Some researchers and commentators have made a link from Edomite king Job-ab with the Patriarch Job in the bible. If such is the case, then Job is the most famous Edomite in the Bible after Esau himself.
Job has forty-two chapters dedicated to the story of his righteousness – one of the three most righteous men listed in the Bible [Ezekiel 14;14], with the antediluvian Patriarch Noah and the Prophet Daniel – and his subsequent testing by the Adversary, with the Eternal’s agreement. The written structure of the book of Job is unusual, in that it combines prose and poetry. No other book in the Bible uses this ‘prose-poetry-prose pattern.’ Job is considered the most ancient book in the Bible [Job 19:23]. In addition to its profound biblical message it is regarded as a literary masterpiece. The book contains dialogue between Job and his four friends as well as Job’s conversations with the Creator. There is much wisdom to glean as well as valuable information regarding the pre-Adamic or angelic world, particularly impressive creatures such as Leviathan and the Behemoth – ostensibly dinosaurs and allegorically, angelic beings.
The Book of Job: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gerard Gertoux, 2015:
‘Many people who think themselves wise assume that Job was a fictional character like the Good Samaritan, a parable to teach morals. This assumption is illogical and even absurd. Indeed, what is the importance of knowing many insignificant details… [about his life] (Job 42:9-14)… If the Book of Job was a parable Satan would have persecuted a fictional character. Those who suppose that Satan must be the principle of evil lead to an absurdity because in that case God would[n’t] have discussed with “it”… [the details regarding Job’s character] (Job 1:8-10).’
The name Jobab means ‘to call’ or ‘cry shrilly’ from the verb yabab, whereas Job means ‘returning enemy’ or ‘the persecuted.’ Job was blessed greatly after his trial, with much more than all he possessed before his series of vicissitudes.
Common English Bible
10 Then the Lord changed Job’s fortune when he prayed for his friends, and the Lord doubled* all Job’s earlier possessions. 11 All his brothers, sisters, and acquaintances came to him and ate food with him in his house. They comforted and consoled him concerning all the disaster the Lord had brought on him, and each one gave him a qesitah [an amount of money: value not known] and a gold ring. 12 Then the Lord blessed Job’s latter days more than his former ones. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, one thousand yoke of oxen, and one thousand female donkeys… 16 After this, Job lived 140 years*and saw four generations of his children [4 x 35 years]. 17 Then Job died, old [210 years old]and satisfied.
In the Jewish Encyclopedia, “Jose B. Ḥalafta [states] that Job was born when Jacob and his children entered Egypt and that he died when the Israelites left that country.” This equals two hundred and forty-one years. It would place Job’s testing around 1587 BCE at the age of one hundred and his birth in 1687 BCE. This scenario fits, though a marriage to second wife Dinah does not work – to be discussed later – and how did Job live a staggering one hundred years longer than any one else of his generation?
The orthodox view maintains that the Book of Job belongs to the era before the Exodus and if Eliphaz is linked rather to Ishmael – as a Tema-nite – and not Esau’s son by the same name, then the patriarch Job lived sometime between the time of Ishmael, who died in 1754 BCE and the children of Israel’s Exodus from Egypt in 1446 BCE. Saying that, Esau’s grandson would have been born circa 1725 BCE and sits convincingly in the same time frame.
Chuck Swindoll says regarding Job:“Though we cannot be certain, Job may have lived during the time of Jacob or shortly thereafter.” A chronology based on Job living seventy years, then receiving an additional one hundred and forty, would mean that he lived after Jacob. Jacob died in 1670 BCE and Job would have been born fourteen years later in 1656 BCE – the beginning of Jobab’s reign as king of Edom for ten years. This suggests that Jobab and Job were two different people.
If Job lived one hundred and forty years after his testing, being blessed doubly, then his age at his testing in 1586 BCE, would have been seventy. Job living to two hundred and ten* would have been a very special blessing and reward, as he was afforded an extra seventy years or so on top of what people were usually living at that time; about one hundred to one hundred and forty years. Job’s death in 1446 BCE, would indicate he would have known the Israelites had been freed, for he ‘died satisfied.’ His birth would have been some forty years after Jacob’s family entered Egypt and when Joseph was seventy years old and had been Vizier for forty years.
