%] – R1a [32%] – I1 [15%] – R1b [8%] – T1a [3.5%] –

I2a1 [3%] – E1b1b [2.5%] – J2 [1%]  – I2a2 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Lithuania: N1c1 [42%] – R1a [38%] – I1 [6%] – I2a1 [6%] – R1b [5%] –

I2a2 [1%] – E1b1b [1%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Latvia:       R1a [40%] – N1c1 [38%] – R1b [12%] – I1 [6%] – I2a1 [1%] –

I2a2 [1%] – E1b1b [0.5%] – J2 [0.5%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

The consensus is that the Finns and Estonians are more similar, though the Y-DNA Haplogroups show Estonia and Lithuania are actually more closely related. All three Baltic nations obviously form one group and three divisions within it. Many, myself once included have assumed Finland as a Nordic [not Scandinavian] country and not having been within the Soviet Union’s Iron Curtain was a truly Western European Nation. In fact, biblical identity adherents have nearly always said that Finland is one of the twelve sons of Jacob, namely Issachar. 

I realised early in my study that Finland was not a lost tribe of Israel. It has taken considerably longer to identify the Finns correctly. I had thought for a long time that they were in fact a son of Abraham from his second wife Keturah. It is only recently that the truth was made evident for me. Identity adherents could have remonstrated against my arguments, twenty-five years ago perhaps. The Haplogroup studies of the past twenty years prove beyond a shadow of doubt, that Finland is neither descended from Isaac or  Abraham.

Though the enigma of the Finns does not end there. Recall we mentioned that Arphaxad had other sons, Anar and Ashcol. As with the mtDNA Haplogroup U5, the Finns stood out and apart from the rest of Joktan’s children, with considerably high levels. So it is with the Y-DNA Haplogroups N1c1 and I1, where the percentage levels are extraordinarily high in Finland compared to either the Scandinavian or the Baltic nations. 

Abraham had a second wife after his first wife Sarah died. Her name was Keturah and she gave Abraham six sons. 

Her lineage is not provided in the Bible, though Haplogroups of certain nations in Europe strongly indicate that Keturah was of Arphaxad’s line but not from one of Abraham’s brothers, that is from Peleg or directly from Joktan’s line. This means Keturah was not from Shelah, but someone related to Shelah; that is Anar or Ashcol. We will return to this discussion indirectly in Chapter XXVII Abraham. The main point is that the Finns are unique genetically, as well as their language group Finno-Ugric, which they share with Hungary. We will learn that Hungarian has roots all the way back to Sumer, which supports the notion that descendants of Arphaxad were the original peoples of Sumer and Akkad.

                             N1c1    I1    I2a1     R1b     R1a      I2a2     J2    E1b1b

Finland                 62     28                   4          5            1                    1

Lithuania:            42       6        6          5        38           1                    1

Latvia                    38      6        1         12        40           1         1          1

Estonia                 34     15        3          8        32            1        1          3

The table comparing Finland and the Baltic states that exhibit very high percentages of the N1c1 Haplogroup, confirms the uniqueness of Finland and the closeness of the Baltic nations with one other. Latvia is included in this groups as the difference between N1c1 and R1a is marginal. They also share a lack of haplogroup G which is indicative of southern Europe, the Caucasus and Anatolia.

Khazaria, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

Swedish Population Substructure Rvealed by Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data, multiple authors, 2011:

The autosomal DNA genomes of 1525 Swedes were autosomally compared to 280 Finns (from both Eastern Finland and Western Finland) along with Germans, Brits, and Russians.’

“… the Finns seem to be an exception to this rule: they do not appear genetically very close to the Swedes although they are geographically nearby. However, the Finns tend to show inflated genetic distances relative to [all] the [other] European populations in general, not only relative to the Swedes… Northern Swedes and Eastern Finns exhibited longer genetic distances than their geographic location would imply… Of the Swedes, Norrland and Svealand individuals were closest to Finns, and the Finns who had closest affinity to the Swedes were mainly Swedish-speaking Ostrobothnians (SSOB). 

Interestingly, the neighboring Swedish and Finnish provinces in the north, Norrbotten (NBO) and Northern Ostrobothnia (NOB), did not appear very close in the MDS plot; instead, Norrbotten seemed to show closer affinity to Western Finland… ”

“The principal component analysis clearly separated the Finnish regions and Eastern and Western counties from the Swedish as well as the Finnish regions and counties from each other. Geneland showed three clusters, roughly corresponding to Sweden, Eastern Finland and Western Finland.”

‘MtDNA diversity revealed that Lithuanians are close to both Slavic (Indo-European) and Finno-Ugric speaking populations of Northern and Eastern Europe. Y-chromosome SNP haplogroup analysis showed Lithuanians to beclosest to Latvians and Estonians.’ 

Belarus:  R1a [51%] – I2a1 [17.5%] – N1c1 [10%] – R1b [5.5%] – I1 [5.5%] –

E1b1b [4%] – J2 [2.5%] – G2a [1.5%] – I2a2 [1%] – J1 [1%] 

Ukraine:     R1a [44%] – I2a1 [20.5%] – R1b [8%] – E1b1b [6.5%] –

N1c1 [5.5%] – I1 [4.5%] – J2 [4.5%] – G2a [3%] – T1a [1%] –

I2a2 [0.5%] – J1 [0.5%] – Q [0.5%] 

Slovakia:    R1a [41.5%] – I2a1 [16%] – R1b [14.5%] – I1 [6.5%] –

E1b1b [6.5%] – G2a [4%]  – N1c1 [3%] – J2 [2%]  – I2a2 [1.5%] –

J1 [1%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

Slovenia: R1a [38%] – I2a1 [20.5%] – R1b [18%] – I1 [9%] – E1b1b [5%] –

J2 [2.5%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – G2a [1.5%] – T1a [1%] 

Moldova:  R1a [30.5%] – I2a1 [21%] – R1b [16%] – E1b1b [13%] – I1 [5%] –

J2 [4%] – J1 [4%] – I2a2 [3%] – N1c1 [1.5%] – G2a [1%] – T1a [1%] 

Hungary: R1a [29.5] – R1b [18.5] – I2a1 [16%] – I1 [8.5%] – E1b1b [8%] –

J2 [6.5%] – G2a [3.5%] – J1 [3%] – I2a2 [2%] – N1c1 [0.5%] 

Czech R:    R1a [33%] – R1b [28%] – I2a1 – [8.5%] – I1 [7.5%] –

E1b1b [6.5%] – G2a [5%] – J2 [4%] – I2a2 [3%] – N1c1 [2.5%] –

J1 [1%] – T1a [0.5%]

Poland:     R1a1 [57.5%] – R1b1b2 [12.5%] – I1 [ 8.5%] –

I2a1 [5.5%] – N1c1 [4%] – E1b1b1a2 [3.5%] – J2b2 [2.5%] –

I2a2 [2%] – G2a [1.5%] – T1a [0.5%] – Q [0.5%]

The second group of countries dominated br the R1a Haplogroup, primarily comprises the western and eastern Slavs. The mt-DNA showed a close alignment between the Czechs and Slovaks, whereas the Y-DNA Haplogroups reveals a wider variation; with the Slovaks having more in common with Slovenia and the Czechs with Hungary. Conversely from the mt-DNA, Belarus and Ukraine are not quite as similar, with Ukraine showing a similarity with Slovakia.

Poland is at the far northwest of Joktan’s children and carries the highest percentage of R1a. The Poles and Czechs have had territory that has mingled with Germany, before, during and after German* and Prussian expansion and the Magyars of Hungary have been closely associated with the Austrians* a descendant of Peleg* during the Hapsburg ruled Austro-Hungarian Empire.

One researcher states that the Hungarian language of Magyar is utterly unique in the world and is actually the closest to ancient Sumerian. As mentioned, the sons of Joktan settled in lower Mesopotamia and became known as Sumerians; while from their cousins of Peleg, the Akkadians originated.

                            N1c1    I1    I2a1     R1b     R1a      I2a2     J2    E1b1b

Poland                  4        9        6        13        57           2         3          4

Belarus                10       6      18          6        51           1         3           4

Ukraine                6        5       21         8        44           1         1           7

Slovakia                3        7      16        15        42           2         2          7

Slovenia                          9      21        18        38           2         3         5

Czech                     3       8        9        28        33           3         4         7         

Hungary                1        9      16        19        30           2         7         8

Moldova                2        5      21        16        31            3        4        13 

As we travel north to south the Haplogroup N1c1 visibly decreases; whereas J2 and E1b1b increase. Heading east, R1a decreases while travelling west, R1b increases as expected.