Moslem tradition posits that after his father died, Job journeyed to Egypt to marry Rahme or Rahma, the daughter of Ephraim – or possibly Manasseh according to some sources – ‘who had inherited from her grandfather Joseph his beautiful robe [of many colours].’ The chronology supports this scenario, as a daughter being born circa 1660 BCE is likely and would mean she was the same age as Job when they married – circa 1615 BCE, a year after Joseph’s death – and would have time to have ten children by 1586 BCE.
There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job;and that man was blameless andupright,and one who feared God (with reverence) and abstained from and turned away from evil (because he honored God).
2 Seven sons and three daughters were born to him. 3 He also possessed 7,000 sheep, 3,000 camels, 500 yoke (pairs) of oxen, 500 female donkeys*, and a very great number of servants, so that this man was the greatest [and wealthiest and most respected] of all the men ofthe east.
To be located in the east, means Job may not have been an Edomite or living in the land of Uz associated with Seir [Genesis 36:28]. The alternatives for the location of Uz include a son of Aram called Uz and a son of Nahor [Genesis 10:23; 22:21]. Both equate to some admixture and as the peoples of northern and central Italy today [refer Chapter XXV Italy: Nahor & the Chaldeans]. This writer considers it a distinct possibility that Job is from, or could be an ancestor of, an Italian lineage as opposed to a Jewish one. We will compare the evidence as we progress.
4 His sons used to go (in turn) and feast in the house of each one on his day, and they would send word and invite their three sisters to eat and drink with them. 5 When the days of their feasting were over, Job would send (for them) and consecrate [H6942 to set apart, to be holy] them, rising early in the morning and offering burnt [sin] offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said, “It may be that my sons have sinned and cursed God in their hearts.” Job did this at all (such) times.
It has been inferred by some that ‘on his day’ refers to Job’s birthday or the son’s birthdays and that his day was a special occasion; but the Hebrew wording indicates, that his refers to each of the brothers in turn. As there were seven of them, it follows that they likely held a banquet every day of the week, rotating from house to house, as indicated in verse five. This is evidence of the brothers’ prosperity, as well as the close relationship they maintained with one another. Job’s concern for them and offering sacrifices on their behalf could mean the brothers were debauched in their carousing and leading their sisters astray. Or more likely from the context, that the sons were righteous, as Job could only consecrate or sanctify someone holy. The fact that Job is offering sacrifices on their behalf and not his own, would indicate that he was a priest. If so, Job would have been a priest of the Most High, of the Order of Melchizedek. Perhaps ‘a man in the land of Uz’ is an inspiration for the film The Wizard of Oz or the poem Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley.
The support for Job being a priest of note is found in the Book of Jasher, where the Pharaoh of Egypt summoned his two counsellors, Reuel the Midianite and Job the Uzite – ‘from Mespotamia, in the land of Uz.’ When studying Abraham’s son Midian we looked at Moses’s father-in-law Jethro and his status as a High Priest and possibly one of three priests acquainted with the Pharaoh, including Job and Balaam. Recall that Reuel is Jethro’s last or family name from his father and Jethro his priestly name [refer Chapter XXVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. Notice that the reference to Uz is in Mesopotamia and not Edom, Canaan or Arabia. This lends support towards the Uz from either Aram or Nahor.
It is worth noting, that support for Job living east of Edom, is the fact that the prophet Balaam was from a city called Pethor [Numbers 22:5; Deuteronomy 23:4].
Balaam took up his (first) discourse (oracle) and said: “Balak, the king of Moab, has brought me from Aram (Syria), from the mountains of the east…
Balaam lived in the east and he was from Aram. Now the city of Pethor was situated in northern Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Euphrates River. In the region we have discussed when studying Nahor, the very area known as Aram-Naharaim discussed in Chapter XXV. Jethro from Midian, lived in the east, in the north of the Arabian Peninsula, east of Egypt and south of Canaan. Balaam from Aram-Nahar-[aim] lived in the east, in Mesopotamia, north of Canaan.
The time frame means that Jethro, Job and Moses were contemporaries towards the end of Job’s life, just as Job was with Joseph when he was younger. The fact Job visited Egypt and may have married Joseph’s grand daughter, means he must have surely met Imhotep the Vizier of Egypt [refer Appendix VI: Joseph & Imhotep – One man, different name?]. The later Pharaoh prior to the Exodus, apparently was not enamoured with Job’s counsel regarding the Israelite slaves and who could well have been Moses’s adopted father, Amenemhet III – who reigned from 1529 to 1484 BCE – the sixth king of the 12th Dynasty [refer Appendix VII Moses & the Exodus – Fabrication or Fact?].