Khazaria, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine

Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome, multiple authors, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:  

This study included 125 Y-DNA samples from Moldavian males from the villages of Karahasani and Sofia and they were compared to other European populations including 54 Romanians living in eastern Romania and 53 Ukrainians living in eastern Moldova.’ 

“… In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R[1a]-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R[1b]-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations.” 

All Slovenian samples group together with Hungarians, Czechs, and some Croatians (‘Central-Eastern European’ cluster) as also suggested by the PCA… Analysis of the UPGMA tree based on the Fst matrix shows all Slovenian individuals clustering together with Hungarians, Czechs, Croatians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians… Y chromosome diversity splits into two major haplogroups R1b and R1a with the latter suggesting a genetic contribution from the steppe. Slovenian individuals are more closely related to Northern and Eastern European populations than Southern European populations even though they are geographically closer.”

Bosnia & Herzegovina:  I2a1 [50.5% ] – R1a [18%] – E1b1b [11.5%] –

J2 [5.5%] – I1 [4.5%] – R1b [4%] – G2a [2%] – J1 [1%] – N1c1 [1%] –

T1a [1%] – Q [1%] 

Croatia:  I2a1 [37%] – R1a [24%] – E1b1b [10%] – R1b [8.5%] –

J2 [6%] – I1 [6%] – G2a [3%] – I2a2 [1%] – J1 [1%] – Q [1%] –

N1c1 [1%] – T1a [1%]

Serbia:   I2a1 [34%] – R1a [18%] – E1b1b [15%] – J2 [9%] – I1 [8%] –

R1b [6%] – G2a [3%] – N1c1 [3%] – J1 [1%] – Q [1%] –

I2a2 [1%] – T1a [1%]

Montenegro: I2a1 [29.5%] – E1b1b [27%] – R1b [9.5%] – J2 [9%] –

R1a [7.5%] – I1 [6%] – G2a [2.5%] – Q

[2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – N1c1 [1.5%] – J1 [0.5%] 

Macedonia:      I2a1 [23%] – E1b1b [21.5%] – J2 [14%] – R1a [12.5%] –

R1b [12.5%] – G2a [4%] – I1 [3%] – J1 [2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – T1a [1.5] –

Q [0.5%] – N1c1 [0.5%] 

Romania:        Ia21  [28%] – R1a [18%] – R1b [15.5%] – E1b1b [14%] –

J2 [13.5%] – I1 – 3.5%] –  G2a [3%] – I2a2 [2.5%] – N1c1 [1.5%] –

J1 [1%] – T1a [1%] – Q [0.5%]

The third group possessing high percentages of the I2a1 Haplogroup clade, consists of nations in southeastern Europe. Three distinct groupings, each with former Yugoslavian states. Some have compared Romania and Bulgaria as being very similar, yet they both stand out as quite distinct from other Eastern European or South Eastern European nations. 

                                  N1c1    I1    I2a1     R1b     R1a      I2a2     J2    E1b1b

Bosnia                         1         5      51         4        18                      6         12

Croatia                        1         6      37         9       24           1         6         10

Serbia                          3        8      34         6       18           1         9          15

Montenegro               2        6      30        10        8           2         9         27

Romania                     2        4      28        16       18           3       14         14 

Macedonia                 1         6      23        13       13           2       14         22

Khazaria, Kevin Alan Brook – emphasis & bold mine:

‘I2a (I-P37.2), [the] most common haplogroup, found among 29.2% of Serbian Serbs and 30.9% of Bosnian-Herzegovinian Serbs. It peaks in the Herzegovina region. Other Slavic peoples also carry I2a. Geneticists believe that I2a ultimately originated in the Balkans about 10,000 years ago… 720 Croatian males had their Y-DNA examined… and compared with thousands of samples from different European ethnicities. Many different haplogroups were found among the Croats, yet 3 haplogroups stood out as particularly distinctive: I2a1b-M423 (found in over 30% of the Croatian samples and the most indigenous to the region), R1a1a1b1a*-M558 (found in 19% of the Croats…) and E1b1b1a1b1a-V13 (found in about 9% of the Croats…) This Y chromosomal study compares Croats with Slovenians, Serbs, Macedonian Slavs, Macedonian Greeks, Albanians, Poles… [and] reports that among 108 studied mainland Croatians their frequencies are 15.7% belonging to R1b-M173 [and] 34.3% to R1a-M17…’ 

Kosovo: E1b1b [47.5%] – R1b [21%] – J2 [16.5%] – I1 [5.5%] – [R1a [4.5%]  –

I2a1 [2.5%]

Bulgaria:    E1b1b [23.5%] – I2a1 [20%] – R1a [17%] – R1b [11%] –

J2 [11%] – Ga2 [5%] – I1 [4%] – J1 [3%] – I2a2 [2%]  – T1a [1.5%] –

Q [0.5%] – N1c1 [0.5%]

Albania:  E1b1b [27.5%] – J2 [19.5%] – R1b [16%] – I2a1 [12%] –

R1a [9%] – I1 [2%] – J1 [2%] – I2a2 [1.5%] – G2a [1.5%] –

T1a [1%] 

Greece:   J2 [23%] – E1b1b [21%] – R1b [15.5%] – R1a [11.5%] –

I2a1 [9.5%] – G [6.3%] – T [ 4.5%] – I1 [3.5%] – J1 [3%] –

I2a2 [1.5%] 

The final grouping driven by high percentages of E1b1b and J2 includes Kosovo, which emerged out of the ruins of the fragmented Yugoslavia. Most have always assumed Greece was a western nation and like Finland, it was not under Soviet domination. 

Yet, its Haplogroups show that it belongs where it is located, with its fellow brothers, the sons of Joktan.

                          N1c1    I1    I2a1     R1b     R1a      I2a2     J2    E1b1b

Kosovo                          6         3       21         5                      17        48

Albania                         2       12        16        9            2       20        28

Bulgaria             1         4       20       11        17            2        11        24

Greece                           4       10       16        12           2        23        21  

Restating from the previous chapter: As we progress through the descendants of Shem, we will find the levels of R1b vary, though gradually increase. We will keep a record of the levels of the two main R1b sub-Haplogroups for some of the nations we will study. R-M269 stretches across Europe, with levels increasing as one heads westwards. R-U106 stretches from western Europe eastwards with its epicentre in Central Europe. Turkey and Russia are the first two nations and both have lower levels of R1b, possessing higher levels of other Haplogroups, for instance for Turkey, it is Haplogroup J at 31% and for Russia it is Haplogroups R1a at 46% and N1c1 at 23%.

Turkey:   R-M269   14%   –  R-U106   0.4%

Russia:    R-M269   21%   –  R-U106   5.4%

Slovenia  R-M269   17%   –  R-U106      4%

Poland     R-M269  23%   –  R-U106      8% 

Ukraine   R-M269  25%   –  R-U106      9%

Czech       R-M269  28%   –  R-U106    14% 

The addition of the Slavic nations with Turkey and Russia highlights the progression of R1b from east to west as well as south to north. Slovenia is the most southern of the four represented yet also the most westerly. Its R-M269 level is closer to Turkey, though its R-U106 percentage is closer to Russia. Like the other three, R1a is the main Haplogroup and as with Ukraine, Haplogroup I2a1 is second. Ukraine has a R-M269 level similar to Russia, though its R-U106 percentage is higher. Poland is similar to Ukraine, whereas the Czechs stand out with higher levels of R-M269 and R-U106. How much of this has been influenced by their border changes with Germany and mixing of peoples is undetermined. Like Poland, the Czech Republic has Haplogroup R1a first and R1b second instead of I2a1. The Czech Republic has less R1a than the other three Slavic nations and conversely, more R1b than any other nation descending from Joktan; with Poland having the highest levels of R1a of all of Joktan’s descendants. 