The land of Uz may well have been a separate land unique in its connection with Edom – indications are that it could have been northerly in the Hauron Valley of Bashan in the Transjordan, or southerly on the Kings’s Road between Bozrah and Elath adjoining the Red Sea – and named after Seir’s great grandson Uz, the brother of Aran, also similar to the name Aram and the son of Dishan, who was in turn the son of Lotan.
As Job is not Jobab, then his descent from Edom is questionable. It hinges in part, on his four friends and their origins. We have already linked the Uz of Aram and Uz of Nahor as the modern Italians. Gether, another son of Aram is the ancestor of the Spanish [Chapter XXIII Aram & Tyre: Spain, Portugal & Brazil]. The link with Spain is through the Sephardic Jew, who were located in the Iberian Peninsula. Jews had a strong presence in Italy, as highlighted by William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice. Lotan of Seir may have a connection with Lot’s sons Moab and Ammon, the modern day French. Could these links with Spain and France find an answer within the peoples nestled there, known as the Basque and Catalonians? [Chapter XXVI The French & Swiss: Moab, Ammon & Haran]
6 Now there was a day when the sons of God (angels) came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan (adversary, accuser) also came among them.
7 The Lord said to Satan, “From where have you come?” Then Satan answered the Lord, “From roaming around on the earth and from walking around on it.” 8 The Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered and reflected on My servant Job? For there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God [with reverence] and abstains from and turns away from evil[because he honors God].” 9 Then Satan answered the Lord, “Does Job fear God for nothing? 10 Have You not put a hedge [of protection]around him and his house and all that he has, on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands [and conferred prosperity and happiness upon him], and his possessions have increased in the land. 11 But put forth Your hand now and touch (destroy) all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face.” 12Then the Lord said to Satan,“Behold, all that Job has is in your power, only do not put your hand on the man himself.”So Satan departed from the presence of the Lord.
The Creator barred the Adversary from actually killing Job, though all else was available to Satan in seeking to turn Job from his devotion to the Eternal. Satan did not understand Job’s heart; in thinking Job’s faithfulness was based on what the Creator had given or done for him. The Almighty though, seeks those who love and trust Him, regardless of what He does for them. Those individuals with that mindset will later be given all things, even though it is not that, that fires their passion for loyalty. one wonders, if Satan only ever loved the Almighty because of what they had been given. Thus their loyalty could be broken. Whereas Job’s faith, could be tested indefinitely and he would still remain steadfast. When the Creator says there is none like Job, this would have been in approximately 1586* BCE. Now Jacob died in 1670 BCE and all his sons with Levi being the last – died by 1611 BCE. Joseph had lived for the first forty years of Job’s life from 1656 to 1616 BCE and so the statement is immense; though stated thirty years after Joseph’s death and sixty years before Mose’s birth. We know that Joseph pleased the Eternal and was richly blessed.
English Standard Version
And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find a man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?”
English Standard Version
By faith Joseph, at the end of his life, made mention of the exodus of the Israelites and gave directions concerning his bones.
13 Now there was a day when Job’s sons and daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house, 14 and  a messenger came to Job and said, “The oxen were plowing and the donkeys were feeding beside them, 15 and the Sabeans [terrorising robbers from SW Arabia] attacked and swooped down on them and took away the animals. They also killed the servants with the edge of the sword, and I alone have escaped to tell you.” 16 While he was still speaking,  another [messenger] also came and said, “The fire of God (lightning) has fallen from the heavens and has burned up the sheep and the servants and consumed them, and I alone have escaped to tell you.” 17 While he was still speaking,  another (messenger) also came and said, “The Chaldeans formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and have taken them away and have killed the servants with the edge of the sword, and I alone have escaped to tell you.” 18 While he was still speaking,  another [messenger] also came and said, “Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house, 19 and suddenly, a great wind came from across the desert,and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell on the young people and they died, and I alone have escaped to tell you.