Other Eastern European nations percentage of R-M269 include the following:

Bulgaria   R-M269   10.5%

Croatia     R-M269   12.4%

Romania  R-M269      13%

Greece      R-M269   13.5%

Moldova   R-M269   14.6%

Albania     R-M269   18.2%

Our previous table from Chapter XXIII Aram, compared the nations of Aram with Asshur, Elam and Lud. Now we can add the more numerous and biblically mentioned descendants from Arphaxad via his great grandson, Joktan.

                            R1b    E1b1b      J          I         G       R1a       T       N1C1

Spain                  69           7         10         7         3          2         3

Portugal             56         14         13         7         7          2         3

Brazil                  54         11         10         9         5          4      

S Italy                 28         19        26         7        11          3         3

Turkey                16         11         33         6        11          8         3          

Greece                16         21         26       15         6         12         5  

Romania            16         14         15        34        3         18         1           2

Poland                13          4           3        16         2         58        1           4

Iran                     10          7         32          1        10        16         3           1 

Ukraine               8           7           5        26         3        44         1           6

Russia                  6           3           3       20          1        46                    23

The patterns discerned thus far are substantiated in the comparison table of major Y-DNA Haplogroups. R1b noticeably increases from east to west. Russia has the lowest levels and Spain the highest. R1a visibly does the opposite, so that the lowest levels are exhibited in Spain and the highest in Poland, with Russia the second highest. The typically northern clade of N1c1 is virtually non-existent in southern Europe, with Russia – aside from the Baltic nations – having the highest percentage. Haplogroups more associated with North Africa, the Middle East and West Asia, E1b1b, J1, J2 and G are more prevalent in southern Europe, decreasing northwards. Greece has the highest percentage of E1b1b, Russia the lowest; Turkey has the highest in J and shares the highest of Haplogroup G with southern Italy; Russia and Poland have the lowest levels of J and Russia the lowest percentage of Haplogroup G, followed by Poland.

Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.

Proverbs 3:5-6 English Standard Version

© Orion Gold 2020-2022 – All rights reserved. Permission to copy, use or distribute, if acknowledgement of the original authorship is attributed to

Javan & Archipelago South East Asia

Chapter VII

Javan is the fourth son of Japheth and his sons are the second and last, recorded grandsons of Japheth in the Bible.

Genesis 10:4-5

Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition

4 And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cetthim and Dodanim. 5 By these were divided the islands [isles]in their lands… and their families in their nations.

Living Bible

The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, Dodanim. Their descendants became the maritime nations in various lands, each with a separate language.

1 Chronicles 1:7

English Standard Version

The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim.

The sons of Javan are associated with Islands – and the sea. Dodan is called Rodan in 1 Chronicles. Recall, a similar situation with Gomer’s son Riphath [and Diphath] – regarding the reverse transliteration of the first letters R and D. Either, another scribal error has occurred, with a different reference to the same Dodanim who once lived on the Greek Island of Rhodes… or there is an additional son of Javan, [or even a grandson, via Javan’s son Dodan].

I paused, wondering which word to use to describe the situation and checked transcription, which had come to mind, though I did not know what it meant. I then found the following definition, much to my surprise.

‘Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. A molecule that allows the genetic material to be realized as a protein was first hypothesized by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod. Severo Ochoa won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for developing a process for synthesizing RNA in vitro with polynucleotide phosphorylase, which was useful for cracking the genetic code.’

I was struck by the coincidence of the letters D and R for DNA and RNA, with the first letters for Dodan and Rodan. [I found this coincidence interesting, but had no reason to pursue the mRNA aspect in 2020, when I began writing this series of articles. It did attract my attention though, when I first heard the term: Covid 19 mRNA vaccine. Please see related article on website, Covid 19 Injection.]

The Book of Jubilees provides the location of Javan some time after the flood when Japheth’s children lived in southern Central Asia, Asia Minor and Southeastern Europe.

Book of Jubilees 9:10-11

And for Javan came forth the fourth portion every island and the islands which are towards the border of Lud.

This is a reference to when Javan lived throughout the Greek Islands and Lud [son of Shem] was located in the west of Asia Minor.

Book of Jasher 7:6 and 10:13

And the sons of Javan were Elisha, Tarshish, Chittim and Dudonim… And the children of Javan are the Javanim who dwell in the land of Makdonia [Macedonia].

We will study Javan, his eldest son Elishah and his youngest son Dodan. Javan’s other two sons, the Kittim [Kitti] and Tarshish, we will discuss separately.

Israel A History Of – emphasis theirs: 

‘The name Javan is the original form of the name Ionia. Ionia is synonymous with Greece. The same Hebrew word is translated “Javan” in some passages, and “Greece” in others. It is recognized and agreed upon by scholars that of the sons of Noah, Japheth, and his son Javan, were the initiators of the Greeks. Hellas, as in Hellespont and Hellenists, is a form of the name Elishah [Javan’s firstborn son], and came to be applied to Greece as a whole. The Tell el Amarna and Ugaritic documents, dating from the 1400’s to the 1300’s B.C., make mention of the Alasians. It appears that the Alasians were from Cyprus, yet another Greek connection to the sons of Noah and their descendants. [Dodan] are apparently the same as the Rodanim, mentioned in I Chronicles 1:7. The influence of Dodanim can be seen in the geographical names of Dardanelles, and Rhodes.’

Ancient Civilisation: 

‘The name of the next grandson, Javan, is the Hebrew word for Greece. Greece, Grecia, or Grecians appears five times in the Old Testament, and is always the Hebrew word Javan. Daniel refers to ‘the king of Grecia’ (Daniel 8:21), literally ‘the king of Javan’. Javan’s sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim (Genesis 10:4), all of whom have connections with the Greek people. The Elysians (an ancient Greek people) obviously received their name from Elishah. Tarshish or Tarsus was located in the region of Cilicia (modern Turkey). Encyclopaedia Britannica says that Kittim is the biblical name for Cyprus… Dodonaeus, possibly a reference to the fourth son of Javan… His oracle was at Dodena.’ 

At the time of Daniel [circa 500’s BCE], the Greeks mentioned are the forerunners of the Greco-Macedonian Empire that would supplant the Medo-Persian Empire. These Greeks are a very different proposition to the original founders of the Greek isles and coasts after the Flood. The sons of Javan dispersed from the Middle East at the time of Peleg and the Tower of Babel circa 6755 BCE and into the Aegean. The later inhabitants of Greece, long after Javan’s descendants had begun their eastward arc towards the Far East [and after the Minoans and Mycenaeans had arrived beginning circa 3500 BCE], began populating Greece from circa 1700 BCE. Please refer to point number two in the introduction.

A H Sayce, page 46-47: 

‘Cyprus was called the island of the lonians by the Assyrians… Tarshish is usually identified with Tartessos in Spain, not far from the modern Gibraltar. It was the furthest point reached in the western basin of the Mediterranean by the Phoenician and Greek traders. The ships which made the voyage were consequently known as the ships which traded to Tarshish, or more briefly, ships of Tarshish. The phrase gradually came to be applied to any kind of merchant vessel, even to those which had never visited Tarshish at all. Kittim was Kition in Cyprus… It was, however, a Phoenician and not a Greek settlement… Dodanim, on the other hand, may represent a Greek colony…. Rodanim is an alternative reading of Dodanim… In this case, it will denote the natives of the island of Rhodes.’

The sons of Javan as the original ‘Greeks’ founded civilisations on the islands of Cyprus, Crete, Rhodes, Sicily, Malta and beyond all the way to Spain – its islands and coastal regions. Much later, the Phoenicians [a maritime people descended from Shem] occupied the Island of Cyprus and many of the other isles located in the Mediterranean Sea.

Dr Hoeh adds the following – emphasis mine:

‘… where are the Greeks, South Italians, Spaniards and Portuguese mentioned in prophecy? Turn to Genesis 10:2, 4. Here is the answer. You find Javan, a son of Japheth, listed. Javan had four sons… In I Chronicles 1:7 the last name is spelled Rodanim. The Bible itself proves how often names were changing in ancient times.

Where are the sons of Javan today? The Bible makes the answer very plain. No need to look for any evidence outside of the Bible this time. Look in either STRONG’s or YOUNG’s CONCORDANCE. There you will find that in the Old Testament, wherever the words “Greece” or “Grecia” are used in English, the word “Javan” is used in Hebrew! Javan is the father of the Greeks, and of the other Latins. His son Elishah spread into “Hellas” —the Greek Isles in the Aegaean Sea and to Cyprus, anciently called “Alisha”. His son Dodanim or Rodanim spread through the Dodecanes, and the Isle of Rhodes and parts of the French Mediterranean coast along the Rhone.’

It is a common assumption interpreting Javan as the Latins of Italy and the Iberian peninsula – due to the apparent Greek-Greece connection. Remembering points one and two in the introduction, the original sons of Javan [from Japheth] travelled throughout the Mediterranean leaving their presence behind them through names of cities. 

Peoples descended from Shem, followed and settled. They may have assumed the original names, for instance ‘Greece’, though todays Greeks are not the sons of Javan, nor are they the remnants of the mighty Greco-Macedonian Empire, as we shall learn. As the constant reader will already know or is beginning to see, it is inaccurate to assume otherwise, merely based on place names.

Javan in Hebrew means: ‘Mire’ from the noun yawen and translated as Ionia, Grecia  or Greece. It has a similar meaning to the root word H3196 effervescing, as in hot and active [like the amazing four hundred Volcanoes in Indonesia, of which one hundred and thirty are active]. In Persian it means ‘young.’ 

Abarim Publications:

‘The name Javan comes from yawen… which is wet [swampy, boggy ground] or soft mud and represents the transitional state between water… and dry land… water (seas and rivers) denote liquidity, growth and potential… in the Bible the great cultures are always associated with their respective great rivers. For a meaning of the name Javan, Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Supple, Clay. NOBSE Study Bible Name List simply reads Greece.’

An appropriate name when considering Javan’s relationship with water and where his sons are dwelling today. The descendants of Javan are located [adjacent to their cousins from Gomer] in the principal archipelago nations of South East Asia – Malaysia [Singapore], the Philippines, the Pacific Islands… and Indonesia, to be discussed in the next chapter. 

Elishah in Hebrew means: ‘God supports’, ‘God is my salvation’, also ‘to set upright, to stand.’ Abarim Publications adds that the verb, Sasha means ‘to be unrestricted’ and thus to be free, to be saved from oppression and ultimate demise. The adjective Shoa means: ‘(financially) independent’ or ‘freed in an economic sense’. This definition is indicative of modern Malaysia.

Ezekiel 27:7

New English Translation

Fine linen from Egypt, woven with patterns, was used for your sail to serve as your banner;

blue and purple from the coastlands of Elishah were used for your deck’s awning.

Footnote: This is probably a reference to Cyprus.

The word translated as coastlands is H339 ‘iy meaning: coast, island, shore, region and a desirable, habitable spot. Translated in the KJV as mainly isles [30] or islands [5]. Many translations translate Elishah as Cyprus, which can also mean Kitti the third son of Javan. This is a fascinating connection as Elishah and Kitti both lived on Cyprus, before it became associated mainly with the Kittim. Kitti does work as an identity, for the simple reason they too are a maritime nation sharing territory with Elishah today. Anciently, Elishah lived on islands as well as the Grecian mainland. 

Today, Malaysia is the only nation from Javan that is not entirely comprised of islands. It is divided as West Malaysia on the peninsula and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo [the world’s third largest island]. Malaysia has a long history of maritime activities, whether it be trade through shipping and its practical location for ports or its many shipyards.

Located In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants were Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century CE and established ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries. Between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, most of the southern Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijayan Empire. In the early fifteenth century, Parameswara, a runaway king of the former Kingdom of Singapura [linked to the old Srivijayan court], founded the Malacca Sultanate. Malacca was an important commercial centre attracting trade from all around the region.

Malacca was conquered by Portugal in 1511, after which it was controlled by the Dutch  from 1641. In 1786, the British Empire established a presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of Kedah leased Penang Island to the British East India Company. The British later acquired the town of Singapore in 1819and in 1824 took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. By 1826 the British controlled Penang, Malacca and Singapore. Under British rule, the immigration of Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged. 

Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946 and restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieving independence in 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore in 1963 to become Malaysia, though in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. Half the population of Malaysia is ethnically Malay with the additional minorities including Chinese, Indians and indigenous peoples. The population of Malaysia is 32,855,036 people. The Malays account for 13% of the total population in Singapore of 5,903,392 people.

The mtDNA Haplogroup E [2% in the Malay Archipelago] is found throughout Maritime Southeast Asia. It has been detected in populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia [including Sabah of Borneo] as well as Taiwan. It is nearly absent from mainland East Asia, where its sister group M9a [a sub-clade of E also found in Japan] is common. The references to Japan and Taiwan, we will study further. Even though Taiwan is predominantly Han Chinese, there is a residue of haplogroup E because the Malayo-Polynesian [Austronesian] peoples originally entered Taiwan from the Chinese mainland. 

The main mtDNA haplogroups for Malayans include Ma [39%], B5 [11%] and F1a [17%], compared with Thailand that we looked at earlier, of B5a [9.4%], F1a1a [8.9%] and M [8.9%]. Though these are shared Southeast Asian mtDNA haplogroups and Thailand and Malaysia are neighbours, the dividing line between Gomer and Javan is evident in the significant difference in percentage [excepting F1a]. Other key haplogroups for the Malays include: M21a [6%], B4 [8%], N9a [3%] and R [8%].

Dodan in Hebrew means: ‘Leaders’ from the verb dada, ‘to move or lead slowly’

Abarim Publications:

‘In the parallel text of 1 Chronicles 1:7, the Dodanim are called Rodanim. Some scholars believe that the Chronicler made an error and read a Hebrew (resh) for the somewhat similar (daleth — which would be comparable to a professional writer today speaking of Oatar instead of Qatar; rather unlikely), and threw an additional waw) in for good measure. Another possibility is that the Dodanim of old were known as Rodanim in the Chronicler’s days. It’s even possible that by speaking of Rodanim, the Chronicler indicates that his text is not a copy of but rather a commentary on the established text…

The name Dodanim appears to be a plural form of a name similar to Dedan, and is closely similar to the name [Dedan]. The Dedanim, however, are either descendants of Japheth’s brother Ham (Genesis 10:7) or else Jokshan, a son of Abraham and a distant descendant of Japheth’s other brother Shem (Genesis 25:3).’

Two Dedans are mentioned in the Bible: one a grandson of Cush, son of Ham and the other a grandson of Abraham, descended from Shem. Two different Dedans, though commentators have invariably tried to equate them as one and the same person. Dodan’s name is very similar, though he is a separate person, resulting in a total of three people – two Dedans and one Dodan.

‘It’s not immediately clear where the name Dodanim may have come from, but to a Hebrew audience it would have looked related to the following root group: The root (yadad ) has to do with love… in the affectionate, physical sense. Adjective (yadid) means beloved or lovely… an identical verb (yadad II) means to cast a lot… originally meant to cast but which evolved to praise… our root has to do with physical fondling… [and]… to move slowly.’ 

The Filipinos represent the descendants of Dodan today. The writing of Dodan in the plural as Dodanim in the Bible may be linked to the diversity of the Filipino people over such a large volume of island territory. The same maybe true of the Rodanim and Kittim.

The Republic of the Philippines incredibly consists of approximately 7,641 islands that are categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city is Manilla and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the single urban area of Metro Manilla. The Philippines has a population of 111,265,058 people. It is the 13th most populated country in the world. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands, with Negritos, some of the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples [Malayo-Polynesian].

In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived and claimed the islands for Spain. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Colonisation began when Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565.In 1571, Spanish Manilla became the capital of the Spanish East Indies which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista. From 1565 to 1821 the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico based Viceroyalty of new Spain. Later it was administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence. Manilla was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade and Catholicism became the dominant religion. 

In 1896 the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish-American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States and Filipino rebels declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine-American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. The Philippines gained independence in 1946.

Oxford Business Group – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘Over the last 50 years, the Philippines has grown to become a leading provider of maritime professionals and is subsequently considered by many to be the seafaring capital of the world.  At present there are over 10.5m Filipinos living and working abroad, and in 2013 they sent total remittances of around $23 [billion] back home to the Philippines. The maritime industry is a major contributor to this: nearly 400,000 Filipino seafarers were working overseas in 2013, contributing a total of more than $5.2 [billion] in remittances. “Seafaring is the Philippines’ biggest strength, currently supplying roughly 30% of the world’s seafarers, which is miles away from the second-largest source country.”’ 