The dramatic succession of the loss of Job’s possessions and family, quickly turned from the sublime to the ridiculous… with the such seemingly coincidental catalogue of strange disasters to afflict Job. It is not clear who the Sabeans were. They could at a stretch be the Seba and Sheba from Cush [Chapter XIII India & Pakistan: Cush & Phut]. Geographically closer and far more likely – due to the reference to the Chaldeans – they are either Sheba from Joktan or Sheba of Jokshan, the son of Abraham [refer Chapter XXIV Arphaxad & Joktan: Balts, Slavs & the Balkans and Chapter XXVII Abraham & Keturah – Benelux & Scandinavia]. Sheba, son of Joktan would be my preferred guess, who would equate to the Romanians today. Coincidently, Ophir another son of Joktan and brother of Sheba, is mentioned in Job 22:24. The reference to the Chaldeans is important, for if Job was descended from Uz of Nahor, then Job would be a Chaldean himself. Why would his own people be attacking him. Yet, this is not a valid reason as some of the worst atrocities are committed by family members against each other.
The fact Job’s sons and daughters are described as young, fits with what we know already about Job and his Ephraimite wife, Uzit. Recall, Isaac was described as young when he was thirty years old. Job and his wife would have married circa 1615 BCE and their ten children would have been born somewhere between 1615 to 1595 BCE. Thus, the eldest at the time of their deaths would have been about twenty-nine and the youngest between nineteen and perhaps twelve*. It would explain how all the children had inheritances and the sons, their own dwellings; particularly as Job was a wealthy ruler, the equivalent of a king.
English Standard Version
2 “Oh, that I were as in the months of old… 7 When I went out to the gate of the city, when I prepared my seat in the square [similar with Lot, Genesis 19;1], 8 the young men saw me and withdrew, and the aged rose and stood; 9 the princes refrained from talking and laid their hand on their mouth; 10 the voice of the nobles was hushed, and their tongue stuck to the roof of their mouth… 12 because I delivered the poor who cried for help, and the fatherless who had none to help him. 14 I put on righteousness, and it clothed me; my justice was like a robe and a turban. 16 I was a father to the needy, and I searched out the cause of him whom I did not know. 21 “Men listened to me and waited and kept silence for my counsel. 22 After I spoke they did not speak again, and my word dropped upon them. 23 They waited for me as for the rain… 25 I chose their way and sat as chief, and I lived like a king among his troops, like one who comforts mourners.
20 Then Job got up and tore his robe and shaved his head (in mourning for the children), and he fell to the ground and worshiped (God). 21 He said “Naked (without possessions) I came (into this world) from my mother’s womb, And naked I will return there. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; Blessed be the name of the Lord.” 22 Through all this Job did not sin nor did he blame God.
Again there was a day when the sons of God (angels) came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan (adversary, accuser) also came among them to present
himself [H3320 – yatsab: ‘set, stand’ or ‘station oneself, present oneself’] before the Lord. 2 The Lord said to Satan, “From where have you come?” Then Satan answered the Lord, “From roaming around on the earth and from walking around on it.” 3 The Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered and reflected on My servant Job? For there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God [with reverence] and abstains from and turns away from evil [because he honors God]. And still he maintains and holds tightly to his integrity, although you incited Me against him to destroy him without cause.” 4 Satan answered the Lord, “Skin for skin! Yes, a man will give all he has for his life. 5 But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh [and severely afflict him];and he will curse You to Your face.”6So the Lord said to Satan, “Behold, he is in your hand, only spare his life.”
The Amplified Bible says regarding verse four, one possible meaning is that ‘according to Satan, Job would be willing to give up his wife (his remaining loved one) to save his own life, thus surrendering his integrity (verse 3). Another is that Satan is hypothetically offering to give up his own life if Job is actually willing to die for his integrity. In any case, this is a bluff on the Adversary’s part, probably to make what they really desire (verse 5) appear less drastic.’
7 So Satan departed from the presence of the Lord and struck Job with loathsome boils and agonizingly painful sores from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head. 8 And Job took a piece of broken pottery with which to scrape himself, and he sat [down] among the ashes (rubbish heaps). 9 Then his wife said to him, “Do you still cling to your integrity [and your faith and trust in God, without blaming Him]? Curse God and die!”10 But he said to her, “You speak as one of the [spiritually] foolish women speaks [ignorant and oblivious to God’s will]. Shall we indeed accept (only) good from God and not (also) accept adversity and disaster?” In [spite of] all this Job did not sin with [words from] his lips.