Pommie Travels, Victoria Brewood – emphasis mine:

‘Asia is the last place you’d expect to find an English-speaking nation. A lengthy occupation by the United States introduced Filipinos to English. Today, most Filipinos [5th biggest English speaking nation in the world] speak the world’s most-spoken language… Filipino culture – it stands out noticeably from the rest of Asia. Thanks to 500 years of Spanish and American colonization, you could be forgiven for thinking you’ve arrived in Latin America rather than Asia.’

Philippine Mitochondrial DNA Diversity: A Populated Viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia? Multiple Authors, 2010 – emphasis & bold mine:

Comparison of the mtDNA haplogroup frequency distributions in the three major island groups of the Philippines showed similar haplogroup profiles. Southeast Asian populations cluster closely together in an MDS plot including groups from Near Oceania and Polynesia. However, an MDS plot of Asians and Southeast Asians reveals genetic differentiation between these groups.’ 

‘Plot of first two dimensions produced by MDS analysis of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in selected East, Southeast Asian, Near Oceanic, and Polynesian populations, including Borneo (BOR), Hakka (HAK), Hlai (HLA), Java (JAV), Maluku (MAL), Nusa Tenggara—Austronesian (NTA), Northern Han (NOH), Philippines (PHL), Southern Han (SOH), Sulawesi (SLW), Sumatra (SUM), Taiwanese Aborigines (TAB), Thailand (THL) and Vietnam (VTN). (A) Including Nusa Tenggara—Non-Austronesian (NTN), Polynesian (POL), and West Papuan (WEP); Borneo and Sumatra overlap. (B) East Asian and Southeast Asian groups only.’

The Philippines, Taiwanese Aborigines, and Sulawesi cannot be clearly separated in the first dimension of the MDS plot; these groups can only be distinguished in the second dimension. However, the MDS plot does enable us to differentiate between the latter populations and other Island Southeast Asians (Maluku, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and Austronesian-speaking groups in the Nusa Tenggaras). Han Chinese populations from Taiwan (Hakka) and southern China group closely together, whereas mainland Southeast Asian populations from Vietnam and Thailand are interspersed with other East Asian groups. Genetic distances between these populations are most closely correlated with the distributions of haplogroups B5b, M7b3, and M7c3c (r ≥ 0.25); less so with other frequent haplogroups such as E1a1a and B4a1a. Lineages that comprise a significant proportion (≥5%) of the Philippine population and are generally shared with both Island and/or Mainland Southeast Asians include B4b1, B4c1b, B5b, E, and R9c. Among these mtDNA lineages, haplogroup E is unusual in that it is virtually absent in mainland Asia .’

Frequencies of major mtDNA haplogroups in East Asian, Southeast Asian, Papuan, and Polynesian groups.

‘Haplogroup B4a1a is highly diverse in Taiwan, but the subclade (B4a1a1) characterized by a mutation at np 14,022 is absent there. The identification of haplogroup B4a1a1 in the Philippines may indicate a stage of development of the Polynesian Motif along the north to south pathway proposed in the general Out of Taiwan model for the Austronesian population expansion. This apparently completes a series of genetic links from Taiwan (where the B4a1a motif may have originated), through the Philippines (where the np 14,022 mutation might have evolved) and finally to Indonesia (where the full Polynesian Motif first occurs). However, the observation of a B4a1a1 sample in the Philippine population is not necessarily incompatible with models that argue for an extended development period for the Polynesian Motif in ISEA, if the proposed area of development of the motif is expanded to include the Philippines. Another alternative explanation is that the B4a1a1 lineages might have been brought to the Philippines by a back migration from Indonesia.’

The cluster of island Southeast Asia and Polynesia mtDNA [maternal] haplogroups confirms the genetic link between Polynesia with the rest of southeast of Asia. The article also supports that migration from Taiwan to Indonesia and Polynesia went via the Philippine Islands. The most common Filipino haplogroups include: B4a1a [11%], B5b [8%], D6 [1%], E1a1a [11%], F1a4 [4%], R9c [5%], M7c3c [11%]  and Y2 [5%].

Other mtDNA haplogroups that the Filipinos possess in common with Taiwan include: M7b3 [3%], E1a1a, B4a1a, B4b1 [8%], M7c3c, and B4c1b [5%].

The most common mtDNA haplogroups for Filipinos and Malays compared to Thais and the Vietnamese.

Vietnamese:  M7  [10]%   B5   [7%]    F1    [19%] 

Thais:             M     [9%]    B5a [9%]    F1a  [9%]

Malays:          Ma   [39%]  B5   [11%]   F1a  [17%]

Filipinos:       M7c [11%]   B5b [8%]    F1a  [4%] 

The Filipinos possess more E1a [11%] and this accounts for less F1a, distinguishing them from the other three peoples; otherwise they have similar levels of M and B5 as the Vietnamese. The Vietnamese have a higher level of B4 [17%], with F1 that separates them from the others. The Malays are as high in these three haplogroups [M, B5, F1] as the Thais, their neighbours are low; highlighting their respective difference from each other as well as the Vietnamese and Filipinos. The Malays have a lower, yet still quite high level of B4 [8%], whereas the Filipinos are between the Malays and Vietnamese for B4 [11%].

Complete mtDNA Genomes of Filipino Ethnolinguistic Groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region, Multiple Authors, 2013 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route [from Taiwan] for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago.

Haplogroups B4b1a and B5b1c are of appreciable frequency (> 5%) in [Filipino Ethnolinguistic] groups. However, population comparison was limited to FE groups and Japan because Japan was the only population-based and geographically defined group in the reference data set that possessed B4b1 and B5b1 lineages.FE group and Japanese B4b1a and B5b1 coding sequences fall into distinct clades that diverged some 15–20 kya… suggesting an ancient link. But as macrohaplogroups B4 and B5 and their sublineages are generally associated with mainland East and Southeast Asia, more population-based samples of complete mtDNA genomes from these regions are required in order to verify the observed Filipino–Japanese association.’

We will refer back to this paragraph and the genetic link between the Filipinos and Japanese. It is as revealing and vital as the link we found and investigated between the Vietnamese and Koreans – Ashkenaz and Togarmah of Gomer.

‘In conclusion, this study has demonstrated various features of the mtDNA landscape of the Philippines… mtDNA showed that the Filipino population is heterogeneous and composed of diverse FE groups and Regional Centres groups, with no simple dichotomy between FENegrito and FEnon-Negrito groups… there are different trends in Ne changes that could suggest different demographic histories for the Filipino Ethnolinguistic groups included in the study… FE groups have genetic affinities primarily with northern East Asia and Southeast Asia…’

The most frequently occurring Y-DNA [Paternal] haplogroups among modern Filipinos are haplogroup O1-M119 [O1a] and haplogroup O2-M122 [O2a1], which is found with high frequency in many populations from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Polynesia^. Haplogroup O1-M119 is shared especially with Taiwan, Western Indonesia and Madagascar.^ Filipinos also possess O1-M268 [O1b] the clade that Vietnam and Korea share. The main Y-DNA haplogroups for Malays and Filipinos:

Malaysia:       O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F – [R1a – D1 – H1a]

Philippines:  O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b 

The Malays and Filipinos share five main key haplogroups and are clearly siblings; though the difference between them is marked by the significant percentage of O1b Malaysia has [32%] – the same haplogroup that Vietnam and Korea share in equal measure of 33%. Certain lesser clades show influence of migration from Indo-China and Thailand in to Malaysia – R1a, D1 and H1a – plus the influence of the Vietnamese with the high percentage of O1b.

Malaysians [apart from the Philippines] are not closely aligned with the other nations mentioned and have a distant affinity with cousins, Vietnam; while the Filipinos [apart from Malaysia] have a distant affinity with cousins, Thailand.

Malaysia:       O1b – O2a1 – O1a – K – C – F – [R1a – D1 – H1a]

Vietnam:        O2a1 – O1b – Q1a – O1a – C – D1 – N 

Philippines:   O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b 

Thailand:       O2a1 – O1a – C – D1 – K 

The key Y-DNA East and Southeast Asian haplogroups of O, K and C represented in percentages.

Malaysia:        O1b  [32%]      O2a1 [28%]     O1a  [8%]     K [8%]       C   [6%] 

Philippines:    O1b  [3%]        O2a1 [39%]     O1a  [28%]   K [20%]     C  [5%] 

Vietnam:         O1b  [33%]      O2a1 [40%]     O1a  [6%]                        C  [4%] 

Korea:              O1b  [33%]     O2a1 [42%]     O1a [3%]  K [4%]        C  [13%]

Haplogroup K shows the affinity between brothers Elisha and Dodan – Malaysia and the Philippines – as distinct from their cousins from Gomer. The higher percentage of C, separates Korea. The higher percentage of O1a, coupled with the lesser of O1b distinguishes the Filipinos.  

Turning our attention to [the relationship of Dodan with], Rodan – the Polynesian [and Micronesian] Peoples of the Pacific [Oceania]. 

Their locations include such diverse regions as Madagascar to the west, Hawaii to the north, Easter Island to the eastand New Zealand to the south. 

Riphath and Diphath of Gomer [Cambodia and Laos] were not a scribal error but an indication of two peoples closely aligned, historically, culturally and ethnically, one possibly deriving from the other, or Diphath is a later son of Gomer. Javan’s youngest son Dodan[im] strangely mirrors, the same relationship with Rodan[im].

Herman Hoeh – emphasis & bold mine: 

‘The Mauri, Milyaes and Gasgars migrated from the Mediterranean via Asia Minor… The Gasgars live on the Island of Madagasgar. The word “Madagasgar” means “Gasgars of the land of Madai! “The Milyaes are the Malayas of Southeast Asia; the Mauri are the Maori of the South Pacific, The Maori claim to have come from the West by ship from the land of “Raiatea”(AN INTRODUCTION TO POLYNESIAN ANTHROPOLOGY, by Peter Buck, p.14). Where was Raiatea? Some lost continent? NO! Raiatea was a land familiar to the Romans. They called it Raetia. It was located south of the Danube River… (SMITH’s CLASSICAL DICTIONARY).’

A number of researchers maintain the Polynesians sailed from South America across the Pacific Ocean to the Pacific Islands. In 1947, the Kon Tiki voyage by Thor Heyerdahl using a a Polynesian balsa wood raft sailed across the Pacific, westward from South America, beyond Easter Island to prove it could be done. Polynesians did sail that same direction… only after they had first sailed eastward to South America circa 1100 CE. When they returned, they brought with them bottle gourds, the paper mulberry tree and sweet potatoes [Kumara]. All are found throughout the South Pacific, yet they are sourced from South American varieties. This transference of vegetation has confused some into thinking the Polynesians migrated originally from South America.

The Milyaes or Malays are linked to the Polynesians. Sayce comments on page 32 – bold mine:

‘It was the philologist, for example, who first suggested the common origin of the Malayo- Polynesian race. He found that the languages spoken by the race implied a common mother-speech at no very distant period, and thus made it possible that the speakers also were derived from a common stock.’

The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume VII: The Malayo-Polynesian Theory III, John Fraser, 1898 – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Scientists have also done much to spread the Malayo-Polynesian theory, chiefly Wilhelm von Humboldt, who, on the very first page of his great work (Über die Kawi Sprache auf der Insel Java), says, “Under this name—the Malayan race—I include the inhabitants of all the islands of the great Southern Ocean.”

The view which I take is a “new theory” so far as I am concerned, for I have never seen it stated by any other. It is shortly this: Whereas others maintain that a conspicuous portion of the Polynesian language has come from the Malays, I hold that these words were Polynesian before they became Malayan; that is, that the Malays, when they came into the Indian Archipelago, found a Polynesian language there from which they borrowed largely. And further, I hold that in Indonesia the first dwellers were of the Melanesian stock, that the ancestry of the present Polynesians was grafted on that, and that the Malays are the last and latest settlement there. Thus I account for the well-known fact that the ground-work of the purely Melanesian languages shows many root-words in common with the languages both of the brown Polynesians and the Malays. Others say that these words come through the Malays; I say that the Malays were the borrowers. “The truth,—the more it’s shook, it shines,” and every question as to the origin of our Polynesians and their speech ought to be worthy of a place in your Journal… for the Malay itself is a borrower from far earlier forms which came originally from India.”’

Ancient Origins, Caleb Strom – emphasis & bold mine:

Although it is plausible that Polynesia was settled by ancient South Americans; all the genetic, linguistic, and ethnographic evidence points toward a predominantly southeast Asian origin. The two main theories today are called the Express Train Hypothesis and the Slow Boat Hypothesis. The Express Train Hypothesis says that Polynesians originally come from Taiwan by way of the Philippines and Melanesia. According to this view, Polynesians are mainly a part of a migration wave that came out of Taiwan.

The western part of Polynesia was settled between 3000 and 1000 BC by people from Taiwan via the Philippines as well as parts of New Guinea. Eastern Polynesia was settled beginning around 900 AD as Polynesian voyagers began to set out from Tonga and Samoa and other islands of western Polynesia to settle the Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island, among other islands of the region.

According to the Slow Boat Hypothesis, the ancestors of the Polynesians are of Austronesian descent and still have a connection to Taiwan, but the ancestors of modern Polynesians spent several centuries intermarrying with people of Papuan and Indonesian lineage before setting out to Polynesia.

The first view is supported by linguistic and ethnographic data, but there is genetic evidence for the second hypothesis.Genetic studies have shown, for example,that a significant percentage of the Polynesian population has y-chromosomal DNA [father] haplogroups coming from Papua New Guinea while most of the mtDNA [mother] comes from haplogroups in Taiwan and Southeast Asia.

This suggests some degree of intermarriage between Polynesians and other Austronesian groups as well as non-Austronesian groups [Melanesians]. Another possible line of evidence for this hypothesis comes from the fact that there is a gap in the language evolution of Polynesian Austronesian languages. 

Polynesian languages have features that no other Austronesian languages possess. This could be because of interaction with Papuan and Indonesian populations.

A study in 2020 has suggested that the date for Polynesians meeting South Americans should be pushed back even further, to around 1150 AD. The nature of those genetic links and the location for that first contact also differs from previous beliefs. As Ed Whelan writes: 

“Genetic evidence appears to prove that Polynesians are related to present-day Indigenous people, especially from the coast of Colombia and Ecuador. Interestingly, the DNA study concludes that the earliest contact was on Fatu Hiva, an island in the South Marquesas islands, sometime around 1150 AD, and not Rapa Nui which is much closer to the coast of South America.”

Is it possible that Amerindian cultures are partially responsible for the colonization of Polynesia, or at least part of it, after all? Although it is possible that South American voyagers sailed to Polynesia to meet the Rapa Nui or another group of Polynesians, the Polynesians are known to have been more skilled at seafaring at the time, so it is more likely that it was the Polynesians who came to the Americas. The Polynesians may have come to South America to trade with the natives, and as a result may have ended up also bringing home South American brides. Intriguingly, there is circumstantial evidence for pre-Columbian contact between Native Americans and Polynesians – chicken^^ bones that have been found at an archaeological site on a beach in Chile that appear to predate the coming of the Spaniards.

Regardless of where the Polynesians originally came from, their ancestry appears to be more complex than initially thought. The more we learn about historical genetics the more we realize just how convoluted the communication and intermarriage between different populations was in the past. If we go far back enough, current thinking is that we are all a mixture of many lineages of mankind which originally diverged from a single lineage that goes back to Africa, perhaps 200,000 years ago.’

All the way back to [mitochondrial] Eve, though both the time frame and the origin in Africa is gravely disputed.

Ancient Origins, April Holloway – emphasis & bold mine:

‘Research into the origins and dispersal of Polynesian chickens^^ has helped scientists reconstruct the early migrations of the Polynesians and the animals they carried with them. The results revealed that the Philippines is the most likely ancestral homeland of the Polynesians, whose forebears colonised the Pacific about 3,200 years ago.

Polynesian seafarers explored vast areas of the Pacific and settled nearly every inhabitable island in the Pacific Ocean well before European explorers arrived in the 16th century. However, the ancestral relationships of people living in the widely scattered islands of the Pacific Ocean have long puzzled anthropologists. 

The predominant theory is that the Polynesian people are a subset [Rodanim] of the sea-faring Austronesian people who have their origins in Taiwan, having arrived there through South China about 8000 years ago. From there it is believed that the spread out across the Pacific to Polynesia, a sub-region made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.’