The Septuagint states: “After taking an Arabian wife, he became father to a son whose name was Ennon. But he himself was the son… of his mother Bosorra (Bozra)…” Job’s wife does not appear to be led by the Holy Spirit in the same way as Job. She reminds one of Lot’s wife. Her lack of understanding is indicative of an unconverted mind. For she thinks that Job is placing precedence in his own righteousness and faith, rather than perceiving that Job is actually focusing foremost, on the the will of the Eternal. Islamic tradition calls Job’s wife Rahma and Jewish sources state her name as Uzit, [in the Greek Sitidos (Sitis)]. Sitis may have the same root as Satan in Hebrew or Sotah, meaning ‘unfaithful wife’ [Chapter XXII Alpha & Omega]. Uzit was Job’s first wife and is believed to have died during Job’s afflictions.
11 Now when Job’s three friends heard of all this adversity that had come upon him, each one came from his own place,  Eliphaz the Temanite [possibly ‘Eliphaz the one of Teman’ meaning ‘the man of Teman (city)’ rather than ‘Eliphaz the descendant of Teman’ or Eliphaz the Tema-nite of Ishamel],  Bildad the Shuhite, and  Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to sympathize with him and to comfort him. 12 When they looked from a distance and did not recognize him [because of his disfigurement], they raised their voices and wept; and each one tore his robe [in grief] and they threw dust over their heads toward the sky [in sorrow]. 13 So they sat down on the ground with Job for seven days and seven nights and no one spoke a word to him, for they saw that his pain was very great.
Eliphaz stated here, is assumed by most to be the son of Esau and Adah. Eliphaz had been taken captive by Joseph and according to the Book of Jasher, Eliphaz was a notable military leader and killed in Rameses, Egypt at the age of eighty-three. If he was born approximately when Esau married Adah, in circa 1777 BCE and died in 1694 BCE; he was not alive in 1586 BCE when Job was afflicted. Therefore, this Eliphaz is a different person, though could still be a descendant of Eliphaz via his son Teman and a potential cousin of Job. Edom and by extension Teman in the Bible are described as ‘wise men’ with ‘understanding’ which is an apt description, of the Jewish intelligentsia [Obadiah 1:8-9].
There remains the argument, that this Eliphaz is descended from Tema, a son of Ishmael. Thus the Temanite description could actually be a reference to Tema and not Teman. Later in the Book of Job, Tema is mentioned with a Sheba. From the context, most likely Sheba the nephew of Midian; though Sheba of Joktan cannot be ruled out.
English Standard Version
The caravans of Tema look, the [travellers] of Sheba hope.
There is a scripture in Job which alludes to Eliphaz possibly being old when he speaks with Job. It is Job’s father who is referenced and Eliphaz measures his own age with other men who are older even than Job’s father.
English Standard Version
9 What do you know that we do not know? What do you understand that is not clear to us? 10 Both the gray-haired and the aged are among us, older than your father.
Bildad is humorously regarded as the shortest man in the Bible, as he is only a ‘shoe height’ [Shu-hite]. The Shuhites are considered descendants of Shuah, the sixth and youngest son of Abraham and Keturah and the ancestor of the Swedes.
Zophar in the Septuagint LXX: Sophar, meaning ‘to chirp’ or ‘to leap’, the Naamathite, meaning ‘sweet, pleasant’ is proposed by a number of sources as the king of the Minaeans in Arabia – possibly a link with Abraham’s children by Keturah. He is also linked with Eliphaz’s son Zepho or Zephi, grandson of Esau.
Recall, Zepho – meaning ‘watch’ or ‘gaze’ – had also been taken prisoner by Joseph at the time of Esau’s death during the battle of the burial of Jacob in 1670 BCE. It is possible that if it is Zepho, he was still alive and approximately one hundred and forty. There was a town in the land of Judah called Naamah [Joshua 15:41]. Possibly the hometown of Zophar the Naamathite?
We are left with the following two options for Job’s three locutionary friends being an Ishmaelite, a Shuite from Shuah and let’s say a Naamathite from Judah; or alternatively, three Edomites. Either way it does not prove that Job was or wasn’t an Edomite. Though the various references throughout, to Arabia and the east, favours the first option and therefore points towards Job having a closer tie with the Uz from Nahor or Aram rather than the Uz of Seir and Edom.
Later in the Book, there is a fourth friend of Job who becomes exasperated with the other three, mentioned in Job chapter thirty-two, Elihu the Buzite: descended from Buz, the brother of Uz, the son of Nahor [Genesis 22;21].