Eight thousand years ago would be circa 7000-6000 BCE. This fits the time frame after the dispersal of all the nations at the time of Peleg and the Tower of Babel, about 6755 BCE.

‘It is thought that by roughly 1400 BC, the ‘Lapita People’, so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismark Archipelago of northwest Melanesia. This culture is seen as having adapted and evolved through time and space since its emergence “Out of Taiwan”. Within a mere three or four centuries between about 1300 and 900 BC, the Lapita archaeological culture spread 6,000 km until it reached as far as Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa.’

It is now held that between 3000 and 1000 BCE speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island Southeast Asia. There are three theories, regarding the spread of peoples across the Pacific to Polynesia. These are outlined by Kayser [2000]and are as follows:

  • Express Train model: ‘A recent (c. 3000–1000 BC) expansion out of Taiwan, via the Philippines and eastern Indonesia and from the northwest of New Guinea, on to Island Melanesia by roughly 1400 BC. Reaching western Polynesian islands around 900 BC. This theory is supported by the majority of current genetic, linguistic and archaeological data.’
  • Entangled Bank model: ‘Emphasizes the long history of Austronesian speakers’ cultural and genetic interactions with indigenous Island Southeast Asians and Melanesians along the way to becoming the first Polynesians.
  • Slow Boat model: ‘Similar to the express-train model but with a longer hiatus in Melanesia along with admixture — genetically, culturally and linguistically — with the local population. This is supported by the Y-chromosome data of Kayser, which shows that all three* haplotypes of Polynesian Y chromosomes can be traced back to Melanesia.’

Polynesians acquired a reputation as great navigators – their canoes reached the most remote corners of the Pacific, allowing the settlement of islands as far apart as Hawaii, Rapanui (Easter Island) and Aotearoa (New Zealand). The people of Polynesia accomplished this voyaging using ancient navigation skills of reading stars, currents, clouds and bird movements – skills passed to successive generations down to the present day.

Fast Trains, Slow Boats, and the Ancestry of the Polynesian Islanders, S Oppenheimer & M Richards, 2001 – emphasis & bold mine:

Our study provides evidence for a dual genetic origin of Pacific Islanders in Asia and Melanesia. This is in agreement with the Slow Boat hypothesis of Polynesian origins (Kayser, Brauer et al. 2000) according to which Polynesian ancestors originated in Asia, moved eastward, and mixed extensively with local Melanesians before colonizing the Pacific Islands. Although dating methods revealed somewhat similar entries of NRY/mtDNA haplogroups into Polynesia, haplotype sharing suggests that haplogroups of Melanesian origin may have appeared earlier in Polynesia than those of Asian origin, although more extensive sampling in Melanesia is needed to confirm this observation. The striking difference observed here between Asian and Melanesian contributions to the paternal and maternal gene pool of Polynesians suggests an admixture bias toward more Melanesian men, perhaps as result of uxorilocal (matrilocal) residence and matrilineal descent in ancestral Polynesian society (Have and Marck 2003)… Fiji played a pivotal role in the history of Polynesia: humans probably first migrated to Fiji, and subsequent settlement of Polynesia came from Fiji.’

After analysis of mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA, female] and Y Chromosome DNA [Y-DNA male], Atholl Anderson stated: ‘the ancestors of Polynesian women came from Taiwan while those of Polynesian men came from New Guinea. Subsequently, it was found that 96% of Polynesian mtDNA has an Asian origin, as does one-third of Polynesian Y chromosomes; the remaining two-thirds from New Guinea and nearby islands; this is consistent with matrilocal residence patterns.Polynesians existed from the intermixing of few ancient Austronesian-Melanesian founders, genetically they belong almost entirely to the Haplogroup B (mtDNA), which is the marker of Austronesian expansions.’ The high frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroup B within the Polynesians is the result of ‘founder effect’, representing the descendants of a few Austronesian females who had intermixed with Papuan men.

A 2010 study using meta-analysis of the most reliable radiocarbon dates available, suggested that ‘the colonisation of Eastern Polynesia [including Hawaii and New Zealand] proceeded in two short episodes: in the Society Islands from 1025 to 1120 AD and further afield from 1190 to 1290 AD,with Easter Island being settled around 1200.’More recent archeological models have projected dates between 300 to 800 CE for the settlement of Easter Island and a date of 500 CE has been suggested for Hawaii. Linguistically, there is a very distinct East Polynesian subgroup, sharing a number of innovations not seen in other Polynesian languages. Hawaiian and Maori oral histories support this, for the earliest varieties of New Zealand Maori speech have multiple sources from around central Eastern Polynesia.

Genetic History of Polynesians and New Zealand Maori… Edana Lord – emphasis and bold mine:

‘As people moved throughout the Pacific and into Polynesia, genetic interactions took place. 

The movement of mitochondrial haplogroups represent the migration of people from South East Asia through Near Oceania into Polynesia. B and Q are two such haplogroups which made it through to Polynesia. The B4 subclade arose… [and]… diverged into many more subclades including B4a1a which is restricted to Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The lineage B4a1a1 is prevalent in Near Oceania and has become almost fixed in Polynesia, making up more than 90% of all Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes. Haplotypes from the Q1 lineage have also been reported in Polynesia, in particular Gambier and the Cook Islands.

The majority of the haplotypes can be found within the B4 clade, which is well represented in South East Asian and Pacific regions. Within each of the three populations, haplotypes derived from the B4a1a1 haplogroup was the most common. This haplogroup is seen in high frequency throughout Polynesia, Micronesia, Coastal Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Philippines. As this is common to all of the populations investigated here, it shows that they have a shared ancestry.’ 

This is confirmation of a genetic link between the Filipinos and the Polynesians and Micronesians. One that we would expect for the Dodanim and Rodanim.

‘One haplotype common to all three populations is B4a1a1a…^ which is thought to have arisen in the Bismarck Archipelago11. The haplotypes can be separated into those from West Polynesia (Tokelau) and those from East Polynesia (French Polynesia and New Zealand). The haplotypes seen in West Polynesia are found deeper in the B4 clade than those from East Polynesia. This can be used as further evidence of population migration from West to East.

There are also haplotypes present in East Polynesia that are not seen throughout West Polynesia, such as the B4a1a1c haplotype… This can represent novel mutations in the expanding Polynesian populations or possibly genetic interactions with other groups of Polynesia and Micronesia.

The haplotypes present in the New Zealand population [Maori] are most similar to those from French Polynesia, for example haplotype B4a1a1m… This haplotype is restricted to the French Polynesian and New Zealand Maori populations. This contributes further to the hypothesis that New Zealand Maori are descended from Eastern Polynesians.’

Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences provide new insights into the Polynesian motif and the peopling of Madagascar, Multiple Authors, 2009 – emphasis & bold mime:

‘The ‘Polynesian motif’, popularly named for its high frequency among Polynesians, is characterized by a well known series of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms that now define haplogroup B4a1a1a…^

This lineage probably developed in eastern Island Southeast Asia or Near Oceania, during the mid- to late-Holocene, with recent dates suggesting an origin around 6,200 – 10,900 years before present (YBP)… The haplogroup’s immediate precursor… has been found in Taiwanese aboriginal groups with an estimated age of 13,200 YBP… This incremental series of dates are consistent with a model whereby Austronesian speaking populations expanded out of Taiwan during the mid-to-late-Holocene… Ultimately, the Austronesian expansion spread the immediate ancestor of the Polynesian motif, and later the motif itself, over a vast geographical area – from Taiwan in the north, New Zealand in the south, remote Polynesia in the east, and finally, Madagascar in the far west.’

These dates selected by scientists are closer to events recorded in the Bible than they realise. If we could marry scientific data with the Biblical record, then it would be difficult for either side to continue disbelieving the credentials of each other. The date of 10,900 – 6,200 years ago would be 8880 – 4180 BCE. The flood occurred circa 10,837 BCE. If we calculate enough time for the migrations of Japheth’s descendants and allow for the dispersion of peoples during the Tower of Babel incident [6755 BCE] then the movement of Javan’s grandchildren the Dodanim [Filipinos] and Rodanim [Polynesians] from Taiwan into the Philippines and beyond, was very likely during this time frame. 