1-5 Job’s three friends now fell silent. They were talked out, stymied because Job wouldn’t budge an inch – wouldn’t admit to an ounce of guilt [because he was righteous in his own eyes]. Then Elihu lost his temper. (Elihu was the son of Barakel the Buzite from the clan of [A]Ram.) He blazed out in anger against Job for pitting his righteousness [justifying himself] against God’s [as if God was in the wrong].He was also angry with the three friends because they had neither come up with an answer nor proved Job wrong [even though they had declared Job to be in the wrong].
Then Elihu… became angry because Job refused to admit he had sinned and to acknowledge that God had just cause for punishing him. 3 But he was also angry with Job’s three friends because they had been unable to answer Job’s arguments and yet had condemned him.
Elihu had waited with Job while they spoke because they were all older than he. But when he saw that the three other men had exhausted their arguments, he exploded with pent-up anger.
6-10 This is what Elihu, son of Barakel the Buzite, said: “I’m a young man, and you are all old and experienced. That’s why I kept quiet and held back from joining the discussion.I kept thinking, ‘Experience will tell. The longer you live, the wiser you become.’ But I see I was wrong – it’s God’s Spirit in a person, the breath of the Almighty One, that makes wise human insight possible. The experts have no corner on wisdom; getting old doesn’t guarantee good sense. So I’ve decided to speak up. Listen well! I’m going to tell you exactly what I think.
Elihu’s lineage as a Chaldean, lends considerable support for Job being of the same extraction. Elihu clearly sees Job’s predicament better than his other friends and grasps the trial Job is going through. Is this a clue to Job being a Chaldean descended from Nahor too? It is worth remembering that Job though not in the heart of Edomite territory, could have been on the periphery to the northeast or southeast even. Job had easy access to the Pharaoh in Egypt and this supports a southeastern Canaan location at the least. Plus, he was in striking distance of the Sabeans in Arabia and the Chaldean raiding parties from the north.
Job could well have migrated from southern Mespotamia, or even from Paddan-Aram or Haran, like Abraham. This might explain his status as a Priest and his acceptable sacrifices to the Eternal; in that he was not Aramean or Edomite, but rather descended from Abraham’s brother Nahor. A Chaldean who was related to his cousins Bethuel, Rebekah, Laban, Leah and Rachel. Bethuel being the eighth son and youngest brother of Uz the eldest and Buz the second born son of Nahor and Milcah – the sister of Sarah and eldest daughter of Haran. Once the friends begin speaking they start well enough, though soon descend into Uzit’s territory of mis-reading Job, his predicament and the Eternal’s involvement. Their words and his torment lead Job into a less than positive mindset. Even so, he refuses to blame the Almighty, but rather bemoans himself.
Common English Bible
Afterward, Job spoke up and cursed the day he was born. 2 Job said: 3 Perish the day I was born, the night someone said, “A boy has been conceived.” 4 That day – let it be darkness; may God above ignore it, and light not shine on it.
Common English Bible
Isn’t slavery everyone’s condition on earth, our days like those of a hired worker? 2 Like a slave we pant for a shadow, await our task like a hired worker.
3 So I have inherited months [or years] of emptiness; nights of toil have been measured out for me. 4 If I lie down and think – When will I get up? – night drags on, and restless thoughts fill me until dawn.
“Since [mans] days are determined, The number of his months [years] is with You (in Your control), And You have made his limits [a death gene or accident] so he cannot pass (his allotted time) [Ecclesiastes 3:2, NIV: ‘… a time to be born and a time to die’].
Dark, poignant and timeless truths are expressed by Job. We are born into a flawed and decaying world. There is not much to celebrate. Being physical on this earth, means enduring bondage and slavery in a corrupt world, serving evil masters. We enter and exit this life, according to the Almighty’s will and the timing of His plan for us. When Job had endured the testing and trials sent to him for long enough and the Eternal recognised a humble change in an already righteous man, then he restored Job’s wealth and family. Sources record that Job’s second wife was in fact Jacob’s daughter and Zebulon’s twin, Dinah.
Dinah though, was born in 1741 BCE and marrying a seventy year old Job when Dinah was one hundred and fifty-five seems unreasonable. As Job, may have already married an Israelite, it is plausible he did so again; just as Jacob had married into Nahor’s family… Job was doing the reverse. A romantic solution, is that there is some truth in the record and that it was a descendant of Dinah – a great… granddaughter – who Job married.