The date of 13,200 years ago would equate to 11,180 BCE and this is interesting, as it falls between the birth of Japheth and the time of the flood. Japheth was born circa 11,837 BCE. Japheth as we have discussed, would have inherited and carried the [DNA genetic code] haplogroups that we now associate with the East and Southeast Asian peoples. This would have obviously included the mtDNA B haplogroup received from his mother and that would mutate into all the B clades; including B4a1a1^ that Rodan [the Polynesians] exhibit.

The Polynesian motif is currently found at highest frequency in Polynesia, where it approaches fixation in some populations. It is also common in Micronesia and parts of Near Oceania, where it is not necessarily restricted to Austronesian speaking populations, but also occurs in some rare Papuan speaking groups [proof of ancient admixture with Melanesians]. The motif is much less frequent in Island Southeast Asia, although it has been found sporadically in both central and eastern Indonesia. In Madagascar – the western edge of the Austronesian expansion – the Polynesian motif reaches a frequency of around 20%, thus leading to proposals that the island was settled by an Indonesian population, which later colonized the Pacific Islands, or even more speculatively, by direct migration from Polynesia itself.

Furthermore, these studies revealed that Indonesians have a major role in the colonization of Madagascar, and highlighted Borneo as a likely source of the Asian-derived Y chromosomes found in Malagasy today. This is consistent with linguistic evidence suggesting that the Malayo–Polynesian language spoken by Malagasy is related to the Barito language of southern Borneo. 

Currently, our best model for the settlement of Madagascar suggests that the first settlers reached the island [some] 1500–2000 years ago, when there is clear archeological and paleoecological evidence of their occupation. Ultimately, a complex – and largely unknown – genetic and linguistic admixture process between populations of African and Southeast Asian descent produced the Malagasy we recognize today.

We observed the Polynesian motif at relatively high frequency in all three Malagasy groups: 50.0% in Merina, 21.8% in Vezo, and 13.4% in Mikea… Indeed, the first and second phases of our analysis revealed that 58 of the 266 Malagasy shared a set of mutations… which assign them to haplogroup B4a1a1.^’

There is a genetic line through the mtDNA B4a1a1 haplotype, from the Polynesians [and Micronesians] from Rodan, to the Filipinos of Dodan and then to their ancient ancestral home of the Island of Formosa or Taiwan.

Polynesian regions with significant populations include: New Zealand 887,338, the United States 820,000, French Polynesia 215,000, Australia 210,843, Samoa 192,342 and Tonga 103,036.

Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific – Molecular Biology and Evolution, Kayser, 2006 – bold mine:

‘Y-DNA RESULTS (Males) These are reported as: HAWAIIAN PATERNAL – Direct paternal line reported as Native Hawaiian

According to researchers, Y-DNA (direct paternal lines) in Polynesia has more haplogroup variations than mtDNA (direct maternal lines); however, about 75% reporting their paternal line as Polynesian are in one of the below three* Y-DNA haplogroups:

1) Haplogroup [C1b3a* (M38)]

This is the haplogroup of about 34% who report their paternal line as Polynesian. C1b3a [formerly C2*] is found in Polynesia, Melanesia, New Guinea, and Indonesia.

2) Haplogroup O (M122)

This is the haplogroup of about 24% who report their paternal line as Polynesian. O2a1 is typical of populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and culturally Austronesian regions of Oceania [Polynesia and Micronesia], with a moderate distribution in Central Asia. 

3) Haplogroup K (M9)

This is the haplogroup of about 18% who report their paternal line as Polynesian. K is an old lineage presently found only at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the South Pacific. One descendent line of this lineage is restricted to aboriginal Australians, while another is found at low frequency in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.’ 

A comparison of the main Y-DNA [paternal] haplogroups of the principal Polynesian centres of population, including their original homeland of Taiwan and the stopping off point the Philippines, before migrating into the Pacific proper. 

Taiwan:                         O1a – O2a1 – O1b – C – [K – B – E]

Philippines:                   O2a1 – O1a – K – C – O1b – [B – E]

Tonga:                           O – C – K – [M]

Samoa:                          C1 – O – K – M – S 

Maori:                            C1 – O – K – [B – M – H]

Tahiti:                             C1 – O – K

French Polynesia:         C – O – K

Micronesia:                    K – C – O

Australian Aborigine:   C1b2b – K2b – C – O2a – [F]

Negritos Philippines:    K – O2 – C – P 

Fiji:                                  M1 – K – C1 – O – C – [R2a – R1a  – H1a – J – S]

Papua New Guinea:      M1a – S – C1 – K – O – C2 

Madagascar:                 E1b1a1 – E2b – B – J – [O1a – O2a1 – R – L]

The original indigenous Taiwanese [as opposed to the later Han Chinese immigrants] and the Philippines share at least seven main key haplogroups, supporting the genetic link proposed via migration. The Polynesians, Micronesians and Melanesians share the key Asian Y-DNA haplogroups O, either C or C1, and K. The Melanesians, particularly with their darker skin are a bit of a mystery. The Fijians in part and especially the Papuan New Guineans and Australian Aborigines have facial features and skin tones more reminiscent of the Dravidian Indian of southern India and the Sri Lankans than the Polynesians. Their higher percentages of haplogroup K, plus M show they are different to a degree, but neither of these haplogroups are indicative of the Indian or Sri Lankan – M not all and K partially.

As scientists claim, it certainly seems that the Polynesians have intermarried with Melanesians [from Papua New Guinea and Fiji] while fanning out from Taiwan and the Philippines. The shared K and M haplogroups between the Polynesians and Melanesians, is highly likely to be the evidence of intermarriage. The haplogroups used for Papua New Guinea are an average between the haplogroups for Eastern and Western Papua New Guinea.

The Malagasy [and Malayo-Polynesian] population of Madagascar have a rather random sequence, though the reasonable percentage of haplogroups B [8.6%] and O of the Gascars, supports their including Polynesian haplogroups due to admixture.

The key Y-DNA East and Southeast Asian haplogroups of O, K and C represented in percentages – with the addition of M.

Taiwan:                         O1a  [66%]    O2a1 [11%]    O1b [10.6 %]   C [0.4%]

Philippines:                  O1a  [28%]    O2a1 [39%]   O1b [3%]         C [5%]       K [20%]

Tonga:                            O  [60%]   C  [23%]    K [1%] 

Samoa:                           O  [26%]  C1 [61%]     K [3.2%]   M [3.2%]  S [1.6%] 

Maori:                             O  [6%]     C1 [43%]     K [2%] 

Tahiti:                              O  [29%]   C1 [67%]     K [4%] 

French Polynesia:         O  [37%]    C  [53%]      K [8%] 

Micronesia:                    O   [9%]      C   [19%]      K [65%]

Australian Aborigines:   O   [1%]      C1  [60%]      K [22%]    C  [6%]

Negritos [Philippines] : O2 [14%]    C    [11%]       K [51%]     P  [5%] 

Fiji:                                   O   [13%]    C1  [22%]      K [25%]    M [35%]    C [1%] 

Papua New Guinea:       O   [4%]      C1  [15%]      K [9%]      M [54%]     S [18%]   C [2%] 

The Tongans have the highest ratio of haplogroup O, in common with Taiwan and French Polynesia is next and compares with the Philippines. The peoples of Melanesia, Micronesia and the New Zealand Maori have considerably less haplogroup O. The Aborigine of Australia virtually none. 

Haplogroup C and C1 is common amongst both Polynesia and Melanesia, though not in Micronesia. Haplogroups C1/C are high amongst the Aborigines. Haplogroup K is quite rare amongst the Polynesians; whereas the Melanesians have similar ratios to the Filipinos. This could well be influenced by the Negritos of the Philippines and their high lebel of Haplogroup K. Micronesia also has a high level of haplogroup K. Both Fiji and Papua New Guinea exhibit haplogroup M in larger quantities, supporting the hypothesis that Polynesia originated from Fiji and Papua New Guinea [chronologically after the Philippines] as well as the fact, that Y-DNA haplogroups can be traced to Melanesians, such as M, K and S .  

The branches of some of the principal Y-DNA haplogroups for the Southeast Asian and related peoples of the Pacific, of M, O and S.

Happy is the person who finds wisdom, the one who gets understanding. Wisdom is worth more than silver; it brings more profit than gold.

Proverbs 3:13-14 New Century Version

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