The Creator doubled all of Job’s assets and wealth and restored the number of ten children he had previously. Curiously, the three daughters are named, though the sons are not.
Common English Bible
10 Then the Lord changed Job’s fortune when he prayed for his friends… 12… the Lord blessed Job’s latter days more than his former ones… 13 He also had seven sons and three daughters. 14 He named one Jemimah [Dove], a second Keziah [Cinnamon, ‘ended’], andthe third Keren-happuch [Darkeyes (from mascara) or ‘radiate with beautiful eyes’]. 15 No women in all the land were as beautiful as Job’s daughters; and their father gave an inheritance to them along with their brothers [The message: Their father treated them as equals with their brothers, providing the same inheritance].
The fascinating reason Job’s daughters are named, while his sons are not, is that the daughters are clearly new born girls; whereas, the sons were not new; with no need to introduce them, as the same sons had returned, or simply: they had been resurrected. We are presented new daughters but not new sons. The sons names being omitted is not a mistake, but a clue. In Job chapter one we learned that Job’s sons were righteous. This is why Job offered sacrifices for them and how they could have been resurrected. For Satan took their lives without good cause. The Adversary killed them before their time, to spite Job. Job knew full well, that his children could be resurrected.
28 But God stepped in and saved me from certain death. I’m alive again! Once more I see the light!’ 29-30 “This is the way God works. Over and over again He pulls our souls back from certain destruction so we’ll see the light – and live in the light!
Immeasurable joy must have filled Job to have his seven sons miraculously raised from the dead. The three original daughters had houses and an inheritance, but they were not inviting their brothers or being hospitable. The fact they were not resurrected implies they were not converted like their brothers.
The new daughters given to Job through his second wife Dinah, were given an inheritance like their half-brothers. Job’s replacement daughters were not like the first three. Job’s new daughters were the most fair and stunning women in that region of the world. The KJV says: “And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job…” The Hebrew word for fair or beautiful, is the same word used for Sarah, Rachel and Esther. King David is also described the same way, as is Joseph. It does mean beauty or handsomeness, though includes the description of one being fair in complexion. They are not described as ruddy or red like Esau and David; for the implication is that Sarah, Rachel, Esther, Joseph and Job’s three daughters, Jemimah, Keziah and Keren-happuch were blond and blue eyed. Whereas, Rebecca and Moses though beautiful, are not described as fair. Nor are Hagar, Keturah, Abraham, Isaac or Jacob.
King James Version
5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the blessing of the Lord was upon all that he had in the house, and in the field. 6 And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand; and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was a goodly [H8389, an attractive ‘figure or appearance’], person,and well favoured [H3303, fair, beautiful].
AMP: “… Now Joseph was handsome and attractive in form and appearance.” YLT: “… And Joseph is of a fair form [or well built], andof a fair appearance [or good-looking].”
The Book of Job – Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence, Gerard Gertoux, 2015:
‘Why does the Bible specify that God gave 140 years of extra life to Job? Only the context allows us to answer this question. According to the Talmud, Moses wrote the Book of Job (Baba Bathra 15a) and this information is very likely true for the following reasons: the writer of the Book of Job knew him intimately because he was able to give the names of his three daughters (Job 42:12-14) as well as the exact assessment of his cattle and herds, it can be assumed that he must have met him after his trial around 1640 BCE [1586 BCE]. When Moses (1613-1493) [1526-1406 BCE] came in Midian (from 1573 to 1533) [1486-1446] he had to have met Job (1710-1500) [1656-1446] who was around 137 years old [170 and Moses was 40 years of age] at that time. Job probably heard through Moses that the Israelites were under the yoke of Egypt (since 1748 BCE) [1593 BCE] and that he had tried to stop their oppression, but without success. In the same manner that Job saw the end [to] his suffering, he also saw the end of suffering for the Israelites,
33 years before his death [in 1446 BCE].
If God had given him only 100 additional years, Job would not have been able to see this extraordinary deliverance. Similarly, Moses saw the Promised Land before he died (Deuteronomy 32:48-52) [in 1406 BCE, the year of his death].’
Excerpt from Chapter XXIX Esau: The Thirteenth Tribe
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